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46

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3 P. Engel, The Realm of St. Stephen, . 278-280; (. ,
. , . , . ), , 2002, . 138 ( );
. , ,. 239244.
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5 P. Engel, The Realm of St. Stephen, . 280, 281; , . 152, 153.
6 . , , . 234, 235.

47

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,
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XV , 7 . ,
, . 239251; , : F. Miklosich, Monumenta Serbica spectantia hriam Serbiae, Bosniae, Ragusii, Vindobonae, 1858, . 406; . 170.000 . . , , I, , 1952, . 364.
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, . . , ,
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. 7072, 99101; . , - XIII
XV 2', , 187/1941, . 117, 118, 178184, 196201, 206219.
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11 P. Kallimachus, De rebus gestis a Vladislao Polonorum atque Hungarorum rege libri tres, Krakw 1582, . 108; ., , . 275.

48

1443/1444.


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VIII .
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, magnifici viri domini filii nostri
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1443. ,
12 J. Dlugossii, Hisrie Polonicae Libri XII, Cracoviae, 1877, . 685, 686.
, ,
, .
13 L. ThallzyA. ldasy, Monumenta Hungariae Hrica XXXIII, Budapest,
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14 . Bonfini, Rerum Ungaricarum decades, Oporin, 1565, . 459, 460.
15 . , , . 275, 276.
16 . , , , 2006, . 115.
17 . , , I-II, , 1952, . 364.

49

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18 Doukas, Decline and Fall of Byzantium to the Ottoman Turks. An Annoteted Translation of Hria Turco-Byzantina, by Harry J. Magoutias, Wayne State University,
Detroit, 1975, . 182.
19 H. Inalcik, The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, . 269.
20 I. Katona, Epitome chronologica rerum Hungaricarum, Transsilvanicarum, et
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21 . , : , , , . , , 1997, . 349363.
22 Doukas, .., . 182.

50

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. 233; . Raynaldi et J. Laderchii, Annales ecclesiastici XXVIII, ed. A. Theiner, Barri-Ducis, 1874, . 533534.
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51

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.26 , , ,
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, ,
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.
. , III.
,
.
1.
. , , 26 W. Stubbs, Germany in the Later Middle Ages, 12001500, London, 1908, .
181190.
27 . , , 2001,
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, , 26/1932, , 1932, . 21, 22; H. Inalcik, The Ottoman Turks and the
Crusades, . 269271; C. Imber, ., 15-17; ., , . 278, 279.

52

1443/1444.

. 25.000 . , ,
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, , , .29

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, .31
29 14.000
, 25.000 . C. Imber, .., . 167, Doukas, .., . 182. E. C.
Antoche, La croisade de 1443, . 14, 15; H. Inalcik, The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades,
. 269271; C. Imber, .., . 1517; F. Pall, ., 457459; . , ,
. 278, 279. M. Chasin, .., . 291; 8.000 , . N. Iorga, Notes et extraits pour servir l'hire des croisades au
XVe sicle, vol. 3, Paris, 1902, . 108, 109. 25.000,
. , , 33.000. , , , , 38.000 . J. Held, Hunyadi's Long Campaign, . 13.
, , 1439. , . ,
, je
80.000 , . H. Inalcik, The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, . 268.
30 . , , . 279, 280; H. Inalcik, The Ottoman Turks and
the Crusades, . 270; C. Imber, .., . 16, 17. XVI III, ,
Tc t-Tevrh. . , , . I, . 1, 13481520, , 1940,
. 1134. Piotr Wrbel, .., . 95,96.
. M. Chasin, .., . 292.
1443. . , .., . 145150.
31 ,
, . I. Katona, ..,
. 306, 307. -

53

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, .32
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, I 1150.
.
. : . , , . 126129, 130, 131; . , , . 8288; . , , , 2007, . 169, 170.
33 N. Iorga, .., . 109.
34 : I. Kolovos, A biti of year 1439 from Archives of the Monastery Xeropotamou
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II ( 14441446 ), , 4/1968, , 1968, . 377403.
35 P. Kallimachus, De rebus gestis a Vladislao Polonorum atque Hungarorum rege libri tres, Krakw, 1582, . 114, 115.

54

1443/1444.

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. . . , . , , . 349; J. Held, Hunyadi's Long Campaign, . 14.
. , I-VI, , 1927, .
234 ( : ).
38 ,
. I. Katona, .., . 306, 307; . , , . 279, 280; H. Inalcik, The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, . 269,
270. ,

1443. 1448. 1444. 1448. .
F. Szakly, .., . 88.
36
37

55

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,
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.43 ,
39 H. Inalcik, The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, . 270; C. Imber, ., . 16;
, : . ,
XV , , 95/1942, , 1942; B. Stojkovski, A kt trkver: Hunyadi Jnos s Kasztrita Gyrgy-Szkander bg trekvsei a
balkni npek sszefogsra a trk elleni harcokban, Bcsorszg, 65/2012/2013, Szabadka, 2013, . 4247.
40 . , , . 279, 280.
41 C. Imber, .., . 48.
42 C. Imber, .., . 48, 68.
43 , . , , , , , XV . ,
(Gazavat- Sultan Murad bin Mehemmed Han) ,
. G. goston., Az 1444. vi trk kvetjrs, Trtnelmi Szemle 28.2/1986, Budapest, . 261276;
H. nalck, M. Ouz, Tebliler:Yeni Bulunmu bir Gazavt-I Sultn Murd, Ankara niversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Corafya Fakltesi, 7/1949, Ankara, 1949 , . 481495; Gazavt- Sultn
Murd b. Mehemmed Hn zladi ve Varna Savalar (14431444) .zerinde Anonim
Gazavtnme, (Haz. H. nalck ve M. Ouz), Ankara, 1989; H. Inalcik, The Ottoman Turks
and the Crusades, A Hry of the Crusades (ed. K. M. Setton) VI, University of Wisconsin Press 1989, . 222276. , lingua
franca , ( )

56

1443/1444.

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C. Imber, .., : E. C. Antoche, La
croisade de 1443; J. Jefferson, The Holy Wars of King Wladislas and Sultan Murad. The Ottoman-Christian conflict between 14381444, Leiden, 2012; K. ukasiewicz, Wadysaw
Warneczyk, Krzyacy i Kawaler w Katarzyny, Warszawa, 2010; K. ukasiewitz, The
real date of Szeged manifesto, Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hung. volume
60/4 (2007), Budapest, . 447454.
44
.C. Imber, .., . 48. .

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. , ,
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, . , , ,
.
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C. Imber, .., . 4851.
. Et licet magnam
Serviae partem recuperasset, non tamen Georgio despoto Omnia restituit: sed multa
amicis, quod sua virtute repulisset hostes, donavit. Praeterea cum Despotus medius inter Hungaros ac Turcos, nunc hos nunc illos fefellisset, in religione quoque neque Romanae ecclesiae auscultaret, neque Mahometis legem sequeretur, erat Huniadi fides Georgii suspecta. D. Konig, Nachrichten uber ura Brankovi in Johannes Cuspinians
Werk, De caesaribus atque imperatoribus Romani, Prilozi za knjievnost, jezik, riju
i folklor, 6869(1-4)/2002-2003, Beograd, 2003, . 160, 161.

, . . ,
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N. Iorga, .., . 108, 109; H. Inalcik, The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, . 270,
271; . , , . 280, 281.
49 : Postquam intravimnus Rassiam, venerunt ad dominum despotum ex Rassianis ultro octo milia equestrium
et pedestrium; venit eciam ad eundem ex Bossina quidam vayvoda vocatus dominus Petrus Cohacz cum equitibus VIC vel VIIC. N. Iorga, ., . 109.
50 . , , , 1996, . 13.
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. . , ,
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.., . 16, 17.
52 . . . ,
. : J. Thurczi, ., . 254; C.Imber, ., . 62.
53 C. Imber, ., . 62.

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54
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La croisade de 1443, . 24.
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67 . , .., 116.
68 ...quando nupor sensimus ipsum illustrem dominum recuperasse bonam partem sui status . , , . 371.
69 ipsum regnum Rasciae pro maiori parte eisdem videlicet Domino Despoto et
Lazaro restaurasset et recuperasset... G. Fejer, Genus incunabula et virtus Joanis Corvini de
Hunyad Regni Hungarie Gubernatoris, argumentis criticis illustrata, Budae, 1844, . 73.
63
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72 ...ad oppositum Balvani castri rupti... N. Iorga, Notes et extraits pour servir
l'hire des croisades au XVe sicle, vol. 3, Paris, 1902, . 142; . , ,
e- , , 2010, . 50.
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83 H. Inalcik, The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, . 272; . Held, Hunyadi, . 99, 100.

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. G. goston., Az 1444. vi trk kvetjrs, Trtnelmi Szemle, 28.2 /1986, Budapest, . 274276; M. Chasin, .., . 301303; . M. Setton, .., . 8890. , ,

68

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wagenburg. , () 1689. - 1878. . , ,
1444. .

Milomir Maksimovi, MA

SERBS AND LONG CAMPAIGN 1443/1444


(Summary)
In the long history of the crusades, the Long Campaign was the only holy
war against the enemies of Christianity in which Serbs took part, and it was
the only crusade which was led by a Serbian ruler. Also, it was the only crusade
which had had, as one of its leaders, an Orthodox Christian monarch. Despot
George (ura) Brankovi saw an opportunity for the restoration of the Serbian despotate in this campaign. However, it should be noted, that the idea of a
crusade, under the Popes patronage, in which the Ottomans would be expelled
from Europe, was present in the minds of the Serbian rulers, since the time of
the tsar Stefan Duan. In the Long War, Serbs had a significant role, especially
despot George. He was one of the main propagators of the war and one of its
main financiers (His estimated wealth of 170 000 ducats, which he deposited in
Dubrovnik, show that he was among the wealthiest monarchs of his time). He
was also most experienced strategists, a highly-esteemed member of the War
Council, whose opinion was always welcomed in critical situations. Historical
sources call him ''pathfinder''- considering his engagement in wars of Bayazit's
sons, he had excellent knowledge of paths between Belgrade and Consantinople,. During the campaign despot had a couple of conflicts with John Hun , .

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yadi, the campaigns main strategist. The first conflict was in 1443, concerning
the continuation of war operations during the cold winter, and the second one
was in January of 1444, concerning the retreat of the army into Hungary. If we
accept modern historical estimates, that the crusader army numbered around
25 000 warriors, and considering the claim from cardinal's letter, that 8000
Serbian cavalry and infantrymen under the despot's command were part of that
army, along with despots troops that marched from Hungary, as true, then the
conclusion is that the Serbs (and others under despots command) made up the
third of the Christian coalition's entire force. During the war operations a significant part of the Serbian Despotate had been liberated (territory placed between various cities and castles: TeoakBelgradeBovanNiPirotNovo Brdo Srebrenica). The retreat of the crusade army caused these achievements to
be only temporary. Hungarian delay of new war operations and renewed Ottoman conquest of Serbian cities had forced despot George into an attempt to restore his Despotate peacefully, through negotiations with the sultan, which, in
turn, had huge consequences for the next crusader campaign, that ended with
the defeat of Christian forces at Varna. It is worth mentioning that two greatest
victories of Christian forces, the one at Ni and the one at Kunovica, because of
which the contemporaries gained an impression of triumph over the Ottomans,
were achieved on the battlefields of Serbian Despotate. The bold campaign of
14431444 was the deepest breakthrough of the Christian armies into the territory of Ottoman empire, up until the Great Turkish war of 1689 and RussianTurkish war of 1878. Even though this campaign is generally considered as unsuccessful by the western historians, from the Serbian perspective, it was very
important in context of the restoration of the Serbian state in summer of 1444.

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