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Research Article

Murugan Vigneshwaran (D2)

Main Theme Of the Article

Solvent engineering process to enable controlled perovskite
crystal growth
Planar heterojunction solar cells fabricated with this method
demonstrate hysteresis-free performance with a power
conversion efficiency around 10% (one step method)
The crystal structure of an organic-based Pb iodide
intermediate phase is identified for the first time, which is
critical in controlling the crystal growth and optimizing thin film

Solvent Engineering
Device architecture: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MAPbI3/PCBM/Al
(DMF/DMSO) solvent mixture was used to dissolve the
precursors(PbI2 & MAI) and spun on PEDOT:PSS at 5000 rpm.
After spinning for a certain time, toluene is added as an orthogonal
solvent for PbI2 layers and the formation of an intermediate
The film is transformed to a final perovskite phase after annealing at
100 C for 15 minutes

Crystal Studies
To clearly understand the structure of the intermediate phase, single
crystals of the phase were recrystalized and obtained from the mother
liquor that formed the thin films.
From single crystal XRD identified the crystal
orthorhombic with space group Cmc21 (no. 36).



The crystal structure of the intermediate phase, as shown in Fig. 1c

features ribbon-like chains, [Pb3I8]2, formed from edge shared lead
iodide octahedra (PbI6).

The methylammonium (MA+) and DMSO molecules are
located in spaces between the ribbons.
The DMSO molecules do not coordinate the Pb atoms of
the [Pb3I8]2 ribbons, which is different when no MA+
are present i.e. the coordination compound PbI2(DMSO)2
is formed
Obtained XRD was matched with the simulated XRD of

Addition Of Tolune (Kinetic

Toluene was dripped onto the film surface after a

of 5 s (ST-5), 10 s (ST-10), 15 s (ST-15) and 20 s (ST-20) since
the spin-coating step started at 5000 rpm. For the process with
no treatment (NT), the spinning step continues at 5000 rpm.

In the above band-gap region, the scattering of treated

film is considerably reduced compared to NT film,

Jsc and FF of devices ST-5, ST-10 and ST-15 were not

significantly affected by the delay time.
In comparison to pure DMF solvent based
devices, mixed solvents clearly enable a much
wider processing window, which is related to the
existence of the MA2Pb3I82DSMO intermediate