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EE 741

Voltage Regulators
Spring 2014

Typical Voltage Profile from Substation to Customer

Step-Voltage Regulator
These devices are essentially autotransformers with adjustable turns in the
series winding.
They usually have a maximum voltage
regulation range of 10% of the incoming line
voltage in 32 steps of 5/8% or 0.625%.
16 steps for buck, and
16 steps for boost.

Voltage Regulation Relay Settings


Set Voltage (desired output voltage)
Bandwidth (difference between measured voltage and set
voltage) typically between 0.75 V and 1.5 V.
Time Delay (waiting time between when the voltage goes out
of band and when the controller initiates the tap change)

10-120 sec
114-126 V

.75 -1.5 V

Line Drop Compensator (LDC)


The voltage can be regulated at a point downstream by
adjustable resistance and reactance elements of the LDC
located in the control panel.
These settings are approximate (at best) when a load is tapped
off the feeder between the regulator and the regulating point.

Voltage Regulator Placement


Utility AVRs can be installed out on the feeders or at the
substation bus.
The voltage regulator units could either be single-phase or threephase. However, on a three-phase feeder, it is more common in
utility applications to use single-phase units.

Example
LTC holds Vp constant at 1.035 pu (due to changes in subtransmission voltage and voltage drop across transformer).
Sub-transmission voltage varies between 1.05 pu and 1.00 pu.
Feeder voltage criteria: not to go below 0.967 pu

Example (cont.)

A shunt capacitor or a
voltage regulator is needed.

Example (cont.)
Desire regulation input at 1.01 pu s1 = 1.75 mi
LDC disabled, and regulation output = 1.035 pu.

Automation of Voltage Regulation Devices in The


Smart Grid Era

Voltage Fluctuations (Flicker Curve)