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Critically discuss why it is wrong to

assume that an increase in the number of
media outlets will lead to an increase in
content diversity (Text book, pp.242-243)

Typically older studies of content diversity believed that a diversity of

programme types increased with the number of TV channels available (Litman,
1979, Long, 1979, Adams, 1985)
However, a study conducted by Grant (1994) on the diversity of programme
types have challenged this statement
Grants study included an analysis of 41 US broadcast and cable networks
He found that increasing the number of channels of a particular type did not
lead to increased diversity of programme types
This has challenged the idea of a positive relationship between the
number of outlets and content diversity
In addition, a study conducted by Lin (1995) found that programme diversity
within the networks remained constant which suggests that the networks did
not consider increasing diversity as a necessary strategy for withstanding
Simply assessing the programme-type diversity alone does not provide us with
a holistic approach to the concept of content diversity



Use an example to explain the term

demographic diversity (Text book,



Argue whether or not idea-viewpoint

diversity exists in South African media
using examples to support your answer



Explain why bias can be used to assess

idea-viewpoint diversity in electronic
media (Text book, pp.246)

The best place to turn for guidance on how to

asses idea diversity empirically is the
measurement of bias in electronic media
Generally speaking there is a negative
connotation attached to the term bias and this can
be rather misleading
It is usually used to measure distortion of views,
misinformation or one-sidedness
However, bias should in fact include an analysis
of everything from the presentation formats,
patterns in the use of sources, framing techniques,
and the range and diversity of topics covered
Thus, bias should include an analysis of a number
of dimensions
Bias measurement is fundamentally concerned
with issues of diversity of viewpoints and



Explain the relevance of exposure diversity

in terms of working towards effective
democratic self-governance (Text book,

Exposure diversity is the most neglected dimension yet, it is a key focus for communication policy
Exposure diversity can be defined as the diversity
of content as received
Key questions of exposure diversity are:
1. How many different sources are audiences
exposed to in their media use?
2. Are audiences exposing themselves to a wide
range of political and social views?
3. Are audiences exposed to diverse types of formats
and programming?
4. What factors affect the levels of exposure diversity
among audiences?

Exposure diversity is central to the

marketplace of ideas metaphor
This is because exposure diversity is
based on the idea that if an audience is
provided with a diversity of content
options to consume that they will
partake in a diversity of content
Furthermore, in order for an audience to
consume diverse content they must fairly
and equally consider all ideas through a
process of rational evaluation
It is through THIS PROCESS of rational
evaluation and consumption of diverse
ideas, sources and perspectives that
well-informed decisions are made a
principle central to the democratic



Using an example to illustrate your answer,

differentiate between horizontal exposure
diversity and vertical exposure diversity
(Text book, pp.247-248)

Horizontal diversity
Has to do with diversity across
available channels
Horizontal diversity can be seen as
related to the concept of audience
This is because horizontal diversity
focuses on the question of HOW the
mass media audience distributes
itself across available content
options at a given time
For example, Rotenbuhler and Dimmick
(1982) analysed diversity in the
popular music industry by measuring
diversity as the rate of turnover in the
top slots on the popularity charts

Vertical diversity
Has to do with diversity within
individual channels
Vertical diversity measures the exposure
patterns within individual audience
members over time
The focus is on audience polarisation
whereby audiences are either consuming or
avoiding a particular type of media content
Thus, vertical diversity measures audience
behaviour (instead of gross measures)
For example, Heeter (1985) studied cable
subscribers channel viewing behaviour
by focusing on the individuals level of
exposure diversity to different programme
outlets (cable channels)



Discuss the elements of time and space

with respect to radio using examples to
illustrate your answer (Text book, pp.256257 and 262-265 and 267)

recurring themes in the

radios meaningfulness for
contemporary times
The radio is able to connect
events and people beyond
their physical reach
Thus, the radio is able to
transform our sense of
time and space
Hendy concludes that the
radio (a space-binding
medium) can nourish local
identity through contact
with other spaces and
cultures but at the same
time it is a medium where
industrialised formats and
production places immense
constrains on local

Radio is a time-based medium

Its programmes emerge in a linear
flow of time whether measured in
seconds or even weeks radio only
has the passage of time in which to
do its work
Thus, radio content is a hectic
narrative based on time
For example, morning programmes
broadcast get up and go content
whereas early-afternoon
programmes broadcast relaxed
The content produced is based on
the needs of the listeners and the
restraints of time
In addition, knowing that audiences
can change radio stations at any
time has led to programming

The radio aims to transcend listeners out of their real listening

environments to that of the created radio space
The radio promises audiences a chance to partake in an event that they
might never be able to attend in person, for example interviews with
celebrities, or festivals
It is made-up of a flow of many different senses-of-place but from
1 production room?
Thus, the public space offered by radios to listeners is in fact a strictly
limited horizon of sociability (in fact used to pass-the-time)
Sociability is the virtual coming together of listeners with broadcasters
the option to call in or listen to audience members calling in a coming
together of cultures and music
Ultimately, the radio has the ability to affirm a SENSE OF PLACE in the
world because of a form of intimacy that forms between the
broadcasters and its audience
This can be seen in the localised nature of radio content specific to
audience preferences (ECR vs 5FM) the radio creates a local space
Finally, the radio promises to draw us out of our geographical and



Evaluate to what extent, and how, streaming to

music on the Internet and creating your own music
compilations using iTunes (for e.g.) bring up
considerations of time and space that are different
from those Hendy describes regarding traditional
broadcast radio



Critically evaluate Ian's view that illegal

downloading is not harming the music
industry, considering her argument was
made in 2002 (Text book, pp.278-286)



Name and discuss marketing activities

which can be used to promote films. Use a
recent blockbuster and its promotional
activities to support your answer
(Text book, pp.287 and 291-301)

Film companies spend massive

amounts of money on
advertising and promotions to
ensure that consumers are aware
of their products
In addition, immense press
coverage of film activities are
seen as the success behind
the film (and not the actual
In fact in showbiz if a film
failed at the box-office it is
because there was not
enough money spend on its
promotion (weak marketing)
Thus, there is a constant hypercompetition between film
companies to outspend each
other in promoting their various

There are a 10 promotional

strategies that can be used
to market a film:
1. Publicity
2. Advertising
3. Trailers
4. Internet promotion
5. Press coverage
6. Film Critics
7. Film festivals and markets
8. Festival choices
9. Festival sponsorship
10.Film awards

1.Publicity (pp.291-293)
Can be defined as unpaid media attention
It includes a wide range of activities such as critic
reviews and film festivals
Publicity does not just happen - a lot of planning by
publicists and PR specialists take place
Publicity starts even before the movie is scheduled for
production (given the greenlight)
As the film nears completion publicists will try and
create any buzz for a film, including cover stories in
magazines, TV programmes such as talk shows and
possibly meeting the celebrities, promotional events
and even contents and giveaways
Even sneak-previews are showed to critics hoping to
enhance the credibility of a film

2. Advertising (p.293)
The advertising costs of a film can exceed the
production costs
Film advertising is aimed at the industry, various
markets and consumers
Trade advertising takes place before, during and
after the production for various purposes
Even national and local advertising is becoming
Network TV has become a common tool for
advertising of films
For example, movie ads on TV have increased from
55% in 2002 to 74% by 2003 costing film companies
Films are also advertised on radio, in newspapers,

3. Trailers (pp.293-294)
Trailers can be traced back to the 1920s
They are crucial for the promotion of a new
Trailers are the most effective and cost-efficient
means of marketing a new film
In addition, trailers have become important with
the proliferation of wide releases of films as
they are used as teasers whereby audiences are
hooked into waiting months for a release

4. Internet promotion (p.295)

Film companies are even utilising the
Internet to promote their products
Films have their own webpages, Facebook
profiles or even blogs where audiences and
fans can obtain extra information about the
This type of technology offers new
possibilities for marketing
Product placements are usually aligned with
Internet promotion as fans are more likely
to access as many different sources of
info as they possibly can

5. Press coverage (pp.295-296)

The relationship between the press and the
media cannot be understated
The film industry is a source for popular
newspaper or magazine content
Furthermore, they provide key information
on the film that could promote it
Press coverage about a film usually provides
entertainment news to fans and audiences
in general
Press coverage could be a one-on-one
interview with the director or the cast of

6. Film critics (pp.296-298)

Film critics are usually seen as the make or
break for a film as their opinions are highly
In fact critics are able to influence the box
office success of a film
Critics provide subjective views and comments
on the movie in the interest of the public
Movies hope to receive a favourable review
from a critic
Thus, film companies go out of their way to
woo film critics
Quotes from well known critics are used to add
credibility to a film

7. Film festivals and markets (pp. 298299)

Marketing and promotional packages
are presented by film festivals and
Key festivals have added film markets
to their events which offer further
opportunities for buying and selling of
film products and making industry
This is an especially powerful tool for
smaller or independent films trying to
obtain much needed press
It should be noted, however, that film
festivals and markets can be costly for

8. Festival choices (pp. 298-299)

Film festivals have distinct images and
Thus, getting the film into the right
festival is especially crucial for smaller
or independent films
There are very famous festivals around
the world that are used as a tool to
promote films across the board

9. Film sponsorship (p.300)

Corporate funding is much needed
for a film to obtain the marketing
and promotional activities that it
needs to put-it-out-there
With film sponsorships we have
seen an increase in intense
partnerships between
sponsoring companies and

10.Film Awards (pp. 300-301)

Attention and acclaim for a film can be
generated through various awards and
awards ceremonies
The best-known film awards are presented by
the Academy of Motion Pictures
Awards are given to best performances, films,
directors and so on
Thus, it can provide much needed hype and
publicity for a film
The awards ceremony itself is a media event
and is followed by millions of people around the
The nominations and awards are considered
some of the best ways to promote a film which
eventually leads to an increase in revenues



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