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UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS

FACULTY OF MEDICINE & SURGERY

CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION
Anatomy: the science of the structure and function of the body
Clinical Anatomy: the study of the macroscopic structure and function of the body as it relates to the
practice of medicine and other health science

Basic Anatomy: the study of the minimal amount of anatomy consistent with the understanding of the
overall structure and function of the body

I.

DESCRIPTIVE ANATOMIC TERMS


A. TERMS RELATED TO POSITION

Anatomic Position: standing erect, upper limbs by the sides, face and palms directed forward
1. Median Sagittal Plane: Vertical plane passing through the center of the body

2.
3.

Division: right and left halves


Paramedian: parallel planes situated to one side of the median plane
Medial (adj.): structure situated nearer to the median plane of the body
Lateral (adj.): structure situated farther from the median plane of the body

Coronal Planes: imaginary vertical planes at right angles to the median plane
Horizontal/ Traverse Planes: planes at right angles to both the median and coronal plane

Anterior (adj.): front of the body vs. Posterior (adj.): back of the body
o Hand: Palmar vs. Dorsal
o Foot: Plantar vs. Dorsal
Proximal vs. Distal: describe relative distances
Superficial vs. Deep: describe relative distances of structures from the surface of the body
Superior (adj.): upper end of the body vs. Inferior (adj.): lower end of the body
Internal vs. External: describe relative distances of structures from the organ/cavitys center
Ipsilateral (adj.): Same side of the body vs. Contralateral (adj.): opposite sides of the body
Supine (adj.): body lying backwards vs. Prone (adj.): body lying face down

CLINICAL ANATOMY BY REGIONS, 9TH ED. (SNELL, 2012)

UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS


FACULTY OF MEDICINE & SURGERY

B. TERMS RELATED TO MOVEMENT

Joint: site where two or more bones come together


1.

2.

3.

Movement in the Sagittal Plane


a. Flexion: usually an anterior movement (except for the knee)
Lateral Flexion: movement of the trunk in the coronal plane
b. Extension: usually a posterior movement of straightening the joint
Movement in the Coronal Plane
a. Abduction: movement of limb away from the midline
b. Adduction: movement of limb toward the body
Other movements:
a. Rotation: movement of the body around its long axis
Medial Rotation: movement in the anterior surface of the part facing medially
Pronation of the Forearm: medial rotation in which the palm faces posteriorly
Lateral Rotation: movement in the anterior surface of the part facing laterally
Supination of the Forearm: lateral rotation in which the palm faces anteriorly
b. Circumduction: combination of flexion + extension + abduction + adduction
c. Movement of the Jaw (temporomandibular joints):
Protraction: to move forward
Retraction: to move backward
d. Movement of the Foot:
Inversion: sole faces the medial direction
Eversion: sole faces the lateral direction

CLINICAL ANATOMY BY REGIONS, 9TH ED. (SNELL, 2012)

UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS


FACULTY OF MEDICINE & SURGERY
II. BASIC STRUCTURES
A. SKIN
B. FASCIAE

C. MUSCLE
D. JOINTS

E. LIGAMENTS
F. BURSAE

G. SYNOVIAL SHEATH
H. BLOOD VESSELS

I.

LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

J.

NERVOUS SYSTEM

K. MUCOUS MEMBRANES
L. SEROUS MEMBRANES

M. BONE
N. CARTILAGE

O. EFFECTS OF SEX, RACE AND AGE ON STRUCTURE

CLINICAL ANATOMY BY REGIONS, 9TH ED. (SNELL, 2012)