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dan Pisang dapat meningkatkan mutu dan kualiti tanaman tanpa

PLANT BOOSTER

penggunaan bahan kimia.


alternatif kepada penggunaan bahan kimia (idris bald)
En. Wan Muhammad Zukarnain bin Baharudin seorang Pegawai
Pertanian yang berpengalaman dalam tanaman Fertigasi dan Organic
Farming yang berpusat di Bahagian Pembangunan Komoditi Serdang
Dalam negara menuju ke arah pengeluaran bahan makanan dan

telah menjalankan penyelidikan terhadap tanaman di atas dengan

produk pertanian yang lebih bermutu dan selamat dimakan, banyak

hasil yang sangat ketara dari segi pertumbuhan dan juga hasilnya.

kaedah penjagaan tanaman telah dijalankan seperti penggunaan


bahan organic dan Efektic MicroOrganisma (EM) telah digunakan.

Penyediaan EM

(Plant

Booster) mudah disediakan dengan

penggunaan bahan yang boleh didapati dengan perbelanjaan yang


Cara ini dapat mengurangkan penggunaan bahan kimia seterusnya

kecil seperti berikut:

mengurangkan kos pengeluaran serta memastikan pengeluaran bahan


makanan bebas dari bahan kimia.
EM ialah sekumpulan mikroorganisma yang hidup berkelompok di

Bahan-bahan penghasilan plant booster

sesuatu tempat. Ianya hidup berharmoni di dalam tanah bersama


tumbuhan

dengan

membekalkan

makanan

dan

memberi

perlindungan kepada serangga dan binatang kecil yang lain. EM


tempatan boleh dikumpul dan dibiak untuk memperbaiki dan

\Gula merah (1kg),

memulihkan tanah.

belacan(0.5kg),

Jabtan Pertanian telah berjaya membuktikan penggunaan EM (Plant

nanas (1kg),

Booster) ke atas beberapa tanaman seperti Rock Melon, Tomato, Cili


telur(10 biji),
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dedak (0.5kg),

4: Buah labu yang dipotong dengan ketebalan 2mm, panjang 5-6cm


dan lebar 2-3 cm diletakkan dipermukaan media bahan yang telah

air (20L),
susu segar atau susu tepung (2L@kg),
pisang (1kg),

dicampur dan akhir sekali ragi yang telah dipecahkan ditabur ke atas
permukaan labu atau media. Langkah
5: Bekas tersebut ditutup secara separa anaerobik dan peram selama
seminggu. Produk ini dianggap matang apabila terdapat miselium

betik (1kg),

putih tumbuh di atas permukaan media dan berbau masam manis.

labu (1kg),

6: Setelah matang, plant booster dikacau dan ditapis sebelum


digunakan pada tanaman.

kangkong (1kg) dan


ragi (5 biji)
Aplikasi pada tanaman
Kaedah pembuatan Langkah
Plant Booster pekat perlu dicairkan terlebih dahulu sebelum
1: Bahan-bahan seperti belacan, nanas, pisang, betik dan kangkong

digunakan dilapangan dan kecairan mengikut sukatan seperti

perlu dikisar halus. Langkah

dibawah;

2: Bahan-bahan yang dikisar dicampur dengan telur, susu segar atau

i. Melon; Minggu (M) 1-2 (15ml/1Liter air), M 3-5 (20ml/L) dan M

susu tepung, dedak, gula merah dan air. Langkah

6-10 (30ml/L)

3: Kesemua bahan-bahan tersebut di masukkan ke dalam satu bekas

ii. Tomato; Minggu (M) 1-2 ( 10ml/1Liter air), M 3-5 (15ml/L), M 6-

kemudian dikacau. Langkah

8(20ml/L) dan M 9 keatas (25ml/L)

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iii. Cili; Minggu (M) 1-2 ( 10ml/1Liter air), M 3-5 (20ml/L), M 6-

Pada masa yang sama, garam nitrat dan karbonat terbentuk. Kedua-

8(30ml/L) dan M 9 keatas (40ml/L). iv. Pisang; Minggu (M) 2

dua elemen ini dapat membantu menyuburkan tanah dan menjadi

( 10ml/1 liter air), M 4 (15ml/L), M 8 (20ml/L), M 10 (25ml/L), M

hormon serta nutrien semula jadi kepada tumbuhan.

12 ke atas hingga matang (30ml/L) setiap bulan.


Semua kaedah pembajaan dan kawalan perosak adalah mengikut
syor Jabatan Pertanian.

Dengan menggunakan

bahan buangan ini mudah ditemui di

dapur, anda mampu membawa keajaiban. Kulit buah, lebihan sayur


Anda boleh mencuba sendiri.......

dan bahan yang anda gunakan untuk memasak atau makan, adalah
kuncinya. Tukarkan ia kepada enzim dan anda dapat merawat dunia,

Bagi anda yang ingin keterangan lanjut, sila hubungi Bahagian

ujar seorang pengamal perubatan alternatif homeopati, Dr. Joean

Pembangunan Komoditi Jabatan Pertanian Serdang Tel: 03-8948

Oon.

6302 Fax: 03-8942 6616

Ilmu yang dipelajari daripada seorang pensyarah dan doktor dalam

Enzim Sampah

perubatan alternatif di Thailand, Dr. Rosukon Poompanvong, ini


mula mendapat perhatian dan kini memperoleh permintaan sehingga

Enzim pula secara amnya diketahui dapat menggalakkan atau


mempercepatkan proses kimia. Jadi penggunaannya dalam sungai

ke beberapa negara di rantau Asia Tenggara termasuk Singapura,


Thailand, Indonesia dan Brunei.

yang dicemari minyak atau bahan kimia didapati berjaya


merungkaikan ikatan kompleks bahan kimia tersebut dan seterusnya
menjernihkan airnya.
Testimonial:

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Pokok naga di sebuah ladang di Seremban yang disembur enzim

Fish Amino Acid ( FAA ) adalah cecair dari proses pereputan ikan

sayur-sayuran dan buah-buahan dapat mengeluarkan sehingga 40 biji

yang menghasilkan asid amino, iaitu komponen penting dari proten.

buah dari sebatang pokok, sedangkan pokok naga pekebun lain

FAA merupakan penghasilan yang baik untuk kehidupan dan

hanya dapat mengeluarkan maksimum 10 biji. Perbezaannya ialah

pertumbuhan

empat kali ganda.

mengandungi pelbagai nutrient dan berbagai jenis asid amino dan

microbes

dan

juga

pokok

tumbuhan,

kerana

component protein lain untuk kebaikan pokok.

Seorang wanita yang mempunyai 60 pasu pokok bunga orkid


pernah merungut pokok yang ditanam sukar untuk berbunga, tetapi
selepas

menyembur

enzim

yang

dihasilkan

sendiri,

bunga

berkembang sehingga 60 peratus lebih banyak tanpa bantuan baja


herbisid, kongsi Joean tentang kebaikan enzim kepada bidang agro.

1. CARA MEMBUAT FAA (

versi

lain

sedikit

dari

kebiasaan )
Alatan:
Balang kaca atau plastic atau balang tanah liat ( clay pot)
Kain jarang, ( kain lampin, kain kasa, )
Talia tau getah pengikat
Bahan:

Tidak melibatkan kos yang besar, enzim yang dihasilkan hanya

Ikan segar dari jenis belakang hitam, tulang2 ikan segar

memerlukan apa yang ada di dapur anda. Perapkan bersama gula

( buangan dari pembuatan kropok),

perang, sisa makanan dan air pada nisbah 1: 3: 10 dalam bekas

Udang atau kulit udang

tertutup dan tunggu selepas tiga bulan.

Isi siput gondang emas ( mudah di dapati)


Gula merah ( brown sugar), IMO4, (kalu tak ada IMO4
buleh guna IMO2 dan air beras yang di fermented 3 hari ),

FAA

OHN ( bawang putih, kumcui, tungkui, kayu manis, halia) di


campur sekali 5 jenis tu.
(bahan di atas spt udang, siput buleh campur jika ada)

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Jenis ikan :
Terbaiknya jenis belakang hitam spt sardine, cincaru,

2. Ikan cincang di gaul dengan jumlah gula merah, dan di


masukkan dalam balang, dengan 2/3 isi padu balang.

kembung, tongkol (aya), tamban


selar, tuna, ikan bilis ( fresh), ikan mata besar ( lolong ) ikian

3. Gaulkan gula merah tadi dengan IMO4 dan taburkan

pelata dan ikan2 seangkatan.

dalam balang diatas bahan ikan cincang itu untuk

Ikan belakang hitam ini mengandungi proten yang tinggi dan

memudahkan pengoposan isi ikan dan juga minyak ikan ,

baik, asid amino dan juga asid lemak ( fatty asid).

(jika menggunakan IMO2, campur sekali air basuhan beras

Mengandungi EPA dan DHA yang banyak dan asid lemak

yang sudah di fermented 3 hari ), masukkan juga sedikit

yang tak tepu yang terbaik untuk kesihatan.

OHN ( campuran berbagai ) yang di cairkan 1:5 , gunakan

Kedua2 bahan DHA dan EPA bertindak menurunkan tahap

100ml untuk 1kg bahan ikan, kandungan gula merah dan

kolestrol dan dan menghalang penyakit darah tinggi dan

bahan ikan sama berat 1:1

berkaitan dengan penyakit jantung dan strok.


Mencerdaskan minda kanak2, dengan memberi oksigen pada
otak, mengurangkan penyakit pelupa pada orang tua,

4. Tutup balang dengan kain dan ikat denagn sempurna dan


pastikan 1/3 ruang di atas bahan ikan.

mengandungi pelbagai vitamins untuk kebaikan kesihatan

5. Dalam masa 3-4 hari, bahan ikan mula mencair di sebabkan

dan mengurangkan terjadinya penyakit ketuaan dan kaitan

tekanan osmotic oleh gula merah, dan terjadinya proses

kekurangan vitamis, bahan2 terkandung dalam ikan itu juga

fermentasi.

amat baik dan di perlukan oleh pokok untuk kebaikan dan


kesuburan

6. Dalam masa sebualan jus dari fermentasi buleh di gunakan


jika perlu walaupun tak semau ikan hancur. Kebiasaannya

Kaedah Membuat

ikan akan hancur denag sempurna dalam masa 5-6 bulan,


dan amat bagus kulitinya berbanding fermentation 1 bulan.

1. Basuh ikan menggunakan air tanpa klorin, cincang kecil2


sebesar ibu jari termasuk kepala, tulang dan perut.

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FAA yang sudah matang berbau masam manis dan tidak membusuk,

production, tetapi amat baik jika di gunakan sebagai booster

tapis dan boleh di simpan tempat teduh dan sejuk.

untuk aktikan balik pertumbuhan jika masa production


pokok lambat berkembang cabang Ybuleh di lakukan

Bagaimana menggunakan FAA

hanya 3 -4 minggu sekali.

1. Fish Amino Acid (FAA) buleh di gunakan selepas di cairkan


dengan air bersih tanpa klorin dengan kadar 1:500-1000.

6. Sesetengah FAA yang mengandungi minyak ikan hasil


fermentasi akan mengeluarkan bau yang agak ketara, dan ini
merupakan sebagai repellent terhadap sesetengah serangga

2. FAA kaya dengan nitrogen N merupakan baja yang bagus

spt lalat putih dan lain2.

untuk siraman atau semburan foliar untuk mempertingkatkan


pertumbuhan semasa fasa vegetative bila di gabungkan

7. FAA dari ikan sardine dan tongkol amat baik untuk

dengan pembajaan lain spt menggunakan MOL2 lain dalam

menghalau hamama dan juga lalat putih bila larutan di spray

kaedah NF.

pada daun atas permukaan atas dan bawah.

3. Jika kita membuat IMO untuk di gunakan pada proses

8. Jika terdapat tulang2 ikan yang tidak hancur selepas di tapis,

pengoposan bahan organic, campuran FAA yang di cairkan

masukan kedalam brown rice vinegar atau cuka nipah akan

1:500 akan mempertingkatkan activity microbes dan

mengoposkan tulang dan menghasilkan calcium phosphate

perceoatkan proses pengoposan.

yang berkualiti dan sedia terlarut.

4. Untuk sayuran berdaun, menggunakan FAA 1:1000 secara


berterusan akan meningkatkan hasil dan memberi rasa yang

Fungsi-fungsi Fish Amino Acid ( FAA )

enak dan ber aroma .

Oleh Mohammad Abdul Rahman

5. Disebabkan FAA kaya dengan unsur N , tidak di galakan


menggunakan

semasa

production

stage

kerana

akan

meningkatkan pertumbuhan vegetative dan mengurangkan

1. Mengatasi stress
Stress seperti suhu tinggi, kelembapan rendah atau
kekeringan,

serangan

hamama

atau

serangga,

hujan
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berlebihan ( lembab), banjir dan kekurangan nutrients

udara. Pembukaan dan penutupan stomata dikendalikan oleh

memberi efek negatif pada metabolisme tanaman dan akan

dua faktor external (cahaya, kelembaban, suhu dan

membantutkan kualiti dan penghasilan tanaman. Penggunaan

konsentrasi garam) dan faktor internal (konsentrasi amino

amino asid semasa penanaman secara berterusan akan

asid, abscisic acid dan lain2). Stomata akan menutup ketika

mengubah fisiologi tanaman denagn pengawalan dan

cahaya dan kelembaban rendah atau kering dan juga jika

penghindaran stress menjadikan pokok sentiuasa dalam

keadaan suhu dan konsentrasi garam yang tinggi, ketika

keadaan baik dan subur dan berupaya menentang penyakit.

stomata tertutup proses fotosintesis dan transpirasi atau


perpeluhan berkurang dan berlaku penyerapan yang rendah

1. Pengaruh Fotosintesis

pada unsur baja makro dan mikro dan respirasi meningkat

Untuk kesuburan pokok, karbohidrat di sintesiskan oleh

yang memerlukan tenaga dari kabohidrat. Dalam hal ini

prosess fotosintesis, pada peringkat fotosintesis yang rendah

keseimbangan

mengakibatkan pertumbuhan yang lambat dan menyebabkan

Catabolism ( penguraian protein dan kabohidrat) lebih tinggi

kebantutan dan kematian tanaman, klorofil adalah molekul

dari anabolisme. Ini berarti metabolisme lambat dan

yang bertanggung jawab untuk penyerapan tenaga cahaya.

menghentikan pertumbuhan tanaman. Asid L-glutamat

Glumate acid dan glisine merupakan enzime untuk proses

bertindak sebagai agen osmotic citoplasm dari sel pengawal.

sintesis dan pembentukan klorofil pada daun. Asid amino ini

Penggunaan amino acid akan memudahkan pembukaan

membantu untuk meningkatkan konsentrasi klorofil dan

stomata dengan pengawalan dari keseimbangan catabolism.

metabolisme

tanaman

adalah

negatif.

memantapkan proses fotosintesis lebih tinggi. Hal ini


membuat tanaman menghijau dan subur bila proses sintesis
berlaku secara maksima.

2. Chelating Effect Amino Acid


Amino acid merupakan agen chelating atau pengurai untuk
micronutrients. Penggunaan bersama atau sebagai siraman

1. Tindakan pada Stomata

atau campuran dalam tangki baja memudahkan, penyerapan

Stomata adalah struktur selular yang mengontrol atau

dan transportation zat2 micro nutrients oleh akar dan pokok.

mengawal keseimbangan hydro atau air dalam tanaman,

Effect ini disebabkan tindakan asid dapat mengawal serapan

penyerapan unsur makro dan mikro nutrients dan penyerapan

dan permiability cell membrane dengan pertolongan dari


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acid L - Glycine dan L - glutamate yang terkenal sebagai

untuk menguraikan bahan organik dan juga structure tanah

chelating agen yang sangat effective.

untuk melepaskan unsur baja pada pokok dalam bentuk yang


mudah di serap. L-metionine salah satu komponen dari AA

3. Amino Acid dan & phytohormones

adalah faktor pertumbuhan precussor yang menstabilkan

Amino acid merupakan precussor atau aktivator dari

dinding sel microbes dalam proses penguraian.

phytohormones dan zat pertumbuhan. L - Metionine


merupakan precussor dari ethylene dan faktor pertumbuhan
seperti Espermine dan Espermidine, yang di synsthesized

6. Sehubungan dengan itu, penggunaan FAA atau amino acid

dari 5 - Adenosyl Metionine. L - Triptophane ( sebahagian

amat baik untuk menentukan kesuburan pokok yang

dari

Auksin.

meksima dan ketahan dari penyakit, serta untuk penghasilan

Triptophane tersedia hanya jika hidrolisis protein dilakukan

buah yang berkualiti dan meningkatkan production. Cara

oleh enzim.

untuk membuat FAA bulehlah di rujuk pada artikel dalam

AA)

adalah

precussor

untuk

sintesis

Files yang sedia ada pada Group ini.


4. Pendebungaan dan Pembentukan Buah.
Pendebungaan adalah perpindahan debunga ke bunga putik
buah, sehingga terjadinya pembentukan buah . L Proline
( komponen AA) membantu dalam kesuburan pollen. L Lysine, L - Metionine, L - glutamate adalah komponen
amino asid yang esential untuk pendebungaan. Amino asid
meningkatkan kadar pembentukan debunga dan pembesaran

perbandingan kandungan FFJ pisang dan FAA ikan :


FFJ PISANG
N : 2% P2O5 : 0.2% K2O : 1.2% CaO : 0.2% MgO : 0.2% Fe :
55ppm Cu : 1ppm Zn : 9ppm Mn : 6ppm B : 2ppm

kantung polen.
5. Keseimbangan Microbes Tanah
Keseimbangan microbe tanah pertanian merupakan asas

FAA IKAN

yang baik untuk penguraian dan peroses mineralisation


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N :14.2% P2O5 : 1% K2O : 0.7% CaO : 0.8% MgO : 0.1% Fe :

Cu 8 g

61ppm Cu : 2ppm Zn : 10ppm Mn : 3ppm B : 2ppm


Fe EDTA 200G

BAJA FERTIGASI
SET A
Kalsium nitrat 19kg
potasium nitrat 2.5KG

Zn EDTA 60G
Mn EDTA 65G
BORON 175G
Amm Molibdate 4G

Urea 550g

Jadual Semburan Produk SRI untuk tanaman


Timun 747
SET B
potasium nitrat 10KG
Magnesium sulfat 10kg

By Norhisam Ramlan on Tuesday, 23 July 2013 at 10:20


Minggu 1 Hari Isnin :
50ml ( SRI ANAK ) + 50ml ( Mol Ikan ) + 50 ml ( Mol Kangkong )

mkp 4kg

+ 20 ml ( OHN ) /25 liter air @ 2 pam


Hari Khamis :

TE

50ml (SRI ANAK) + 50ml (Mol Ikan ) + 50 ml( Mol Kangkong )+


20 ml ( OHN ) / 25 liter air @ 2 pam
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150ml (SRI BUNGA ) + 150ml (Mol Ikan ) + 150 ml (Mol
Minggu 2

Kangkong )+ 60 ml ( OHN )/25 liter air@6 pam

Hari Isnin :

Hari Khamis :
150ml (SRI BUNGA ) + 150ml (Mol Ikan ) + 150 ml (Mol

100ml (SRI ANAK ) + 100ml (Mol Ikan ) +100 ml (Mol Kangkong )

Kangkong )+ 60 ml ( OHN )/25 liter air@6 pam

+20 ml (OHN )/25 liter air@4 pam


Minggu 5
Hari Khamis :
100ml (SRI ANAK ) + 100ml (Mol Ikan ) + 100 ml (Mol

Hari Isnin :

Kangkong )+ 20 ml (OHN )/25 liter air@4 pam

150ml (SRI BUAH ) + 150ml (Mol Ikan ) + 150 ml (Mol Pisang )+


60 ml ( OHN )/25 liter air@6 pam

Minggu 3
Hari Khamis :
Hari Isnin :

150ml (SRI BUAH ) + 150ml (Mol Ikan ) + 150 ml (Mol Pisang )+

150ml (SRI ANAK ) + 150ml (Mol Ikan ) + 150 ml (Mol

60 ml ( OHN )/25 liter air@6 pam

Kangkong )+ 60 ml ( OHN )/25 liter air@6 pam


Minggu 6
Hari Khamis :
150ml (SRI ANAK ) + 150ml (Mol Ikan ) + 150 ml (Mol

Hari Isnin :

Kangkong )+ 60 ml ( OHN )/25 liter air@6 pam

150ml (SRI ANAK ) + 150ml (Mol Ikan ) + 150 ml (Mol Pisang )+


60 ml ( OHN )/25 liter air@6 pam

Minggu 4
Hari Khamis :
Hari Isnin :
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150ml (SRI BUNGA ) + 150ml (Mol Ikan ) + 150 ml (Mol Pisang )+
60 ml ( OHN )/25 liter air@6 pam

Kangkong 1 kg
Gula Merah 1 kg

Minggu 7

Pisau
Papan pemotong

Hari Isnin :

bekas

150ml (SRI BUAH ) + 150ml (Mol Ikan ) + 150 ml (Mol Pisang )+

Kain

60 ml ( OHN )/25 liter air@6 pam

pen marker

Hari Khamis :

Cara2

150ml (SRI ANAK ) + 150ml (Mol Ikan ) + 150 ml (Mol Pisang )+


60 ml ( OHN )/25 liter air@6 pam

Ambil kangkong liar yang berada dalam parit ( free, x payah beli ),
seelok2nya ambil awal pagi kerana masih terdapat hormon / enzim

Penyediaan Baja Natural Farming ( produk SRI )


By Nurwahidah Hambali on Friday, 24 February 2012 at 22:43

yang amat baik pada masa itu. Potong kecil2 ( jangan basuh ),
masukkan dalam bekas dan campurkan dengan gula merah pada
kadar 1:1. selepas itu tutup bekas dengan kertas mahjung dan ikat

As salam pada semua kawan2, di kelapangan ini saya ingin

dengan dengan getah serta labelkan tarikh buat. ditapis pada hari ke -

berkongsi pengalaman yang amat sedikit ini untuk perkongsian kita

7. cecair yer disimpan dalam botol, jangan rapatkan tutupnya. sisa

bersama agar kita dapat berjimat dalam bidang pertanian yang amat

kangkong tadi boleh dibuat kompos atau diletak di bawah pokok

berisiko ini. ini pembelanjaran yang pertama ini saya akan tunjukkan

buah2an,bunga ( jangan letak banyak2), cukup sekadar kelilimg

resepi salah satu bahan dalam baja SRI iaitu penyediaan FPJ

pokok...mudah bukan.belajar buat MOL kangkong ini dulu.

( Fermented Plant Juice )

berjumpa lagi di lain kali dengan resepi yang lain pula....respon jika
sudah belajar buat.terima kasih.

BAHAN-BAHAN
11

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TEKNOLOGI

PENANAMAN

SECARA

FERTIGASI
By on Sunday, 9 March 2014 at 22:58
Fuad Fertigasi
TEKNOLOGI PENANAMAN SECARA FERTIGASI Fertigasi
berasal dari perkataan fertigation iaitu fertilizer & irrigation.
Fertigasi dapat ditakrifkan sebagai satu kaedah penanaman di mana
baja (dalam bentuk larutan/nutrient) diagihkan kepada zon akar
tanaman melalui sistem pengairan. Umumnya beberapa jenis sayursayuran dari jenis buah sahaja yang sesuai ditanam menggunakan
sistem ini seperti cili merah, timun, tomato, terung, capsicum,
strawberi dan melon.
Penanaman secara fertigasi bertujuan mengelakkan tanaman
daripada dijangkiti penyakit akar bawaan tanah.
Penggunaan Struktur Pelindung Hujan (SPH) adalah digalakkan
dalam penanaman secara fertigasi, walaubagaimana pun amalan
penanaman tanpa SPH masih boleh dijalankan. Fertigasi tanpa SPH
akan menyebabkan pengurusan air yang tidak terkawal akibat hujan.
Percikan hujan juga akan menyebabkan jangkitan penyakit daun dan
buah merebak dengan mudah.

Polibeg putih adalah disyorkan kerana ia dapat mengurangkan kadar


penyerapan haba dan mengelakkan kejadian pengumpulan akar padat
di bahagian tepi. Lain-lain bekas seperti polibeg hitam, pasu plastic
dan pasu tanah boleh juga digunakan. Setiap jenis mempunyai
kelebihan dan kelemahan yang tersendiri. Bekas tanaman hendaklah
boleh memuatkan sekurang-kurang 10 12 liter.
Media terbaik yang disyorkan untuk diisi ke dalam bekas tanaman
adalah coconut coir dust atau coco peat. Penggunaan coco peat
adalah murah dan mudah dibeli jika dibandingkan dengan
penggunaan media komersil seperti perlite atau vermiculite.
Pembekalan larutan baja dilakukan mengikut masa yang ditetapkan
dengan bantuan alat pengatur masa. Kekerapan dan tempoh masa
setiap penitisan bergantung kepada jenis tanaman dan peringkat
umur tanaman.
Untuk mendapatkan pengeluaran konsisten dengan kualiti hasil yang
tinggi pada tahap optima serta menguntungkan dalam penanaman
secara fertigasi, beberapa aspek perlu diberi tumpuan. Diantaranya
adalah penyediaan media, semaian, menggubah ke ladang, kawalan
perosak dan penyakit, kawalan terhadap sistem pengairan dan
saliran, kebersihan ladang, diagnosis masalah tanaman, pensterilan,
pengagihan nutrient serta perkara berkaitan fisiologi tanaman.

12

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Antara keperluan asas untuk menjalankan kaedah penanaman
fertigasi ialah:

1: tujuan kita buat fertigasi adalah untuk mendekatkan pertanian kita

1. Sumber air bersih

kepada precision farming. Kita bagi cukup cukup baja dan air yang

2. Sistem pengairan

diperlukan pokok untuk optimum output. Untuk dapat lebih kawalan

3. Rumah semaian

pada nutrient uptake plantation kita. Ini sukar untuk dikawal dengan

4. Baja (nutrient)

baja NPK. Contoh: Nitrogen dalam baja NPK adalah dalam bentuk

5. Media tanaman

ammonium atau urea base. Ada juga yang ada campur dalam bentuk

6. Bekas tanaman di ladang dan semaian (polibeg dan dulang

Nitrate (biasa ni lagi mahal). Pokok kita ambil nitrogen dalam bentuk

semaian)

Nitrate dan ammonium. Pengambilan dari bentuk ammonium adalah

7. Biji benih terpilih

perlahan disebabkan ia tidak mobile berbanding nitrate. Jadi akar

8. Struktur Pelindung Hujan (SPH)

perlu cari baja ni, berbanding nitrate yang sendiri mobile kearah

9. Alat pengukur pH dan EC meter

akar. Bila ammonia tidak diambil, ia juga akan transform ke bentuk


nitrate (penjelasan dibawah) Dari ammonia, nutrient perlu lalui

Teknologi penanaman tanaman terpilih menggunakan kaedah

process nitrification yang mana dalam process ini, nitrous oxide dan

fertigasi

nitric oxide dilepaskan ke udara, hilang nutrien kita disitu. Yang

menjanjikan

pulangan

modal

pelaburan

sekiranya

dilaksanakan dengan betul dalam masa yang singka

paling merisaukan adalah, process nitrification ni ambil masa dari


beberapa hari, ke beberapa minggu. Bila sebenarnya pokok kita
dapat baja yang kita letak ni? Ruang legar nutrient ni kecil (16x18

KESAN MENGGUNAKAN BAJA COMPOUND

dan sebagainya) kalau terlebih? terkurang? pengubahsuaian almost

NPK PADA FERTIGASI

impossible. Symptom kurang nitrogen dah mula kelihatan. Kita

By on Tuesday, 4 March 2014 at 09:25

tambah baja, minggu depan jadi nirogen toxicity pulak.. Process ini
juga kebanyakannya dilakukan oleh soil bacteria, pada cocopeat, not

Kenapa tak guna baja NPK biasa untuk fertigasi. Jauh lagi murah,

very much. Perlu juga ambil kira leaching, pokok belum sempat

lagi senang urus. Ok biar saya jelaskan disini.

ambil baja, hujan, baja keluar dari polybag.

13

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


2: point 2 ni yang paling merisaukan, Urea Based NPK fertilizers

Baja

(paling murah). Untuk baja jenis ini, process nak ke nitrate lagi

Mohammad Abdul Rahman

panjang.

Urea-hydrolysis-nitrification-plant

uptake

(nitrate)

Kehilangan nutrient disini adalah jauh lebih tinggi. % nitrogen yang


sampai ke pokok sangat rendah. Lagi teruk ialah fact yang process
hydrolysis ini mengalkalikan tanah dalam short term, tetapi selepas
itu mengasidkan tanah. Application mengalkalikan tanah, pelepasan
carbon-dioxide dari process hydrolysis mengasidkan tanah. Dah PH
medium tak stable. Ni Antara sebab air dan tanah dikawasan ladang
sawit sangat acidic. Banyak urea application. Kalau ini diamalkan ke
cocopeat, boleh hampir pasti selepas satu musim, tuan puan dah kene
tukar medium tanaman sebab terlalu berasid. Yang dah cuba
mungkin dah rasa. Cost tukar media tanaman, rasa kita semua pun
well aware.
2 points sahaja saya letak sini harini. Jadi kepada yang terfikir nak
cuba, ini Antara yang perlu anda ambil kira. Mencelah sikit, tengah
bulan ni saya ada buat penghantaran baja fertigasi Yara ke tanjung
malim. Kepada sesiapa di kawasan perak nak order baja dan jimat
cost penghantaran, sila order secepat mungkin. Ada ruang untuk 20
sets lagi. Call/sms/whatsapp Adam (012 771 7863) email:
montmelony@gmail.com

Fertigasi

Cili

Untuk

Pertumbuhan

By on Sunday, 14 August 2011 at 21:24


salam dan selamat menjalankan ibadah puasa pada keluarga BJ
semua, di sebabkan banyak posting berkaitan pengiraan untuk
membuat baja fertigasi dah hilang kena godam, saya cuba copy &
paste apa yang saya postkan kat " 1 MALAYSIA FERTGASI" group
dalam facebook, untuk rujukan semua sila copy &paste kat dokumen
sendiri supaya tidak hilang dan jadikan sebagai rujukan:
pengiraan untuk baja cili peringkat pertumbuhan: pada masa ni
pokok perlukan : 240ppm N, 50ppm P, 280ppm K, 50ppm Mg,
170ppm Ca, 6ppm Fe, Mn 2ppm, Cu o.07ppm, Zn 0.25ppm , B
0.7ppm, Mo 0.05ppm
dari nilai keperluan ppm , kita akan kira berat bahan satu persatu
untuk dapatkan ppm Ca, kita gunakan calcium nitrate bergred Ca
19% dan N 15.5%:
ppm Ca 170ppm, jadi berat bahan baja CaNO3 = 170/0.19
=894.736mg, tapi stok kita 100lit dan kadar bancuhan 1:100, jadi
berat CaNO3 =( 894.736 x 100 x 100)/(1000 x 1000)
=8.947kg>>1000 x 1000 tu adalah conversion dari mg ke gm ke kg

14

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ok sekarang kita sudah dapat berat bahan CaNO3 untuk dapatkan

Berat bahan PN = 5.85kg; dalam bahan ni ada K, jadi kita kira nilai

170ppm Ca, dari berat bahan tersebut, kita kira pula berapa ppm N

ppm K : ppm K = 584.8375mg/lit x 38.6% =226ppm K,

yang terkandung: berat CaNO3 = 8.947kg = 8,947,000mg, bahagi

tapi kita perlukan 280ppm K, jadi kita masih kena cari lagi ( 280-

balik dengan stok dan mix ratio = 8,947,000/(100 x 100) =

226) = 54ppm K...........nanti kita gunakan MKP ( monopotassium

894.700mg/lit, jadi nilai ppm N terkandung = 894.700 x 15.5% =

phosphate) untuk dapatkan 54ppm K ni

139mg/lit = 139ppm, kita masih kekurangan ( 240-139) = 101ppm


N....nanti kita guna bahan lain untuk dapatkan nilai N yang tak cukup

dari MKP kita akan dapat ppm P dan K, dari jadual kehendak kita

ni

perlukan 50ppm P:
dalam MKP ada 22.78% P dan 28.73% K

supaya N dan K balance semasa pengiraan kita kena andaikan N

brat bahan MKP untukl dapatkan 50ppm P = 50ppm/22.78% =

=220ppm, jadi N sebenar tak mencukupi = 220-139=81ppm.

219.491mg; berat untuk stok 100 lit dan mix 100 = 2,194,91omg =

nilai ppm N yang tak di kira ( 240-220) = 20ppm

2.19kg MKP

note: sebenarnya masa pertumbuhan awal kita buleh naikan N


260ppm untuk kesuburan awal, tuan2 buleh setkan N 250ppm, jadi N

sebenarnya kita buleh setkan keperluan baja mengikut bulan atau

yang tak termasuk pengiraan ni = 250-220ppm = 30ppm, untuk

minggu, contohnya kalu minggu pertama, kita perlukan ppm spt

dapatkan N ni kita guna bahan baja yang ada N sja spt Ammnium

diatas, tapi bila pokok besar sikit kita perlukan Mg dan P tinggi

nitrate AN...yang ni kita kira trakhir sekali

sikit, katakan P 55ppm dan Mg55ppm dan K 300ppm, jadi kalu kita

__________________

gunakan excell, dan masukan variable tersebut, secara automatik di

sekarang kita kira ppm bahan untuk dapatkan N 81ppm

kira berat bahan, jadi baja kita tak static, contohnya jika bancuhan

kita gunakan Potassium nitrate PN, dalam PN ada 13.85%N dan

batch pertama dah habis dalam seminggu, kita buleh bancuh batch

38.6%K

kedua denagn nilai ppm berlainan, jadi pokok akan merasa lebih sikit

kita kira berat PN untuk dapatkan 81ppm N

keperluan bila masuk minggu kedua dan sterusnya

berat PN = 81ppm/13.85% = 584.8375mg/lit, untuk stokk 100lit dan


mix 1:100, berat PN = 584.8375 x 100 x 100 = 5,848,375mg =

untuk menaikan ppm element memang kita buleh naikan ec atau

5.85kg

TDS, tapi cara ni akan menaikan semua element baja, sedangkan kita
15

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nak sesetengah element saja tinggi, dan mengekal sukatan element

nilai 285 ppm dikira baik untuk pertumbuhan, jadi tak perlu lagi di

lain, atau nak turunkan element lain dan nak naikkan element lain

tambah K2SO4.
jadi nilai ppm N di dapati dari CN dan PN= 139-76 =

back to kuliah>>>> kita sudah dapat berat MKP = 2.19 kg, sekarang

215ppm.....nilai ni

kita kira berapa ppm K terkandung;

jadi kita tertinggal lagi 35ppm N .....nanti kita kira ambil dari AN

percent K dalam MKP = 28.73%

K dari PN + MKP = 212 + 63 = 275 ppm. Bukan 285 ppm.

nilai ppm K = 219.40mg x 28.73% = 63ppm

Pembetulan!

sekarang kita dah berlebihan (63-54) = 9ppm K


ppm K terlebih sikit tak mengapa, tapi jangan melebih tinggi sangat,

dari pengiraan diatas, kita dapat berat bahan spt berikut :

jadi kalau mau tepat kita kena kurangkan ppm N untuk pengiraan

CaNO3..... 8.95kg

dari 220 ke 210 atau 200 ppm, bila kita kurangkan ke 215ppm , K

KNO3........5.48 kg

dari PN akan berkurang:

MKP .........2.19 kg

sekarang nilai N yang di perlukan menjadi ( 215-139)=76 ppm


139 adalah nilai ppm N dari CN

sekarang kita kira pula berat MgSO4 yang memberi kita 50ppm Mg

jadi berat baru PN = 76ppm/13.85% = 548.736mg/lit

percentage Mg terkandung dalam MgSO4 adalah 9.80%

berat bahan PN pada 100lit stok dan 1:100 mix ratio

jadi berat MgsO4 = 50ppm / 9.80% = 510mg/lit

=(548.736 x 100 x 100)/1000 x 1000 = 5.48 kg

berat untuk 100lit stok dan mix ratio 1:100 = (510 x 100 x100)/(1000

Nilai ppm K dari 5.48 kg PN = 548.736 x 38.6% = 212 ppm

x 1000) = 5.10 kg
Berat Magnesium sulfate adala 5.10kg

sekaran kita kurang ( 280-212)= 58 ppm

__________________

tapi K yang didapati dari MKP = 63ppm

pengiraan ppm N yang tak mencukupi sebanyak (250-215) = 35ppm,

jadi kelebihan 63-58 = 5ppm..........

kita andaikan bahawa ppm N adalah 250 ppm untuk pertumbuhan

jadi jumlah K semua dari PN dan MKP = 212 + 63ppm = 285 ppm

vegetative yang cepat


kita gunakan ammonium nitrate AN, dalam bahan ni terdapat 34% N
16

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berat AN untuk dapatkan 35ppm N = 35ppm/34% = 102.9411mg/lit

baik bila banyak akar menyedut nutrients. DAP pun buleh letak juga

untuk stok 100lit dan mix ratio 1:100,

kat stok C 25 lit.

Berat AN = (102.9411 x 100 x100)/(1000 x 1000) = 1.03kg (1.0 kg)

perlu di ingat, DAP amat alkali, jadi bancuhan baja kita akan tinggi

dimanakah harus AN di masukan , stok A atau Stok B ???, untuk

pH sampai 7 lebih, untuk itu, kita kena pakai nitrik asid atau

kebaikan bancuhan kelak, di sarankan stok berasing stok C, untuk

phosphoric atau sulfuric asid untuk menurunkan pH.

stok C ni tak perlulah guna tong 100 lit, memadai guna bekas 25 lit

Dan jika kita bancuh baja untuk peroduction, biasanya pH akan turun

sahaja, untuk 1kg AN, ianya mudah terlarut walaupun dalam air

sampai 5, jadi menambah sedikit sedikit DAP akan menaikan pH

sedikit 25 lit.

yang di perlukan, kita tak perlu KOH..........juga amat baik sebab


masa production kita tambah P yang amat di perlukan di sanping K

bila menggunakan stok begini, setiap lit stok A dan B, kita perlu 1/4

dari K2SO4, masa ni P 70-80ppm

lit stok C sahaja untuk di masukkan dalam tangki baja.


selesai pengiraan macro:
selain menggunakan AN, kita buleh gunakan diammonium

CaNO3..... 8.95kg

phosphate DAP, DAP mempunyai grad NPK 18:46:0, 46 % tu adalah

KNO3........5.48 kg

phosphate, jadi percent element P = 46 x 0.43 = 19.78 % P

MKP .........2.19 kg

jadi berat DAP untuk dapatkan 35ppm N = 35ppm/18% =

MgSO4.......5.10 kg

194.444mg/lit

AN..........1.00 kg

untuk stok 100 lit dan mix 1:100, berat DAP = (194.444 x 100 x

DAP......1.90 kg ( optional)

100)/(1000 x 1000) = 1.94 kg


dalam DAP ni ada 19.8% P, jadi ppm P = 194.44 x 19.8% = 38ppm

kita

masuk

pula

bahagia

pengiraan

micro

element:

jadi kalu kita guna DAP, total ppm P = 50 (dari MAP) = 38 (dari

Fe,Cu,ZN,Mn,B,Mo

DAP) = 88ppm

nota:

saya menggunakan DAP masa pertumbuhan walaupun total ppm P

:apa baja yg dibolehkan tuk baja A dan Baja B,Cthnya baja A

tinggi, pada waktu awal pertumbuhan P tinggi amat baik untuk

selalunya mengandungi CaNO3 dan Fe EDTA atau boleh

pembentukan akar yang banya dengan cepat, dan kesuburan amat


17

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


ditambahkan Ammoniuum nitrat? dan baja B setengah kata PN

kita perlukan Fe 6ppm, jadi berat edta = 6ppm/13% = 46.153

dalam baja B,atau boleh masuk Dalam A dan B untuk PN?

untuk 100 lit stok dan mix ratio 1:100, beart Fe-Edta = (46.153 x 100
x 100)/(1000 ) = 461gm

kalu ikutkan kajian kimia secara sceintific " never mix nitrates dan

Berat Fe-Edta adalah 460gm (ok)

phospahate atu sulfate" jadi kita taklehlah bih 1/2 PN kat stok B..tapi
mardi atau JP dia boh kat B...sebab tu baja jadi keladak hasil

pengiraan berat micro B dari boric acid, dalam boric terkandung

tindakbalas kimia

17.5% boron...( tuan2 cek balik mungkin boric asid tuan lain nilai
percentnya..sebab bergantung pada hydrous atau unhydrous) saya

kenapa sestengah formula orang yang jual baja dan juga mardi dan

guna kandunagn 17.5%.....kita perlukan 0.7ppm B

JP boh 1/2 PN dalam B....saya rasa untuk balancekan berat guni A

Berat boric acid = 0.7ppm/17.5% = 4.0000mg, berat untuk stok

dan B

100lit dan mix ratio 1:100 ;

dar formula atas berat stok A 14.84 kg dan berat sto B

(4.00 x 100 x 100)/(1000) = 40gm

8.70kg...paking begini susah bagi mereka untuk transport, jadi kena

Berat boric acid ( 17.5% B) = 40gm.

seimbanglah berat A dan B,


kalau guna hibor, berat = 0.7 ppm/60% = 1.1667mg
buleh tambah urae dalam tangki baja, tapi tak buleh boh dalam stok.

Berat HIBOR di gunakan = 11.67gm ...(12gm ok)

kita kiralah berap ppm N kita mau, contoh kita mau tambah 20ppm
N, jadi berat urea = 20ppm/46% = 43.47mg/lit, kalu tanki baja kita

pengiraan micro Mn dari Mn-Edta...terkandung 13% Mn

muat 2,000 lit sekali bancuh, berat urea = 43.47 x 2000 = 86956mg =

keperluan Mn 2ppm; berat edta = 2ppm/13% = 15.38mg

87 gm sahaja......elok buat begini, nak pakai baru boh dalam tangki

untuk stok 100lit dan mix ratio 1:100

__________________

Berat Edta = 15.38 x 100 x 100/1000 = 154 gm

kita bincang pengiraan untuk micro Fe, untuk dapatkan Fe buleh


guna FeSO4 atau Fe-Edta.......biasanya kita gunakan edta sebab

pengiraan berat Zn-Edta ,percent Zn terkandung 14%, ppm Zn di

senang dapat di pasaran: dalam Fe-Edta ada 13% Fe ( kalu lain

perlukan 0.25ppm

percent buleh ejas ikut cara kira )

berat Edta = 0.25ppm/14% =1.785mg


18

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


berat untuk stok 100 lit dan mix ratio 1:100 ; 1.785 x 100 x 100/1000
= 17.85gm ( 18gm ok)

Stok B

Berat Zn-EDta ialah 18 gm

MKP .........2.19 kg
MgSO4.......5.10 kg

Pengiraan berat Cu-Edta untuk dapatkan 0.07ppm Cu, percent Cu

AN..........1.00 kg

terkandung dalam Edta adalah 14%.

DAP......1.90 kg ( optional)

berat edta di perlukan = 0.07ppm/14% = 0.50mg/lit

Mn-Edta .....154gm

berat untuk stok 100 lit dan mix ratio 1:100 = 0.5 x 100 x 100/1000 =

Cu-Edta........5.0 gm

5.0 gm

Zn-Edta........ 18.0 gm

Berat Cu-Edta yang patut di gunakan adalah 5.00 gm

Boric asid.......40 gm atau


Hibor............12.0 gm

Pengiraan berat sodium molybdate, 39% Mo ( cek kandungan

Sodium molybdate ... 1.0 gm

percent yang tuan2 guna), keperluan Mo 0.05ppm.


berat sodium molibdate = 0.05ppm/39% = 0.128mg/lit

Formula ini di gunakan untuk pertumbuhan awal, bila sudah nampak

berat untuk stok 100 lit dan mix ratio 1:100 = 0.128 x 100x100/1000

bunga, tukarlah formula untk pembajaan production

= 1.28gm ( 1gm ok)

pada taha vegetative, keperluan NPK amat tinggi, untuk itu,


penggunaan EC bermula 1.2 selepas pindah dan di naikan perlahan

berat sodium molibdate adalah 1.0 gm

sampai ec 2.3 sampai nampak bunga....kenikan EC buleh di laras


setiap 3 hari sekali, pH tahap ni tinggikan sikit kepada 6.2 untuk

Ringkasan:

mengoptimumkan serapan NPK untuk pertumbuhan awal, pH di

Formula cili untuk pertumbuhan awal ( vegetative phase)

turunkan

stok A

6.2....bergantung juga jenis media di gunakan, kalu 100% sabut

CaNO3..... 8.95kg

maintain 6.2 amat baik, sebab dalam media sabut baja akan men jadi

KNO3........5.48 kg

pH 6 atau kurang, kalu campuran dengan sekam padi buleh kekalkan

Fe-Edta......460 gm

pH 6, sekam buleh bertindak sebagai pH buffer

bila

pokok

mencapai

fasa

production

pH

5.8-

19

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


People choose do-it-yourself projects for many reasons. Some like
guna dari stok C 1/4 lit saja untuk setiap lit stok A dan B...masuk

the satisfaction of completing a task on their own, while others like

dalam tangki baja

the idea of having absolute control over their materials, methods and
finished product. Another reason people choose do-it-yourself
projects is price. Generally speaking, providing your own labor will

--------------- NOTA ----------------

produce a product for a much low price than hiring out the work
would.

CaNO3>>calcium nitrate

Building your own organic potting soil is no different than any other

KNO3 >> potassium ( kalium) nitrate

do-it-yourself project. It allows the gardener to save money while

MgSO4 >>Magnesium sulfate

maintaining control over every aspect of the soil building process.

MKP >>> monopotassium phosphate

Some might also argue that it produces a superior product.

K2SO4 >>>potassium sulfate

However, before we dive into soil recipes, lets first examine some of

DAP >>diammonium phosphate

the more common ingredients used in potting soils. There is no

AN >>ammonium nitrate

shortage of organic soil amendments to choose from. Once an


understanding of the physical properties and nutrient value of each
ingredient is reached it then becomes possible to customize soil
mixtures not only for particular crops, but also for specific periods in
a plants life cycle (blooming or flowering periods).

RESEPI

MEDIA

POLIBAG

ATAU

BATAS

Base ingredients

TANAH - Mohammad Abdul Rahman

The base ingredients of a soil are the substances that make up the

By on Wednesday, 30 January 2013 at 11:43

bulk of the soil itself. These are the ingredients that are most

Recipes for Success: Building Your Own Organic Potting Soil

responsible for the soils physical properties and texture. Some of


these also make up the backbone of the nutrient content.

January 2013
20

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Sphagnum peat moss

coco coir, its role as a base ingredient is just as crucial. Not only does

Sphagnum peat moss has been a popular soil additive since the

compost have significant nutrient value, but it also provides an

inception of potting soils. The physical properties of peat moss allow

abundance of microbial life to the soil mixture. These beneficial

for high moisture retention, as well as high oxygen content. This

microorganisms are the foundation for nutrient uptake and the

combination of water and oxygen retention makes a great

stimulation of root development.

environment for developing roots and is the main reason peat moss is
the most popular ingredient in premade potting soils. It is not

Worm castings

uncommon for peat moss to make up 30 to 60% of a premade soil

Like compost, worm castingsor, vermicompostare a significant

mixture.

source of nutrient value and beneficial microorganisms. Revered by


many organic growers as the best soil additive available, worm

Coco coir

castings are known to enrich soils and improve disease resistance in

Many soil companies are incorporating coco coir (coconut husks) as

crops. If you choose to use worm castings as an ingredient in your

either the base or secondary ingredient in their potting soil mixes.

potting soil, be sure to purchase pure worm castings. There are many

Coco coir is a by-product of the coconut industry and is more

products on the market that are labeled as worm castings but only

environmentally friendly than sphagnum peat moss. It is able to hold

contain a small percentage of actual worm castings in their

moisture and oxygen like peat moss; in fact, it actually has slightly

composition.

higher oxygen retention. This fact alone has made coco coirs
popularity increase among indoor gardeners and greenhouse

Aeration additives

horticulturalists.

Perlite
Perlite is expanded volcanic glass and adds air pockets to soils. Soils

Compost

with added perlite will dry out quickly between each watering, which

Compost is a general term referring to aged and broken down

gives a grower more control over a feeding regiment. Perlite is light

organic matter. It can be made from a number of different sources,

weight and relatively inexpensive, which makes it the most popular

but its usually derived from plant material or manure. Although

choice among commercial potting soil manufacturers.

compost usually isnt used in as high of a volume as peat moss or

Pumice
21

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Pumice is a type of volcanic rock that is naturally porous. Like

Soybean meal

perlite, pumice has the ability to add air pockets in a soil, which

This slow-releasing nitrogen source is not quite as slow as feather

results in higher oxygen content around the plants roots. Pumice is

meal. Its a great additive for plants that require adequate nitrogen

less commonly used by commercial manufacturers, however, simply

for two to three months and that need a little phosphorus boost to

because it is heavy and, therefore, expensive to ship.

help promote fruiting or flowering.


Bat guano (high nitrogen)

Individual organic ingredients

There are many compositions of bat guano on the market, including

By using individual organic ingredients along with the base, a

high-nitrogen bat guano. High-nitrogen bat guano is rich in

grower can tailor their soil to meet the needs of any crop. Most of the

micronutrients, beneficial microbes and, of course, nitrogen. This

following ingredients can be obtained at your local hydroponic

beneficial diversity combined with fast-releasing nitrogen makes

retailer or local garden supply store.

high-nitrogen bat guano the fertilizer of choice for many organic


growers.

Common nitrogen (N) ingredients:


Blood meal

Common phosphorus (P) ingredients:

This is an extremely rich, fast-releasing nitrogen source. Blood meal

Bat guano (high phosphorus)

is a great additive for plants that require high amounts of nitrogen.

High-phosphorus bat guano is an excellent source of phosphorus that

Fish meal

is known to not only increase flower and fruit sets, but also their size,

Fish meal is another fast-releasing nitrogen source. Its a great

aroma and flavor. Many brands of high-phosphorus bat guano are

nitrogen additive that enhances microbial life in the soil. Fish meal

also a great source of calcium.

also contains a significant amount of phosphorus, which helps trigger

Bone meal

root development.

This excellent source of phosphorous is revered for its ability to

Feather meal

promote strong root development. Bone meal is also a great source

Feather meal is a slow-releasing nitrogen source best used on plants

of calcium.

that require high amounts of nitrogen over a three to four month

Fish bone meal

period.
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Fish bone meal is basically the same thing as bone meal except it is

Greensand is a slow-releasing potassium source. Generally speaking,

derived from fish. It is a great source of phosphorus and calcium.

greensand is used to improve soils condition rather than boost

Seabird guano

potassium content.

Seabird guano, like bat guano, is known to increase the amount and

Langbeinite

size of flower and fruit sets. It is also an excellent source of

Langbeinite is a natural occurring mineral which is water soluble. It

phosphorus and micronutrients.

is a good source of potassium, sulfur and magnesium.

Rock phosphate
Rock phosphate is a slow-releasing phosphorus source that is

Secondary and trace elements:

commonly extracted into a liquid form to increase availability. It is

Oyster shell

best used for plants that need a slow and constant release of

This is an excellent source of calcium that will accelerate root

phosphorus.

development and, in turn, improve nutrient uptake. Oyster shell also


works as a pH buffer, helping to keep the soil from becoming too

Common potassium (K) ingredients:

acidic.

Hardwood ash

Dolomite lime (sweet lime)

This is the original source of potash fertilizers. Hardwood ash can be

Dolomite lime is a great pH buffer for any soil composition and

used as a direct soil additive to increase potassium levels; however,

like oyster shellit ensures the soils pH doesnt turn too acidic. It

most of the time, it has already been added to the compost for that

also a rich source of calcium and magnesium.

same purpose.

Glacier Rock Dust

Kelp meal

This soil amendment revitalizes trace elements and provides a

Kelp meal is a source of readily available potassium and a variety of

foundation of minerals for healthy plant growth.

micronutrients and plant hormones. This great soil additive can

Alfalfa meal

increase overall plant health and vigor.

Alfalfa meal is rich in trace elements, but its the abundance of

Greensand

natural growth stimulators in this product that has gained recognition


among organic horticulturalists. Alfalfa meal will accelerate growth
rates while promoting abundant fruit or flowers.
23

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Basic potting soil recipe
Beneficial microorganisms

This basic recipe creates a soil with a high air-to-water ratio and can

Although many common soil ingredients already contain a good

be used for almost any variety of plant. This is a great soil recipe for

amount of beneficial microorganisms, it has become second nature

growers wishing to complement their homemade soils with liquid

for

additional

teas or fertilizers. This is also a great starting recipe to use as the

microorganisms into their soil. Three beneficial microorganisms are

foundation for custom, plant-specific soils, which can be created by

commonly used by horticulturalists are trichoderma, mycorrhiza and

with addition of other individual ingredients.

bacteria.

1/2 cu. ft. (60 cups) compost

many

organic

gardeners

to

supplement

1/2 cu. ft. (60 cups) sphagnum peat moss


Soil recipes

1/2 cu. ft. (60 cups) coco coir

As written, the recipes below will produce around 2 cu. ft. of soil

20 cups perlite

or, roughly the amount you would find in a single large bag of

5 cups worm castings

potting soil. Of course, the ingredients can be proportionally

1/2 cup oyster shell

increased or decreased to produce the desired amount of potting soil.

2 tbsp. langbeinite

Also, feel free to add your favorite beneficial microorganism

1 tbsp. glacier rock dust

supplement to increase the beneficial microbial population. Indeed,


do not take these recipes as though they were written in stone. Use

Enhanced vegetative potting soil recipe

them as a reference or as a way to inspire some thought into the

This nitrogen-rich soil mixture is great for the vegetative stage of

nutrient content of your own potting soil and how this coincides with

fast-growing annual plants that will later be transplanted, or for green

the life cycle of your plants.

leafy crops that spend their whole life cycle in a perpetual vegetative

To make each mix, simply combine all of the ingredients by hand,

stage. This mix is very well-aerated and will promote strong root

rake or shovel in a kiddie pool, tarp, large wash bin or plastic storage

growth and vigorous vegetative growth.

container. Just make sure to mix the ingredients thoroughly to ensure

1/2 cu. ft. (60 cups) sphagnum peat moss

a uniform soil mixture.

1/4 cu. ft. (30 cups) coco coir


1/4 cu. ft. (30 cups) compost
24

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1/4 cu. ft. (30 cups) perlite

1 cup oyster shell

10 cups worm castings

1/2 cup seabird guano

10 cups pumice

1/4 cup alfalfa meal

2 cups fish meal

1/4 cup fish meal

1 cup oyster shell

2 tbsp. langbeinite

1/2 cup alfalfa meal

1 tbsp. glacier rock dust

1/2 cup soybean meal


1/4 cup kelp meal
1/4 cup fish bone meal
2 tbsp. langbeinite

Entire life cycle soil recipe (for heavy feeders)

1 tbsp. glacier rock dust

This soil mixture is designed to meet the demands of heavy feeding,


fast-growing annual plants throughout their entire life cycle. This soil

Enhanced fruit/flower potting soil recipe

is powerful and should only be used on plant varieties that are known

This soil recipe is designed for plants that are ready to fruit or flower.

to be heavy feeders. The organic fertilizers in this soil mixture will

In particular, this recipe works great for ornamentals that are already

sustain a heavy-feeding crop for about three months. The soil is

in bloom and for fast-growing annuals that are entering their fruiting

designed to break down in a manner that first delivers readily

or flowering stage.

available nitrogen for a vigorous vegetative stage (for about a month)

1/2 cu. ft. (60 cups) sphagnum peat moss

then, as the soils composition changes, it will start to release more

1/4 cu. ft. (30 cups) coco coir

elements specific to fruiting/flowering.

1/4 cu. ft. (30 cups) compost

1/2 cu. ft. (60 cups) compost

1/4 cu. ft. (30 cups) perlite

1/2 cu. ft. (60 cups) sphagnum peat moss

10 cups pumice

1/2 cu. ft. (60 cups) coco coir

5 cups worm castings

1/4 cu. ft. (30 cups) perlite

3 cups bat guano (high phosphorus)

20 cups pumice

1 cup fish bone meal

15 cups worm castings


25

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2 cups blood meal
2 cups fish meal
2 cups bat guano (high phosphorus)

PENYAKIT CILI- ANTRAKNOS DAN LAIN2:

1 cup oyster shell

By on Friday, 11 October 2013 at 22:39

1 cup dolomite lime


1 cup soybean meal
1 cup bat guano (high nitrogen)

Antracnose

Antracnose dikenal juga dengan istilah pathek adalah

1 cup bone meal

penyakit yang hingga saat ini masih menjadi momok bagi petani

1 cup fish bone meal

cabai. Buah yang menunggu panen dalam beberapa waktu berubah

1 cup rock phosphate

menjadi busuk oleh penyakit ini. Gejala awal dari serangan penyakit

3 tbsp. langbeinite

ini adalah bercak yang agak mengkilap, sedikit terbenam dan berair,

1.5 tbsp. glacier rock dust

buah akan berubah menjadi coklat kehitaman dan membusuk.

Although the process of building your own organic potting soil can

Ledakan penyakit ini sangat cepat pada musim hujan. Penyebab

be somewhat labor intensive (especially on a large scale), it is a

penyakit

relatively easy process overall that can be extremely rewarding. Not

adalah

jamur

carnifora

capsici.Pengendalian

membersikan tanaman yang terserang agar tidak menyebar, saat

only is there a sense of accomplishment when you complete a

pemilihan benih harus kita lakukan secara selektif, menanam benih

homemade potting soil, but it is also a stride forward in creating the

cabai yang memiliki ketahanan terhadap penyakit pathek. Secara

ultimate diet for your plants. Growers who build soils specific to

kimia, disemprot dengan fungisida sistemik berbahan aktif

their crops ideal nutritional intake will not only see heightened

triadianefon dicampur dengan fungisida kontak berbahan aktif

garden performance, but less nutrient deficiencies, diseases, insect

tembaga hidroksida seperti Kocide 54WDG, atau yang berbahan

infestations and any other problems associated with an incomplete

aktif Mankozeb seperti Victory 80WP.

diet. Through your own experiments, you can find the perfect blend
of ingredients required by your plants to enhance their performance

ini

and achieve optimal results.

Layu Bakteri
26

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh Pseudomonas solanacearum.

/pergiliran tanaman, pemanfaatan tanaman border seperti tagetes atau

Gejalanya tanaman yang sehat tiba-tiba saja layu yang dalam waktu

jagung, pemasangan perangkap kuning sekaligus mengendalikan

tidak sampai 3 hari tanaman mati. Bakteri ini ditularkan melalui

kutu kebul, serta eradikasi tanaman sakit yaitu tanaman yang

tanah, benih, bibit, sisa tanaman, pengairan,nematoda atau alat-alat

menunjukkan gejala dicabut dan dibakar.

pertanian.Pengendalian membuang tanaman yang terserang, tetap


menjaga bedengan tanaman selalu dalam kondisi kering, rotasi

Antraknos menjadi penyakit yang muncul ke 2, setelah

tanaman. Secara kimiawi, semprot dengan larutan Kocide 77WP

diawali dengan adanya sunscall. Sunscall biasanya akan dimulai dari

konsentrasi 5 - 10 gr/liter pada lubang tanam sebanyak 200

buah yang berada pada sisi timur.Sunscall bukan penyakit tetapi bisa

ml/tanaman interval 10 - 14 hari dan dimulai saat tanaman mulai

merupakan penyebap/pemicu, munculnya penyakit seperti antraknos.

berbunga.

Virus Kuning (gemini virus)

Vektor virus kuning adalah whitefly atau kutu kebul


(Bemisia tabaci). Telur diletakkan di bawah daun, fase telur hanya 7
hari. Nimpa bertungkai yang berfungsi untuk merangkak lama hidup
2-6 hari. Pupa berbentuk oval, agak pipih berwarna hijau keputihputihan

sampai

kekuning-kuningan

pupa

terdapat

dibawah

permukaan daun, lama hidup 6 hari. Serangga dewasa berukuran

Cuka Kayu by Azrin Hashim


By Imran Faizal on Friday, 4 October 2013 at 16:09
Banyak manfaat boleh didapati dari Cuka kayu dalam sektor
Pertanian.

kecil, berwarna putih dan mudah diamati karena dibawah permukaan


daun yang bertepung, lama hidup 20-38 hari. Tanaman yang
terserang

penyakit

virus

kuning

menimbulkan

gejala

daun

1. Dapat menghalang pembiakan virus dan penyakit dalam tanah.

mengeriting dan ukuran lebih kecil.Pengendalian dilakukan dengan

2. Dapat menghalang virus dan menghalau serangga perosak

menanam varietas yang agak tahan (contoh cabai keriting

untuk memperbaiki keadaan tanah.

Bukittinggi), menggunakan bibit yang sehat, melakukan rotasi


27

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


3. Dapat mengurangkan kerosakan oleh penyakit tumbuh-

1.Untuk kawalan makhluk perosak dan mikroorganisma pada

tumbuhan dan serangga berbahaya walaupun penanaman

lubang tanaman, cairkan pada nisbah 1:50 (cuka kayu : air) 10

berulang kali

hari sebelum menanam, siramkan pada lubang tanaman.

4. Dapat mengurangkan 50% racun perosak pertanian komersial,

2.Untuk mengelakkan hama dalam proses pembenihan, cairkan

racun kulat, racun herba dan baja kimia.

pada nisbah 1:800, semburkan pada benih di tapak semaian

5. Merangsang pertumbuhan pokok dan sayuran.


6. Menguatkan akar dan daun.

setiap 10 hari.
3.Untuk mengawal makhluk perosak dan membunuh kulat
merbahaya, cairkan pada nisbah 1:200, semburkan pada pucuk

7. Menyuburkan tanah.

dan daun seminggu sekali.

8. Menambah kuantiti mikrob yang berguna.

4.Untuk membasmikuman dan meneutralkan pH tanah, cairkan


pada nisbah 1:300, siramkan pada akar pokok.

9. Mengelakkan penyakit yang disebabkan oleh bakteria.


5.Untuk mengurangkan buah gugur dan menambah kualiti buah,
10. Menambah baik kualiti buah dan menambah kandungan gula

cairkan pada nisbah 1:500, semburkan pada putik buah.

dalam buah.
6.Untuk kawalan serangga, gunakan pada kecairan 1:1000 dan
11. Sebagai pemangkin tumbesaran biji benih.

campurkan dengan 50% kepekatan racun serangga dari biasa.

12. Sebagai bahan tambahan kepada baja kompos.

7.Untuk kawalan rumpai/lumut, nisbah 1:5, semburkan terus

13. Membantu haiwan ternakan lebih sihat dan melindungi dari

pada rumpai/lumut.

penyakit. Menjadikan daging haiwan dan susu lebih berkualiti.

CILI MERAH - INFO HYBRID-Mohammad


Aplikasi & Penggunaan Pertanian

Abdul Rahman
28

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By on Monday, 29 July 2013 at 13:31

-Tinggi pkk 4 kaki -buah kurang pedas -sambil berbuah sambil

Info hibrid cili merah

berpucuk @ berbunga..

MC 11 -Tinggi pokok 80-110 cm,

-Pasaran tiada masalah langsung.

-panjang buah 8-10 cm, 7-10g/biji


MC 12 -Tinggi pokok 60-80 cm,

Perbandingan Kulai Tempatan, Kulai 568, F1 469

-panjang buah 10-13 cm, 12 14 g/biji,

- Kulai Tempatan pokoknya terlalu besar, 568 kecik, 469 sangat

hybrid F1 469 -180 biji sepokok

kecik

-ketinggian pokok 35 cm

- Kulai Tempatan bunga sangat mudah gugur, 568 gugur sikit, 469

hybrid 833

sangat sukar gugur

-ketinggian pokok 2- 6 kaki

- Kulai Tempatan buahnya ringan, 568 dan 469 lebih berat 1.5 kali

-55 biji berat utk 1 kg buah bagi sepokok

ganda kerana lebih besar dan lebih tebal

s469

- Kulai Tempatan sangat amat pedas, 568 tak pedas, 469 pedas.

- amat pedas, bukan plastik, besar mencecah 20cm.

- Kulai Tempatan pemborong terima, 568 sangat diterima, 469 sukar

-amat besar, maka ia kurang sesuai untuk tanaman secara komersial

diterima (bergantung kepada tempat)

- kurang digemari pengguna.

- Kulai Tempatan ada 60 biji pada bulan pertama, 568 80-120 biji,

-1gm (140-150biji)

469 80 biji. - Kulai Tempatan sangat mudah kena kerinting, 568

568

mudah, 469 sukar sikit, kalau kena pun kerinting peringkat pertama

- kurang pedas, bukan plastik, rupa dan saiz = Kulai.

sahaja.

Kulai tempatan

- Kulai Tempatan langsung tak ada lalat buah kerana amat pedas, 568

-amat sesuai untuk tanaman secara komersial

dan 469 ada sedikit bergantung kepada tempat.

-lebih pedas dan mudah dihancurkan tidak liat mudah dibuat sos
hybrid 568

* Oleh kerana Kulai Tempatan sangat besar maka ia tak dapat

-Buah pertama 40-90 biji (40-45 biji/kg)

ditanam rapat-rapat maka hasil kurang, di samping itu air dan racun

-setiap pkk leh menghasilkan 2-2.5 kg.

harus banyak sebab pokok besar, pancang pun kena kuat.

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[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


* 469 amat sesuai bagi penanam baru nak belajar/'penanam amatur

6.nipple 1000 =RM100.00

kerana ia amat mudah berbuah lebat dan besar (pada bulan pertama),

7.media cocopeat 70 bag =RM315.00

bagaimanapun buahnya amat sukar diterima pasaran (bergantung

8.media sekam bakar 70 bag =RM175.00

kepada tempat) dan harganya juga lebih murah.

9.polybag 15 x 15 x 40kg. =RM300.00


10.tong baja a/b x 2 =RM70.00

* 568 sederhana mudah untuk dijaga, pokok yang kecil tapi buah

11.tubing 4 mm 9 roll x 80m =RM198.00

yang lebat dan berat memungkinkan hasil yang tinggi di samping ia

12.silver shine 0.035mm x 250m=RM70.00

amat mudah diterima pasaran walaupun tak pedas.

13.fitting lump sum =RM200.00

Kos operasi/kos bulanan/kos tidak tetap yang meliputi :

14.timer digital 1 minit cutoff =RM60.00


15.tray semai anak benih 10kpg.=RM30.00

1)benih

16.benih 10 gm. =RM30.00

2)peatmoss

17.baja a/b 1 set 50kg. =RM240.00

3)baja AB

18.disk filter 1 =RM55.00

4)racun+baja foliar

JUMLAH DI ATAS SEMUA = + RM2813.00

5)bil air
6)bil elektrik

Kos luar jangka dan operation cost spt. racun, baja ulangan dll.

7)tali rafia
Musuh tanaman cili
Anggaran kos tanaman cili dengan fertigasi keperluan asas

-ulat ratus -kutu daun/afid -kutu trip -hama merah -hama kuning

fertigasi bagi 1000pk cili

-lelompat daun -pelombong daun -lalat putih -ulat pengorek buah

1.polytank 400 gallon =RM400.00

-lalat buah -ulat pangkas

2.pam 0.75hp =RM250.00

Tips untuk mengawal serangan lalat buah:

3.main pipe poly 32mmx100m =RM120.00


4.poly tubing 13 mmx300m =RM120.00

lalat buah ni serang buah cili yang masak dan muda.

5.dripper(putih)1000 =RM80.00
30

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]

kerosakan boleh mencapai 60-80%

-campur methyl eugenol dengan air kedalam botol tu dan


gantung di kawasan pokok cili. lalat buah akan masuk dalam

tanda kerosakan buah ialah buah menjadi berair


lembik,busuk dan gugur.

jika koyak =-larva (ulat) dalam buah yang berwarna


kuning. luar buah ada tanda bintik kena cucuk.

rupa lalat buah ni warna kuning belang hitam. sayap dia


lut sinar.

serangan boleh di kesan 3 minggu selepas putik keluar.

botol dan hisap cecair lalu mati. atau: -botol warna kuning
terang (attract serangga). -sembur dengan NEOPACE (gam)
pada permukaan botol kuning tu -gantung pada kawasan pokok
cili. -lalat buah akan melekat pada permukaan botol tu sebab
NEOPACE tu ada gam.
Jangka hayat pokok cili
-semai benih hingga mula tuai 2.5-3 bulan
-petik hasil maksimum 6 bulan.
-jangka hayat 8 bulan dari mula semai (max. yield)

cara kawalan

-Jangka Hayat cili sehingga 12 bulan dimana bulan ke-4


memberikan hasil.

-kutip semua buah yang kena serang dan masukkan


dalam plastik. -guna sebatian methyl eugenol untuk menarik dan

sehari bagi 100 pokok (purata)

memerangkap lalat jantan. cara ini akan kurangkan kadar

-jangka hayat pokok berbuah utk 6 bulan = 30 kali tuai

pensenyawaan.

-anggaran sebiji cili 7 gram 5 bijiX7gram = 35 gram

-Buahnya sederhana besar. Hasilnya mencapai sehingga 10kg

ANTI SERANGGA
cara buat perangkap

By on Tuesday, 24 September 2013 at 23:34


ANTI SERANGGA .olahan Agropolitan Fertilizer Sub-dc Kulim

-ambil botol air mineral dan potong buat tingkap (W 2


inci dan H 1 inci).

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Saya menggunakan kaedah semburan daun petai belalang dan ubi

Common Name: Ladybirds, Ladybird Beetles,

gadong pada daun pokok..tapi pokok anak sawit la..alhamdulillah

Lady Beetles, Ladybugs [Of Florida]

tiada binatang ataupun serangga yang usik daun pokok..

Scientific Name: (Insecta: Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


.dlm pemerhatian sy tidak ada apa apa kesan sampingan setakat hari
ini..dah 2 tahun lebih dah cuba kaedah ini..kosnya rajin ja..x
melibatkan RM..
penggunaannya hanya sebulan sekali semburan..untuk pokok yang
baru berbunga, elakkan menyembur pada bunga..nanti kumbang
pendebungaan tak singgah lak..langsung tidak berbuah..

(a) Pest Species - Feeding on Plants


Adults and larvae of the subfamily Epilachninae feed on plants. In
Florida,

cara buat semburan daun petai belalang


cara

mudah

ja..ambil

daun

petai

this

subfamily

is

represented

only

by Epilachna

borealis (Fabricius) and E. varivestis Mulsant. Epilachna borealis,


belalang,blandersampai

the squash beetle, feeds on members of the squash family

hancur..ambil air pati ja utk campuran utk spray..pati daun boleh

(Cucurbitaceae), and in Florida is restricted to the north, with a wide

dgunakan beberapa kali utk canpuran semburan..nisbah campuran

distribution in other states of the eastern USA.Epilachna varivestis,

125ml(pati) = 16 liter air(tanpa klorin)

the Mexican bean beetle, feeds on members of the bean family


(Leguminosae), and rarely has been found south of northern Florida.

bebas dari kesan sampingan..fully organik..boleh juga dicampur

It is native to southern Mexico, but it is an immigrant to the USA,

dengan baja foliar utk semburan...daun petai ini sifatnya hanyalah

first detected in the west in 1849, and in northern Florida in 1930.

pahit..daun yang kena semburanakan menjadi pahit,insyaAllah

Now, its distribution is from Costa Rica north through Mexico to the

serangga tak ganggu..pantangnya jgn guna air berklorin ja..guna air

Rocky Mountain states of the USA, and with a separated eastern

sungai,telaga,parit,air hujan dll..

population (which extends southward to northern Florida). In Florida


it can be controlled efficiently by releases of the parasitoid
32

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wasp Pediobius foveolatus (Crawford) (Eulophidae) (Nong and
Bennett 1994), which have to be made annually in the northeastern
USA (Stevens et al. 1975) because of the more severe climate. It was

(d) Predatory Species - Feeding on Whiteflies Four of Florida's

discussed by Sanchez-Arroyo (2009).

ladybirds appear to be more-or-less specialized predators of


whiteflies.

They

are Delphastus

catalinae (Horn), D.

pallidus (LeConte), and D. pusillus (LeConte) (tribe Serangiini),


and Nephaspis oculatus(Blatchley) (Tribe Scymnini). The first seems
(b) Innocuous Species - Feeding on Mildews
Ladybirds of the tribe Halyziini (of the subfamily Coccinellinae)
feed on fungal growths (mildews) on the leaves of plants. In Florida,
this tribe is represented only by the West Indian Psyllobora
nana Mulsant which has invaded the extreme south of Florida, and
by the

widespread Psyllobora parvinotata Casey which also

occupies coastal areas as far west as Louisiana.

to be an immigrant species from the Neotropical region, with first


Florida record in 1974 (Hoelmer and Pickett 2003). Deliberate
attempts to introduce that species from California in 1916-1917 to
Manatee County, Florida, seem to have had no success (Frank and
McCoy 1993, Hoelmer and Pickett 2003). The next two (D.
pallidus and D. pusillus) are considered to be native. The fourth (N.
oculatus) may be an immigrant from Central America. After "D.
pusillus" was found to be a a very useful biological control agent
against sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hoelmer
et al. 1993) including the "form" that later was named silverleaf

(c) Predatory Species - Feeding on Mites

whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring), "it" was


exported to California and made available commercially and used in

Adults and larvae of the tribe Stethorini (of the subfamily


Scymninae) feed on tetranychid mites. In Florida, this tribe is
represented only by Stethorus utilis (Horn), a tiny ladybird which is
also distributed in the coastal plains of the southeastern states from
North Carolina through Texas.

other parts of the USA. Unfortunately, the ladybird beetle that was
called D. pusillus by Hoelmer et al. (1993) seems to have been a
mixture of D. catalinae andD. pusillus (Hoelmer and Pickett 2003).
Somehow this resulted in commercial biological control companies
selling D. catalinae under the name D. pusillus (Hoelmer and Pickett
2003).
33

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


predator

of

mealybugs

in

Florida

is Cryptolaemus

montrouzieri Mulsant, a species native to Australia, introduced into


(e) Predatory Species - Feeding on Cottonycushion Scale

California first in 1891, and some time later from California into

Cottonycushion scale (Icerya purchasi Maskell), native to Australia,


belongs to the homopterous family Margarodidae (commonly called
"ground pearls", although this name hardly fits this species) in the
superfamily Coccoidea (scale insects). It is a major pest of citrus, and
an

important

pest

of

several

other

trees

and

shrubs

including Acacia, Casuarina, and Pittosporum. After its arrival in


California, presumably as a contaminant of imported plants, it
threatened to ruin California's citrus industry in the late 1800s. It was
controlled by importation, release, and establishment (as classical
biological control agents) of Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) and a
parasitoid

fly, Cryptochetum

iceryae (Williston).

When

cottonycushion scale became a problem in Florida, the same two


biological control agents were imported from California into
Florida. R. cardinalis is a highly effective control agent for

Florida. It has been marketed commercially as a control agent for


mealybugs and is often effective, but has one unfortunate
characteristic: its larvae produce waxy filaments making them look
to the uninitiated like their mealybug prey. Many owners of plants
have sprayed the larvae with chemicals in the mistaken belief that
they are pests. This misidentification must be overcome by
education. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri does not confine its attentions
to mealybugs, and also eats soft scales (Coccidae) and armored
scales (Diaspididae). Such a catholic diet is normal for a long list of
Florida ladybirds, so that their diet cannot neatly be pigeonholed as
armored scales or soft scales or mealybugs -- they may eat some prey
in all of these families, and a few of the larger ones may even eat an
aphid from time to time. For that reason, many genera and species
are placed below under (h) - Feeding on Scale Insects.

cottonycushion scale.
(g) Predatory Species - Feeding on Armored Scale Insects
(f) Predatory Species - Feeding on Mealybugs
Mealybugs are the homopterous family Pseudococcidae, which
includes some notable pests of plants. The most notable ladybird

Eight species in four genera seem to feed largely or entirely on


armored scale insects (Diaspididae). They include Microweisea
coccidivora (Ashmead), M.

misella (LeConte),

andM.
34

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ovalis (LeConte) of the tribe Microweiseini, Zilus horni Gordon, Z.

and Hyperaspis (16)

eleutherae Casey, Z.

Hyperaspini), Axion(1), Chilocorus (3), Curinus (1),

subtropicus (Casey)

and

perhaps Zagloba

(all

in

tribe

bicolor (Casey) (its diet is a guess) of the tribe Scymnillini,

and Exochomus (2) (all in tribe Chilocorini), Rhyzobius (1) (tribe

and Cryptognatha nodiceps Marshall of the tribe Cryptognathini.

Coccidulini), and Azya (1) (tribe Azyini) (see Table 1). It is not yet

One of these,Cryptognatha nodiceps, is not native, having been

clear how, or whether, they divide up the scale insects between them,

imported in the 1930s, released, and established as a classical

because reliable prey records are too incomplete. However, there is

biological

at least some level of prey specialization in these (and groups (e), (f),

control

agent

for

coconut

scale

(Aspidiotus

destructorSignoret) (Frank and McCoy 1993).

and (g) above) that feed on scale insects, which seems not to be the
case for the next-discussed trophic group (those that feed on
aphids). Brachiacantha has a curious life history in that its larvae so
far as is known feed on scale insects within ant nests.

(h) Predatory Species - Feeding on Scale Insects


Thirteen genera containing 66 species are placed here into this large
trophic group that has scale insects as its prey, meaning members of
the superfamily Coccoidea (the scale insects). This superfamily
includes various related families, notably Coccidae (soft scales),
Diaspididae

(armored

scales),

Pseudococcidae

(mealybugs),

Dactylopiidae (cochineal scales), Kermesidae (gall-like scales),


Eriococcidae (felt scales), Cerococcidae (ornate pit scales), and
Asterolecaniidae (pit scales). The ladybird genera are named below,
each followed by a number in parentheses, representing the number
of

species

known

from

Florida: Decadomius (1), Diomus (9), Nephus (3), and Scymnus (16)
(all

in

tribe

Scymnini),Brachiacantha (7), Hyperaspidius (5),

Rhyzobius lophanthae was introduced to California from Australia in


1892 to control scale insects, and somehow later made its way to
Florida (there is no record of an early introduction into
Florida). Chilocorus circumdatus (Schoenherr) [other writers give
the author name as Gyllenhal] was released in Florida in 1996, from
Australia (although it is native to southeastern Asia and is adventive
in Australia) against citrus snow scale, Unaspis citri, and is
established (H. W. Browning, personal communication, M. C.
Thomas, personal communication). Azya orbigera Mulsant was first
detected in Florida in 1975, and seems to be an immigrant from the
Neotropical region (Woodruff and Sailer 1977). Decadomius
bahamicus (Casey) was first detected in Florida in 1991, and is an
immigrant from the Caribbean or the Bahamas or Bermuda (Bennett
35

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


and Gordon 1991). Diomus roseicollisMulsant is another immigrant,

built large populations and its adults, in their search for

from Cuba (Gordon 1976). These and other insects that immigrated

overwintering sites, sometimes are able to enter loosely constructed

to Florida are listed and discussed by Frank and McCoy (1992).

houses; there they die of desiccation, or they are evicted or destroyed


by the householders who accuse them of being pests.
Two of these genera, Coleomegilla and Mulsantina, include adelgids

(i) Predatory Species - Feeding on Aphids

(Adelgidae), which are closely related to aphids, in their diet.

Adults and larvae of 12 of the remaining 13 Florida species (the tribe


Coccinellini)

probably

feed

include Coccinella
C. septempunctataL., Coelophora
maculata DeGeer, Cycloneda
sanguinea (L.), Harmonia

primarily

on

aphids.

They

Further, Coleomegilla also includes pollen whereasMulsantina also


includes scale insects in the broad sense.

novemnotata Herbst,
inaequalis (F.), Coleomegilla
munda (Say),Cycloneda

Alternative Food (Back to Top)

axyridis Pallas, Harmonia


convergens Gurin-

Ladybird larvae and adults may supplement their normal prey in

picta (Randall), Naemia

times of scarcity with other types of food. They consume flower

seriata(Melsheimer), Neoharmonia venusta (Melsheimer). Although

nectar, water and honeydew -- the sugary excretion of piercing-

the 13th species (Olla v-nigrumCasey) feeds on some aphid species,

sucking insects such as aphids and whiteflies. Many plant species

it has been shown to be an important predator of psyllids (Michaud

also contain organelles in locations on the plant other than the flower

2001).

-- termed extrafloral nectaries -- that produce a nutrient-laden

dimidiata (Fabricius),Hippodamia
Mneville, Mulsantina

secretion. While it was first thought that extrafloral nectaries were


Four of these, C. septempunctata (from Europe), C. inaequalis (from

used by the plant for excretion, it is well substantiated (Bentley 1977,

Australia), H. dimidiata(from China), and H. axyridis (from Japan)

Pemberton and Lee 1996) that most plants actually use the

are not native. The first three were introduced into Florida (Frank

extrafloral nectaries to attract predators and parasites for protection

and McCoy 1993). The last was introduced by the USDA into

from their herbivores. Over 2000 species of plants in 64 families

Georgia and made its own way to Florida. In some habitats it has
36

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


have extrafloral nectaries. Plants commonly found in Florida

APAKAH MIKROORGANISMA.

landscapes with extrafloral nectaries are the fruit trees, Prunus spp.

Benda hidup yang sangat seni sehinggakan tidak kelihatan

(most

dengan mata kasar.

of

the

431

species

worldwide

have

them),

passionflower, Passiflora spp.; Ipomoea spp.,


morningglory; Hibiscus spp.,

hibiscus;Gossypium

hirsutum,

KUMPULAN MIKROORGANISMA.

cotton; Impatiens sp., impatiens; and Vicia spp., vetch. Extrafloral

Virus

nectaries may be located on leaf laminae, petioles, rachids, bracts,

Bakteria

stipules, pedicels, fruit, etc. Ladybirds often use the secretions from

Kulat

extrafloral nectaries in their diet (Pemberton and Vandenberg 1993)

Protozoa

and are just some of the many beneficial insects that use extrafloral

Algae

APA

nectary secretions.
ITU

MIKROORGANISMA

TEMPATAN

BERFAEDAH?
Merupakan kumpulan mikroorganisma yang diperolehi secara
semulajadi di kawasan setempat atau berdekatan melalui prosesproses tertentu yang memiliki kerjasama antara satu sama lain

PLANT BOOSTER-Sedutan dari Hasri Hj Hassan

bagi membantu organisma lain mendapat faedah hasil daripada


kerjasama tersebut .

SeriFertigasi
By on Thursday, 25 July 2013 at 15:53

CONTOH

SUMBER

PEMERAKAPAN

MIKROORGANISMA TEMPATAN BERFAEDAH(BIM).


MARI KITA BELAJAR MEMBUAT PLANT BOOSTER
1.

APLIKASI

MIKROORGANISMA

BERFAEDAH KEATAS TANAMAN.

TEMPATAN

a.Susu dan air beras (Lactobacillus spp)


b.Kawasan hutan (IMO ATAU BIM)
c.Pokok buluh IMO ATAU BIM
d.Pokok Rhizibium- Bakteria pengikat nitrogen
37

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


e.Pemeraman sayuran dan buah-buahan
f.PEMERAMAN SUSU BERSAMA SAYURAN DAN BUAH-

c.Yis.

BUAHAN ( DOA-PLANT BOOSTER).

Menghasilkan antibiotik, hormon, enzim dan probiotik

Menyediakan substrat untuk laktik asid bakteria dan

CONTOH

YANG

KUMPULAN

BIASA

MIKROB

TERDAPAT

SEMULAJADI

HASIL

actinomycetes

DARIPADA

PEMERANGKAPAN SECARA SEMULAJADI.

APAKAH KEPENTINGANYA PADA TANAMAN????

a.Lactobacillus spp Bacteria.

SECARA UMUM

b.Yeast count.

Untuk meningkatkan kualiti dan hasil tanaman yang sihat

c.photosynthetic bacteria.

Untuk meningkatkan ketahanan penyakit

d.Actinomycetes bacteria

Mempercepatkan proses pereputan dan penguraian-

Nutrien mineralization
a.Laktik asid bacteria.

lain-simbiosis

Mempercepatkan penguraian bahan organik, selulosa dan

lignin

Menghalang

serangan

mikrooganisma

berbahaya

Meningkatkan populasi mikroorganisma berguna yang


Mengurangkan

kadar

kehilangan

nutrien

dan

meningkatkan kecekapan pengambilan nutrient.

Fusarium sp

Merencatkan

pertumbuhan

patogen

sebagai agen

APAKAH

sterilizer

MIKROB?

Sebagai agen mineralization

YANG

MEMPENGARUHI

KEAKTIFAN

Suhu - kurang aktif pd suhu rendah


kebanyakan aktif pada suhu 35C-40C

b.Fotosintetik bacteria.

pH

- bergantung kepada jenis

mengurai bahan organik, selulosa dan lignin

Keamatan cahaya membiak dengan aktif dalam

Menukarkan gas toksik kepada gas tak berbau

Mengikat nitrogen diudara.

keadaan gelap

38

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]

Kehadiran nutrien semua mikrob memerlukan nutrien


kecuali virus.

o Campurkan semua bahan tersebut kecuali labu dan ragi yang


paling akhir campuran.
o Peram secara partially anaerobik selama seminggu.

2.APLIKASI DOA-ORGANIK PLANT BOOSTER KEATAS

o Dianggap matang apabila terdapat miselium putih dipermukaan

TANAMAN.

larutan.

o Tapis dan simpan di tempat yang gelap.

IDEA TEKNOLOGI.

Hasil inovasi gabungan teknologi organik farming Korea,Jepun dan

o Ketahanan produk dianggar selama 6 bulan.

India yang menggabungkan unsur tanaman buah-buahan dan sayur-

o Perlu dilarutkan sebelum di gunakan.

sayuran yang mempunyai nilai nutrien dan hormon semulajadi yang


tinggi bersama mikroorganisma berfaedah.
-

PROSES PEMERAMAN.

BAHAN-BAHAN.

o Susu tepung/segar

5kg/5L

Terdapat miselium putih tumbuh pada permukaan tanah yang

o Ragi

5 ketul

di apply bokashi.

o Pisang

5kg

o Labu

5kg

3. APLIKASI

o Betik

5kg

o Kangkong

3kg

jenis dan umur tanaman

o belacan@udang geragau

3kg

o telur

10biji

o Gula merah

3kg

o Air

50liter

Boleh digunakan dalam pembuatan kompos ataupun

bokashi.
3.1 CONTOH APLIKASI.

Boleh digunakan terus pada tanaman sukatan mengikut

KAEDAH PEMBUATAN.

Sawi, bayam dan kailan


5ml/LITER AIR(M1) 10ml/L(M2) -15ml/L(M3)

Cili
39

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5ml/LITER AIR(M1) 10ml/L(M3) -15ml/L(M5) 20ml/L(M7)-

Dapat meningkatkan 20-30% hasil tanaman

penggunaan 20ml kekal sehingga 2minggu seterusnya.

Dapat menjimatkan baja

Melon (rock melon glomour dan golden langkawi)

Mempercepatkan tempoh masa pembunggaan

5ml/LITER AIR(M1) 15ml/L(M3) -20ml/L(M5)

Memanjangkan tempoh hayat tanaman

25ml/L(M7)

Meningkatkan ketahanan penyakit

3.2 FORMULA KOMPOS.

KELEMAHAN.

Pokok akan menunjukkan kesan kekurangan nutrien

5 bhg tinja ayam+ 1 bhg sekam padi@cocopeat terpakai

sesuai untuk tanaman sayuran

yang ketara apabila tiada atau baja yang sedikit

5 bhg tinja ayam + 3 bhg tinja kambing + 1 sekam

padi@cocopeat terpakai sesuai untuk tanaman sayur buah

5 bhg tinja kambing + 1 bhg tinja ayam + 1sekam padi @

cocopeat terpakai

Setiap bahan perlu campur 5% dedak.

LALAT BUAH

o KAEDAH PEMBUATAN KOMPOS

By Mmd Apis Ahmad on Tuesday, 3 September 2013 at 14:41

Kesemua bahan organan dicampur

Nama biasa: Lalat Buah

Lembapkan dengan air bercampur 5ml/L air sehingga

kelembapan mencapai 40-50%

Diperam secara partially anaerobik selama 7 hari

Selepas itu gaul dan boleh guna terus pada pokok

mengikut kadar yang disyorkan .

Nama saintifik: Bactrocera carambolae.

Kitaran hidup lalat buah:


Telur : 1-2 hari

KEBAIKAN PLANT BOOSTER

Mempercepatkan pertumbuhan pokok

Larva: 8-10 hari


40

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]

Kepompong : 10 hari.
Dewasa : 5-7 hari.

Kawalan Secara Kimia


1. Lebaycid 550 (Bayer cropscience) dengan bahan aktif
fenthion (paling

## Kepompong terbentuk di dalam tanah.

mujarab)

2. racun kimia dengan bahan aktif cypermethrin


3. Prevathon + Imida untuk matikan ulat dalam buah

Aktif pada waktu pagi antara 8-10 am dan petang antara pukul 5-7
pm..

4. Dimethoate + bawang putih ( Dimethoate dengan cara


kerja sistemik, akan

meresap pada daun dan buah, ulat yang

makan isi buah sebelum jadi pupa akan


Lalat buah menyerang dengan menyegat/menyuntik telur pada
buah. Kemudiaan larva yang menetas akan memakan tisu buah dari
dalam, antara tanda tanda serangan adalah buah kelihatan lebam,

mati sebab makanan

beracun, jadi populasi lalat berkurang. bawang putih


menghasilkan aroma yang tidak di sukai serangga
5.racun DIMEXION >>baun nya tidak di sukai serangga..

lembik dan berair dan jika di amati pada fizikal luar buah akan
terdapat kesan seperti tusukan jarum pada bahagian luar buah. Jika

Perangkap Lalat Buah

anda teliti pada bahagian dalam buah pula, akan terdapat ulat yang di
panggil larva. Lalat buah jika tidak di kawal boleh menyebabkan
lebih 50% hasil kebun anda akan musnah

Memasang perangkap lalat buah dengan menggunakan feromon


methyl euganol. Methyl euganol akan menghasilkan bau yang akan
menarik lalat jantan masuk ke dalam perangkap yang telah di isi air

Antara punca yang menyebabkan lalat buah datang adalah

atau racun, bila lalat jantan berkurangan maka kurang berlaku

disebabkan oleh buah yang terkena antraknos. Jadi kawal lah kebun

persenyawaan dan populasi lalat buah akan berkurangan dengan

supaya jangan terkena fungus antraknos. sembur racun kulat secara

mendadak, perangkap ini haruslah sentiasa di selia (buang lalat yang

rutin..

mati,dan titiskan pemikat yang baru jika bau feromon sudah mula
berkurang) dan pastikan perangkap di pasang pada bahagian luar/tepi

Berikut adalah antara Kaedah untuk Mengatasi lalat buah..

kebun bukan bahagian dalam kebun


41

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B. ....tips perangkap lalat buah dari ladang belimbing dan jambu
Selain itu perangkap lalat buah boleh di buat sendiri dengan cara

batu......air kencing lembu campur dgn perahan airlimau nipis atau

berikut :-

kasturi....

Kaedah ini ( A dan B ) dikatakan lebih efisyen kerana ia dapat

Selamat Mencuba

memerangkap lalat buah jantan dan betina >>


A. Perangkap lalat buah yang ekonomik. Apa yang kita perlukan

Nasihat daripada GM Peladang

ialah:
200 ml air 50 gram gula perang

1. Musnahkan punca vektor. Spt kita tebang pkok jenis palma

1 gram yis ( yis ibu roti, boleh dibeli di pasar raya )

supaya white fly x dtg serang pokok tomato.

dan 1 botol plastik 2-liter.


2. Jika memakai perangkap serangga, letak di luar kebun dan
Bagaimana caranya:

selanggara dgn cara tanam ia tiap sehari/2 kali sehari. Jgn biar penuh

1. Potong botol plastik (jenis PET) pada separuh. Simpan bahagian

di dlm botol atau di pelekat.

leher
2. Campurkan gula perang dengan air panas. Biarkan sejuk. Apabila

3. Jika serangan teruk meracun lah secara selang seli hari

sejuk, tuangkan

selama 5 hari dengann racun serangga. Kemudian kawal

di separuh bahagian bawah botol.

3. Tambah yis. Tidak perlu untuk bergaul. Ia akan menghasilkan


karbon dioksida.

seminggu sekali.

(betina dan jantan tertarik dengan karbon

dioksida)
4. Letakkan bahagian corong, terbalik, ke dalam separuh botol tadi.

actinomycetes

5. letakkan di sekeliling/luar kebun anda pada ketinggian 2-3 meter..

By Mohamad Amiruddin Md Nor on Monday, 2 September 2013 at

6. ulang buat jika populasi lalat masih kelihatan..

17:12

42

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These are the organisms with characteristics common to both

present in compost and manures are thermophilic growing at 55-65

bacteria and fungi but yet possessing distinctive features to delimit

c temperature (eg. Thermoatinomycetes, Streptomyces).

them into a distinct category. In the strict taxonomic sense,

Actinomycetes belonging to the order of Actinomycetales are

actinomycetes are clubbed with bacteria the same class of

grouped under four families viz Mycobacteriaceae,

Schizomycetes and confined to the order Actinomycetales.

Actinomycetaceae, Streptomycetaceae and Actinoplanaceae.


Actinomycetous genera which are agriculturally and industrially

They are unicellular like bacteria, but produce a mycelium which is

important are present in only two families of Actinomycetaceae and

non-septate (coenocytic) and more slender, tike true bacteria they do

Strepotmycetaceae.

not have distinct cell-wall and their cell wall is without chitin and
cellulose (commonly found in the cell wall of fungi). On culture

In the order of abundance in soils, the common genera of

media unlike slimy distinct colonies of true bacteria which grow

actinomycetes are Streptomyces (nearly 70%), Nocardia and

quickly, actinomycetes colonies grow slowly, show powdery

Micromonospora although Actinomycetes, Actinoplanes,

consistency and stick firmly to agar surface. They produce hyphae

Micromonospora and Streptosporangium are also generally

and conidia / sporangia like fungi. Certain actinomycetes whose

encountered.

hyphae

undergo

morphologically

segmentation
and

resemble

bacteria,

both

physiologically.

Functions / Role of actinomycetes:

Actinomycetes are numerous and widely distributed in soil and are

1. Degrade/decompose all sorts of organic substances like cellulose,

next to bacteria in abundance. They are widely distributed in the soil,

polysaccharides, protein fats, organic-acids etc.

compost etc. Plate count estimates give values ranging from 10^4 to
10^8 per gram of soil. They are sensitive to acidity / low PH

2. Organic residues / substances added soil are first attacked by

(optimum PH range 6.5 to 8.0) and waterlogged soil conditions. The

bacteria and fungi and later by actinomycetes, because they are slow

population of actinomycetes increases with depth of soil even up to

in activity and growth than bacteria and fungi.

horizon C of a soil profiler They are heterotrophic, aerobic and


mesophilic (25-30 ^c) organisms and some species are commonly

3. They decompose / degrade the more resistant and indecomposable


43

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


organic substance/matter and produce a number of dark black to

ialah 45 cm (18 in). Gaulkan tahiayam reput ke dalam tanah

brown pigments which contribute to the dark colour of soil humus.

sebanyak 50 kg bagi 50 meter persegi ( 500 kaki persegi).

4. They are also responsible for subsequent further decomposition of

Dalam Pasu atau BekasGunakan tanah campuran mengandungi 3

humus (resistant material) in soil.

bahagian tanah, 1 bahagian tahi ayam reput atau kompos dan 1


bahagianpasir. Isikan tanah campuran tersebut ke dalam pasu

5. They are responsible for earthy / musty odor / smell of freshly

sehingga 5 cm (2 in) dari permukaan pasu.

ploughed soils.
6. Many genera species and strains (eg. Streptomyces if

MENYEDIA ANAK BENIHBagi tanaman di ladang, sediakan

actinomycetes produce/synthesize number of antibiotics like

kotak semaian berukuran 45 cm ( 18 in) panjang, 22 cm (9 in) lebar

Streptomycin, Terramycin, Aureomycin etc.

dan 10 cm (4 in) tinggi. Isikan kotak semaian dengan tanah


campuran yang mengandungi 3 bahagian tanah, 1 bahagian tahi

7. One of the species of actinomycetes Streptomyces scabies causes

ayam reput atau compos dan 1 bahagian pasir. Semai 3 g biji benih

disease "Potato scab" in potato.

kedalam kotak semaian secara barisan dan tutup benih dengan

_______________________________________________________

PANDUAN MENANAM TERUNG

lapisan nipis tanah. Jarak antara barisan biji benih ialah 5 cm (2 in)
dan 2 cm (1 in) antara benih. Siram denganpenyiram yang
mempunyai semburan halus dua kali sehari. Kotak semaian mesti
dilindungi cahaya matahari dan air hujan yang berlebihan. Ubah

PENANAMAN Di Ladang

anak benih ke ladang 3 hingga 4 minggu selepas disemai. Sebelum


diubah ke ladang,dedah anak benih kepada cahaya matahari yang

Bajak dan gemburkan tanah sedalam 15 hingga 22 cm (6-9 in).

penuh selama 3 hingga 4 hari untuk mengeraskannya.

Sediakan batas berukuran 1.2 m ( 48 in) lebar dan 22-30 cm (9-12 in)
tinggi. Panjang batas mengikut keadaan kawasan. Jarak antara batas
44

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


MENANAM

Di LadangGunakan kepingan plastik atau rumput-rumput kering


atau pelepah kelapa sebagai sungkupan.

Di LadangAnak benih yang berumur 3 hingga 4 minggu boleh di


ubah terus ke batas. Sebelum mencabut, basahkan kotak semaian

Dalam Pasu atau BekasGunakan rumput-rumput kerung atau sabut

supaya anak benih senang di gali. Kemudian, gali anak benih dengan

kelapa.

segumpal tanah dan tanam terus kebatas. Jarak tanaman ialah 90 cm


(36 in) antara pokok dan 60 cm antara baris.Dalam Pasu atau Bekas
Tanam terus 3 atau 4 biji benih ke dalam pasu sedalam 2-5 cm ( 1

MerumputBersihkan batas-batas daripada rumput rumpai dengan

in). Tinggalkan sepokok sepasu 2 minggu selepas menanam.

menggunakan tangan, cangkul atau tajak.

PENJAGAANMenyiramSiram tanaman pada awal pagi dan lewat

Menyedia Sokongan

petang setiap hari kecuali hari hujan.


Membaja

Di LadangSatu kayu sokongan sepanjang lebih kurang 1 meter ( 5


kaki) dipacak berdekatan tiap-tiap pokok. Dahan-dahan pokok diikat
dengan tali rafia supaya buah terung tidak terkena permukaan tanah.

Di LadangTabur baja NPK 12:12:17:2 di keliling pokok dengan


kadar 1 sudu besar atau 10 g sepokok setiap dua minggu.
Dalam Pasu atau BekasTabur 1 sudu teh atu 5 g baja NPK
12:12:17:2 sepasu di keliling pokok setiap minggu.

Dalam Pasu atau Bekas


Cara sokongan yang di amalkan adalah sama dengan sokongan yang
dibuat di ladang tetapi kayu yang digunakan berukuran 1.2 m ( 4
kaki ) panjang.

Sungkupan
45

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]

KAWALAN SERANGGA DAN PENYAKIT


Sembur racum serangga carbaryl (Sevin pada kadar 1 sudu besar

KOS

PENGELUARAN

BAGI

TANAMAN

TIMUN BAGI MUSIM 1 VARIETI : DOUBLE


BONUS 1199 LUAS 0.4 HA TAHUN 2010

atau 10 g segelen air ) untuk mengawal ulat lipas daun, kumbang


daun dan pengorek buah.Gunakan racun kulat maneb ( seperti

BIL

PERKARA

KUANTITI

HARGA/ JUMLAH

UNIT

Megamaneb pada kadar 1 sudu besar atau 10 g segelen air) untuk


mengawal penyakit reput buah dan racun kulat benomyl ( seperti
Benlate pada kadar 1 sudu teh atau 3 g segelen air) untuk mengawal

1. Benih 5

37.00

185.00

2. Tali rambut

15

6.00

90.00

3. Tali hijau

30

6.30

189.00

4. Furadan

bintik daun.

MEMUNGUT HASILDi LadangMulalah memetik buah 6 minggu


selepas mengubah. Pungutan hasil dibuat setiap 4 hari. Anggaran
hasil ialah sebanyak 75 125 kg bagi 50 meter persegi. Denagn
harga purata 60 sen sekilo, pendapatan kasar adalah RM 45 RM 75
.Dalam Pasu atau BekasMulalah memetik buah 10 minggu selepas
menanam. Anggaran hasil adalah 1 kg/pokok.

5. Racun siput

6. Baja(i) En Cal
16:16:16
13:10:21:TE

22.00

44.00

3.00
1

2.5
4.5

9.00
95.00

95.00(ii)

110.00

275.00(iii)

120.00

540.00

7. Racun Seranggai. Armada 680 0.08


Kos Pengeluaran Timun Konvensional- oleh Nurwahidah

54.40ii. Cypermetrin 1080 0.02

Hambali

21.60iii. Mospilan 70 0.06

4.20

By Nurwahidah Hambali on Thursday, 25 July 2013 at 08:38


46

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


8. Racun kulati. Dithane 45 1030 0.03

20. Sewa

26.78ii. Daconil 820 0.02

100.00

19.68

9. Biogreen 9400 0.03

282.00
TOTAL

10. Racun rumputi. Basta 15

RM 8,089.86

156.00

156.00
11. Kapur GML

40

12. Baja Organiki. Tahi ayam

10.00
1

400.00
300.00

Kos Pengeluaran, Pendapatan kasar dan bersih


Tanaman Timun
By Norhisam Ramlan on Tuesday, 23 July 2013 at 10:00
Update Timun 747 100% Kawalan SRI ORGANIK- MUSIM 1

300.00
13. Upah pekerja

3620.00

14. Gaji pengurus

1150.00

15. Susut nilai

100.00

Bilangan Pokok : 3200 pokok


Tanam : 29hb April 2013
Tuai : 2hb June 2013
Habis : 10hb Julai 2013
Jumlah hari menuai : 38 hari

16. Petrol

219.20

17. Diesel

129.00

PENDAPATAN

18. Suratkhabar

100

19. Penyelenggaraan mesin

0.50

50.00
30.00

Jumlah kutipan hasil :25 MT ( Gred A - RM 1.00 )


2 MT ( Gred B - RM 0.20 )
Jumlah Pendapatan Kasar : RM 25,400.00
PERBELANJAAN
47

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Pendapatan Bersih : RM25,400 - RM 9987.00 = RM 15,413.00
Benih 2 tin @ RM 175.00 = RM350
Plastik silvershine : 15 gulung @ RM 65.00 = RM 975
Tali : 15 gulung @ RM 10.00 = RM 150.00

ORGANIC FURADAN DARI BUAH JERING -

Tali jurai : 25 ikat @ RM 6.00 = RM 150.00

sedutan dari Wizan Zaini

Baja Yara Liva 1 beg @ RM 85.00 = RM 85.00

By on Saturday, 20 July 2013 at 05:33

Baja Yara 16 : 16 : 16 2 beg @ RM 130.00 = RM 260.00


Baja Yara 13: 11: 21 3 beg @ RM 130.00 = RM 390.00

Tiga bahan utama, iaitu buah jering, belerang, dan pasir.Cara

SRI ANAK : 6 liter @ RM 20.00 = RM 120.00 (harga buat sendiri)

pembuatannya mudah:ambil 10 biji buah jering (diambil isi jering)

SRI BUNGA : 4.8 liter @ RM 20.00 = RM96.00

dikisar, diparut atau ditumbuk halusmasukkan jering yang telah

SRI BUAH : 5.6 liter @ RM 20.00 = RM112.00

dikisar,

Mol Ikan : 10 liter @ RM15.00 = RM150.00

besen tambahkan 4 camca/ sudu teh belerang/sulfurtambahkan 6

Mol Kangkong : 4.8 liter @ RM 10.00 = RM 48.00

cawan pasir halusgaulkan bahan tersebut hingga sebatitutup

Mol Pisang : 5.6 liter @ RM 10.00 = RM 56.00

bekas/besen dengan pembalut plastik/ wrapper dan simpan di tempat

OHN : 3 liter @ RM 25.00 = RM 75.00

kering selama 1 minggufuradan organik boleh digunakan dengan

IMO 2 : 2 set @ RM 50.00 = RM 100

mencampurkan dengan tanah untuk tujuan pemasuan, semaian biji

Dedak 2 beg @ RM 35.00 = RM 70.00

benih atau tabur rata di keliling tanaman anda.

Petrol = RM 200

Kawalan Tikus Dari Jering

Diesel = RM 600

Cara yang biasa dibuat petani di Selangor sebelum musim baru

Jumlah Kos Bahan : RM 3987.00

bermula adalah dengan mengumpan tikus dengan padi yang

Jumlah kos pekerja : 2 orang @ RM 1000 @ 3 bulan = RM

digaulkan racun tikus. Cara ini agak berkesan kerana tikus agak

6000.00

terkawal walau pun akhir-akhir ini ada kedengaran kerosakan

Jumlah besar : RM 9987.00

disebabkan oleh tikus berlaku disana-sini. Tapi bagaimana kalau saya

diparut

atau

ditumbuk

halus

ke

dalam

bekas/

48

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


katakan kita boleh jauhkan tikus dari sawah kita dengan

By Wizan Zaini on Wednesday, 17 July 2013 at 23:14

menggunakan jering?.

Jom Bela Kumbang dalam Kebun!

Pak Tam pernah memberikan cara membuat pencegah tikus


menggunakan jering dalam salah satu kursus yang dikendalinya.

Apa yang ladybugs makan? Biasanya deme makan serangga kecil

Rupa-rupanya

mencuba

yang lain.. biasanya serangga yang kita tak suka (perosak)!

disawahnya. Dengar apa kata saudara Mohd Nor semasa kami

Contohnya aphids! Sebenarnya, larva si kumbang ni pun makan

melawat sawahnya tempoh hari. Sawah disebelahnya jelas nampak

aphids jugak. Kalau nak ladybugs hidup di kebun kita, jangan la

diganggu tikus, tetapi tidak disawahnya.

banyak meracun (kimia).

saudara

Mohd

Nor

Saarani

terus

Cara membuat air jering untuk mencegah tikus


Bahan:1 kg jering yang matang (semai hingga berakar)2 liter air

Selain itu, kumbang ini juga makan serangga lain yang berkulit

Cara:1. Hiriskan jering dan masukkan ke dalam bekas plastik.2.

lembut seperti kutu (mites) dan termasuklah lalat putih (whiteflies).

Masukkan 2 liter air dan rendam jering tadi selama 2 hari.3. Tapis
dan ambil air rendaman jering tadi. (Nota: bau air jering sangat

Ada

juga

jenis

ladybugs

yang

makan

busuk)4. Untuk disembur ke sempadan sawah, ambil satu liter air

daun, TETAPI kebanyakkannya makan serangga (Coccinellidae

jering untuk satu tong penyembur. Sembur dibatas sekeliling sawah

family)!

seolah membuat pagar jering. Cebisan jering bolehlah ditaburkan ke


dalam sawah jika mahu, atau tabur dikeliling rumah.

Macam mana nak panggil ladybugs datang kebun kita? Tanam bunga

Cubalah di sawah anda atau kebun anda. Jika berjaya menangani

dalam kebun.. buat pagar atau letak di celah-celah pokok di kebun.

masalah tikus, tolong beritahu Mak Tam. Boleh kita panjangkan

Biasanya kalau ada bunga adalah kumbangnya. Sayang.. ekosistem

untuk pengetahuan rakan tani yang lain.

kita sudah rosak!


Antara pokok yang menarik ladybugs datang ialah:

Ladybugs | Kumbang Pemangsa (Coccinellidae


family)

1. Ketumbar - Coriander (Coriandrum sativum).

49

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2. Kucai - Garlic Chives (Allium tuberosum) - Aphids tak suka
kucai!

In the time plants have evolved on Earth, they have adapted to utilise
five major resources in order to grow. These are

3. Fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare


4. Butterfly Weed (Asclepias Tuberosa)
5. Golden Chamomile (Anthemis tinctoria)

Light, Water, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and mineral elements. From


these, plants can synthesise a wide range of
organic molecules required for life. Of these five factors, it is the
mineral element requirements of plants which we aim
to provide through the use of hydroponic or soilless culture, and

6. Prairie sunflower (Helianthus maximilianii)

under optimum conditions of light and temperature the


productivity of crops is largely dictated by the mineral composition

7. Rocky Mountain Penstemon


8. Yarrow (Achillia sp.)

in the root zone.


As hydroponic growers and suppliers, it is therefore worth taking a
look at what elements are actually required for
plant growth, what their purpose is inside the plant, and what levels
and ratios are most appropriate for optimising
plant growth in a range of conditions.
Hydroponic Elements - Why we need them ...
The elements required for plant growth include the following.
Nitrogen

Secrets to Hydroponic/fertigation Nutrients.


By Mmd Apis Ahmad on Sunday, 16 June 2013 at 12:43
Secrets to Hydroponic Nutrients.

Nitrogen is a component of all amino acids in proteins and enzymes


used in plant tissue, as well as flavour
compounds and lignin, and as a result the entire plant metabolism
depends on nitrogen supply.
50

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


Example of Amino Acid containing NITROGEN :HOOC-(CH)n-

Potassium is a key activator of many enzymes, especially those

NH2

involved with carbohydrate metabolism. Potassium is

Without nitrogen, plant growth ceases, and deficiency symptoms

also responsible for the control of ion movement through membranes

rapidly appear. Most obvious deficiency symptoms

and water status of stomatal apertures.

are yellowing or purple colouration of the older leaves, thin stems,

Potassium therefore has a role in controlling plant transpiration and

and low vegetative vigour. Nitrogen is readily

turgor. It is generally associated with plant 'quality'

mobilised within the plant, so deficiencies first appear as symptoms

and is necessary for successful initiation of flower buds and fruit set.

on the older foliage. Excess nitrogen, or specifi-cally

As a result the levels of potassium in nutrient

a high nitrogen to carbon ratio within the plant, predisposes the plant

solutions are increased as plants enter a 'reproductive' phase, and as

to lush soft growth, usually undesirable for

crops grow into lower light levels, in order to

commercial crops and can retard fruitset, promote flower abscission,

maintain nutrient balance in solution. Symptoms of potassium

and induce calcium deficiency disorders as fruit

deficiency are typically, scorched spots towards the

develop.

margins of older leaves, along with generally low vigour and

Nitrogen is supplied as nitrate in the hydroponic nutrient solution,

susceptibility to fungal disease. Crops such as tomatoes

usually from sources calcium nitrate, and potassium

can almost double their uptake of potassium during fruiting. An ideal

nitrate (Saltpetre). Occasionally, for example under low light

source of potassium for hydroponics is

conditions, a small amount of nitrogen is supplied in the

monopotassium phosphate, along with potassium nitrate. Potassium

ammonium form from compounds such as ammonium nitrate or

sulphate can be used as an additive to boost

ammonium phosphate, but this should be limited to

potassium levels without affecting nitrogen or phosphorous.

less than 10% of the total nitrogen content of the nutrient solution to

Potassium chloride should be used sparingly if at all, to

maintain balanced vegetative growth and avoid

avoid excessive chloride levels in solution.

physiological disorders relating to ammonia toxicity. Urea should

Phosphorous

never be used in hydroponics.


Potassium

The energy utilisation process within plants relies on bonds between


phosphate molecules - energy is stored and
51

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


released by the compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

of phosphorous are also supplied by the use of phosphoric acid for

ATP ---------> ADP + Pi + energy

pH control.

Phosphorous is an integral part of the sugar-phosphate molecules

Magnesium

used in respiration and photosynthesis, and is a


major component of all cell membranes formed using phospholipids.

Magnesium is the central ion of the chlorophyll molecule, and

NUTRON2000 TM is a registered Trademark of Casper Publications

therefore has a primary role in the light collecting

Pty Ltd and Suntec (NZ) Ltd.

mechanism of the plant and the production of plant sugars through


photosynthesis. Magnesium is also a co-factor in

The phospholipid Lechitin, a component of every living cell.

the energy utilisation process of respiration in the plant.

CH3-(CH2)16-COO-CH2

Magnesium deficiency first appears as yellowing of the leaves

between veins on the older parts of the plant, although

CH3-(CH2)7-CH=CH-(CH2)7-COO-CH2

under worse deficiency the symptoms can spread towards the newer

growth. Magnesium deficiency can also occur

CH2-OPO3-CH2N(CH3)3

during periods of low light intensity or heavy crop loading and when

Phosphorus is involved in the bonding structure of nucleic acids

excessive levels of potassium are provided in the

DNA and RNA. Deficiency of phosphate appears as a

nutrient solution. The main, probably universal source of magnesium

dull green colouration of the older leaves followed by purple and

for hydroponics is magnesium sulphate (Epsom

brown colours as the foliage dies. Root development

salts). Although limited use is sometimes made of magnesium nitrate

becomes restricted as phosphorous deficiency occurs, due to sugar

it is rarely an economical option. Soil fertiliser

production and translocation being impeded. The

salts magnesium phosphate or magnesium ammonium phosphate are

main source of phosphate in hydroponics is monopotassium

not suitable.

phosphate, although limited amounts of ammonium

Calcium

phosphate can sometimes be added. Compounds such as calcium


superphosphate should be avoided. Small amounts

Calcium is deposited in plant cell walls during their formation. It is


also required for the stability and functioning of cell
52

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


membranes. Calcium deficiency is common in hydroponic crops, and

for the element are reasonably flexible within quite a wide range.

is apparent as tipburn in lettuce, and blossom

Where it occurs, sulfur deficiency shows up as

end rot in tomatoes. Calcium is almost totally immobile in the plant,

a general yellowing of the entire foliage, especially on the new

as once deposited in cell walls it can not be

growth.

moved. Therefore the deficiency occurs in the newest growth.

Iron

Calcium transport is dependent on active transpiration,


and so calcium deficiency occurs most often under conditions where

Iron is a component of proteins contained in plant chloroplasts, as

transpiration is restricted, ie warm overcast or

well as electron transfer proteins in the photosyn-thetic

humid conditions are often referred to as "calcium stress" periods.

and respiration chains. Deficiency occurs on the newest leaves, and

Increasing calcium content in solution is unlikely to

appears first as a yellowing of the leaves

improve uptake, and in fact, reducing CF is one way to improve

between veins, and eventually the whole leaf becomes pale yellow,

calcium uptake in most species by enhancing the

even white, ultimately with necrotic (dead) spots

uptake of water. Calcium is supplied by default in most formulations

and distorted leaf margins. Iron must be supplied as chelated Iron

through the use of Calcium nitrate. Extra calcium

EDTA, EDDHA or EPTA in hydroponics, rather than

can be provided by calcium chloride.

sulphate. Iron is the element most susceptible to precipitation at high

Sulfur

(>7) pH, so pH control to below pH6.5 is


necessary to maintain Iron in solution in hydroponics.

Sulfur is used mainly in sulfur-containing proteins using the amino

Manganese

acids cysteine and methionine. The vitamins


thiamine and biotin, as well as the cofactor Coenzyme A, all use

Manganese

catalyses

the

splitting

of

water

molecules

in

sulfur, and so this element also plays a key role in

photosynthesis, with the release of oxygen. It is a co-factor in

plant metabolism. Sulfur deficiency in hydroponics is rare, usually

the formation of chlorophyll and the respiration and photosynthetic

because sulfur is present in adequate quantities

systems. Manganese deficiency appears as a dull

through the use of sulfate salts of the other major elements

grey appearance followed by yellowing of the newest leaves between

particularly magnesium and potassium, and plant require-ments

the veins which usually remain green. Spots of


53

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dead tissue become apparent on affected leaves. Manganese is

Copper is required in small amounts as a component in several

supplied by manganese sulfate, or manganese EDTA

important enzymes . Toxicity is more common than

in hydroponics. The content of manganese in these fertilisers can

deficiency of copper in hydroponics. Copper sulfate is most often

vary widely between different sources, due to such

used, although copper EDTA can also be used in

factors as different 'water of crystallisation' (MnSO4.nH2O), and

nutrient solutions.

different chelating agents and raw ingredients as well

Silica

as manufacturing processes. Manganese, like iron, is less available to


plants at high pH.

Recently silicates have been reported to improve the growth and

Zinc

development of some crops. When readily available,


silica is incorporated into the root system, and appears to enhance

Zinc contributes to the formation of chlorophyll, and the production

nutrient uptake, improving the potential of crops to

of the plant hormone auxin. It is an integral part of

produce higher yields. Silicates have also been implicated in

many plant enzymes. Zinc deficiency appears as distortion and

enhancing pollination, as well as providing increased

interveinal chlorosis of older leaves of the crop, and

structural strength of stems and some resistance to foliar diseases.

retarded stem development. Zinc is provided by zinc sulfate, or zinc

It should be noted, that among the 110 or so known elements, many

EDTA in hydroponics.

more are likely to be implicated in plant growth.

Boron

Nickel, cobalt, chromium, titanium, iodine, selenium, lithium and


numerous others have been reported to have some

Boron is required mostly for cell division in plants, and deficiencies

function in some species of plants.

appear similar to calcium deficiencies, with stem

Hydroponic Nutrient Basics

cracking and death of the shoot apex being the most significant
symptoms. Boron is supplied as either borax (sodium

There are several important factors to decide when purchasing salts

borate) or boric acid in hydroponic production.

for hydroponic nutrient formulae:

Copper

1. The salt must be completely soluble in water, that is the salt must
not contain additives or insoluble fillers, or
54

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


components (such as insoluble sulphates and phosphates) which

Potassium Nitrate (13% N): Also supplies 36.5% Potassium

while useful for soil fertiliser are unacceptable in

Ammonium Nitrate (33% N): Nitrogen form is split between

hydroponics.

ammonium-N and Nitrate-N, the total ammonium-N % of a

2. Contents of sodium, chloride, ammonium and organic nitrogen, or

formula should be kept below 15% in most conditions.

elements not required for plant growth should be

Other sources:

minimised under normal use. These elements if not used by plants


tend to accumulate in recirculating hydroponic

Ammonium Phosphate (10%N): Supplies N and is soluble, but all N

nutrients to the extent that the measured CF includes a high

is in the ammonium form, which limits its appli-cation

proportion of unusable salts.

in hydroponics.

3. The salt must not react with other components in the same mix to

Ammonium Sulfate (21%N): As above, redundant if using

produce insoluble salts, and it should not radically

conventional salts. Urea (46%N): Can cause problems with

alter the pH of the nutrient solution.

ammonia toxicity, and has no CF charge so difficult to measure.

4. For commercial use, the fertiliser source must be economical.

Nitric Acid: Used often for pH control, but should not be considered

There is no point using expensive fertiliser salts when

a nitrogen source, especially not mixed with salts

a cheaper source is perfectly adequate.

in stock solutions.

What Salts to Use

Phosphorus
Recommended Sources

Macro Elements
MonoPotassium Phosphate (21% P): Also provides 25% Potassium.
Nitrogen

Other sources:

Recommended sources
Ammonium Phosphate (22% P): Not used as the main phosphate
Calcium Nitrate (15.5% N): Commercial calcium nitrate also forms

source as too much ammonium would be produced.

1% Ammonium-N in solution, and supplies 20%

Phosphoric Acid: As for Nitric acid above. Older formulations used it

Calcium

as a P source in 'Topping-up" mixtures but this


55

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


approach is no longer valid.

Fertiliser sources of magnesium used in agriculture (Dolomite,

Calcium Superphosphate (10% P): Phosphate is highly soluble (as

Causmag etc) are generally very insoluble, and can not

phosphoric acid), but produces an insoluble

be used for hydroponics.

calcium sulfate / calcium phosphate residue in hydroponics.

Calcium

Potassium

Recommended sources

Recommended Sources
Calcium Nitrate (20% Ca): Calcium is supplied almost entirely by
Potassium Nitrate (37% K)

this salt in most nutrient formulations

MonoPotassium Phosphate (25% K)

Calcium Chloride (36% Ca): Useful to add extra calcium without

Potassium Sulfate (40% K): Also adds sulfur (17%). Useful as an

altering other elements. Limited use due to its

additive to existing formulae to boost potassium

chloride content, so only used as an 'additive'

levels.

Other sources:

Other sources:
Calcium chelates: Expensive and unnecessary
Potassium Chloride (49% K): Can be added in small amounts,

Calcium Ammonium Nitrate: Not recommended due to ammonia

although preferably omitted due to its chloride content.

content

Magnesium

Calcium cyanamide: Release amine - N into solution which produces

Recommended sources

free ammonia.
Calcium carbonate: Insoluble, and inherent pH problems

Magnesium Sulfate (10% Mg): Also adds sulfur. Is highly soluble

Calcium Sulfate: Highly insoluble.

and universal Mg source

Sulfur

Other sources:

Recommended sources

Magnesium Nitrate Expensive, and unnecessary

Magnesium sulfate (13% S): Potassium sulfate (18% S)

Dolomite (Magnesium carbonate) Insoluble residues

Other sources:
56

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Iron EDTA, the manganese becomes partly chelated.
Ammonium sulfate

Manganese Chelate (*%): As for Fe EDTA * the content of Mn can

Sulfuric acid

vary between sources.

Trace Elements

Boron
Recommended sources

Iron
Recommended sources

Boric Acid (18% B), Sodium borate (Borax) 11 - 14% B


Zinc

Iron EDTA (6 - 14% Fe): Readily soluble, and stable form of Iron for

Recommended sources

nutrient solutions. Ensure the element (Fe)


content of the chelate is known before making formulations.

Zinc Sulfate (23% Zn), Zinc EDTA (*%)

Iron EPTA: Using different chelating agents the iron can be protected

Copper

in solution at higher pH levels.

Recommended sources

Iron EDDHA " " "


Other sources:

Copper Sulfate (25% Cu), Copper EDTA (*%)


Molybdenum

Iron Sulfate (20% Fe): No longer widely used in hydroponics due to

Recommended sources

its instability in solution. In nutrient solutions iron


sulfate tends to form iron hydroxides which are insoluble.

Ammonium molybdate (48% Mo), Sodium Molybdate (39% Mo)

Iron Chloride: As above

Ratios and Content of Elements in Nutrient Solutions

Manganese
Recommended sources

Once we have the source of elements (fertiliser salts) for a nutrient


formula, the next stage is to combine these into

Manganese Sulfate (24%): Different sources may vary in Mn% due

ratios which give the acceptable element contents in solution. Plants

to being hydrated or anhydrous. In solution with

will take up nutrient elements roughly according


57

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


to their needs, this is especially true for the major elements, so

Cu 0.05 - 0.1

adding elements to solution when they are not required

Mo 0.02 - 0.07

results in the formula becoming unbalanced for plant growth. Adding

Even within these ranges, nutrient elements can become very

excessive quantities of some of the trace

unbalanced if the ratios are incorrect. Leaf analysis of

elements can in fact lead to toxicities, while adding insufficient

crops is a good indicator for acceptable ratios for a formulation

amounts of any element will eventually lead to

within the above range. The ratios for a hydroponic

deficiency and poor crop growth. As hydroponic growers it is

nutrient for any new crop can be estimated from leaf analysis of a

essential to have an understanding of acceptable ratios

well grown plant, as if a plant appears to be thriving

for all the elements used in hydroponic formulations to ensure the

and producing well, then we can assume its nutrient mineral content

nutrient solution is supplying the plant's needs and

is optimum, hence tissue analysis will give the

is neither toxic or deficient. Generally the range of acceptable

nutrient ratios optimum for the root zone solution. This basic formula

element concentrations is wider for the major nutrients,

can then be fine tuned during different crop

than for the trace elements as can be seen from the table below.

growth stages and seasons. Some indications for acceptable ratios of

Element Range in PPM for Nutrient Solution

major nutrient elements are given below.


Element Ratio Ratio

N 100 - 450
P 10 - 100

N: P 3 - 8

K 100 - 650

N:K 0.25 - 1.5

Mg 10 - 95

Ca:N 0.8 - 1.2

Ca 70 - 300

Mg:N 0.1 - 0.4

S 20 - 250

P:S 0.6 - 1

Fe 0.5 - 6

CF and EC PPM.

Mn 0.3 - 4
B 0.1 - 0.8

'CF' or 'EC' is a commonly used measure to determine the strength of

Zn 0.1 - 0.5

a hydroponic nutrient solution. As salts disso-ciate


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into ions in solution, they carry a positive or negative charge (eg

recirculating through a growing crop for a few weeks, the element

KNO3 --> K+ + NO3-,) which can transmit

content changes - the CF may well stay the same.

electricity. Pure water will not transmit electricity, but as soon as

Conductivity of Some Common Hydroponic Nutrients at 2000 PPM

salts are added, the ability of the solution to conduct


electricity increases. This conductance increases with increasing

SALT mg/l CF EC

solution strength. CF (Conductivity Factor) and EC

Calcium Nitrate 2000 20 2

(Electrical Conductivity) are a measure of this characteristic of

Potassium Nitrate 2000 25 2.5

nutrient salt solutions.

Magnesium Sulfate 2000 12 1.2

While CF seems to be a very convenient measure, there are problems

The CF of a nutrient formulation is a combination of the CF

associated with relying only on CF to control

contributed by all the dissociated nutrient salts from the A

hydroponic nutrient formulae.

and B stock solutions as well as impurities from the water supply,

I) The CF will be roughly the same regardless of the element content

and is not really any indication of the quality of the

of the solution. A nutrient solution with CF 20 can

formula, just an estimate of its strength. In hydroponics the only way

not be distinguished from a sodium chloride solution with CF 20.

to determine the nutrient makeup of a formula is

ii) Different nutrient salts show different capacities to conduct

either to have a complete mineral analysis done, use a range of

electricity when in solution, so that depending on the nutrient

specific ion meters or to calculate the nutrients in

ratios and the individual salts used, the CF may give a very different

advance and use these in drain to waste systems. Any solution in

indication of the true ionic strength of the solution. A

recirculating hydroponics will change over time.

solution of potassium nitrate at CF20 will be approximately half the

Outside of hydroponics CF may not even be a measure of the

strength (in ppm) of a solution of magnesium sulfate at

strength of a formula, as a range of nutrients (eg Urea)

CF20. This is because potassium nitrate conducts nearly twice as

and compounds (eg fungicides) are added to water in fertigation or

much electricity at the same ionic strength.

spraying which do not conduct electricity.


PPM

iii) Even if the nutrient element content of the formula was known
accurately at the start, once the solution has been
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The other common indicator for hydroponic nutrient strength is
PPM, or parts per million. 1 part per million is equiv-alent

If we assume that in hydroponics, the CF is a measure of the strength

to 1 mg per litre, or 1 g per m

of a nutrient solution, this has a significant

affect on the growth of plants, regardless of the mineral content of

. In theory, this is a measure of the actual strength of the nutrient

the solution.

elements in

Osmosis describes the behaviour of ions in solution when separated

solution, and would seem to be an ideal measurement for

by a semi-permeable membrane, as for example

hydroponics. However, measuring this in practice is very

at the interface of root cells and nutrient solution. The concentration

difficult for a grower in hydroponics.

of ions on either side of the membrane deter-mines

Why Not TDS Meters?

the net flow of ions through the membrane, as if ions are more
concentrated in solution than in root cells and

An alternative to solve the problems with CF as a measurement may

the membrane permits the transmission of ions, then ions will tend to

seem to be to use 'TDS' or total dissolved solids

flow into the roots. This process is known as

as a measure of nutrient solution strength, and if 'TDS Meters' in fact

'passive' transport or diffusion, and is assisted by the flow of water in

did this, it would solve the problems. However a

the transpiration stream of the plant. In fact, root

'TDS' meter is simply a 'CF' meter with different calibration and

cells tend to maintain quite high 'osmotic potentials' but low

display - it still only measures electrical conductivity,

concentrations of ions which attract water and ions into the

and in fact is less accurate because of the assumptions made

roots. Some ions, Ca

regarding the salt makeup of the solution - many

2+

assume sodium chloride and have a fixed conversion factor (eg

and K+, NO

70ppm per CF unit) which can not be adjusted for

3-

different solution formulations. TDS meters which can be calibrated

, for example, are able to be transported into root cells, even against

for different formulations are a better alternative,

a concen-tration

but still are only measuring CF in reality.

gradient by the energy requiring process of active transport. Once

CF Effects on Plant Growth

water and ions are inside the roots they


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diffuse through into the xylem vessels and flow with the

higher in the rootzone than in the 'feed' solution. The ratio of CF in

transpiration stream up into the stem. A natural reaction of

the feed to rootzone and leachate solutions

some plants to increasing solution strength, is to accumulate

needs to be well regulated in drain-to waste systems, and CF 'in'

assimilates in the leaves and fruit to equalise the osmotic

(feed) and CF 'out' (drainage) are standard

potential with the root zone.

daily measurements.

This explanation may seem complicated, but it is the basis for the

pH

effects noticed by increasing or decreasing CF in


hydroponics. CF influences the 'osmotic potential' of the solution in

The pH of a nutrient formula is the measure of acidity below pH 7 or

the root zone, which influences the plant's rate of

alkaline above pH 7. It is defined as the "inverse

water and nutrient uptake, and the adjustments made to osmotic

log of the hydrogen ion concentration". The practical implication of

potential inside the plant. Increasing CF will reduce

this definition is that each pH reduction of 1 unit

water uptake by the crop, and cause many crops to concentrate

actually means the formula becomes 10 X more acidic, a solution

organic compounds in fruit and foliage. Increasing CF

with a pH of 4 is 10 x more acidic than pH 5, and

tends to slow vegetative growth, and 'harden' plants. Conversely,

100 x more acidic than pH 6.

lowering CF will increase water uptake, and produce

pH and Formulations

lush soft growth. Consequently, the CF of solutions is normally


increased during winter and for fruiting crops, while

The strength (CF) of the formula does not affect the pH, but it does

summer growing and leafy crops are normally run at a low CF to

affect the 'buffering capacity' at any pH. This is

maintain optimum quality.

demonstrated by the amount of acid/alkali needed to change pH by 1

CF can be maintained at higher levels in solution culture than in

unit at different CF - as CF increases, more pH

media or drain to waste systems. In solution

adjuster is needed to alter pH by the same amount.

culture there is a constant supply of water and the CF does not

Different formulations will have different starting pH values,

fluctuate in the root zone, whereas in media

because different salts become more or less acidic when

systems evaporation from the surface of the media and plant water

dissolved into water. Salts such as monopotassium phosphate lower

uptake can result in the CF becoming much

the pH more than salts such as calcium nitrate.


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Most formulations will result in an initial pH of around 5.5 - 6.0,

hydroxide and hydrogen ions which produces a mild acidifying

which is ideal for the growth of most crops. This pH

effect when in solution.

results from only the commonly used salts being dissolved into stock

pH and Hydroponic Crop Growth

solutions, and so addition of acid or alkali to


stock solutions is usually unnecessary. However, these pH levels

Consideration of pH is important for hydroponic growers, because

assume neutral water supplies, if the water supply

the pH of the solution affects the solubility of

has a high pH, along with high 'alkalinity' then the pH of the stock

elements, and their availability to plants. Most problems occur where

solutions when diluted into water will be quite

pH becomes too high, above 7, resulting in

different. 'Alkalinity' refers to the strength of the high pH, as a water

firstly iron then manganese and calcium forming insoluble salts

supply with high alkalinity will require more,

which precipitate out of solution. As the pH

stronger acid, to reduce the pH by the same amount as a water supply

increases above 7, plant uptake of some ions becomes less efficient,

with low alkalinity. This inherent buffering ability

so plants become deficient even if the ion

will carry on into the nutrient formulation. It is best to correct the pH

is present in solution.

of unsuitable water before making up the stock

As plants remove some ions from solution, the solution pH drifts,

solutions

upwards or downwards. If left uncontrolled,

In hydroponics, some salts can be used to influence the pH control of

typically the pH will drift downwards (to approx 4.5) for several

the nutrient solution, reducing the requirement

days after planting a new crop, after which the pH

for acids during growth development phases of the crop. Ammonium

will steadily increase (to approx 7 or above). This feature is due to

nitrate is one salt used for this purpose, and the

the differential uptake of ions from solution,

optimum amount seems to be that which provides 15% of the total

with the release of hydrogen (H+) or hydroxyl (OH-) ions from the

nitrogen of the formula in the ammonium form.

root system. As positive ions, cations (Ca

Ammonium in nutrient solution tends to be acidifying, as firstly

2+

unlike nitrate it is a positive ion, and when taken up by

, K+,

plants is replaced by hydrogen ions reducing pH in the root zone, and

Mg

secondly ammonium forms ammonium

2+
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etc) are removed from solution, hydrogen ions are released from the

eg when calcium nitrate and magnesium sulfate are added to water in

plant root system to equalise the ratio

strong solutions the salts dissociate

of anions to cations in the root zone. This lowers the pH of the

producing magnesium nitrate along with calcium and sulfate ions

solution. As the crop commences active growth

which then combine to form calcium sulfate or

anions (NO 3 etc) are taken up which increases pH through the

gypsum which 'precipitates'. This occurs because compounds such as

release of hydroxyl ions into solution.

calcium sulfate have very low 'saturation'

Hydroponic Nutrient Formulation Basics

values (see later)and can not exist as concentrated solutions.


Generally it is necessary to keep the calcium

The range of hydroponic nutrient formulations available seems very

separate from the sulfate and phosphate salts. Therefore the calcium

diverse, and yet if we look closely at their content

nitrate and calcium chloride is kept

there are several underlying principles involved in formulating

separate from the magnesium sulfate, potassium sulfate, sulfates of

hydroponic nutrient solutions. The following are some

trace elements, and monopotassium

standard features of hydroponic formulations:

phosphate, all other salts can be mixed in either A or B. There are

Reason for 2-Part 'A' and 'B' mix.

certain brands of nutrient which seem to


combine all elements into a single mix, but the manufacture of these

In order to combine all the elements commonly needed for plant

products is beyond the reach of most

growth into a concentrated form, the salts need

growers.

to be mixed into 2 separate solutions. The reason for this is that,

Grow vs Bloom, Summer vs Winter, Drain-to-Waste vs NFT

while in dilute solution all ions become soluble,


in concentrated solution certain ions react together to form insoluble

Plants in nutrient solution culture will remove different ions faster

salts. If an ion is in an insoluble salt, it is no

from solution at different stages of growth or

longer available for plant growth. Once 'precipitated' it can only very

development, as well as during different light and temperature

slowly dissolve back into solution when

conditions, and if left unchecked this quickly

diluted again. Precipitation is simply the result of two ions

results in formulations being unbalanced. Note that unbalanced does

combining in solution to form a salt which is insoluble,

not necessarily mean 'precipitated', or


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'toxic'.

CF. Therefore a 'Winter' formula may be similar to a 'Bloom' and

While there are for example, 'Grow' and 'Bloom' formulae available,

summer formula can be similar to 'grow'. The CF for

it is important to note that using eg a

warm, high light conditions is usually lower to allow for increased

"Bloom" formula will not suddenly force vegetative plants to

transpiration and water uptake.

commence flowering and fruiting, any more than

The differences between the two sets of formulae becomes more

using a "Summer" formula produces fine weather. The differences

extreme the further the grower is from the equator,

between the formulae is simply to allow the

and obviously depends on the crop being grown. For example a

nutrient solution to remain balanced for longer periods, while

Norwegian tomato grower is likely to make bigger

estimating the likely rate of removal of certain ions

changes to their nutrient solution during the year, than a lettuce

from solution under different conditions.

grower in Singapore.

In general, as plants grow from being vegetative to flowering and

The difference between growing in media and drain to waste,

fruiting, the uptake of potassium and phosphorus

compared to recirculating solution as in NFT, is mainly

increases in proportion to nitrogen. Therefore a 'Bloom' formula will

due to the CF and the fact that nutrients do not become unbalanced in

typically have more potassium or a higher K:N

media systems to the extent that they can in

ratio than the equivalent 'Grow' formula. Other changes can result

NFT. Generally solutions used for media and drain to waste are run

from the increased K:N ratio, the pH of the formu-lation

at lower CF than if the same solution was running

can become slightly lower, the working CF may become higher, and

in a recirculating solution culture system. For example a capsicum

the amount of magnesium supplied can

grower using rockwool may apply nutrient solution

also increase to avoid potassium induced magnesium deficiency,

at a CF 16, whereas in NFT the same solution would be used at CF

common for example on tomatoes with heavy fruit

25. This difference is due to the solution applied

loads. Conversely a 'Grow' formula will provide a higher N:K ratio,

being at a different CF to the 'root zone', and the drainage solution in

slightly lower CF at the same dilution, and less

media systems. Some media are reported to

extreme variation between the ratios.

influence the retention or chemical nature of the applied nutrient

Plants growing under low light conditions and cold temperatures

solution especially the pH, but this is often only a

usually take up extra potassium, and tolerate a higher


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minor problem when using new material, and in the case of pH

Under certain conditions, for example if alternating between 'A' and

alteration is easily managed. In reality, there should be

'B' stock solutions in drain to waste, it is useful if

no difference between nutrient solutions used for different growing

both stock solutions each have the same CF when diluted for use. In

systems other than the working CF, and the

this situation the ratio of potassium nitrate in A to

frequency of replacement.

B is adjusted until the CF are the same. Normally, this is not

Strength and Dilution

important, and the CF of 'B' is usually about 1.5 or 2


times the CF of 'A' if potassium nitrate is not divided between A and

There is a physical and chemical limit to the amount of salts which

B. When both are diluted equally the correct CF

can be dissolved into nutrient stock solution. This

will result.

limit, the saturation value, is different for each salt, and restricts most

Buying Pre-Made or Make Your Own

formulations to a maximum dilution rate of 500 -1000


times. This value varies depending on how the formula is split

It was commonly suggested by nutrient manufacturers that it was

between A and B, and the predominant salts used,

false economy if not disastrous for mere growers to

for example, much more calcium nitrate can be dissolved into 1 litre

attempt to make their own nutrient formulations. Often these

of water than potassium nitrate. Above the

suggestions were prompted by commercial interests, and

saturation value for a particular salt, the salt remains in crystal form

the few failures that occurred in growers making their own nutrients

and does not dissociate in solution. A useful

were capitalised on and used as examples of why

practice to overcome this limitation is to split the potassium nitrate

growers should only trust 'reputable' nutrient manufacturers.

requirement of the formula equally between the A

However, there are significant cost benefits to making your own

and B solutions - as potassium nitrate has the lowest saturation value

nutrient formulations, there is great flexibility, and if

of the major salts, this increases the potential

done correctly growers are likely to end up with a better formula.

concentration of the formula above what could be achieved if all the

There are of course advantages and disadvantages to both situations.

potassium nitrate was in part A or B.

Buy Pre-Made If . . .

Solution Balancing

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You can not obtain all the correct nutrient salts at an economical

You can handle the calculations and you have the correct

price or acceptable quality.

information.

You do not have weighing equipment capable of weighing down to

You want to maintain flexibility.

about 5g (small amounts for trace elements are

You get nutrient analysis done every so often and you are

weighed out in large amounts and the stock solutions diluted into A

confident you know what to do.

or B)
You do not have the time to weigh out salts and dissolve them.
Good brands are available which you have used successfully, and

Memahami

the price difference to change isn't warranted.

( Decoding Nutrient Solutions )- Mohammad

You do not see the need to change your formula during growth.

Abdul Rahman

You don't have the information or understand the calculations

Kandungan

Unsur

dalam

Baja

By on Wednesday, 5 June 2013 at 12:00

involved in making your own nutrient formula.


You don't trust your own ability to make a correct decision.
You like to have someone else to blame if things go wrong.
Make Your Own If . . .

Plants require nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), along
with other elements known as macro- and micronutrients, to grow
well. In the wild, plants send out roots and try to find usable sources
of these elements. In a garden, these nutrients are usually supplied

You can spare the time.


You want to save money, where salts are available and cheap
with good quality.
You want to optimise your nutrient solution so you are not
dumping so frequently - save money again.
You have the equipment to weigh and measure salts.
You would like to customise your solution to crop growth and
environment to get better results.

(one way or another) by the gardener via fertilizers. With fertilizers,


the gardener adds material that contains the desired elements in
forms that are either immediately available to the plant, such as is the
case with many nutrient salts, or will break down gradually over time
to become available to the plant, as organic materials tend to do. In
either case it is in the best interest of the gardener to have some idea
of the nutritional value of the fertilizer being added, both to make
sure that they dont overfeed or insufficiently feed their plants, and to
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make sure that they arent adding several sources of one element and

oxide is 83% elemental K, so a final N-P-K value of 14 would

not enough of another.

indicate a fertilizer that is 11.62% K (0.83 x 14 = 11.62).

Nutrient solutions are generally based on true solutions, although the

While knowing that the composition of our solute is 10% N, 2.18% P

math works out the same even if they are mixtures instead.

and 11.62% K tells us some useful information about the proportions

A solution is made of at least two substances. The majority of the

of what we are putting into the water to make our solution,

solution will be the solvent (in aqueous solutions, like those used in

concentration is another critical factor. As this is a pretty potent

gardening, the solvent used is water). The substance dissolved into

nutrient, the difference between mixing 1 mg per liter and 1 tsp (5

the water is known as the solute. The amount of solute in a solution

mg) per liter makes for a very different experience for the plants (this

determines the solutions concentration. To put is simply, the more

is why I recommend at least reading the recommended feeding rates

nutrient added to the water, the stronger the solution becomes.

even if you dont follow them exactly). Just how big of a difference

Knowing what elements (nutrients) a solute (the fertilizer) has, and at

can be shown with a little more math and the numbers we already

what strength they are in, is important to calculating the final nutrient

have.

solution given to the plants. To help with this, fertilizers are marked

1 liter of water weighs 1,000 g. If we add 1 g of solute, the total

with an N-P-K listing values to help gardeners get an idea of how

weight becomes 1,001 g. Since our solute is 1 g of 10% elemental N,

much N, P and K is in the bottle or bag.

we can calculate the weight of the element: 10% of 1 g = 0.1 g.

Parts per hundred is a pretty common way to relate two things,

Since fertilizers are added to in small amounts, and the amount of the

although it is more commonly referred to as percent. For example, a

desired elements are only a fraction of those small amounts, it is

fertilizer with an N-P-K rating of 10-5-14, is made of 10 parts N per

common to use parts per million (ppm) to express how much of each

100 parts of fertilizer. Another way to express that is to say it is 10%

element is in the nutrient solution. Parts per million is used for

N. In the case of N, the N-P-K value listed and the amount of

concentrations smaller than can be easily expressed in parts per

elemental N are the same. For P and K, their N-P-K values are for

hundred (percent), but larger than those commonly expressed in parts

the oxide forms. Phosphorus oxide is 43.6 parts per 100 elemental P,

per billion. To calculate ppm, simply divide the weight of element in

sousing the N-P-K value abovemultiplying 5 by 0.436 will give

solute by the total weight of solution and multiply that total by one

the elemental P value of 2.18 parts per hundred, or 2.18%. Potassium

million. So, using the data from our example for N:


(0.1 g N / 1,001 g) x 1,000,000 = 100 ppm elemental N.
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We can also calculate the value of P and K using this same formula.

Also note that the equation can be reversed to estimate a dose from a

(0.0218 g P / 1,001 g) x 1,000,000 = 22 ppm elemental P

desired ppm. If a concentration of 150 ppm of N is the goal (and

(0.1162 g K / 1,001mg) x 1,000,000 = 116 ppm elemental K

were using our sample solute of 10% N), then:

So, if 1 g of this nutrient is added per liter, the nutrient solution will

150 ppm = 10% x 1,000,000 x amount to add / 1,000 g (ish).

have 100 ppm N, 22 ppm P and 116 ppm Kwhich is in the ballpark

This reduces to:

for many plants that arent actively fruiting. Since plants can survive

150 ppm = 0.1 x 1,000 mg x amount to add.

twice those values, going as high as 2 gm per liter would be

Leading to the answer of:

reasonable to work up to.

1.5 g = amount to add.

Note: if gallons are easier for you to work/mix in, simply multiply

One of the most important statistics to consider in formulating a

the 1 g by 3.78541 to get the amount to add per gallon (in this case,

feeding schedule is the ppm of each element of the final solution. By

3.78541 g).

running the numbers on paper, schedules can be evaluated (even if

Back to our example, if you were to use 1 tsp per liter (or a heaping

they use several different components in concert). Also, not only can

tablespoon per gallon) instead of 1 g, calculating ppm shows how

current feeding schedules be analyzed, but they can be adjusted to

dramatic a difference that makes for your plants. Here is the math:

produce specific ppm solutions for different stages of plant growth.

1 tsp = 5 g.

For those that follow the manufacturers recommended application

Weight of N in solute = 0.5 g (10% of 5 g)

schedule, these types of calculations should already have been into

Weight of P is solute = 0.109 g (2.18% of 5 g)

account. However, for those gardeners who like to experiment while

Weight of K in solute = 0.581 g (11.62% of 5 g)

trying to perfect their own feeding regimen concentrations, these

Total weight of solution = 1,005 g (1,000 g water + 5 g solute)

types of calculations can be critical.

So,

Oh, and if math isnt your strong suit, or you would just prefer not to

(0.5 g / 1,005 g) x 1,000,000 = 498 ppm of elemental N

do the calculations yourself, dont despair! There are free nutrient

(0.109 g / 1,005 g) x 1,000,000 = 108 ppm of elemental P

calculators online that can be used to compute the ppm values with a

(0.581 g / 1,005 g) x 1,000,000 = 578 ppm of elemental K

minimal effort on your part.

This will almost certainly cause overfeeding problems.

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humic substances. In order to isolate fulvic acid, it must undergo an
additional extraction process using either acid or cold purified water
to separate it from humic acid. (For best results in the garden, use
only high-grade, non-chemical, cold-water extracted fulvic acid.)
Humic substancessuch as fulvic and humic acidcommonly used

PULVIC/HUMIC

ACID-

Mohammad

Abdul

Rahman
By on Wednesday, 5 June 2013 at 12:06

in hydroponic and horticultural applications are sourced from areas


rich with deposits known as humates. These humates include
materials like peat moss, lignite, Leonardite and humic shale, and
they are found in areas rich with mineraloid deposits, such as aquatic
ecosystems, bogs, marshes and dry lakebeds. The quality of the

A Golden Opportunity: Fulvic Acid/humic acid


Fulvic acid is one of the most well-balanced and vital minerals on
Earth. Dubbed the miracle molecule due to the sheer number of
functions it performs, fulvic acid is a truly unparalleled compound.
The plant and animal kingdoms rely on its benefits to support all life
on the planet.
Originating from the word fulvus (Latin for yellow), fulvic acid is
named for its natural golden honey color. Fulvic acid is a natural
acidic organic polymer. This means that it is not a single molecule,
but rather a combination of many different molecules with similar
chemical properties. Fulvic acids, along with humic acids, are
compounds found in humus organic material that was metabolized
by fungi and microorganisms over millions of yearsand are some
of the most biologically rich substances available. Thanks to its
molecular structure, fulvic acid has specific advantages over other

products is directly related to the source of the humates from which


they were derived. Fulvic acids extracted from Leonardite prove to
be the best quality products on the market due to their high
percentage of fulvic content.
While fulvic acid is often recognized as an ingredient in several
horticultural products, many people might not realize what specific
features and benefits this powerful supplement has to offer. The
simple incorporation of fulvic acid into an existing nutrient schedule
promotes a noticeable difference in the health, vitality and overall
productivity of indoor and outdoor gardens.
One of the most important features that fulvic acid offers the
horticulture industry is its natural ability to chelate nutrients. The
word chelate is derived from the Greek word chele, which literally
means claw. Fulvic acid acts like a claw to bond with macro- and
micronutrients that might otherwise be inaccessible to the plant.
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Without the help of the fulvic acid, many of the larger molecules that

trace elements and minerals become readily available to the plant.

are unable to permeate cell walls would not make it into the plant

When used as a root drench in soil gardens, fulvic acid helps

and get washed away in runoff water. However, once minerals fuse

improve soil structure by delivering macro- and micronutrients

with the fulvic acid, they become bioactive and chemically available

directly to the root zone, encouraging healthy growth. If used as a

to the plant where they are needed most. This is because fulvic acid

foliar spray, fulvic acid will increase the amount of internodes or bud

due to its low molecular weightcan easily penetrate the cell

sites on a flowering plant. It also promotes sturdy stalks and stems

walls of plant tissue, allowing the larger nutrient molecules to

while correcting minor deficiencies that might be present within the

piggyback their way into the plant. Once the chelated minerals are

plant.

inside the plant, the fulvic acid acts as a delivery system to transport

Another benefit of fulvic acid is that it increases drought tolerance in

the nutrients to the parts of the plant where they will serve the best

plants. By increasing the permeability of the cell walls in plant

functions.

matter, fulvic acid allows for plants to intake more water. With the

The increased uptake of nutrients with the help of fulvic acid

heightened capacity to retain water, plants stay quenched for longer

maximizes the efficiency of the nutrients in any synthetic or organic

periods of time. This drought tolerance and water retention aid in

fertilizer (amazingly, one fulvic acid molecule has the capacity to

monetary, as well as resource, savings. Also, hydrated plants are

transport dozens upon dozen of minerals into the cells of a plant). It

happy plants.

naturally increases the plants metabolism and increases enzymatic

As if that is not enough, the list of functions that fulvic acid performs

activity, making food more available to satiate the plants growing

goes on. It acts as a highly effective natural immunity booster for

appetite. Furthermore, it helps the plant retain and fully utilize

plants. By infusing plants with an abundance of minerals and trace

nutrients. This heightened efficiency results in fewer nutrients

elements, fulvic acid helps to boost their resistance to a host of

needed over time, which saves money for gardeners!

environmental problems, such as disease, mold, fungi and insect

Fulvic acid can be used indoor or outdoor in soil or hydroponic

infestation.

systems, and is completely safe for organic gardeners. It can be

Fulvic acid also works as a natural detoxifier and protective agent. It

added to a nutrient solution and watered in as a root drench, or it can

removes toxicity from poisonous herbicides and pesticides from the

be applied as a foliar feed. Fulvic acid also contains over 70

plants system. It acts as a natural antioxidant that neutralizes free

nourishing trace minerals and when mixed with water, these vital
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radicals by scavenging for unpaired positive or negative electrons

supplementing a normal nutrient regimen with fulvic acid, farmers

and supplying them with an opposite charge.

can increase the fertility of their crops and encourage bountiful

Fulvic acid is also an excellent pH buffer that will slightly lower pH,

harvests that yield fruits and veggies rich with nutritional sustenance.

help to stabilize drastic fluctuations and retain a steady pH balance.

For yields that are worth their weight in gold, try fulvic acida

This is important because plants rely on a specific pH range to make

golden opportunity for your garden.

use of vital nutrients. If the pH solution of a nutrient mix is too low,


or acidic, certain macro- and micronutrients are rendered useless to a
plant and it might become deficient in those minerals. If the pH level

Root Growth Stimulation and Microorganisms

of the feed solution is too high, or alkaline, the mixture could

-Mohammad Abdul Rahman

potentially burn plants. An ideal pH range for most plants lies within

By on Wednesday, 5 June 2013 at 11:54

the range of 5.5 to 6.5.


Simple, yet complex, the myriad functions of fulvic acid is

There is no questioning the importance a healthy root system plays in

astounding. In prehistoric times on Earth, the planet was rich with

creating vibrant plants. After all, the root mass is the main channel

humic substances and fulvic acid was abundant in the natural

for nutrient absorption, the foundation for structural integrity and the

environment. Dinosaurs roamed the land and lush verdant plants

area where the largest population of beneficial microorganisms can

grew to gargantuan sizes. Environmental conditions were prime for

be found. The more we learn about the physiology of the plants

oversized life forms. Through evolution, these legendary giant

roots, the more we realize how vital these beneficial microorganisms

species of plants and animals have gone extinct, but they left their

arethere would be virtually no plant life on the planet without their

biologically rich remains locked within geological burial grounds.

valuable symbiotic relationship with our plants. Throughout the

Over the millennia, they have become the raw materials of the fulvic

years, indoor horticulturalists have developed many products and

acid we rely on and utilize in our modern gardens. Although plants

techniques to promote and enhance the root growth in their gardens.

no longer grow to the mammoth proportions that they reached 65

Every one of these products or techniques is based on the same

million years ago, growers, gardeners and green thumbs worldwide

philosophy:

can mimic what Mother Nature perfected in ancient times. By

microorganisms found in the rhizosphere (the narrow region of soil

attempting

to

mimic,

enhance

or

supplement

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affected by root secretions). By using certain additives, a grower can

microorganisms use the carbohydrates for energy, which allows them

maximize the size of their plants root mass and provide a larger

to function and reproduce. This is why carbohydrate supplements are

surface area for moisture and nutrient absorption.

so popular in the indoor gardening industry. By directly

Additives that mimic

supplementing carbohydrates to the root zone, a grower can

One of the many things plants gain from their symbiotic partnership

accelerate the reproductive rate of beneficial microorganisms while

with microorganisms is accelerated nutrient uptake. This is a result

allowing the plant to retain a good portion of the carbohydrates

of by-product enzymes produced by the microorganisms. Enzymes

normally secreted through its roots. The carbohydrates that remain in

are catalysts that accelerate the rate at which chemical reactions

the plant can be used for other purposes like creating terpenes and

occur. In this case, the chemical reaction is the uptake of nutrients by

terpenoids, which are imperative for promoting flavor, smell and

the plants roots. Your favorite enzyme formula designed for root

essential oils. However, growers that supplement carbohydrates

enhancement is most likely a concentration of specific enzymes

should always be on the look out for any sign of a pathogenic

secreted by beneficial microorganisms. Hydroponic horticulturalists

microorganism infection, as these microorganisms

gain the largest benefit from these enzyme formulations, especially if

carbohydrates as well. Supplementing carbohydrates to pathogens

they use hydroponic systems that have no medium that would

will accelerate their reproduction and can be devastating, so growers

naturally harbor beneficial microbes. Growers who supplement

should immediately stop supplementing carbohydrates at the first

enzyme formulas are essentially bypassing the microbes themselves

sign of a potential pathogenic infection.

and directly placing specific enzymes in the root zone.

Supplying additional microorganisms

Additives that enhance

The most logical way to promote additional microorganisms into the

Both parties must benefit for a relationship to be symbiotic. We

growing medium is to directly supplement them. Almost every

know that beneficial microbes colonize on the root zone, thus

nutrient manufacturer has designed some sort of beneficial

preventing infections from pathogenic fungus, and produce enzymes

microorganism supplement, and the most common strains of

that speed nutrient absorption. But how do the microorganisms

beneficial microorganisms used can be broken down into three

benefit from the relationship? The answer is sugarsmore

categories: trichoderma, mycorrhiza and beneficial bacteria. All three

specifically, carbohydrates that are translocated from the plant

types of supplements come as a liquid, a powder or in enclosed

(usually from the leaves) to the roots for the microbes to feed on. The

packets that resemble tea bags. Liquid microorganism supplements

feed on

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are usually designed, in both their composition and pH value,

the soil. Secondly, trichodermas production of cellulase allows the

specifically

form

fungus to penetrate the cells in a plants roots. When the plant senses

microorganism supplements have a longer shelf life than their liquid

this, it turns on its natural defenses, which help boost the plants

counterparts, and they are more compatible with soil or coco coir.

immune system. Since trichoderma cause the plant no real harm,

The packets are suitable for both hydroponic and soil applications,

both parties benefittrichoderma gets sugars from the roots and the

and have about the same shelf life as the powder formulas. No matter

plant gets a heightened resistance to unwanted pests.

which form you decide to use, always make sure to check the

Mycorrhiza

expiration date. As with food expiration dates, this date is not an

Mycorrhiza literally means fungus-root, and it is this fungus strain

absolute (not every one of the strains of beneficial microorganisms

that is the true definition of a symbiotic relationship (over 90% of

will die on that date); however, the formula will be less effective if it

plant species in nature form a symbiotic relationship with these

is way past its prime.

amazing creatures). These specialized fungi are essentially

Trichoderma

extensions of the root system, stretching far into the depths of the

Trichoderma is a genus of fungi found in all soils. Members feed on

soil. In fact, mycorrhizal fungi can increase the absorbing surface

other fungi and cellulose by releasing chitinase enzymes, which

area of a plants roots by 100 to 1000 times, which greatly improves

break down chitin (the main component of fungal cell walls), and

access to soil resources.

cellulase enzymes, which break down cellulose. Trichodermas

As with trichoderma, it is the enzymes mycorrhizae produce that

symbiotic relationship with plants is directly related to those two

make them so invaluable to their plant partners. Mycorrhizae release

enzymes. In environments where there is an abundance of

enzymes that dissolve otherwise hard to capture nutrients, such as

pathogenic microbes, which could cause disease in plants,

organic nitrogen, phosphorus and iron. The intricate web of

trichoderma will produce more chitinase enzymes and rely on the

mycorrhizal fungus captures and assimilates nutrients for the plant,

pathogens as their main food source. This is why many growers add

and in return, the plants roots secrete sugars or carbon for the fungi

trichoderma to their medium as a precautionary measure against any

to feed on. Mycorrhizae can be broken down further into

pathogens in or around the plants roots. The other enzyme, cellulase,

subcategories; of these, two are commonly used in indoor

can be beneficial in two ways. First, it makes certain nutrients

horticulture: endomycorrhiza and ectomycorrhiza.

available to the plant for uptake as it breaks down organic material in

Endomycorrhiza

for

hydroponic

systems.

The

powder

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Endomycorrhizae are mycorrhizae whose hyphae (the branching

manufacturers have jumped on the beneficial bacteria bandwagon as

filamentous structures of a fungus) penetrate the plant cells. The

well, since certain bacteria (bacillus subtilis, for example) will

hyphae do not penetrate the interior of the cell, but essentially turn

consume pathogenic fungus on the surface of a plants leaves as well

the cell membrane inside out. This increases the contact surface area

as in the soil. Many insects also refuse to feed or lay their eggs on

between the hyphae and the cytoplasm, helping facilitate the transfer

plants that have been sprayed with beneficial bacteria formulas.

of nutrients between them.

Just as every garden is different, every gardeners methods and

Ectomycorrhiza

techniques will differ greatly. However, regardless of the technique

Ectomycorrhizae are fungi that bear a hyphal sheath that surrounds

or method used, it is crucial for every indoor horticulturist to

the root tip. Ectomycorrhiza also have a Hartig net, which is

stimulate the growth going on below the surface. Current innovative

basically an extended hypha that surrounds the outer layer of the root

horticultural products allow growers to mimic, enhance or

mass. It is the Hartig net that allows the transfer of nutrients, carbon

supplement microorganisms, orbetter yetcombine all three

and sugars, and completes the symbiotic relationship. An interesting

approaches to supercharge the complex microscopic ecosystem that

fact about ectomycorrhiza is that plants sharing the same soil can

is the foundation for plant health and vitality.

actually transfer nutrients to one another through the ectomycorrhizal


mycelium network.
Beneficial bacteria

SENARAI BENIH / JENAMA / KOD / BERAT /

Beneficial bacteria have made a strong impression in the indoor

HARGA

horticultural industry because they can be used as a foliar treatment,

By Wizan Zaini on Monday, 4 March 2013 at 23:48

as well as a soil or medium additive. When added to the soil or


medium, beneficial bacteria quickly colonize and feed off organic
matter or pathogenic microorganisms. As they break down organic

CILI

matter, they turn it into soluble compounds that are more easily
absorbed

by

plants.

The

consumption

of

the

pathogenic

microorganisms is beneficial because pathogens that are eaten cant

Kulai 568 : 10gm (1600biji) : RM20/paket


Kulai 568 : 80gm : RM130-RM180/tin

adversely affect the plant. Organic fungicide and pesticide


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Hup Nong : Cili 151:RM48
Known-You Seed : Cili S469 (1500biji) : 10gm:RM90

Leckat Seed : Kailan 11 : RM23/paket

(3000biji) :20gm:RM180
Leckat Seeds : f1 Abang Pedas 9000 :10gm:RM70

Tips ringkas penanaman terung fertigasi


BENDI

By Izam Ijam on Friday, 12 April 2013 at 20:54

Leckat Seed : 989 Jackpot (200gm) : RM95/tin

semai biji benih dalam dulang semaian lebihkan 50% dari yang kita
nak tanam kerana kadar percambahan benih terung biasanya sangat
kurang.
atau semai terus di dalam polibeg sebaris dari baris2 yang kita mahu

BENIH TIMUN

tanam.
Leckat Seed : Symphony 747 (100gm) : RM180/tin

setelah 25 -28 hari semaian.pindahkan anak benih tersebut.kalau

Hup Nong : Timun 108 : RM

yang semai dalam polibeg pisahkan anak benih tersebut,ambil yang

Hup Nong : Timun 115 : RM

elok sahaja pembesaranya.

Known-You-Seeds:Timun S252 New Swallow 20gm:RM50(700-

dripkan baja AB pada kadar 2.0 sehingga agak lembab media

800biji)

tersebut,siram 2 kali sehari pagi dan petang 2 minggu pertama


selama 5 minit sekali siraman.
ganti anak pokok yang rosak atau mati jika ada.

ROCKMELON

apabila masuk minggu ketiga tambah siraman ke 3 kali sehari dan


Sakata : Glamour: 100 biji : RM18-25

turunkan ec kepada 1.8..seterusnya jika pokok sudah mencapai

Known-You-Seeds:Golden Langkawi 20gm:RM240(700-800biji)

ketinggian 2 kaki,buang tunas air atau tunas ketiak sehingga cabang

Chiap Hup Seeds : Melon Appollo

Y..

20gm:RM190(700-800biji)

setelah buang semua tunas,tambahkan siraman kepada 4 kali sehari


KAILAN

selama 5 minit pada kadar ec 2.5.


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apabila bunga telah kelihatan,buang semua daun bawah,

ulat buah..suka korek buah.

dan apabila putik telah keluar perhatikan buah yang pada tangkai

burung..kalau kebun banyak ulat burung makan ulat sambil jamah

yang pertama sahaja di ambil..yang lain buang.

buah.

1 tangkai bunga maksimum 2 biji sahaja di ambil kerana buah yang

_________________________________________________________

lain agak kecil.seeloknya hanya 1 buah sahaja setiap putik..


tambahkan siraman mengikut keperluan pokok dan cuaca..
ec maksimum 3.5 ec..
apabila buah peringkat ketiga selepas 2 peringkat di petik,
masukkan mg dalam tangki siraman pada kadar 500g=600g air..
buat 2 minggu sekali bertujuan untuk mencantikkan warna buah
terung.
setelah usia pokok mencecah 6 bulan selepas tanam,kalau nak bela
lagi pun boleh.
cantas pokok dan kurangkan cabang2 nya..masukkan ammonium
nitrat atau urea pada kadar 1 kg= 600g sekali sahaja.
pokok terung akan tunas dan buah semula.akan tetapi buah pada gred
c lah...
serangga pula.
white fly..biasa bawah daun akan jadi jelaga hitam kalau banyak
sangat.
hamama merah..daun akan berkeruping keperangan
thrips..paling jahat.buah jadi karat dan daun rosak.
ulat daun..paling kuat makan daun..
ulat batang..batang akan mati lembik dan kemudian kering,patah

Nasihat berguna untuk petani cili fertigasi.


By Mohd Zaki Bin Yahya on Saturday, 18 February 2012 at 11:34
Dari Artikel Asal: http://mohdashraf.com
Tahukah anda, bahawa tanaman cili adalah tanaman yang sukar
untuk ditanam?Sebab tu harga cili mahal.
Jika cili mudah di tanam, maka harga cili mesti murah dari dulu lagi.
Tanaman cili fertigasi bukan boleh dibuat sebagai main-main. Anda
perlu sedar yang anda perlukan masa untuk belajar tanam cili ni.
Modal yang diperlukan juga agak tinggi. Ada yang sanggup
keluarkan wang simpanan, tapi tiada wang untuk modal pusingan.
Kena buat perancangan yang teliti. Jangan hanya budget untuk
modal setup sistem fertigasi sahaja.
Tiada yang mudah. Walaupon meracun 3 hari sekali, tetapi tetap ada
yang kena serangan penyakit. Semua terserah kepadaNya. Kita dah
berusaha sebaik mungkin untuk jaga pokok tersebut.
Saya tanak ada yang sanggup melabur beribu-ribu ringgit hanya
kerana tertarik dengan hasil jualan yang akan diperolehi kelak.
Tidak semestinya anda dapat jual hasil dengan harga yang tinggi.
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Harga cili pernah jatuh hingga RM0.80 / kg. Apa yang anda perlu

waktu itu, racun cukup, kawasan bersih, setiap langkah penjagaan

buat jika harga serendah itu? Bagi saya, cili ni bagaikan pasaran

dah buat, sekarang ni semuanya bergantung kepadaNya.

saham yang turun naik harganya. InsyaAllah jika anda bersabar, akan

Kalau dah rezeki kita, insyaAllah dapat la hasil yang tinggi.

tiba masanya pokok anda akan mengeluarkan hasil yang tinggi dan

Dalam masa yang sama, pencarian ilmu tu yang paling penting. Ilmu

harga pada masa tu juga tinggi. Itu semua ketentuan pasaran dan

yang kita tau ni, umpama setitik air di lautan. Banyak lagi ilmu yang

tuhan saja yang dapat berikah hasil yang tinggi atau rezeki yang

kita kena pelajari.

banyak kepada anda. Terserah kepadaNya.

Bagi saya, tiada perkataan gagal, yang ada cuma belum berjaya.

Doa yang paling penting.

Kalau dah berputus asa, masa tu la dikatakan gagal.

Saya tahu post saya kali ini akan sedikit menutup periuk nasik saya,

Thomas Edison pon kena buat 100 ribu percubaan baru dia berjaya

tapi, saya lebih gembira jika ramai yang tangguhkan dulu untuk

cipta lampu. Ada 99, 999 percubaan dia yang belum berjaya. Kalau

ceburi bidang pertanian kerana sedar tentang jenit perih untuk

dia berputus asa, mesti kita tadak lampu sekarang ni.

memulakan sesuatu projek.


Jika anda tidak mampu bahagikan masa di ladang, atau tiada
pembantu yang dapat membantu anda, tangguhkan dulu projek cili

PANDUAN SEMAIAN BIJI BENIH - oleh Icham

fertigasi anda. Seeloknya, simpan dulu wang anda di dalam saham

Rizqqah

amanah.

By on Wednesday, 3 April 2013 at 16:27

Bila tiba masa yang sesuai, baru anda mulakan projek. Ada
dikalangan rakan-rakan saya yang gagal dalam pusingan yang
pertama saja kerana terpedaya dengan cerita penanam cili yang dah

Panduan semaian:

berjaya (mesti ada cerita dia tak berjaya, tetapi hanya diceritakan

Benih direndam dalam Chitosan selama 4 jam...lepas tu toskan...air

tentang kisah kejayaan saja).

chitosan tu dilarutkan lagi dan semburkan atas peatmoss...lepas tu

Sedikit tips dari saya, jika anda kurang berjaya dalam tanaman cili

bubuh benih cili di dalam lubang tray dan ditimbus setakat

terutamanya dan projek agro khasnya,

3mm...sembur lagi air chitosan supaya lembap sikit...dan tutup dalam

Bila kita dah buat sesuatu projek, dalam masa pengetahuan kita yang

silvershine selama 4 hari...letak dulang di tempat yg redup...lepas 4

ada pada waktu itu, baja kita dah bagi cukup ikut pengetahuan pada
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hari buka ss...mula dari dua daun kasi siraman baja anak SRI separuh

atas tanah, alas denagn guni, isi kotak tu denagn tanah yang 2 guni tu

dose dua kali seminggu...setiap 10-12 hari sembur dgn Plantbac

di gaul sebati, campur pasir guni setinggi 5 inci atau lebih. Buat

campur chitosan...AACTdicampur air tahi cacing sembur seminggu

peneduh macam rph, korek parit sikit keliling peneduh supaya air

sekali....pencahayaan buat ikut peringkat pertumbuhan...last 3 hari

hujan tak masuk kat kotak.

sebelum pindah baru buat pelasakkan full


Pokok yang nak di tanam kat kotak tu, ambil pokok rumput biasa,
sebaiknya sebelum di rendam , benih di rawat dulu jika tidak pakai

biji gandum atau padi burung, biji kacang hijau, tabor jarang2 biji

chitosan, rawatan buleh gunakan racun fungus spt provicur atau

tadi berselang nagn rumput sikit2.siram pagi petang, biarkan

mancozeb...rendan ikut dose 4 kali untuk spray rendan sekadar 20

gandum dan kacang serta rumput tumbuh sendiri, boh baja sikit2 biar

minit. atau buleh gunakan clorox dengan kadar 3 chlorox, 2 sukatan

naik subur sikit, baja organic. Biarkan pokok tu matang dan pupus

air....selama 20 minit juga...bilas dan rendam chitosan ..atau buleh

sendiri3-4 bulan, dh nak matang jangan siram lagi, biar kering

rendam multivitamin baby 5-6 jam bersama air bersih denagn kadar

sendiri, dah pupus, potong batang yang tertinggal separas tanah akar,

4-6 titik untuk 1/2 lit air rendaman....benih cepat tumbuh dan sehat

rumput pun potong atas jer biar semua akar2 dalam tanah.ambil
semua tanah berakar dan hancurkan, akar2 yang panjang cincang

MYCORRHIZAL FUNGUS-Mohammad Abdul


Rahman
By on Wednesday, 7 September 2011 at 23:46

biar halus, tanah hancur bersama akar tu di jemur biar kering sikit
supaya senang nak di hancurkan lagi, ayak dengan jarring dawai
nyamuk hijau.ambil yang pass jarring tu..yang kasar atas
jarring buang, kalu ada akr tas jarring, gumpal2 biar hancur sikit
serbuk yang kita dapat tu mengandungi banyak spores mycorrhizal,

Cara2 penghasilan fungus Mycorrhizal

simpan dalam bekas tempat kering, tutup bekas.

bahan:

Bila nak guna tabor dalam lubang media yang kita buat untuk masuk

dua guni tanah dari akar pokok akasia dan juga dari pohon buluh

anak dari tray, tabor juga keliling sebelum tutup lubangatau

sediakan tapak tempat penghasilan

lembabkan sikit media akar , golek2 akar anah benih pada serbuk

kawasan lapang di kebun, buat lah kotak kayu dinding saja empat

mycorrhizal ( boh dalam pinggan atau dulang senang nak golek)

segi 3 x 3 x 4 -6 inci tinggi,atau besar terpulanglah, letak kotak tu

..beres
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They inoculated seedlings before transplanting them into field plots.
kita guna tanah dari pada akar akasia dan buluh sebab mycorrhizal

One treatment group contained only the AM fungus, Glomus

selalunya banyak simbiosis pada akar pokok tu..jadi kita ambil

intraradices; another treatment comprised a mixture of three other

benihlah sebagai starter untuk di biakan dengan tanaman tadi.

types of AM fungi; and a third, uninoculated group served as the


control. Plants were transferred into high-phosphorus-soil field plots
receiving either composted dairy cow manure or conventional

Beneficial Fungi Boost Pepper Growth

chemical fertilizer.

By Jim Core

Results showed that inoculating peppers with AM fungi boosted fruit

January 16, 2003

yield. The best results were with the fungus mixture, which increased

Beneficial fungi that live on plant roots increased green bell pepper

yields each year by 14 to 23 percent in plots with added compost,

yields by as much as one-third in studies by Agricultural Research

and up to 34 percent one year in plots with chemical fertilizers.

Service scientists.

Proper selection of an AM inoculum is essential, according to Douds,

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonize the roots of most crop

and a mixture of fungi increases the chance of having the right

plants and help plants take in phosphorus and other nutrients from

fungus present for a given plant.

the soil. AM fungi have been diminished by modern agricultural

Past studies have shown that AM fungi benefit plants grown in low-

practices such as tillage, but in many instances can still make

phosphorus soil, and that high-phosphorus soils make it harder for

important contributions to productivity, particularly in organic

the fungi to grow on plant roots. However, this studys results

farming and other systems where little if any chemical fertilizers and

suggest that using AM fungi in high-phosphorus soils is a

pesticides are used.

management option that shouldnt be ignored.

David D. Douds, a microbiologist at the ARS Eastern Regional


Research Center in Wyndmoor, Pa., studied four different types of
AM fungi in three plantings from 1997 to 1999. He collaborated with
Carolyn Reider, a horticulturist at the Rodale Institute Experimental
Farm in Kutztown, Pa., to measure the fungis effects on pepper
yield.

BOOSTER SEMASA BERBUNGA/BERBUAH Mohammad Abdul Rahman


By on Wednesday, 30 January 2013 at 11:36
Boost When
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the Time is Right:

been much advancement in the harvesting and extraction methods

Stage-specific Amendments

used by guano suppliers that help preserve the powerful elements


that were lost due to outdated methods. One extraction method is

To get the most out of their plants, gardeners use nutrient additives,

guano tea, a liquid guano formula that is chock full of the beneficial

soil amendments and foliar treatments

nutrients and micro-organisms found in the guano. Liquid guano

specifically designed for particular stages in a plants life cycle. Of

extracts like this one are more easily absorbed by the plants and give

course there are plenty of choices available, but this author wants

growers the option to foliar or root feed. Unlike guano directly

you to know about the high-performance organic options

amended to the soil or medium, liquid guano also gives gardeners


more control over dosage.

In order to increase production and optimise efficiency within their


indoor gardens, horticulturists use various stage-specific nutrient

Kelp extracts

amendments. The most common example of these is blooming and

As with guano, kelp suppliers have made much advancement in

ripening additives designed specifically to boost a plants fruiting or

extracting and preserving the beneficial elements and hormones

flowering stage. Organic growers have also become more in tune

found in kelp. Although kelp was once rarely used as a bloom

with the benefits of stage-specific feeding programs. As our

booster, some of the kelp formulations available today are

knowledge of organic supplements expands (along with our

specifically designed to do just that. Kelp extracts specific to bloom

technologies used to extract the vital compounds), more stage-

stimulation encourage rapid cell division during flowering and

specific organic supplements are becoming available for the high-

increase the production of specialised sugars found in fruit or

performance organic grower.

flowers. It is important to select a kelp formula that is designed


specifically for blooming, or you could end up promoting vigorous

Guano

growth during your plants ripening stage. Kelp extract, if harvested

Bat and seabird guano have been used to boost fruiting and flowering

at the correct time or in a particular manner, can also contain a

since the beginning of indoor horticulture.

variety of hormones that help trigger flowering and ripening.

High-phosphorous guano helps trigger flowering hormones within


the plant and contributes to an increase in flower sets. There have

Alfalfa extracts
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One of the newer organic extracts to hit the indoor horticulture

methods, allow organic growers to achieve harvests once only

market is alfalfa extracts. Alfalfa has a great

obtained by conventional methods. As more is learned about the

nitrogen-to-carbon ratio, contains a variety of trace elements and has

intricate aspects of plant physiology, new products, methods and

been shown to promote larger flowers. Alfalfa contains triacontanol,

technologies will be created, allowing organic bloom boosters to

a growth hormone that is thought to speed up the rate of

even further evolve.

photosynthesis by increasing the amount of CO2 that a plant can


process. Many studies have shown an increase in flower-site
production and overall yield with the use of alfalfa extract.

MASALAH DAN PENYELESAIAN DALAM


SISTEM

HYDROPONIC

FERTIGATION-

Protein hydrolysate ( FAA)

Mohammad Abdulrhman

Protein hydrolysate is a recent advancement in organic stimulators.

By on Wednesday, 23 January 2013 at 15:15

Protein hydrolysate is essentially organic matter (usually soy protein)


broken down into the essential L-animo acids. Amino acids are the

From time to time, we all strike problems with our hydroponic

building blocks for the proteins and enzymes that directly influence

systems and plants. If we are lucky, its an easily resolved issue that

the structure and metabolism of plants. Supplementing a protein

doesnt cause too much stress. However, some things can baffle even

hydrolysate during a blooming period will enhance the utilisation of

the most experienced grower and thats when a step-by-step

other nutrients, boost the plants immune

approach to troubleshooting is required

system, increase plant respiration and reduce stress. Protein

Most common problems experienced in hydroponic gardens are

hydrolysate is a multifaceted additive that increases fruit and flower

caused by one of four main things: nutrition, the plants growing

production in many different ways. If you are going to try one

environment, pests and pathogens andless frequently encountered

organic stimulator, I recommend a protein

genetic problems. Even though complete, balanced and well-

hydrolysate formula. Whether growing conventionally or organically,

formulated nutrient solutions are used in hydroponics, nutrition can

bloom boosters play an important role in enhancing yields. New and

still be a main area of troubleshooting and one that confuses many

innovative products, teamed with advancements in extraction

inexperienced growers.
Nutrient troubleshooting
81

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Hydroponic systems are reliant on the composition and formulation

Iron deficiency is common under cool growing conditions, where the

of the nutrient solution to supply all the essential elements required

root system might have become saturated or damaged, or where the

for optimal plant growth and yields. However, nutrient solutions are

pH is running high.

complex and their composition changes as mineral ions are extracted

Magnesium

when they flow through the root system. Deficiencies in hydroponic

Magnesium deficiency on crops like tomatoes can be induced by

production are more common than toxicities, as plant uptake of many

high levels of potassium uptake.

elements has the potential to strip out nutrients at a rapid rate,

Calcium

particularly from recirculating solutions. The most common

Calcium deficiency, which shows as tip burn on lettuce and blossom

deficiency problems in hydroponic crops are potassium in fruiting

end rot on tomatoes and peppers, is a calcium transport problem

plants like tomatoes; iron under certain environmental conditions;

within the plant rather than a lack of calcium in the solution. It is

nitrogen in some readily growing, highly vegetative crops; and

induced by environmental conditions like high humidity, which

calcium in many species, such as lettuce, tomatoes and peppers.

restricts transpiration and calcium distribution.

To complicate hydroponic plant nutrition further, deficiencies (as

Salt buildup and EC problems

they occur on different crops) might or might not be the result of an

Salt buildup appears as white or off-white crystalline crusts or

actual deficiency in the nutrient solution. Potassium can certainly be

residues on the surface of growing media and sometimes on the base

stripped from a nutrient solution rapidly as fruit develops and

of plant stems, where it can cause salt burn damage. Certain types of

expands, and because luxury uptake occurs in many crops. However,

media are more prone to this nutrient problem than othersfor

iron, calcium and magnesium deficiencies on leaves and fruit occur

example, those with porous structures and high rates of water loss

even when there is more than a sufficient amount of these elements

are more prone to salt crusting than others. Expanded clay granules

in a solution. These induced deficiencies often fool growers into

and similar media often develop a whitish coating on the surface

thinking there is a problem with the formulation of their nutrient

after a few months use, and this can be common in ebb-and-flow

when the cause is often more complex.

systems. Media beds covered with plastic filmas in the case of

Iron

rockwool slabsrarely develop these salt deposits on the surface, as


the film prevents excessive moisture loss from the media.

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Salt buildup occurs when a media, which has been thoroughly wetted

Some growers prefer to leach excess salts from growing media using

with nutrient solution containing dissolved salts, loses moisture to

plain water; however, this can have negative effects when an actively

evaporation faster than the minerals are taken up by the plants root

growing crop is present, as the sudden drop in osmotic pressure in

system. In this case, the moisture is lost to the atmosphere and the

the root zone triggers a large influx of moisture into the root cells,

minerals stay behind, thus increasing the EC in the media and around

which can result in fruit splitting and soft, weak vegetative growth.

the roots. This salt buildup in the root zone can cause damage both

Flushing growing media with either a specifically designed flushing

through direct contact with the salt crystals around the delicate plant

solution or a nutrient one-third its regular strength is recommended

stem, particularly in seedlings, and by increasing the osmotic

to remove excess salts from the root zone. Carrying this process out

pressure around the plant roots. Luckily, salt buildup is easily dealt

every few weeks might be required in certain hydroponic systems,

with once growers recognize the symptoms: white crusting is the

such as shallow flood-and-drain or tray systems in warm climates

first sign, as is plant growth becoming stunted, dark, hard and

with high evapotranspiration rates, and often between crops if media

unusually slow. As salt accumulation becomes more severe, the stem

is to be reused

area at the base of the plant and roots can be burnt and die back,

Algae

resulting in wilting during the warmer times of day and, later, disease

Most hydroponic growers come across algae sooner or later. It can

attack in these areas.

appear as a green, brown, reddish or black, slimy growth that clings

Regular monitoring of the EC of the nutrient solution draining from

to channels, gullies and pumps or spreads over the surface of damp

the media helps prevent and diagnose salt accumulation problems.

media. Long strings of algae are common in nutrient tanks and return

Ideally the EC of the feed solution should not increase as it flows

channels, and the speed at which this form of plant life can grow and

through the root system. If the EC is increasing as its flows through

multiply is often impressive. Algae usually have earthy or moldy

the root system and out the base of the growing container, then salt

smells, and large volumes of decomposing algae in the nutrient can

buildup is likely to occur. However, even plants fed a low EC

be responsible for unpleasant odors. Algae is a nuisance to any

solution can develop salt accumulation where the atmosphere is dry

grower as it not only looks unsightly, but has the ability to block

and high rates of water loss from a porous media occur. In this case,

drippers, emitter, pumps, return channels and filters. Heavy growth

the media will benefit from some leaching from time to time and a

can even seal off the surface of growing substrates, robbing the roots

thorough clean between crops (or even replacement in severe cases).

of oxygen.
83

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The problem with algaeapart from the appearance and smell

The major causes of root death in hydroponics are suffocation,

problems it can createis not so much that it competes with plant

starvation, pathogens, chemical damage, temperature and EC/pH

roots for nutrients, but that it sucks up dissolved oxygen from the

problems. In hydroponics, suffocation is probably the leading cause

system it blooms, dies and decomposes. This increases the biological

of root death and reduced growth rates. Often, any pathogens present

oxygen demand (BOD) on the system and causes root suffocation

wont attack a healthy root system until it is damaged or weakened

from a lack of oxygen. Decomposing algae might also release toxins

by adverse conditions (such as stagnation or suffocation in the root

as it breaks down and provides a food source for plant pathogenic

zone). A lack of oxygen can be caused by flooding or ponding of the

fungi, which might then multiply to high levels in the system. Algae

nutrient solution, decomposing organic matter in the solution, slow

directly attached to plant root systems can suffocate the roots,

flow rates and too many plants robbing oxygen from the root zone,

making the plants prone to attack by opportunist pathogens like

which is accelerated as conditions become warmer. A lack of oxygen

pythium.

reduces the permeability of roots to water, and toxins will

Control of algae, once established in a hydroponic system, can be

accumulate as the root cells die. Some plants, such as tomatoes, will

difficult. Still, most growers tolerate small amounts of algae in their

attempt to adapt to the lack of oxygen by producing adventitious

systems, provided it does not become excessive. A regular scrub

roots on the lower stem and swelling at the stem base.

between crops will often remove stubborn algae and is often the only

Starvation

control used by commercial growers. Some growers do add

A lack of nutrients will affect the root system, just as it does the top

algaecide products into the nutrient to kill off algae and there are a

of the plant; however, the symptoms are more difficult to observe. A

number of these products on the market. However, since any product

phosphate deficiency will cause the roots to become brown with a

that kills algae (a form of plant life) can also damage young or

reduced number of lateral branches. A lack of calcium will induce a

sensitive root systems, care must be taken with the dose. Also, algae

thin, poorly developed brown root system. Manganese deficiency

will regrow very quickly after applications of most algaecide

will cause a small root system thats much shorter and finer than

products, thus requiring regular applications to maintain good

usual, with some browning of the root tips. Copper deficiency results

control.

in severe underdevelopment of the root zone. Boron deficiency

Root death

causes the root tips to become jelly-like in appearance.


EC and pH
84

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


An electrical conductivity (EC) level that is too high for the crop

olpidium, plasmopara, didymella and verticillium. Others have also

being grown will result in severe stunting of the root system. If the

been reported to cause crop losses; in fact, about 20 fungal, four viral

EC reaches extreme levels, water will be lost from the root cells back

and two bacterial pathogens exist that are commonly associated with

into the nutrient solution to the point where root death will occur.

root diseases in hydroponic vegetable crops. Root pathogens can

This is more common in crops that prefer a lower EC level, such as

infect hydroponic crops from a number of sources, including air,

lettuce.

water, media, insects, infected plant material, seeds and dust.

Likewise, pH levels that are too high or low can induce root damage

Airborne root pathogens are rare, but have been known to occur. A

and nutrient uptake problems. (Still, the pH range that plants can

more common source of infection is soil, which hosts a huge number

tolerate without any negative effects is fairly large.) It has been

of inoculum. Soil can enter a hydroponics system on shoes, as dust in

found that the appearance of the root system differs in hydroponic

the air, in media, on equipment or in water (particularly from

plants that have been grown at different pH levels. Plants grown at a

exposed sources, such as reservoirs, rivers and streams). Insects,

pH of 7.5 and above have a shorter, coarser root system than those

such as shore flies and fungus gnats, can also carry pathogens.

grown at a pH of 5.5. Higher pH levels reduce the availability of

Since many root problems and odd symptoms are caused by

certain elements in solution, mostly iron and manganese, and could

pathogens, and such attacks are often induced by stressed plants,

induce deficiency symptoms.

cultivating a healthy crop is always a growers first line of defense.

Root problems

Ensuring adequate oxygen is present in the root zone throughout the

Root diseases are a major concern for hydroponic growers. This is

hydroponic system is essential. Sometimes environmental or cultural

particularly true of growers who use NFT and other recirculating

problems exist that stress the plants without the growers knowledge.

systems that could quickly transport pathogens to a large number of

Therefore, observing the root zone on a regular basis is vitally

plants. Some pathogens that can attack roots in hydroponic systems

important. In media-based systems, a grower who notices a plant

have symptoms that make them easy to identify (with some practice).

showing signs of wilt or discoloration should pull it out and examine

However, others might not have any symptoms at all. One aspect

the root system. Once any plant has been identified as potentially

these pathogens all have in common is their ability to reduce plant

having a root disease, it should be removed from the cropping area

growth and yield. The most common pathogens that effect roots in

and destroyed. Proper sanitation and hygiene in hydroponic systems

hydroponic production are pythium, phytophthora, fusarium,

is also important for pathogen control. Root pathogens can carry over
85

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


from one crop to the next, so many media or substrate that contained

mineral deficiencies, such as low levels of nitrogen or phosphorus in

an infected plant should be discarded. In areas where there are high

the nutrient solution, can slow flower and fruit development and

populations of root disease pathogens, commercial growers need to

cause drop. Flower drop can also be caused by water stress (either a

consider some form of control, such as treating the water supply with

lack of irrigation or high EC levels).

UV light, H2O2 or ozone.


Fruiting and flowering problems

With the development of high-yielding cultivars, another major

Fruiting crop problems in hydroponics can range from a simple lack

cause of flower and fruitlet drop has become heavy fruit load or

of fruit development to more complex physiological disorders like

excessive vegetative growth. Young, newly developed leaves

blossom end rot. Many growers have experienced fruit with skin

compete for assimilates with the flowers and fruitlets already on the

disorders, such as uneven coloration, blotching, crazing, streaking,

plant. If assimilates are transported to these new leaves at the

silvering and other unidentified spots. Fruit splitting can be common

expense of the flowers, drop can occur. This is more common in

in crops like tomatoes. Bell peppers and cucumber can become

situations where assimilate production is limited due to low light or

grossly misshapen. These disorders are largely physiological,

other reasons. Lowering plant density and using CO2 and suitable

environmental and cultural.

cultivars less prone to drop both assist growers in preventing these

Flower and fruitlet drop

types of problems (which often occur in winter). The presence of a

Most common hydroponic crops will flower when they have reached

heavy fruit load developing on the plant has the same effect; new

their appropriate point in development. One frequent problem is

flowers and fruitlets can be sacrificed in favor of the rapidly

flower drop. There are many potential causes of flower and fruitlet

developing, larger fruit already present. In certain crops, a lack of

drop in hydroponic crops; some are internal and caused by plant

pollination could be the cause of flower and, more commonly,

stress, and some are environmental. In many crops, flower drop in

fruitlet drop.

induced by high air temperatures. However the point at which this


thermal stress occurs varies for each crop and cultivar. Low light
levels that limit the growth of the whole plant can also induce drop,
particularly where low light is combined with high temperatures.
Although not as common in hydroponic crops as those grown in soil,

TIPS2 PERTANIAN....adaptasi dari Fuad fertgasi


oleh Mohammad abdul Rahman
By on Saturday, 5 January 2013 at 06:55
86

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


bunga betina yag keluar. Waktunya 7.30 - 11.00 pagi je.. 7. Umur 38
tip untk penanam melon... rugi x baca..

- 45 H buat pemilihan buah yang sama besar sahaja. Tinggalkan 2 - 4


biji sepokok. Buah yang lain buang. Jumlah buah yang dikekalkan

Nah !.. satu lagi maklumat untuk peminat MELON fertigasi.. Saya

bergantung kepada bilangan daun subur & sihat. 20 helai utk 1 biji,

sarankan " Penanam melon fertigasi... jangan tanam melon untuk

40 helai utk 2 biji, 60 helai untuk 3 biji dst.. 8. Nak besarkan buah...

keluarkan sebiji sepokok lagi.. ok!..) Bukannya apa.. nak tambah

boleh celup dengan GA (giberillic acid). 9. Kawin awal, buah ada

keuntungan.. Sebiji besar berat > 2.0 kg dan cantik masih tak dapat

peluang untuk membesar lebih lama (30 - 60H) 10. Ingat !.. daun

juala macam harga di Jepun. Orang jepun menilai dari sudut

subur, sihat .. adalah kilang untuk buat makanan pokok tersebut.

berlainan sebab itu sangat pentingkan kualiti dan sanggup bayar

Lebih banyak daun, mampu besarkan buah dan tampung keperluan

sehingga ratusan ringgit sebiji.. Mereka hargai kecantikan bentuk dan

pembesaran buah. 11. 7- 10 H sebelum pungut hasil pekatkan baja

netting (deria lihat), mereka hargai keharuman dari aroma yang

lebih 3.0 mS/cm dengan Hi-K untuk tambah kemanisan CUBA

dikeluarkan (deria bau), mereka hargai keenakan rasanya (deria

ELAKKAN POTONG PUCUK UTAMA KECUALI 10 HARI

rasa). Pasaran di Malaysia tak sampai tahap tu... cukup berat, manis,

TERAKHIR... Pucuk sulur patut buang. Jika pucuk utama dibuang,

bentuk ok, netting lebih kurang ok.. dah!.. HABIT POKOK MELON

pokok kurang daya serapan baja/air.

FERTIGASI - Jangka hayat sekitar 70 - 85 hari di ladang. Mula


berbunga 25 - 30 hari di ladang. Bunga jantan keluar dulu... bunga

TIP TAMBAH BERAT BUAH (CILI & TERUNG) - 1 - 2 jam

betina 2 - 3 hari lewat. TIP PANDUAN: 1. Kepekatan baja sentiasa

sebelum petik hasil cili atau terung, lakukan siraman terlebih

bertambah setiap minggu dari 1.5 hingga lebih 3.0 mS/cm. 2. Umur

dahulu. Kalau kaedah fertigasi - titiskan air baja lebih kurang

seminggu, getu pucuk utama - galakkan cabang dan banyak daun. 3.

10 - 15 minit pada 7.30 pagi. Petik buah jam 9.00 pagi.

Umur 20 - 25 H di ladang kepekatan lebih 2.0 mS/cm. Lebih baik

InsyaAllah berat buah bertambah ( kadang capai 20 - 30%)

tambah Ca. 4. Umur 20 - 25 H sapu pangkal batang dengan racun

berbanding tidak berbuat demikian. terung pun begitu juga...

kulat cth: antracol dll - elak gummy stem 5. Umur 20 - 25 H boleh

INI

juga cucuk pangkal batang dengan lidi atau pencungkil gigi... 6.

BERAT..Cubalah !...

BUKAN

TIPU

BERAT

TAPI

TAMBAH

Kawin bunga seawal mungkin sebaik sahaja bunga betina keluar ( 26


- 30 H) diladang. Lakukan berturut-turut dan buat kepada semua
87

[TIPS & INFO ON FERTIGATION & FARMING]


TIP CILI BERTERUSAN KELUAR PUCUK BARU - Habit

Compost tea tiada sama dengan komersil BM dari segi kandungan

pokok cili berbunga dan berbuah di cabang. Cabang akan

bacteria dan fungus, dimana Activated Aerated Compost Tea

terbentuk bila ada pucuk baru keluar. Setelah beberapa bulan

( AACT) mengandungi pelbagai bacteria dan fungus yang terhasil

pertumbuhan kadangkala pokok cili seolah-olah berhenti

dari pengoposan dan juga dari tahi cacing yang mengandungi

membesar (tak de pucuk baru). Ini boleh diatasi dengan

pelbagai enzymes dan hormones

memberikan air dan nitrogen yang banyak daripada kebiasaan


yang diterima. Oleh itu penanam boleh memberi tambahan baja

Antara kebaikan AACT adalah :

N (seperti Urea atau SA atau Amm nitrat) setiap 7 - 10 hari

meningkatkan pertumbuhan pokok hasil dari tambahan baja daun

kepada pokok yang telah berbuah atau berumur lebih 3 bulan di

dan akar dan pengawalan microbes terhadap microorganism perosak

ladang. Bagi pengamal fertigasi tambah Urea atau Amm. nirat

yang menyebabkan penyakit pokok.

0.5 - 1.0 kg dalam tangki 600G dan titiskan 10 - 15 minit sebelah

Perkembangn pokok meningkat bila serapan dengan activity

pagi ok... Cubalah...

microbes pada akar memudahkan serapan dari baja kompleks ke baja


yng mudah di serap, dan ini menjimatkan penggunaan baja, baja juga

COMPOST TEA ( AACT ) By Mohammad Abdul


Rahman
By on Saturday, 20 August 2011 at 13:20

tidak mudak tersejat atau leaching kalau hujan atau siraman berlebih
Menurunkan kadar kerosakan tanah/media hasil penggunaan racun
dan baja kimia, serta menstabilkan pH dan mengurangkan stress
bilamana keadaan amat kering.
Meningkatkan kadar serapan nutrients dengan meninggikan serapan

Compost tea di gunakan untuk mewujudkan hidupan microbes pada


daun dan zone akar dalam media, dan memebri nutrients yang terlaru
pada daun dan akar.
Compost tea adalah cairan yang di keluarkan dari bahan ccompost
yang mengandungi bacteria, fungus, protoazoa dan nematodes dan

pada daun kerana dengan adanya microbes, stomata akan membuka


lebihlama berbanding ketiadaan microbes dan mengawal peruapan
air dari daun.
Mengurangkan kehilangan air dari media dan mengekalkan
kelembapan media , jadi kehilangan air di minimisekan.

element baja untuk penyuburan dan ketahan penyakit pokok.


Cara2 Membuat Compost Tea ( AACT) untuk 20 lit
88

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a) Bacteria Dominant AACT

memang dah ada humic. AACT ni amat sesuai untuk semburan

lit baja compost ( compost buat sendiri atau buleh beli kat kedai)

foiliar untuk melawan penyakit daun

lit tahi tanah tahi cacing dari tempat tak tercemar spt hutan atau
belukar

b) 50:50 bacteria fungi AACT

1 cawan molasses atau gula merah dicair pekat

untuk ini kita banyakna sikit source untuk fungi terutama

cawan baja ikan atau fishmeal atau serbuk ikan

trichoderma fungus amat baik untuk melawan penyakit akar.

cawan habuk kuari ( buleh ayak dari quarry dust, buleh bubuh

buleh gunakan sedikit tanah dari pokok buluh, atau kulapuk putih

juga serbuk kulit kerang atau kulit telur)

yang terhasil dari bungkah cendawan.


BUleh gunakan juga dedak halus atau dedak ayam halus di basah

sediakan karung di buat dari kain jarang spt kain langsir atau panty

lembab dengan air dan di biarkan sehingga Nampak kulapuk, campur

hose wanita bersaiz untuk muat 1.5 lit bahan. Isi karung dengan

dalam bahan compost atau air sebanyak cawan. AACT ni amat

bahan compost, habuk kuari dan baja ikan.

sesuai untuk siraman pada akar denagn kadar 1: 30, buleh campur

gantung karung 6-8 inci dari dasar tong 20 lit, isi air bersih tanpa

bahan lain juga spt AACT dia atas

klorin ( kalu guna air paip, bagi bubble dulu dalam sehari atau biar
terdedah dua hari supaya klorin meruapa), air telah atau hujan amat
baik
masukan gula merah dan kacau kejap. Pasang kan 2 biji batu angin
akuarium pam angin, biar batu didasar tong.jalankan pam

SOP

PENGGUNAAN

PLANTBAC

DAN

CHITOSAN
By Faridwajdi Sakimin on Friday, 7 October 2011 at 15:04

selama 24-36 jam..siap


Bila di gunakan ( dalam masa 3 jam selepas pam di matikan ) gunkan
kadar 1:20 untuk foliar spray dan 1:30 untuk siraman media. Semasa
menggunakan buleh campur bahan lain spt FAA, FPJ , FFJ dengan

PROGRAM MENGHASILKAN TANAMAN SAYURAN YANG


SIHAT DAN MENINGKATKAN HASIL PENGELUARAN
TANAMAN

kadar dari AACT, buleh juga bubuh botol yakult dan juga air
peraman basuh beras. kalu ada humic asid buleh tambah 1 sudu

(Plantbac dan Chitosan)

makan, kalu tak ada humic tak mengapa sebab dalam kompos
89

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Rawatan biji benih:
-Bagi biji benih yang ditanam di dalam tray semaian,langkah
rawatan seperti dibawah:

Rawatan anak benih:


a)Semburan air kosong perlu dilakukan setiap hari daripada hari ke 3

a)Setelah biji benih di letakkan di atas tanah peatmoss ,lakukan


semburan larutan
chitosan keatas biji benih tersebut(5ml chitosan/ 1 liter air).
b)Kemudian isikan peatmoss menutupi biji benih tadi sehingga
memenuhi lubang tray
semaian tersebut
c)Kemudian lakukan semburan sekali lagi dengan larutan chitosan(5
ml chitosan/1 liter
air) ke atas peatmoss sehingga keseluruhan peatmoss di dalam tray
lembab
Contohnya biji benih cili,bendi,terung,timun dsbnya)

hingga ke 10 ditray
semaian
b)Pada hari ke 11,lakukan semburan cecair chitosan (5ml
chitosan/1liter air) ke atas anak
benih dan peatmoss di tray semaian
c)Pada hari ke 12 hingga hari ke 19 ,lakukan semburan air kosong
sahaja ke atas anak
benih dan peatmoss
d) Pada hari ke 20,lakukan lagi semburan cecair chitosan (5ml
chitosan/1liter air) ke atas
anak benih dan peatmoss di tray semaian

d)Hari kedua selepas tanam biji benih,lakukan semburan cecair

e)Pada hari ke 21 hingga hari ke 25 ,lakukan semburan air kosong

Plantbac(10gm

sahaja ke atas anak

Plantbac/1 liter air) ke atas peatmoss sehingga keseluruhan

benih dan peatmoss

peatmoss lembab.

f)Pada hari ke 26,pindahkan anak benih ke polibeg(Sebelum

e)Hari berikutnya lakukan semburan dgn air kosong sahaja bagi

pindahkan anak benih

tujuan mengekalkan
kelembapan peatmoss
Sekiranya biji benih direndam dlm ceair chitosan dgn dosage

tersebut ke polibeg,lakukan sekali lagi semburan cecair


chitosan(5ml chitosan/1 liter
air) ke atas anak benih dan peatmoss di dalam tray

5ml/1liter air selama 20~30minit sebelum menanam biji benih ke


dalam tray semaian adalah digalakkan sebelum langkah (a)
90

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***Untuk rawatan yang lagi baik,campurkan 5gm Plantbac dan

a)Apabila

chitosan(5-10ml/liter air)semasa rawatan biji benih dan semasa

media,penyemburan cecair chitosan

peringkat semaian tu.

anak

pkk

sudah

di

tanam

di

tanah

atau

perlulah dilakukan pada hari ke 4 anak pokok selepas ditanam


b)Penyemburan cecair chitosan perlulah dilakukan sekali setiap

Rawatan tanah atau media di dalam polibeg:


a)Dalam tempoh 4 atau 5 hari sebelum proses tanam anak benih ke
tanah atau media
polibeg,tanah atau media tersebut mestilah dirawat dgn cecair
Plantbac(3gm Plantbac/1
liter air pencairan)
b)Siraman cecair Plantbac tadi boleh dilakukan secara drip atau
semburan ataupun
manual tuang ke atas tanah iaitu tempat dimana anak benih akan

minggu ,utk memberikan


tahap pencegahan penyakit dan penghasilan hasil yang
tinggi(pencairan 5~10ml
chitosan/1 liter air).Kalau guna 10ml/liter atau 20ml/liter lagi baik
c)Cecair chitosan dgn dosage 5ml/1liter air boleh didripkan atau
disiram pada tanah atau media
untuk menggalakkan lagi pembentukan cabang2 baru pkk
tersebut.Dgn penggunaan Plantbac
utk tanah atau media akan mepercepatkan uptake nutrient melalui

ditanam

akar pokok

c)Lakukan semula ,penggunaan cecair Plantbac ke atas tanah atau

###PENGGUNAAN

media semasa anak

CHITOSAN SECARA SEMBURAN KE POKOK DAN DRIP

pkk berumur 2 minggu di tanah atau media

CAMPURAN

PLANTBAC

DAN

GTR

ATAU SIRAMAN KE TANAH ATAU MEDIA ADALAH


MEMBERIKAN KESAN PENCEGAHAN YANG LEBIH BAIK

d)Penggunaan seterusnya bergantung kpd pengusaha tanaman

Kebaikan rawatan di atas:

tersebut,nak lagi baik

Plantbac:

surelah kena guna lebih lagi,ikut budget masing2

a)Memberikan perlindungan kpd zon akar tanaman daripada


penyakit yang berpunca
daripada bakteria jahat dan kulat merbahaya

Rawatan anak pokok dalam pembesaran dan penghasilan hasil:

b)Jika disiram di tanah,akan menguraikan kandungan zat mineral


dalam tanah dimana
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akan menambahkan uptake zat tanah melalui akar tanaman

by Mohammad Abdul Rahman

c)Memperbaiki sistem pengudaraan tanah dan menambahkan

27 Jan 2012 - PNSB

kesuburan tanah melalui

Kita sebagai pekebun berkonsepkan fertigasi menganggap bahawa

tindakan bakteria baik yg terkandung dalam Plantbac

air baja yang sesuai dan seimbang dengan kadar bahan2 nutrients
akan menganggap bahawa pokok kita tumbuh subur tanpa

Chitosan:

menunjukan sebarang kekurangan nutrients, amat baik sekali jika

a)Mempercepatkan pencambahan biji benih

andaian kita itu benar, tapi sesetengah unsur akan menunjukan

b)Menambahkan sistem imuniti tanaman

kekurangan juga walaupun pokok di beri pembajaan yang

c)Bertindak sebagai pertahanan daripada serangan serangga perosak

mencukupi. Salah satu bahan unsur yang menjadi penyebab utama

d)Meningkatkan tumbesaran tanaman dan menyihatkan tanaman

ketidaksuburan pokok dan menjejaskan kualiti buah adalah Kalsium

e)Meningkatkan pegeluaran hasil tanaman dan kualiti hasil tanaman

( calcium), berlakunya tip burnt dan rapuh pada pucuk, BER pada
buah dan juga rasa pahit terutama timun.

Kesimpulan:

Kebanyakan kita tidak dapat memahami atau menilai keadaan pucuk

Dengan perawatan Plantbac,akan mengekalkan kesuburan tanaman

merapuh atau dieback atau terbakar berwarna perang emas

dan mencegah daripada penyakit yg berpunca daripada tanah

berpunca dari kekurangan calcium kerana biasanya air baja kita

Dengan penyemburan chitosan,dapat menambahkan imuniti tanaman

sudah ada calcium yang berlebih. Kadang2 kita menganggap bahawa

dan meningkatkan hasil tanaman

berlakunya keadaan pada pucuk adalah akibat serangga, panas


melampau atau pun keadaan sekitar amat kering.

Calcium: Masalah Pembajaan dan Pengagihan


By on Friday, 27 January 2012 at 19:54
Calcium: Masalah Pembajaan dan Pengagihan

Kebakaran atau tip burnt berlaku pada pucuk muda yang baharu
membentuk daun, tisu pucuk yang akan menampakan lecur berair
berwarna perang emas dan menjadi kehitaman dan mereput jika amat
serius. Keadaan lecur di sebabkan kebocoran pada sel daun dan
mengeluarkan cecair sap dan mengundang penyakit pathogen untuk
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berkembang. Kadang2 kita juga terkeliru denagn kekurangan boron,

Calcium

memainkan

peranan

untuk

mengaktifkan

enzimes,

yang mana kelihatan agak sama.

mengimbangi aliran air dalam sel dan amat perlu untuk


perkembangan dan pembentukan sel baru dan tisu pembesaran.

Blossom end rot atau BER yang kerap berlaku pada buah cili dan

Bertindak sebagai penampan atau buffer bila berlakunya kelebihan

tomato yang seakan penyakit antraknos berpunca kurangnya calcium

unsur nutrient lain pada zone akar dan menjadikan salah satu

dalam pokok serta buah, sel buah pecah dan mengeluarkan cecair di

komponen dalam akar sebagai penyaring bahan berlebihan lain.

sebabkan kekuatan dan ketahanan sel amat kurang, buah melecur


mulanya dan lekuk kedalam berwarna hitam dan kering , tangkai

Simtom Tip burnt atau BER berpunca dari masalah pengagihan

buah tetap hijau, selalunya terjadi pada bahagian tengah ke hujung

pengangkutan calcium dalam pokok. Dalam pokok terdapat 2 jenis

buah. Manakala antraknos buah lecur lembik berair dan tangkai serta

tisu pengangkut, xylem dan phloem bertindak sebagai sistem

kelopak kekuningan, di sebabkan oleh fungus bacterial.

sirkulasi

membekalkan

mineral,

carbohidrat,

protein

pada

keseluruhan pokok untuk pertumbuhan pembesaran.


Calcium terbentuk dan di gunakan oleh sel daun untuk perteguhkan
dan menstabilkan lapisan sel dan bertindak sebagai agen semen atau

Saluran xylem mengangkut air dan garam nutrient terlarut dari akar

gam untuk menghubungkan antara sel2 daun di kenali sebagai

ke atas dan di agihkan pada daun2. Kehilangan air dari daun semasa

calcium pectate, kekurangan calcium menjadikan penghubung gam

proses perspiration atau perkumuhan akan membentuk hisapan dan

lemah dan tidak stabil dan sel berkecai...terjadilah BER atau tip

air dari saluran2 xylem yang mengandungi unsur nutrient termasuk

burnt.

calcium akan di bawa kedaun untuk proses fotosintesis.

Calcium adalah immobile atau tidak dapat di pindahkan dari satu

Apa2 faktor yang membuatkan kehilangan air dari daun ( aliran

bahagian ke bahagian yang di perlukan seperti pucuk baru, dan perlu

angkutan xylem) akan mempengaruhi edaran calcium dalam pokok

di beri pembajaan Ca berterusan untuk pertumbuhan. Konsentarasi

bila mana air pembawa ion calcium mengalir ke daun untuk

calcium pada daun tua adalah tinggi berbanding pucuk muda, jadi

menggantikan air yang hilang. Calcium merupakan immobile akan

simtom amat ketara pada pucuk dahulu.

mengalir secara perlahan jika transpiration amat kurang berlaku pada


buah dan juga pucuk baru yang kecil berbanding dengan daun besar
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yang tua. Hal sedemikian akan menampakan dengan mudah simtom

dari

potssium

(kalium),

magnesium

atau

ammonium

yang

kekurangan Ca yang senang berlaku pada buah dan pucuk. Dalam

terkandung dalam air baja. Oleh kerana calcium bergerak dalam tisu

keadaan berangin dan penyejukan serta kelembapan di bawah 90%,

xylem, serapanya juga terhalang oleh kepanasan atau kesejukan

daun amat aktif transpiration dan xylem menarik air dan ion calcium

melampau dari zone akar dan juga bila keadaan media yang di

denagn baik untuk di bawa pada daun dan di simpan.

pengaruhi oleh konsentrasi garam yang tinggi, ( salt built up dan ec


baja tinggi) dan juga di sebabkan keadaan sekitaran yang amat

Untuk mengelakan buah dari terjadi BER, pembajaan Calcium amat

lembab terutama musim hujan.

di titik beratkan semasa pembentukan buah yang masih hijau sebagai


langkah pertama pengawalan, kejadian BER dapat di hindarkan

Menggunakan air baja yang EC nya tinggi akan mengurangkan

dengan menggunakan foliar pada buah hijau dan daun sekeliling

serapan air dan Ca oleh akar pokok, berbeza dengan N dan K dimana

serta pucuk yang menampakan simtom kekurangan menggunakan

konsentarsinya pada daun akan tinggi jika EC tinggi. Merendahkan

larutan baja CaNO3 dengan kadar 0.2% atau 2.0gm/lit air. Memberi

sedikit EC air baja akan meningkatkan serapan air baja oleh akar dan

foliar pada daun saja dan tidak pada buah tak memberi kesan pada

secara tak langsung bahan nutrient lain termasuk Ca akan di serap

rawatan BER kerana Ca tak buleh berpindah kepada buah dari daun,

dengan banyak dan baik untuk di agihkan pada tisu2 pembesaran

jadi direct spray pada buah amat perlu.

pokok.

Dalam sistem hidroponik fertigasi, unsur baja calcium di dapati dari

Pemberian air baja pada ec rendah pada waktu malam meningkatkan

calcium nitrate (CaNO3) dan kuantitinya amat mencukupi mengikut

serapan Ca kerana xylem sap dapat membawa Ca kepada tisu2 yang

kehendak pokok. Jika terjadi kekurangan calcium pada pokok ianya

kurang aktif transpiration nya seperti kucupan pucuk dan juga buah

bukan di sebabkan kurangnay Ca dalam baja, tapi di pengaruhi oleh

dan putik buah baru. Kajian umum mendapati kebanyakan calcium

faktor lain yang menghalang atau menyekat pengambilan Ca oleh

di bekalkan pada daun dan buahan amat banyak pada waktu malam

akar dan juga penghantaran dalam pokok.

berbanding siang hari. Jadi amat berkesan jika di beri injeksi air baja
sekali atau dua pada waktu malam sekitar 9.00-10.00 pm. atau 2.00-

Pengambilan atau serapan Ca oleh pokok berkurangan di sebabkan

3.00am.

berlakunya persaingan serapan oleh konsentrasi cations yang tinggi


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Untuk menghindarkan berlakunya tip burnt dan juga BER,

unsur baja seperti phosphate, potash, sulfer, Fe dan juga Cu. PGPR

pembajaan Ca hendaklah di beri secukupnya dan berterusan,

juga boleh menjanakan hormon tanaman, menambahkan microbes

melaraskan EC (2.4-2.5) dan pH ( 5.8-6.2) dengan betul dan tidak

spt bacteria dan fungus yang baik dan mengawal pathogen dan

tinggi , memberi baja waktu malam, mengurangkan kelembapan

penyakit tumbuhan.

melampau ( sistem RPH elak hujan) dan mengurangkan pokok dari


stress air ( maintain kelembapan 30-40% min). Pembajaan dengan

Cara membuat PGPR :-

biofertilizer yang mengandungi amino acid atau FAA amat

BAHAN:

membantu membuka calcium ion channel dalam akar dan


meninggikan serapan calcium beribu kali ganda berbanding dengan
cara osmosis biasa.

1. 100 gm akar buloh


2. 200 gm gula pasir,

PLANT GROW PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA ( PGPR ) -

3. 200gm gula merah

Mohamad Abdul Rahman


By on Tuesday, 4 December 2012 at 10:11
MEMBUAT

PGPR

(PLANT

GROW

PROMOTING

RHIZOBACTERIA)

4. 200 gm belacan
5. 1 kg dedak halus ( boleh guna dedak ayam serbuk juga jika
tak ada dedak padi )

PGPR atau Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobakteri adalah sejenis


bacteria yang hidup di sekitar zone akar tanaman. Bacteria ini

6. 10 lit air

hidupnya secara berkoloni menyelaputi akar tanaman dan memberi


kebaikan dari microbes. Bacteria atau microbes ini memberi

7.

1 sudu makan bahan perisa ajinomoto/MSG, kandungan

kebaikan untuk proses fisiologi tanaman dan pertumbuhannya.

monosodium

Fungsi PGPR bagi tanaman mampu mempercepatkan pertumbuhan

pertumbuhan dan mempercepat kan penghasilan giberellin.

glutamate

sebagai

hormon

perangsang

dan fisiologi akar serta mampu mengurangi penyakit atau kerosakan


oleh serangga. Selain itu PGPR juga meningkatkan daya serapan

CARA MEMBUAT:

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1. Rendam akar buloh dalam air bersih 1 lit tanpa klorin 2-4

Bahan yang tertinggal dalam tapisan masih boleh di recycle

hari

denagn menambahkan air dan sedikit gula merah untuk


kegunaan kedua kalinya.

2. Rebus bahan no2 no 6 sampai mendidih selama 20 minit


dalam air 10 lit

Semoga tuan2 mendapat manafaat dan penghasilan tanaman yang


baik

3. Setelah sejuk masukkan semua bahan kedalam tong bertutup


( tong air 20 lit) dan tutup rapat
4. Buka dan goncang2 sehari sekali

UNSUR BAJA FOLIAR- Mohammad abdul rahman


By on Wednesday, 28 November 2012 at 23:59
Foliar Nutrition

5. Satelah 15 hari PGPR siap digunakan

Foliar Nutrition of Plants


It has been known for many years that plants are able to absorb

CARA MENGGUNAKAN:
1. Tapis PGPR
2. Campurkan ( 1:15 ) 1 lit PGPR ke dalam air 15 lit ( 1 tong
racun )
3. Spray atau siram pada batas tanah atau media polybag 1-3
hari sebelum pindah tanam anak pokok.

essential elements through their leaves. The absorption takes place


through the stomata of the leaves and also through the epidermis.
Movement of elements is usually faster through the stomata, but the
total absorption may be as great through the epidermis. Plants are
also able to absorb nutrients through their bark.
The following elements have been successfully use to supply
nutrients for plant growth by apply them as foliar sprays to the
leaves:

4. Ulangi spray atau siram hujan setiap 15-20 hari sekali


Primary Nutrients : Nitrogen ,Phosphorus, Potassium
Secondary Nutrients : Magnesium, Calcium, Sulfur

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Micronutrients : Iron, Zinc, Boron, Copper, Molybdenum ,

commonly mixed and applied with the regular spray materials at

Manganese, Chlorine

weekly intervals early in the growing season.

One difficulty in using foliar sprays to supply essential elements to


crops is that translocation of the applied element may not be rapid

The application of urea fertilizer to leaves of plants has given

enough for increasing crop yields. With some plants this problem is

response approximately equal to that of fertilizer applied to the soil.

more difficult than with others. For example, the relative mobility of

The uptake of urea is faster when it is sprayed on the leaves, but it is

essential nutrients in bean plants when applied as a foliar spray in

cheaper to apply it to the soil.

order of decreasing mobility, was as follows:

Phosphorus is capable of being utilized by the plant when it is


sprayed on the leaves. Although the practice is not common, there

Mobile : Potassium, Phosphorus, Chlorine, Nitrogen


Partially

Mobile:

Zinc,

Copper,

Manganese,

are many good reasons for predicting that there may be an increase
Molybdenum,

in the foliar application of phosphorus.

Magnesium
Immobile : Boron, Calcium, Sulfur, Iron

One reason is that in most soils only a small percentage of


phosphorus fertilizers is recovered by the plant (averaging about 20

Nitrogen fertilizer compounds have been used for several years as

percent for the first year); whereas, when phosphorus is sprayed on

foliar sprays. Sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, potassium nitrate,

the leaves, nearly all of it is absorbed.

and urea have all been used experimentally, but only urea gives

approximately three pounds of P2O5 sprayed on tomato leaves gave

satisfactory results. The other fertilizers cause the burning of leaves,

a greater early growth than did 135 pounds of P2O5 applied to the

due partly to the high osmotic concentration of the spray solution.

soil. The yield of tomatoes, however, was 12 percent greater when

Urea has been successfully sprayed on apple trees, tomatoes,

In one experiment,

the 135 pounds of P2O5 was sprayed on the leaves.

celery, lima beans, potatoes, cantaloupes, cucumbers, and sugar

Potassium applications as foliar sprays have been made, using

cane. Amounts up to 15 pounds of urea per acre at one spraying

potassium sulfate fertilizer. Some leaf injury resulted, and the

have been used with beneficial results on apple trees. Higher

conclusion was reached that soil applications are far more

concentrations burn the leaves. The usual concentration for apple

satisfactory.

trees is five pounds of urea per 100 gallons of water. This is


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Magnesium is now commonly applied to plant foliage as solutions

this practice is the fact that, even though the iron moves readily into

of magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts). One reason for the popularity

the leaves, it is translocated very slowly. As a result, after spraying

of the practice is that soil applications of magnesium commonly take

with ferrous sulfate, chlorotic spots may still be in evidence in places

three years to correct magnesium-deficiency symptoms of such

which did not receive some of the iron spray. Iron chelates have also

perennials as apple trees, whereas foliar sprays are effective within a

been successfully used as a spray.

few days after application.


On alkaline soils where iron chlorosis is common, applications of
A foliar application of a two per cent solution of MgSO4 to

iron compounds to the soil have not been very successful because the

tomatoes, oranges, and apples has relieved magnesium deficiency

iron is soon rendered insoluble.

and has increased crop yields.


Calcium is seldom applied as a foliar spray because it can be

The leaves of chlorotic grain sorghum on calcareous soil in Tulare

efficiently applied to the soil. If CaCO3 is too slow in reaction, then

County, California, were sprayed with 40 gallons per acre of three

CaO or Ca(OH)2 can be applied to the soil. CaCl2 is primary method

percent ferrous sulfate solution about one week before heading, at a

of applying Ca to foliage.

cost for materials of 50 cents per acre. The yield of grain sorghum

Sulfur sprayed on leaves is readily absorbed by the plants. This


fact was demonstrated, however, in connection with the study of the

was increased from 540 pounds of grain on the untreated plot to


1,774 pounds on the treated plot, an increase of 222 percent.

influence of certain sulfur sprays when used as a fungicide.


Although there have been no reports of a sulfur deficiency being

Applications on the soil of more than 3,000 pounds per acre of

relieved by sulfur sprays, the practice may become established

ferrous sulfate were required to accomplish similar increases in

because it is physiologically sound.

yields.

Iron has been sprayed on foliage since about 1916 to relieve

Manganese. While soil manganese becomes less available in

chlorosis. The first of such research work was carried out with

alkaline soils, many states in more humid regions of the country

chlorotic pineapples growing on highly alkaline soils in Hawaii.

often report manganese deficiencies in peat and muck soils and in

Periodic sprays of five percent ferrous sulfate are now common

local areas of alkaline soils. Manganese deficiencies are frequently

practice on Hawaiian pineapple plantations. The biggest obstacle to

corrected by spray applications of manganese sulfate, usually five to


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10 pounds per acre. Manganese sulfate is also applied to the soil at

Molybdenum, as sodium molybdate, 1 ounce in 100 gallons of

rates of from 20 to 150 pounds per acre. Manganous oxide is also

water, has eliminated deficiency symptoms in citrus trees.

used to correct manganese deficiencies. In alkaline soils an acid-

Somewhat like iron, however, molybdenum does not seem to be

forming material, usually fertilizer, is applied to prevent fixation of

readily translocated within the plant. Spraying only the lower half of

the applied manganese. NH4+ applied H+ released.

a citrus tree that showed molybdenum deficiency did not cure the

Zinc is often sprayed on the leaves of apple and pear trees to


relieve

"leaf

rosetting,"

symptom

of

zinc

deficiency symptoms on the upper half of the tree.

deficiency.

Approximately 25 pounds of zinc sulfate in 100 gallons of water

In highly acid soils, molybdenum is sometimes fixed in an

(roughly a three per cent solution) applied to apple trees just before

unavailable form, thus causing deficiencies, particularly for

the buds open has corrected zinc deficiency. Zinc sulfide, zinc

legumes. The amount of molybdenum in soils and the amount

oxide, and zinc carbonate have all been successfully used as sprays.

required by plants is very small. In addition to sodium molybdate

Driving galvanized (zinc-coated) nails in trees also relieves zinc

soil application of 0.5 to two pounds per acre, a commercial seed-

deficiency.

coating preparation (Molygro) for some legumes, applied at about

Boron, as boric acid or borax (sodium tetraborate), used as a foliar

two ounces per acre, is used to correct deficiencies. Broadcast

spray has proved to be a successful method of application. Internal

applications are best mixed with limestone on very acid soils to

cork of apples has been controlled by spraying the foliage with eight

prevent fixation.

pounds of borax in 100 gallons of water. As little as two pounds of


borax per 100 gallons of water has checked "cracked stem" of

RACUN SERANGGA BUAT SENDIRI...AMAT MUDAH DAN

celery. Boron has been satisfactorily applied to the soil, either alone

BERKESAN:

or in mixed fertilizers.

:http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s2281115.htm

Copper deficiency has been controlled by spraying the leaves with

detai

kat

sini

-Mohmmad abdul Rahman

a mixture of eight pounds of CuSO4 plus eight pounds of Ca(OH)2,

By on Tuesday, 27 November 2012 at 16:15

in 100 gallons of water. Without the calcium hydroxide, the copper

(VERSI BAHASA MELAYU KAT BAWAH ARTIKEL BI )

sulfate injures the foliage. Copper oxide has also been used
successfully as a spray.
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Horticultural oils are among the safest and most effective ways of

Label it and store this in a cool, dry place and it should last about

controlling a range of sap sucking and chewing pests in the garden.

three months. Remember to also label it with the dilution rate - two

These days there are two options - traditional white oil, which is

dessert spoons per litre of water.( bersamaan 20ml/lit)

based on a vegetable oil, and modern horticultural oils, which are


thinner and based on petroleum oil.

Gardeners have been using oils for about 200 years so its been
thoroughly road tested. Use these oils on broad leaved trees and

The lighter coloured, modern oils spread faster than the old

shrubs. Dont use them on hairy or soft leaved plants like lettuce,

fashioned vegetable oil. This is important because it means that the

because it will burn the leaves. The best spraying action is to cover

modern, less viscous, oil doesnt clog leaf pores when the

both sides of the leaves and the bark and its best to spray in the cool

temperature is over 30 degrees. So in hot weather the newer oil

of the morning.

wont damage your plants.


Horticultural oils will control aphids, scale, mealy bug and citrus leaf
The other difference is that the modern horticultural oils are based on

miner as well as caterpillars. It works by blocking their breathing

petroleum and are expensive to buy. White oil is cheap and better

pores and this suffocates the pest. There is no way that pests will

still, you can make it yourself.

ever become resistant to white oil so its good forever.


Information contained in this fact sheet is a summary of material

White oil recipe:

included in the program. If further information is required, please


contact your local nursery or garden centre.

Use two cups of vegetable oil (Im an organic gardener, so I use

Copyright Restrictions: This fact sheet is for private and domestic

sunflower oil because theres no chance that it could be genetically

information purposes only. It may not be copied, reproduced, sold or

modified) and half a cup of washing up liquid.

used for any other purpose without the express permission of the
ABC.Alihbahasa oleh MAR :

Put those into a jar. Put the lid on and give it a good shake and

Minyak Hortikultur adalah antara cara yang paling selamat dan

youve got concentrated white oil.

paling berkesan untuk mengawal pelbagai serangga penghisap sap


dan pemakan daun dan perosak tanaman di ladang. Disini terdapat
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dua pilihan - minyak putih tradisional, yang berasaskan minyak

Tindakan semburan terbaik adalah untuk meratakan kedua-dua belah

sayur-sayuran, dan minyak moden hortikultur, yang cair ,nipis yang

daun dan batang , yang terbaik semburan waktu pagi.

berasaskan minyak petroleum yang lebih ringan dan merata dengan

Minyak Hortikultur baik untuk kawalan scales, aphids, mealy bug

lebih cepat berbanding minyak sayuran tradisional. Ini adalah

(pepijat bertepung )dan ulat pelombong daun serta beluncas. Ia

penting kerana ia , kurang likat, minyak tidak menyumbat liang daun

berfungsi dengan menyekat liang pernafasan mereka dan dan

atau stomata apabila suhu melebihi 30 darjah C. Jadi, dalam cuaca

melemaskan serangga itu . Menggunakan minyak putih ini tidaka

panas minyak yang baru tidak akan merosakkan tumbuh-tumbuhan

akan menjadikan kekebalan pada serangga , jadi ianya boleh di

anda.

gunakan berterusan selama-lamanya.

Perbezaan lain adalah bahawa minyak hortikultur yang bersaskan


petroleum agak mahal untuk membeli. Sementara minyak putih

FORMULA UNTUK SALAD, KAILAN, SAWI- Mohammad

adalah murah dan lebih baik lagi, anda boleh membuatnya sendiri.

Abdul Rahman

Minyak resipi Putih

By on Thursday, 22 November 2012 at 22:40

Gunakan dua cawan minyak sayuran , minyak jagung atau minyak

LETTUCE

bunga matahari atau seangkatan dan cawan sabun basuh pinggan

The formula below is a standard hydroponic lettuce formula using

( palmolive, sunlight atau setara)

standard hydroponic fertilizer salts. Some of these, such as iron

Masukan dalam balang. Tutup tudung dan goncanglah supaya

chelate and monopotassium phosphate, may need to be imported or

membentuk emulsi minyak putih pekat. Botol mineral 1 lit pun

sourced from fertilizer suppliers. However, they prevent the growth

buleh di gunakan untuk menggoncang.

problems that could develop from the use of ammonium phosphate

Label dan simpan di tempat yang sejuk, kering dan ia di gunakan

and avoid the use of expensive magnesium nitrate.

dalam masa kira-kira tiga bulan. Tandakan label dengan kadar

Lettuce Hydroponic Nutrient Formulation (Grams of Fertilizer Salts

pencairan - dua sudu pencuci mulut seliter air (bersamaan 20ml/lit).

To Be Dissolved Into Two 100-Liter Stock Solution Tanks; When

Para petani sudah menggunakan cara ini sejak kira-kira 200 tahun

Diluted 1:100, This Will Give an EC of 1.2, a TDS of 840, and a pH

dahulu . Di gunakan minyak ini sebagai foliar semburan pada pokok

of 5.9, Water Supply Permitting)

rene pokok renek berdaun. Jangan gunakan pada tumbuhan berbulu


atau berdaun lembut seperti salad, kerana ia akan membakar daun.
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Note: This formula is for good quality, low mineral water sources

Monopotassium phosphate 1,198 g

and does not take into account any minerals that may already be

Magnesium sulfate 2,571 g

present in the source water.

Copper sulfate 2 g
Manganese sulfate 41.7 g

Part A

Zinc sulfate 2.6 g

Calcium nitrate 7,505.4

Boric acid 25 g

Potassium nitrate 1751

Ammonium molybdate 1.02 g

Iron chelate 500

When diluted 1:100, this formula gives a CF of 12 (EC 1.2 mS/cm)


and results in parts per million (ppm) levels of N=140.9, K=96.4,

Part B

P=25.2, Ca=151, Mg=25.3, S=33.3, Fe=2.5, Mn=1, Zn=0.06,

Monopotassium phosphate 1,191.3

B=0.45, Cu=0.05, Mo=0.05.

Magnesium sulfate 2,552.8

More potassium should be provided during summer for red lettuce

Manganese sulfate 80

varieties.

Zinc sulfate 11.01


Boric acid 39

FORMULA BAJA FERTIGASI STRAWBERRY- Mohammad

Copper sulfate 3.02

Abdul Rahman

Ammonium molybdate 1

By on Thursday, 22 November 2012 at 20:07


Formula untuk strawberry.

The Editor replies:

Nutrient Solution Formula untuk Hydroponic Strawberries (berat

Here is the general lettuce nutrient formulation I have (to be added to

bahan untuk di larutkan dalam 50 lit stock , dan kadar bancuhan

100 liters of stock solution):

untuk dipakai 1:100, dan memberi EC 1.7 dan pH 5.80

Part A Calcium nitrate 7,549 grams (g)


Iron EDTA 260 g

Part A

Part B

Calcium nitrate 2.94 kg

Potassium nitrate 1,703 g


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Potassium nitrate 2.10 kg

Diammonium phosphate 1.8 kg

Iron EDTA 240gm


Chelated Iron ( 13% Fe ) 462 gm
Part B

Boric acid ( H3BO3 ) 40.0 gm

Monopotassium phosphate 1.60 kg

Manganese Sulfate ( MnSO4 ) 55.0 gm atau

Magnesium sulfate 2.40 kg

Manganous Chloride ( MnCl2 4H2O ) 58.0 gm

Manganese sulfate 38gm

Zinc Sulfate ( ZnSo4 7H2O ) 7.66 gm

Zinc sulfate 5gm

Cupric Chloride ( CuCl2 2H2O ) 1.86 gm

Boric acid 18gm

Molybdenum Trioxide ( Mo O3 ) 0.75 gm atau

Copper sulfate 2gm

ammonium molibdate 1.00 gm

Ammonium molybdate 0.5gm


Jika mau gunakan stok 100 lit, gandakan berat bahan tu

Untuk Perkembangan pembungaan dan production )


EC 2.4 - 2.6 ) pH 5.8-6.0

FORMULA BAJA UNTUK TIMUN...Oleh Mohammad Abdul

CaNO3 ( Calcium Nitrate ) 10.25 kg

Rahman

KNO3 ( Potassium Nitrate 3.50 kg

By on Sunday, 14 October 2012 at 21:00

KH2PO4 ( Monopotassium Phosphate ) 3.40 kg


K2SO4 ( Potassium Sulfate ) 3.30 kg

1. Untuk Pertumbuhan awal vegetative ) EC 1.2-2.4 pH 6.0-6.2


CaNO3 ( Calcium Nitrate ) 8.80 kg
KNO3 ( Potassium Nitrate 5.80 kg
KH2PO4 ( Monopotassium Phosphate ) 1.00 kg
K2SO4 ( Potassium Sulfate ) 0.50 kg
Mg SO4*7H2O : %Mg 9.80 or0.098 5.10 kg
% S 12.9 or 0.129

Mg SO4*7H2O : % Mg 9.80 or 0.098 8.10 kg


% S 12.9 or 0.129
NH4NO3 nil
Chelated Iron ( 13% Fe ) 462 gm
Boric acid ( H3BO3 ) 40.0 gm
Manganese Sulfate ( MnSO4 ) 55.0 gm atau
Manganous Chloride ( MnCl2 4H2O ) 58.0 gm
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Zinc Sulfate ( ZnSo4 7H2O ) 7.66 gm

Boil to dehydrate

Cupric Chloride ( CuCl2 2H2O ) 1.86 gm

Mix continuously until totally dry and dehydrated with wooden

Molybdenum Trioxide ( MoO3 ) 0.75 gm atau

ladle.

ammonium molibdate 1.00 gm

Place the dehydrated brown sugar (moscovado) in clean dry

Jika menggunakan bahan lain spt EDTA untuk micro, kira baliklah

containers.

berat di perlukanberdasarkan kandungan % bahan.

Ready for storage and use.


Uses:

NATURAL FARMING With ORGANIC & BIOLOGICAL

May be used for food, food preparation and processing

TECHNOLOGY - PART 2

Feed additive for poultry and livestock

By Haris Versi Baru on Thursday, 11 October 2012 at 10:33

For bioorganic preparations and additive.

NATURAL FARMING With ORGANIC & BIOLOGICAL

HOW TO MAKE VIRGINE COCONUT OIL


Processing virgin coconut oil right in your own home and kitchen

TECHNOLOGY - PART 2
is
HOW TO MAKE YOUR OWN SUGAR

very easy and simple.


Grit the meat of freshly opened mature coconut.

Materials:

Pour a little water and mush the greeted coconut meat.

Sugar cane juice or fresh coconut juice (tuba)

Press to extract the coconut milk.

Big cooking stainless steel basin

Let the milk stay overnight or for 10 to 12 hours.

Wooden mixing ladle

The water will settle down the container and the oil will float.

Stove and fuel

Drain out the water.

Procedure:

Heat the oil in stainless steel kettle in 45 to 70 degrees

Press fresh sugarcane to extract juice - 08.0% sucrose content

temperature for 15 to 30 minutes to remove and evaporate remaining

Or gather fresh coconut juice (tuba)

water in the oil. Better heat oil in double kettle where the first has

Place in the cooking basin

- 16.8% sucrose content

water in direct contact with fire and the other with oil inside the
casserole with heated water.
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Place the virgin coconut oil in bottle and seal.

priority for soil restoration through carbon sequestration or storing

Store in room temperature away from sunlight.

carbon in the soil securely so that it is not easily re-emitted through

Another way of preserving virgin oil is by freezing instead of


heating.

soil conservation and incorporation of organic fertilizers.


Composts are natural fertilizers that supply soils with vital plant

Virgin coconut oil is used for various purposes. It is used for

nutrients helping to retain water and air. It restores soil structure, soil

medication, beauty and body skin ointment, cooking oil, lubricant,

carbon anti-biotic activity. Compost or organic fertilizers improves

fuel, etc. It does not get rancid when the right procedure is done.

soil texture, helps to control weeds, pest and diseases.


The prices of commercial chemical fertilizers price are
skyrocketing, beyond the purchasing power of the marginal farmers.
Attention is now focused on teaching and encouraging farmers and

TAKING CARE OF YOUR SOIL THE NATURAL WAYS

entrepreneurs to invest on the production of organic fertilizers.

Several researches have found that declining crop yield is related

Organic fertilizers can easily be made by farmers from readily

to the loss of soil quality. Soils are threatened by water and wind

available materials such as plant leaves and residues, animal waste

erosion, salinisation, and nutrient depletion, chemical interference

and other biodegradable substances. They do not have to buy or get

that kills microbiological soil born organisms and other things.

credit to make their own fertilizer and soil conditioners. Soil fertility

Soil depletion is causing sever impact on agriculture like what is

and health can also be restored with resting the soil for a year or two,

now happening in the Philippines. We are just now waking up to the

green manure, incorporating crop residue with soil during land

growing magnitude of soil depletion in most agricultural lands using

preparation or cultivation, and planting of trees along farm boarders

conventional farming, heavily dependent on chemical fertilization,

and banks of waterways.

herbal, pest and disease control. The Ecological Society of the

The Philippines is among the 17 most bio-diverse countries in the

Philippines headed by its president Antonio M. Claparols is very

world. Part of the Philippines treasure are the large forest trees which

much concerned on the deteriorating soil condition of the country.

are rapidly vanishing. Trees are contributing to the ecological

Global warming makes things worse. As the ground heat up,


organic matter decompose more rapidly, reducing soil fertility,

balance as they help clean the air and conserve water. One hectare of
forest is needed to supply the fresh nitrogen needed by 40 persons.

releasing carbon dioxide which increase the warming effects. High


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Trees and wild vegetation are not only needed in the countryside

The new practice is chopping or hammer-milling the organic

and farming areas, but more so in communities and urban areas

materials then spraying pro-biotic to the mass, keep it moist and

where population density is high. Urban gardens and soils can be

cover with plastic sheet to avoid dehydration. Mix the mass at least

improved by growing trees and using organic compost fertilizers.

once a week. With sufficient digester (microorganism or pro-biotic)


it will take less than a month to convert organic materials into ready
to use fertilizer.
Mixing a combination of different organic materials both plant and
animal source will insure a more complete nutrient content of the

USE OF ORGANIC COMPOST FERTILIZER

organic fertilizer. Pro-biotic spray or inoculation of the compost will

AND BIO MICRO INOCULANTS

present destructive and undesirable microorganisms to grow. The

Organic compost fertilizer is the closest we can return to natural

odor becomes pleasant.

farming. The emerging farming system is towards the use of organic

COMPOST

fertilizer in combination with chemical fertilizer.

Composting, essentially a rapid self heating process by which

There are now available in the market several Pro-biotic like BYM

organic material is decomposed and stabilized, was practiced by

and Tricograma that helps hasten the breakdown and decomposition

ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans and is even mentioned in

of organic cellulous materials to convert them into organic fertilizer.

religious texts. During the past 20 years, this time honored practice

Simple way of preparing organic compost:

has developed into a robust waste-management technology that

The old practice is the sandwich type where different organic

generates valuable organic soil amendments.

materials or waste are pilled layer after layer like plant residue +

Biological treatment technologies may be either aerobic or

animal waste + soil and repeat the process until reaching a meter

anaerobic. Aerobic systems use oxygen, but anaerobic ones dont.

high. Keep it moist and insert a bamboo with ventilated holes to

Both may use heat to fuel the reactions that break down organic

aerate until the material decomposes. Then mix the material and keep

matter in manure. In composting, heat is generated by microbes that

it moist until totally decomposed. Aerate and expose to sunlight

digest organic matter. After decomposition, it will be good to sanitize

before applying as fertilizer.

the organic compound by drying or exposing it to sunlight for a day


or
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two.

also acts as storage for nutrients, increases cat ion exchange capacity
and acts as a regulator for nutrients, so they are not all releases at one
time.

Nutrient stabilization in composted manure allows soil microbes


and plants to use the nutrients in a slow-release and beneficial
manner. Compost may even help reduce demand for nitrogen in

HOW TO PREPARE YOUR OWN LACTO BASILLAI

certain crops. Says Patricia Miller of the Environmental Microbial

LACTO BASILLAI is one of the beneficial microorganisms called

Safety Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland

pro-biotic. It helps in the breaking down of cellulose fibers and

Composting is one of several technologies used to treat animal

converts organic materials into humus and fertilizer. Producing your

manure, sewage sludge, and other organic residuals, which may

own stock of lacto bacilli can easily by done using the following

contain pathogens or parasites of public health concern. In any

procedure:

manure slurry system, solid can be composted. Liquids can be


further processed to stabilize nitrogen and phosphorus in soluble
forms compatible with current nutrient-management requirements.
Soil structure is easy to improve with compost. Organic matter is
the most important source of plant nutrients contributing to the
fertility of the soil. Compost material sustains healthy plant growth
by providing food for both living microorganisms, speeding up their
multiplication and absorption of the roots. Organic matter ha also

1. Use rice wash or finely grounded grain preferably brown rice


mix in water.
2. Place in a wide plastic basin and cover loosely to allow
ventilation.
3. Allow it to ferment for 7 days. Bacteria including lacto
bacilli in air will infect solution.

dual role that helps water move through the soil and at the same time
improve the soils water holding capacity. Unlike depleted soils of

4. Strain liquid and place in bigger plastic container.

organic matter, soils rich in humus retain a good surface and do not
crust or clod after heavy rains. Aeration is good in humus rich soils
and this important factor means root growth is good. Organic matter
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5. Add 10 parts milk (skim, powdered, condensed or fresh)
Milk is best feed for lacto bacilli will multiply rapidly and

HOW TO MAKE COMPOST

overgrow other bacteria in solution. .


6. Cover loosely to allow ventilation and ferment for another

The sandwich method:

one week.
1.
7. The flotsam consisting of fats, carbohydrate and protein

and topsoil are placed in layers one on top of the other until

contain lacto bacilli.


8. Scoop the flotsam and mix with food or feed materials. A

Organic materials such as animal waste, plant waste


they reach a high of 3 feet.

2.

The material is watered moist and covered with

yellow colored liquid will form containing a great

coconut leaves or plastic sheet in order that moisture will be

concentration of lacto bacilli.

retained.

9. Store in refrigeration or room temperature.

3.

Mix the compost pill after two weeks, moist and


cover again.

10. Mix liquid in equal quantity of rough brown sugar,


moscovado or molasses.

4.

Repeat mixing once a week, until the compost


materials are totally decompose with the appearance of soil.

11. Mix stock solution in 20 parts water. Use to is with compost


materials.

5.

Dry in direct sunlight to kill or eliminate unwanted


microorganisms such as fungus and bacteria.

12. Dosage: Use 2-4 tbs. per gallon water and spray to plants.
6.

The material is now ready for use or placed in sacks


for storage or shipment.

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Biological fast composting:
Field composting:
1.
1.
1. Gather the organic material, chop or hammer mill
and mix thoroughly.

1. After harvest and just before plowing and land


preparation, gather the organic materials, chop or

2. Water them moist with pro-biotic microorganism

hammer mill.

(lactobacilli or trichoderma) mixed in the water.


2. Spread the materials evenly in the field. In case the
1.

plant waste residues are in the field, then step a. will


1. Cover the compost pile with plastic sheet.
2. Mix the material every week.
3. It will usually take only 4 weeks to totally
decompose the material with the aid of the
microorganisms that help digest the cellulose
materials.
4. Sundry the decomposed organic material (fertilizer)
to kill unwanted microorganisms.
5. The material is now ready for use or bagging for
storage or shipment.

not be necessary.
3. Spray the organic material in the field with probiotic microorganism.
4. Plow and disk-harrow the field to mix the organic
material with the soil.
5. If possible do the above operation just before an
expected rain or irrigate the field after the plowing
of cultivation. This will allow the microorganism to
work fast, and multiply. In the process, digesting the
organic material into organic fertilizer or soil
amendment.

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7. Cover pile with leaves, sack or plastic sheet to minimize
Note that the pro-biotic organisms will continue working in the

evaporation.

soil, as long as favorable conditions like adequate soil moisture and


presence of organic materials.

8. Check the moisture every 2 days, and wet in case compost


dry up.

Steps in composting with wild sunflower:


1. Look for a suitable area, partly or fully shaded.
2. Gather compost materials such as rice straw, animal manure,
and other farm waste.
3. Collect wild sunflower and chop the young stem and leaves

9. Check also the temperature.

If

it is warm,

then

decomposition is taking place.


10. After 3 to 4 weeks, check the compose pile and if it has turn
into soil humus physical form it is most likely ripe.
11. In case the compose will not immediately be used, air dry
before placing into sacks or in a shady dry place.

into small pieces.


4. Stick a bamboo with holes to serve as ventilator of the
compost pile.

Farmers are encouraged to implement simple and inexpensive ways


of producing organic fertilizers through the use of indigenous
technology. They may adopt other methods of composting by using

5. Pile crops residue and farm waste in the following sequence:

other materials and plant waste available in their respective farms.

rice straw, sunflower, manure, soil and repeat the layering.

VEMICOMPOSTING

Proportion: 2-3 parts fresh sunflower, 1 part rice straw, 2

VERMICOMPOSTING is composting plant materials with worms.

parts manure and 1 part soil.

The advantage of vermi-composting to that of the usual conventional


compost pile is that the process is faster and the resulting organic soil

6. Water the pile until thoroughly wet.

is richer in certain nutrients provided by the earthworms themselves.


It is rich in Humic acid, which is a growth promoting.
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African Night Crawler (Eudrilis eugeniae) earthworm are

4. Use a shredder or hammer mill to crush the organic

incredible eaters and will eat and expel their own weight every day

materials into small particles easy to decompose and

when conditions are right. It takes 60 days or less for fresh organic

eaten by the earthworms. Good food: They need

waste to be converted into compost fertilizer. Our native earthworm

25% nitrogen from legumes like madre de cacao and

may also be employed.

ipil-ipil leaves, chicken droppings and cattle dung,

Steps in Vermi-composting:

etc. and 75% carbon source like grasses, rice and


corn stalks, cogon and sugarcane tops.

1.
5. Mixing old animal manure and chicken droppings (2
1. Have a shed for the composting site to protect the

months old) with shredded vegetable waste will

worms from direct sunlight and from torrential rains

improve the nutrient content of the finish product.

to be able to do their work undisturbed. The worms

Do not use fresh manure for the ammonia produced

need a good living condition, dimly lit area to live in

will give discomfort to the worms.

with enough moisture.


6. Water the bed from time to time to keep them moist
2. Construct a storage area for digested compost before

but not flooded so as not to drown the worms.

it is screened and bagged.


7. Fence off or screen in the beds to keep out chickens,
3. Construct the compost bed for worms to digest with
concrete hollow blocks three blocks high with a

birds, rodents and other pest that will eat or bother


the worms in the wormery.

depth of 30-45 cm., 1 meter wide by 2 meters long


or longer. Be sure that the soil bed is well drained

8. Mix a little ordinary soil to the fresh shredded

under the composting bed. The worms will not

vegetable materials before introducing the worms.

escape into the soil if there is available food to


digest.

9. Place one kilogram of worms per square meter for


fast composting. 10-20 pieces may do to start with
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but it will take longer time to compost while the

your own farm, there is no need of screening. (Note:

worms breed to increase their number. A kilo of

Commercial imported chemical fertilizer today

worms are sold for P500 and they breed fast in two

prices have gone over P600 per 50 kilo bag)

months.
10. Inoculating and spraying the compost materials with

The worms feces are called vermin-casting or humus. Compost

pro-biotic bacteria will help fast tract decomposition

takes 2-3 months to decompose, while shredded materials fed to

and the worms to digest the compost in much shorter

worms takes only 15-21 days.

time.

Advantages of Vermicomposting:

11. When the compost is digested, the worms become

1. Environment friendly. The use of organic fertilizer, vermin-

less active. It is time to herd them to another

casting of humus is one, revives the soil fertility level and

compartment with fresh food materials. As they

brings back life to soil environment, improves soil texture

leave, the digested compost is ready for harvest and

and improves water holding capacity.

transferred to the stocking or holding area for


2. Economical. Investment on vermicomposting is only about

screening, drying and packing.

P2.00 per kilo while commercial chemical fertilizer cost P812. Harvesting will be easier by allowing the bed with

15 per kilo.

completely digested compost material to dry up so


the worms will move to the next compartment with
moisture

and

fresh

shredded

vegetable

food

materials.

3. Higher Crop Yield. Humus have shown its potency in


inducing higher crop yield for a longer period. Vermi-casting
humus is found to be more effective compared to ordinary
compost and chemical fertilizers.

13. Screen the material with inch mesh before


weighing and bagging for sale. A 50 kilo bag humus

4. Market Potential is Very Big. Organically grown food crops

is sold for P150 to P300 to gardeners. If you use it in

are increasing in market demand. Organic fertilizer has


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likewise increase in use as imported commercial fertilizer
have been increasing its prices.

MAGGOT COMPOSTING
Instead of using earthworm, a simple natural process has been

5. No imported inputs required. Farmers can make their own

discovered in fast composting. A mixture of sawdust and chicken or

organic fertilizer from farm waste materials. This means no

quail droppings are placed in a compost pile covered with shed. The

dependence on imports and oil price fluctuations.

maggots eat up the cellulose in a few weeks instead of several

6. Healthful. Organic farming is considered as healthful way of


growing food crops.
7. Lesser risk. Producing your own fertilizer will make you
unaffected by exchange rates and fluctuation changes in the
prices of other commodities. There is less or no risk at all

months. To prevent the maggots to complete its cycle to adult flies,


chickens are allowed to scratch and peak the growing maggots, a
source of animal protein. Spraying or drenching the compost pile
with pro-biotic microorganisms (beneficial bacteria and fungi) will
help hasten decomposition and prevent foul odor.
SLUDGE FERTILIZER

producing your own fertilizer and even selling excess


requirement of your own farm.

Liquid sewage sludge being disposed as communal waste contain


essential elements needed by crops, making it a potential organic

8. Undemanding laborers. The worms themselves them selves


are the workers converting farm waste materials into organic
plant food nutrients.

fertilizer and soil conditioner for sugarcane farms, corn fields, rice
lands and even fruit orchards and vegetable gardens.
In a research conducted by Luzon Agricultural Research and
Extension Center (LAREC) of the Sugar Regulatory Administration

9. Big savings. Producing your own fertilizer is a big savings


and cost cutting for the farmers.
10. Income-earner. This technology can help farmers earn more
from their farm waste

(SRA) in cooperation with Manila Water Company, Inc., the use of


liquid sewage sludge for agricultural purposes was assessed to
determine its effects on the growth and yield of sugarcane. The study
was conducted at LAREC R&D Farm at Floridablanca, Pampanga.
It was confirmed the application of liquid sewage sludge in the
barren sandy lahar deposits of Floridablanca, Pampanga the soil
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became richer and sustain healthy and productive sugar cane,

composting of crop residue help retain and improve soil fertility, at

compared with untreated field.

the start reduces the use of chemical fertilizer to the time that no
more synthetic fertilizer is needed.
Coconut trees and other fruit trees have lots of leaves, bracts,
twigs, flowers and fruits that fall to the grown. When these materials
are allowed to decompose beneath the trees, they turn into humus
and fertilizer to the trees. Unfortunately, because of clean culture,
they are removed and burned. Teaching the farmers to return the crop
residue to the soil from where they came from will both enrich the
soil and sustain productivity of the trees without relying solely on
chemical or synthetic fertilizers.

COMPOSTING CROP RESIDUE IN THE FIELD


Rice and corn are among the traditional crops grown by Filipino
farmers. As the usual practice is removing the debris and burn them
to clear the land and cultivate for next planting. Tones of organic
materials are wasted and lost.

GREEN MANURING
Green manuring is the is the planting of seasonal crops usually
legumes like beans and plowing them under at their tender age

Organic farmers spread rice straw and corn cubs back to the field

during flowering and early fruiting when they are rich in nutrients.

immediately after harvest. They are sprayed with beneficial

Plowing under weeds and grasses, allowing them to decompose is

microorganisms or pro-biotic or bacteria and plowed under. In 4

also green manuring. Spraying them with pro-biotic will hasten their

weeks, they are decomposed and the field is ready for land

decomposition. These practices have long been done by farmers

preparation for new planting.

century back, until commercial chemical fertilizers have been

This practice is also being started with big pineapple and banana

introduced to the market.

plantations in Mindanao. Some sugarcane planters found the benefit


of composting cane residue in the field instead of the usual practice
of burning after harvest then cultivating and fertilizing. Field

COVER CROPPING
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Cover cropping is the growing of low crawling plants usually

hull charcoal is mixed in 1:4 ratios with other potting materials. It is

leguminous vines like centrocema pubisence and kudsu to protect the

good for seedling trays, potted plants, vegetable pots and herbs in

soil surface from water erosion, prevent the growth of noxious weeds

pots.

and help increase soil fertility. These are grown beneath fruit trees

and taller crops.

Washed coco peat comes from the husk of coconut.


The coconut hush is shredded and soaked in water for several days
and washed with fresh clean water. It has a good water holding
capacity. It is mixed with other materials at 1:1 ratio. Very good for
seedling trays, vegetable plots, potted plants and fruit bearing trees.

INDIGENOUS POTTING MATERIALS


Garden soils have been the usual potting materials for gardeners.
However there are different Potting mix and indigenous materials

Bagasse is sugarcane pulp. Decomposed bagasse is rich in humates

that gardeners and nursery operators may use. Here are some of the

providing plants with essential trace elements. It is suitable for fast

suggestions offered to readers by Anthony Gaw of Aim Trading

growing vegetables like peachy, mustard and lettuce.

Corporation, Calihan, San Pedro City, Laguna with Telex (049) 8001572:

compacting of the medium due to strong watering. They are good for
seedling trays, potted flowering plants, and orchid community pots.

A mixture of fertile garden or topsoil decomposed


organic materials and fine river sand at 1:1:1 ratio.

Pumice Stones are small volcanic rocks with other


materials at 1:5 ratios. Pumice stones prevent panning or the

Fermented Bagasse and garden soil at 1:4 ratios

Granulated charcoal comes from coconut shell. It is

Rice hull charcoal is half burned rice hull. It

a good material for drainage that prevents excessive moisture that

contains a high level of carbon needed by plants for normal growth.

damaged the roots. It is a source of carbon a plant nutrient needed in

It makes the mixed medium looses and easier for root development.

maturing. A layer or two is placed at the bottom of the pot before

It helps retain fertilizer and releases to plants in a longer time. Rice

potting materials are place into the pot.

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Powdered charcoal. The coconut shell or wooden

There are many kinds of soil conditioners, depending on the

charcoal is pulverized into powder. It helps absorb foul odor of

different soil conditions and deficiencies. Progressive farmers should

decomposing organic materials. It helps beneficial bacteria hasten

know them and how to use them properly to make their soil rich and

decomposing process. Spread at leas an inch thick on compost pills

highly productive as the years go by. Among them are:

or decomposing materials.

Short coconut fiber from coconut husk is separated

through decortications. It is a good mulching material for sensitive

Agricultural lime, to correct very acid soils and

plants. 1 to 2 layers is place on top of soil or partly mixed with soil to

brings the pH level to near pH-7, which is neutral and suitable to

prevent erosion.

most plant growth and availability of plant nutrients for root


absorption.

Granulated Zeolite are chipped from boulders and


used as absorbent material. Fertilizers and plant nutrients absorbed

and increase its fertility.

by seolite are released to the plant roots slowly and continually for a
longer period of time. It controls the growth of molds and fungus,
especially in nitrogen rich medium.

holding capacity and ideal for aerial plants tike anthuriums,


bromeliads, dendrobiums, and other high value aerial plants.

Chemical

fertilizers,

to

supply

the

nutrient

deficiency of the soil and meet the nutrient requirement of the crops
grown.

Cubed coconut husk The husks are sterilized and


then chopped to produce uniform sized cubes, It has a good water

Organic fertilizers, to both improve the soil texture

Organic

composts are

decomposed

or

partly

decompose or plain organic materials place or incorporated into the


soil to improve its texture and later through the action of
microorganisms are fully digested and converted into soil nutrients

SOIL CONDITIONERS

that are readily absorbed by the plant roots.

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Probiotics or Microbes are beneficial bacteria and

microorganisms that helps digest and decompose organic materials

grass that can convert the nitrogen from the air into ammonia. It can
substitute 30-50% of the nitrogen requirement of rice and corn.

and convert them into soil nutrients made available to root

Bio-N increases the yield of rice and corn by as much as 35%

absorption. There are now a lot of available preparations of these

compared with unfertilized treatments, maintains the natural soil

microorganisms sold in the market. They are usually mixed in water

properties and fertility, and makes plants healthy and green even in

and sprayed into the soil or organic compost to help hasten

drought and in the presence of pests.

decomposition and fight the bad or undesirable microorganisms in

Nitro Plus is legume inoculants, which can substitute for nitrogen

the soil. Probiotics can help reduce the use of chemical fertilizer and

chemical fertilizer at a much cheaper cost. This is a bacterium

help improve the texture of the soil.

called rhizobia, which are specific for legumes such as soybeans,


peanut, mungbeans, cowpea and pole sitao.
The bacteria reside inside the nodules of leguminous plants

MICROORGANISMS ENHANCES CROP PRODUCTIVITY

where they can fix nitrogen directly from the air. Nitro Plus can

(As reported by Bengie P. Gibe, S&T Media Service)

replace 30-50% of the nitrogen requirement of the crop.

Microorganisms, also known as microbes, are microscopic

Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between the roots of plant

organisms like bacteria, protozoa, algae, fungus and virus. They are

and fungus. The association provides many benefits to plants. It

found in soil, water and atmosphere, and inextricably intermingled in

increases the absorption of nutrients like phosphorous and water,

the environment. There are bad and good organisms. Some of them

serves as a biological control agent against infection, improves soil

can enhance crop productivity.

properties, increase the tolerance of the crop to environmental

The National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology


(BIOTECH) of the University of the Philippines Los Banos (UPLB)
produced two, Biological Nitrogen Fixers (BNF): Bio-N and Nitro
Plus.

stresses (drought, diseases, mineral imbalances).


BIOTECH

has

come

up

with

two Mycorrhiza products:

Micogroe and Mycovam.


Mycogroe is a soil based bio-fertilizers tablet form that promotes

Bio-N is solid inoculants in powdered form that contains any of

survival and growth of forest species like eucalyptus, pines, agoho

the two important strains of bacteria isolated from the roots of talahib

and dipterocarps. The tablet is inoculated into tree seedlings during

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their nursery stage. Some 60-80% of the fertilizer requirements of

MULCHING

the trees in the fields are replaced by using this microb inoculant.

Mulching is the covering of the soil surface to slow down soil

Mycovam on the other hand, is in powdered form, soil inoculant

moisture evaporation or conserve soil moisture, prevent growth of

effective for agricultural crops like rice, corn potatoes, eggplant, fruit

weeds and keep the soil soft and friable. In the process, beneficial

trees and forest trees.

microorganisms digesting cellulose are protected from the sun and

It is also added during the nursery phase of seedling or

continue their work of converting organic materials in the soil into

inoculating seeds just immediately before planting. It can replace

organic fertilizer.

fertilizer requirement by as much as 60 to 80% nitrogen.

There are different methods of mulching:

Bioorganic microorganisms can decompose agricultural residues


and convert into bioorganic fertilizer, which enhances the growth of
plants.
BIOTECH has likewise produced an organic fertilizer technology

sawdust, rice hull or other vegetative materials that eventually

that uses two microorganisms:

decomposes and mix with the soil to add to its humus or organic

Trichoderma harzianum or compost fungus activator (CFA),

content.

brand BIO-QUICK.
The other is Azotobacter sp., free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria,

Covering soil with cut grasses, weeds, straw,

brand BIO-FIX.

Covering soil surface with plastic sheet, usually


black with silver surface.

BIO-QUICK enhances the process of decomposition by reducing


the composting period from 5-6 months to only 3-4 weeks, after

which the resulting compost is inoculated with BIO-FIX. Inoculation

Cultivating or breaking soil surface before summer


to break moisture evaporation.

of one week produces nitrogen-enriched compost that can be applied


to field crops, vegetables and fruit trees.

New technology of mulching is the use of

These materials are available at BIOTECH, UP, Los Banos,

greenhouses or covering the plants with nets to both reduce sunlight

Laguna at very reasonable price. Reservations and orders have to be

intensity and break the force of raindrops. This is coupled with the

made at least one month before pickup or need.

use of ultra violet ray plastic transparent roofing. These practices are
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the emerging conventional technologies that help farmers grow high
value commercial crops in compact and limited areas.
ISSUES AND FACTS ON ORGANIC FERTILIZERS
The higher the organic content of the soil particles, the more

ISSUES

moisture holding capacity it has. There are jells from seaweed when

FACTS

incorporated with the soil improves its water holding capacity and

Organic materials after undergoing decomposition, especially when

releases moisture slowly to the roots. This is one advantage in using

applied in large quantities, could cause groundwater pollution.

humus and decomposed organic fertilizers.

Inorganic chemical fertilizers are more pollutants to groundwater


even in smaller quantity than organic materials.
Plant do not use directly the nutrient found in organic materials since
this has to first undergo mineralization.
This is true to all types of fertilizers and plant food nutrients. Plants
absorb them in the simplest mineral ion forms.
The amount of essential plant nutrients in organic materials are very
low compared with synthetic chemical fertilizers.
This is true, that is why bigger volume of organic materials is applied
to the soil. However organic fertilizers carrying the 17 nutrients
needed by plants while chemical fertilizer may only carry 2 to 5
nutrient elements.
Organic fertilizer releases the plant food nutrients within a few days
slowly and last at a longer stretch of time that takes years
Chemical fertilizers on the other hand may have immediate and fast
release of nutrients and is dissipated in only 3to 4 months.

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Organic materials are claimed to improve physical properties of soil
but this could only be true in aerobic soil condition,

FARMERSS

This claim is not entirely true as irrigated lands where organic

PRACTICES WORTH SHARING AND EMULATING

fertilizers have been incorporated during land preparation show

EXPERIENCES,

OBSERVATIONS

AND

In the September 2003 issue of Agriculture Magazine, we read

outstandingly better crop growth and yield.

the experience of a mango grower who turned to natural organic

Soil organic matter will not increase significantly in just one or two

farming after experiencing big losses due to the high cost of

years of applying organic materials.

chemical pesticides. He is Col. Virgilio Ecarma of Batangas with

This may be true if the quantity of organic fertilizer applied is

5,000 bearing trees.

minimal, however, periodic application will be improving soil

Here is what Col. Ecarma did. On his 2000 trees he stopped

capacity of sustaining increasing crop productivity as the years go

using chemical pesticides and replaced them with his own

by.

concoction of organic preparations. His organic concoction did not

Organic fertilizer is not the sole factor in improving the quality of the

only control pest and diseases, but also invigorated the trees. The

food product such as increased anti-oxidant content.

materials he used are neem tree leaves, garlic, vinegar, coconut

Yes there are mineral soil conditioners that will help enhance your

water, gin (alcohol), molasses, trash fish, rice brand and effective

soil with organic fertilizer to improve food crop quality.

microorganism (Pro-biotic).

Using purely organic fertilizers/materials will not make your crop

He prepared his concoction in three 100 litters plastic drums. In

productive as when chemical fertilizers are used solely.

the first drum he filled it 1/3 with neem leaves, added 5 kilos of

This is not true. Organically grown fruits and vegetables without

molasses, 10 kilos of crushed garlic, 24 bottles of gin (alcohol), 1

chemical fertilizers have been producing commercially well.

gallon of vinegar and filled the drum with water, then covered.

Organic fertilizers/materials incorporated in the soil improves the

Allowed it to ferment for 15 days, opening the cover to relish

soil texture, nutrient content and feeds microorganisms and keep the

methane gas accumulating.

soil alive.

The second drum was filled half with trash fish, 20 kilos of

This is one big benefit in using organic materials. The heavy use of

molasses and filled the drum with water. Cover and allowed to

chemical fertilizer have the tendency to make the soil acidic and kills

ferment for 15 days.

microorganisms and life forms in the soil making it barren.


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The third drum was filled wit 20 kilos of molasses and 2 litters of

When insect pest come into the greenhouse, they spray the plants

pro-biotic (Effective Microorganism), 5 kilos of rice brand and

with concoction of pepper. Overall, they grow disease free and insect

coconut water to fill the drum. Cover and allowed to stay for 15

free healthy vegetables.

days.
After 15 days, litter of liquid was taken from each drum and
mixed to 100 litters of water and sprayed on the mango trees on a
weekly interval.

They follow a system of crop rotation. They have classified their


vegetables into the Cabbage group, Foliage group, Fruit Vegetable
group, Root Crop group and the Legumes group.
The different groups have their own peculiar pests and diseases,

The result, fruit flies and mango hoppers were driven away. The

explains Jet. To avoid pest and disease problems, they rotate the

2000 trees sprayed with the organic preparation had a very striking

different groups. For instance, legumes are planted where tomato and

contrast with the 3000 trees not treated. The prayed trees were very

eggplants were planted previously. Pechay and lettuce on the other

fruitful, and the fruits were unblemished by fruit fly or anthracnose;

hand may be grown where carrots were planted before, and so on.

while the 3000 trees untreated were attacked by hoppers and fruit

Another technique in avoiding pest and diseases is to intercrop

flies and were unproductive. Col. Ecarma also observed the treated

plants that repel insect pests such as marigold. Besides repelling

trees were much healthier. He surmised that the fish emulsion with

insects, its roots also secrets a substance that kills nematodes in the

Probiotics supplied nitrogen amino acid essential for plant growth.

soil.
In cases where the vegetables are still infested, the couple, spray

The organic preparations can also be used to other plants like

them with organic pesticide like Basilus thoringensis (Bt)

ampalaya, patola, guava, macopa, papaya, caimito, banana,

commercially prepared in powdered form and mixed with water for

balimbing, siniguelas, pechay and other fruit bearing plants and

application to plants.

vegetables.

ORGANIC MANGO

-o-o-o-

There is now a growing market demand for organically grown

Organic vegetable growers, Jef and Lydia van Haute bought a

fruits and food crops especially in Europe, and slowly influencing

2000 sq. m. land in Balubad Dos, Silang Cavite where they built a

the world markets. PREDA (Peoples recovery, Empowerment and

greenhouse and grew organic vegetables, free from toxic chemical

Development Assistance Foundation, Inc.) is working on the

pesticides. They use organic fertilizer.

commercial production of Certified Organic dried mango. PREDA


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agriculturists are working with mango farmers all over Central

3. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

Luzon on the first phase of going organic training. We have to take


note however, with the chemical pollution of the soil, air and water
worldwide, we cannot say that crops are grown 100% organic. What
we can do is produce fruits and food crops without toxic chemical
residue when harvested or consumed.
BOTANICAL PESTICIDES for MANGO

4. Natural Organic and Biological practice


5. With Control trees
Initial

observation

shows

the

Chemical

Company

recommendations and the Natural Organic and Biological practices


are competing in excellence. The study shows that growing chemical

Studies on botanical plants with, pesticidal properties against

free organic mango is commercially attainable.

mango leafhoppers were done by Dr. Hernani Golez and Nenita F.

POST HARVEST TREATMENT

Zamora of Guimaras Islands National Mango Research Center

There are several post harvest treatment being employed:

(NMRC). Field test of different crud extracts showed that tobacco


plus detergent and combined extracts of kakawati, tubli and ripe sili
plus detergent (KTRD) were effective against mango hoppers.

1. Plain warm water washing with 1% salt solution or detergent

Furthermore, KTRD as bio-spray was also effective in the control of

and chlorine. Dry fruits after washing as re-infection occur

mealybugs attacking the flowers of mango. Incidence of borer

when fruits are moist.

damage was also minimized by spray application of different extracts


(tubli, tobacco, lagundi, atis and makabuhay).
A comparative study is conducted by mango growers assisted by
the Agricultural Training Institute (ATI), at Tukawal, Alabel,
Sarangani Province. The study consist of comparing practices of
1. Mango Grower Contractor practice

1. Hot Water Treatment (HWT) where fruits are dipped in 5255 degrees water for 10 minutes. A new innovation dip in 59
to 60 degrees water for 30 seconds to one minute. The
temperature range should be strictly maintained and
monitored to avoid scalding if it rises, and if it drops, may

2. Chemical Company Recommendations

not control the pest and diseases of the fruits. Air-dry


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immediately after dipping. Adding chlorine to the water
helps control diseases

1. Chemical Treatment Using fungicide to control fruit rot.


Fungicides are dissolved in water where the fruits are
dipped. Benomyl (500-1000 ppm) and other suitable
fungicides are used.

The author designed and fabricated a simple HWT tank made out
of one sheet stainless steel plate heated by LPG. Dimension is 20 x

2. Fumigation with Ethylene dibromide (EDB) at the rate of 16

30 inches and 18 inches high. It has a capacity of 2 crates of 20 kilos

grams per cubic meter for 2 hours at 25oC is done for

per crate per loading. The unit can easily be transported to the site of

mangoes exported to Australia and New Zealand. This will

harvest. It cost P8,000 to P10,000 per complete unit with stand, gas

control and destroy the insect eggs in the fruit. The

stove burner, LPG tank with hose, regulator and thermometer. A

Australian government has now banned the use of EDB. The

bigger stainless steel tank with 6 crates capacity cost P20,000.00

Philippine government is negotiating to replace ir with VHT

fabricated by a machine shop in Gen. Santos City.

to control fruit fly. Irradiation seems to be more favored by


Australia.

1. Extended Hot Water Treatment (EHWT) Dipping the fruit


in 46 - 48 degrees Centigrade for 90 minutes. This treatment
is practiced in Mexico for mango exported to the USA.
1. Irradiation This is a new introduction to access fruits and
food preparation to USA and other countries requiring such
quarantine procedure.
1. Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT) where fruits are subjected to
heated vapor until the inner flesh of the fruit reaches 46
degrees for 10 minutes. This treatment is required for

These treatments tend to control fruit born diseases like

mangoes exported to Japan, and Korea. It is non toxic and

Anthracnose and Stem End Rot as well as kill insect eggs like Fruit

non chemical disinfectant.

Fly. Be sure to fully dry the fruits after treatment, before packing
because wet and moist fruits are easily re-infected by fungal rot
diseases.
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STEPS IN HOT WATER TREATMENT

1. Use electric fan to hasten drying. When fully dried, sort them
and pack carefully in fruit boxes or crates for storage or
shipment to the market.

1. Heat water up to 55*C and main the temperature range at 5255*C during operations. A 59-60 degrees for fast treatment.
1. Some buyers do not want chemically treated fruits, so HWT
or VHT are done without using fungicide of chemicals.
1. Place mango in perforated plastic crate or basket that fits
into the hot water tank to maximize the number of fruits that
can be treated in one dipping. In the absence of plastic crate,

The above operations should be done within 4 to 8 hours after

any other suitable containers that will not cause bruises on

harvest. It is even preferable for small quantity harvest to do the

the fruits may be used. This will avoid direct contact of the

whole operation right in the field or farm. Treat fruits within 4 hour

fruits with the hot metal bottom of the tank that can cause

of picking while latex are still wet.

heat injuries or scalding.

Harvested mangoes should never be exposed to direct sunlight,


wind, rain and other contaminants, either in the farm or during
transport to the processing plant and packaging site. If this cannot be

1. Dip the mango into the hot water submerged for 5 to 10


minutes, checking the temperature is between 52-55*C. A
faster procedure is 30 to 60 seconds dipping in 59 to 60
degrees water. It is advisable to move the crates now and
then to equalize the heat and help remove the dirt from the
fruits.

avoided, thorough washing and hot water treatment should be done


and completely dried and packed avoiding re-contamination.
ORGANIC FARMERS
Mr. Jose (Batchoy) and his life partner Mrs. Pamela (Pam)
Henares of Sitio Balugo, Bry. Alangilan, Bacolod City are practicing
organic farming. They grow black pepper and lettuce organically.

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They do not want to contaminate the drinking water of the city which

of organic fertilizer may progress slowly, but the cost of production

comes from their farm area.

will decrease and soil productivity increases as the years go by.

Besides the vegetables and flowers, raise 50,000 heads of broiler

Lina Adoracion, a retired teacher at Malungon, Sarangani

from where they source their organic fertilizer, chicken droppings,

Province grow organic rice, banana and other crops. She produces

3,000 sq. meters rice field, calamansi, pineapple, fruit trees and

superior quality rice seeds. Their organic rice sell more than rice

different variety of vegetables.

grown conventionally with chemical fertilizer and pesticide spray.

Mr. Ramon Uy, owner of RU Foundry & Machine Shop Corp. in


Bacolod City is a new convert of organic farming. He was requested

She finds the farm environment healthy as she makes more money
selling organic crops.

by Mr. Jose Bachoy Henares to repaid his imported shredder.

Rue R. Ramas, Manager and proprietress of SEED WORLD in

Because of the encounter, RU Foundry is now manufacturing his

Gen. Santos City grows organic vegetable in here demo vegetable

own version of shredders for groups of farmers and local government

garden. She introduces the use of compost fertilizer and pro-biotic to

units converting their organic waste in public markets into organic

counter pathogens. Rue have been conducting trainings and seminars

fertilizers. Mr. Uy realized that agriculture and industry have to

on organic farming in cooperation with LGUs, NGOs and interested

progress together to support one another. He himself is now engage

farmer groups.

in vermi-composting and organic gardening. He also set up a model

Mr. Pat Acosta, a Horticulturist and Businessman has been

organic farm at Bago City with a partner to showcase how integrated

growing strawberry for the last 12 years. He now grow different

organic gardening. It can be adopted by small farmers and earn more.

variety of lettuce in his 3,000 sq. meter greenhouse farm at Lamtang,

Mr. Ramon Uy is willing to teach farmers and LGU sponsored

La Trinidad, Benguet. Pat is one of the pioneering organic farming

groups and learn how they can produce their own fertilizer without

practitioners. He has a shredder and compost pile, designed to turn

relying so much on imported chemical fertilizers whose price is

shredded plant residue into organic humus. He uses this material in

going up beyond the purchasing power of most Filipino farmers.

growing his vegetables. He uses probiotics and enzymes to speed up

Mr. Uy observed that using chemical fertilizers may be cost

raw materials. Pat says, he work his land the natural way as his

effective at first, in the long run the cost increases because the soil

Master, the Lord God wishes.

gets depleted (as friendly microorganisms are eliminated) so more

ORGANIC BANANA GROWING

and more fertilizer will be needed. On the other hand, the application
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Carlos Impang, a Latundan Banana farmer at Talaytay, Publacion

Replant after 3 to 5 years with 1 year rest or planted to legume

Malungon, Sarangani Provice has this to share. His farm is 3 hectares

crops. It is a good practice to rest the land for one year and allow the

planted to Latundan Banana at a distance of 3 x 6 meters. He

growth of natural vegetation and microorganisms that help

practices clean culture, with the weeds and banana leaves left to

decompose and turn plant residue and convert them to organic

decompose in between hills. He uses organic mulch and organic

fertilizer and readily available plant nutrients.

waste as his fertilizer. He does not spray chemicals or bagging of


bunches as done with Lacatan and Cavendish banana growing. He
prunes off diseased leaves and brack to prevent spread of fungal
diseases.

ORGANIC FISH CULTURE


Inland fish culture has been originally practiced in lakes and

It takes 10 t0 12 months from planting to flowering. Fruit

ponds the natural way. They just building the pond and allow fish to

emergence takes 14 to 16 days, and 2.5 months from flower

live, tribe and grow. As new technology are introduced, many

emergence to fruit maturity and harvest.

fishpond operators were feeding the fish with ready mixed and

He maintains 2 to 3 suckers per hill at different stages of growth.

milled commercial fish feeds. They also use chemical fertilizers to

Excess suckers are removed to concentrate nutrient to fruit

induce growth of algae fish food. Aerators are used to help introduce

development. Provide good drainage and aeration to keep the plants

oxygen into the waters as heavy pollution depletes the air in water.

dry with maximum sunlight exposure. Soil moisture is maintained

Loven Vilches of Sibunag, Guimaras started using 1 ton organic

with the mulching. He does not plow to avoid damaging roots that

fertilizer per hectare of fishpond instead of chemical fertilizer. They

will serve as entry point of diseases.

decompose the organic fertilizer (chicken droppings) with pro-biotic

The average production is 10 to 35 kilos per bunch. He markets

or beneficial microorganism. It takes 3 weeks from treatment of

at the local Public Market of Malungon at P10.00 per kilo whole sale

bacteria before the organic fertilizer is applied on the pond. After a

to retailers. He has a weekly harvest of 100 to 130 kilos from

few days the pond is filled with water and side dressed with liquid

hectare. He is expanding his area to 6 hectares. He observed that his

algal booster. His harvest increased by 25%. He uses fingerlings

yield increases during the rainy season and drops during summer

caught from the wild and limits fry population so as not to over stock

months.

the pond. The biological fish culture technology was introduced by


Aidine Galvan of Growbio Farming System of Bacolod City.
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Bangus is harvested in 2.5 months instead of the usual 3 months.

1.

It prevents Brain fatigue and nervous breakdown.

The fish size are 4 pieces to a kilo. After harvest, there is rich algae

Two to three leaves a day will keep old age away provided

supply in the pond, that there was no need to add fish feed. There is

that the body is exposed to the sun for a time being for each

no need for another month pond preparation for the next cropping.

day.

15 days is enough. They add more pro-biotic bacteria for enzymes to


continue the production of fish food. The dead algae, fish litter and
other organic waste in the pond are converted into nutrients by the
enzymes and become fish food again. It is recycling waste.

HERBAL PLANTS

1.

It cures the nervous and mental problems, heart


problems, age spots, and thyroid stimulant.

Plants were created for animals. While we also use them for plant
nutrition and protection, they are more used as food and medication
to keep man and animals healthy productive and have a long life.
Here is one. (A bonus to our readers)

HYDROCELLA ASISTICA or CENTELLA

1.

Common name Gotu Kola, Payong-payong, Takip-kuhol

It improves skin and relieves skin problems, leprosy,


tuberculosis, and venereal diseases.

It is referred to as Indian Ginseng. Another variety is Koto Kola.


Two leaves a day keeps sickness and old age away
Herbalist calls Gotu Kola as the finest herbal tunic.
The leaves appear to act as brain food. 2-3 leaves a day eaten raw

strengthen worn out body tissues and the brain to a remarkable


degree.

1.

It assists in healing depressions, impotence, and


menopausal problems.

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After Li Chungs death, the French government has done

extensive studies. They found out that there is unknown vitamin that
1.

It also serves as an aphrodisiac.

they called Vitamin Y for the youth vitamin because it was found to
have a beneficial effect on the brain and endocrine glands.

The Indians use the plant as a diuretic to remove excess fluid from
the body and stimulate stimulants to the kidney and bladder as a
blood purifier.
Gotu kola has also been used as cancer treatment, and herb used by
Jason Winters as told in his story in his inspiring book KILLING
CANCER that is usually available in health and food shop.
Because Gotu Kola (Hydrocella asistica) is an Asian herb, it is
not mentioned in European herbals, as they do not grow naturally
there.
It was renowned Chinese herbalist PROF. LI CHANG YUN, who
lived to the age of 256 years as a user of that herb that awoke the
Western World as to its value. He was born on 1677 and in 1933 the
New York Times announced the death of the remarkable oriental
whose life span had reach over two and a half-century. The Chinese
government officially recorded his age. At 260 years of age Prof. Yun
still gave courses of lectures (Its lecture lasting 3 hours) on longevity
at the Chinese University. Those who saw him declared that he did
not appear older than a man of 72 did. He stood erect and strong and
had his own natural hair and teeth.

Another French Bio-Chemist Jules Lepino who undertook


extensive researches of the plant and found out that it had a rare tonic
properties that had marked energizing effect on the nerves and brain
cells to keep them functioning well.
Many people who took Gotu Kola daily tell how they no longer
feel brain fatigue. Their memory is strengthened and a feeling of
mental and physical well being and energy had been experienced. It
is considered as brain food.
The lady who took the herbal for six weeks said that she did not
feel fatigue despite heavy schedule and she was more relax and her
arthritic pain gone. For years she had not been able to take the ring
off her finger because of arthritis. But after taking the herb for
several weeks, she was able to remove her ring again.
Recently a lady from Brisbane came to pick up her friend who
has been sick and also troubled with high blood pressure. She started
taking the herb. In her next checkup, the doctor took her pressure
three times as he could not believe that her blood pressure for ten
years normalized due to her taking Gotu Kola daily with in two
weeks.
Goto kola (Hydrocella asistica) can be eaten straight from the
plant or added to salad or chopped as a last minute garnish or meal
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like parsley. It has a slight bitter flavor. The leaves can be used as
fresh or died for iced fruit juice sweetened with honey.
But do not over eat. It may result to headache, dizziness, or too
much energy and sleeplessness at bedtime.
Gotu kola is a rich source of chlorophyll, Vitamins A, B, C, D, K
and particularly minerals and magnesium. The plant is easy to grow
and adapts in most soils.

Contact Marietta H. Rivera at 30 Lapu Lapu St., General Santos


City.
Tel (083) 301-0117
=================================================
=========================================
There are more Natural and Organic and Biological Farming
systems that have not yet been included in this manuscript. This

A 95 years old lady in wheel chair at the General Santos City

technology we have just presented are sufficient for beginners,

Home for the Aged has now left her wheel chair after

farmers and enthusiasts to start on the road on natural farming and

eating Hydrocella asistica for two months. She was suffering from

producing safe and healthful food crops. We suggest that our readers

sever Arthritis with high blood and diabetes. Now she can walk and

embark on your own research, study, trials and readings to learn

move around with a cane. Soon she says, even the cane may no

more and be a part of a new movement of environmental and

longer be needed as she feels progressively getting stronger and

ecology friendly farming.

active. Other old folks in the home for the aged also say their health

The new movement hopes to bring back the birds of the air, frogs

and strength are improving as they daily eat fresh Hydrocella asistica

and reptiles on the land, and fishes of the waters and streams that

leaves. They claim that three (3) leaves a day is enough. Too many

disappear because of the unrestricted use of toxic chemicals in

intakes cause headaches to some. It tastes pleasantly bitter when

agriculture. The lost bio ecological balance and diversity of nature

chewed fine and juicy.

will be back with the rich fertile soils that can sustain crop

The plant is a soft tender crawling vine with roots and a leaf at

production and renew the face of the earth nearer to its primal

every node. Hydrocella asistica leaves are shaped like umbrella with

origin.

al long pistil. They grow well on moist soil partly shaded areas. It is

Let us study and learn natural laws for they are Gods laws that will

fast growing, ideal to replace noxious weeds between fruit trees in

help us farm the natural ways. In the process, we will be producing

orchard farms. It appears to help enrich the soil as green manure

safe, healthful food while protecting the environment, sustaining

plant.

balance ecosystem and preserving bio-diversity in our farms. Good

Planting materials are now available in tray pot.

luck and happy productive Natural Farming.


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ACKNOWLEGEMENT

researches and studies which he shares with farmers in seminars and

The lifetime works, research, and studies of Pedro D.

training. Cell No. 0918-329-2033.

Sangatanan, BSA, MSc. And Ronel L. Sangatanan, BSA, MAgr.

To the farmers who encourage this writer to continue improving

They have been an inspiration in promoting organic farming to the

and promoting this manuscript to help and guide them in returning to

Filipino farmers, and help produce safe and healthful organically

natural farming.

grown food at lower cost and self-sustaining natural farming


system.
Mr. Zac B. Sarian, Editor of Agriculture Monthly Magazine, who
has a wide source of information on agricultural technology, and has
been unselfish in sharing them to help fast tract the development of
several Philippine agricultural industries and ventures.

The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) Region 12 Who


facilitated the early printing and reproduction of this manuscript, and
conducted special forum to launch the handbook on Natural Farming
on October 21, 2004 at Koronadal City.
Government and none government agencies and educational
institution supporting this trust and development of natural farming
to include: DA-ATI, FPA, DTI, DOST, GENSAFCO, MINFRUIT,

Miss Lina Adoracion a retired teacher now a full time farmers

GEM, MSU-GSC, USM-KABACAN, UDP.

adopting the Masikap way of natural and organic farming at her


Malungon farms. She produces organically grown rice and fruits.
Ms. Rue R. Ramas, proprietor of Seed World and currently busy
educating and conducting trainings on organic farming with the use

Tanah Yang Subur

of pro-biotic. Her demo-vegetable crops are organically grown.

By on Friday, 15 June 2012 at 10:18

SEED WORLD, V.G. Rivera Farm, Nat. Hwy. Lagao. General


Santos City. Telex. 083-302-0444, Tel. 083-302-0456 Cell: 0917-

Question: Is there anything I can do to loosen up the clay soil in my

951-5364)

front lawn? When it rains, it has the consistency of pottery clay, but
when it stops raining, it dries out quickly. I have been in this house

Mr. Antonio Toto Marin III, Pathologist and practicing farmer.


He is an advocate of organic and biotechnology who makes his own

for seven years and aerated once. Any suggestions?


Answer: All of the organic amendments directly or indirectly help
loosen and soften the soil. The key to friable, productive soil is
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abundant life in the soil. When the soil is healthy by being rich with
biological activity, it will not erode or compact during rains, it will

Worst for Soil Health

hold moisture at just the right level - thus cutting water costs, and it

High-nitrogen, synthetic fertilizers

will create excellent crop production. Healthy soil contains

Toxic pesticide

significant microbiotic life. The microbes create organic matter that

Bare soil

helps build the glue in the soil that creates the texture that allows

Excessive tilling (rotor)

rain and irrigation to soak in, oxygen to breathe in and carbon

Foot and vehicle traffic

dioxide to breathe out.

Overwatering and frequent light watering

Nutrients
Use this thought model. Before choosing a product to use on your

By Izam Ijam on Monday, 23 May 2011 at 23:35

property ask this: if I purchase and use this product, will it help or
hurt the life in the soil? When the beneficial bacteria, fungi,

Primary Nutrients: Nitrogen (N) N > 10ppm Pre-plant N generates

protozoa, insects, earthworms and others are healthy, growing, and

vigorous seedling growth, which ensures a

reproducing, the soil's chemistry, biology and structure will be soft,

well-branched plant by the first fruit set. Pre-plant N is not needed if

crumbly and productive.

a soil test shows the soil has 20ppm nitrate or more Broadcast 2030lbsN/ac before discing of N is needed, otherwise, band N (2-

Best for Soil Health


Compost and organic fertilizers
Rock minerals - lava, granite

5lbs/ac) 3-4 inches below the seed. Apply a steady supply of N to


the plant during first set to produce greater yields. While plants
develop first fruits, analyze plant tissue samples to keep nitrate

greensand, zeolite, gypsum, etc.

concentration in the plant stem and petiole between 7000-8000ppm.

Sugars molasses, cornmeal, etc.

High N rates may depress total yields, delaying crop maturity and

Mulch covering all bare soil

decrease the proportion of red pods.

Infrequent deep irrigation when needed.

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Symptoms of Nitrogen DeficiencySlow growth; stuntingYellowgreen color (chlorosis)"Firing" of tips and

structural nutrient, it is an essential part in all walls and membranes

margins of leaves beginning with more mature leaves. hPhosphorus

and must be present for the formation of new cells.

(P) N > 30ppm Helps young seedling grow,


especially when soil warms in spring. Not needed if levels of soil P

-Non-mobile in plant tissue Symptoms of Calcium Deficiency "Tip

are between medium and medium-low. Add 50-100lbs P2O5/ac

burn" of young leaves-celery, lettuce, cabbage. Death of growing

before discing of levels are lower. Alternatively, band 30lbs P2O5/ac

points (terminal buds). Root tips also affected. Abnormal dark green

3-4 inches below the seed. P increases total yield and increases the

appearance of foliage.

proportion of red pods. Important for good root development and

Premature shedding of blossoms and buds. Weakened stems. Water-

fruit production.

soaked, discolored areas on fruitsblossom-

Symptoms of Phosphorus DeficiencySlow growth; stunting.Purplish

end rot of peppers.

coloration on foliage of some plants.Dark


green coloration with tips of leaves dying.Delayed maturityPoor fruit

Magnesium (Mg) Essential for photosynthesis. Serves as an activator

or seed development.

for many plant enzymes required in growth


process.

Potassium (K) N > 150ppm Encourages root growth and increases

-Mobile within the plant and can be readily translocated from older

plant resistance to disease. Increases size

to younger tissue. Symptoms of Magnesium

and quality of fruit and vegetables and increases winter hardiness. It

Deficiency Interveinal chlorosis in older leaves. Curling of leaves

is mobile in the plant Fertilizer form is K2O

upward along margins.

Symptoms of Potassium DeficiencyTip and margin "burn" starting


on more mature leaves.Weak stalks, plants
lodge easily.Small fruits or shriveled seed.Slow growth. Secondary

Sulfur (S) A constituent of three amino acids (cystine, methionine,

Nutrients: Calcium (Ca) A

cysteine), therefore essential for protein synthesis.


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such as respiration, photosynthesis, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
Symptoms of Sulfur Deficiency Young leaves light green to

Symptoms of Iron Deficiency Interveinal

yellowish color. Small and spindly plants. Retarded

chlorosis of young leaves. Veins remain green except in severe


cases.
Manganese (Mn) Serves as an activator for enzymes in growth
processes. Assist Fe in chlorophyll formation. High
Mn concentration may induce Fe deficiency. Symptoms of
Manganese Deficiency Interveinal chlorosis of young

growth rate and delayed maturity. Micronutrients: Even though they

leaves. Gradation of pale green coloration with darker color next to

used by plants in very small amounts, they

veins. No sharp distinction between veins and interveinal areas as

are just as essential for plant growth as the larger amounts of primary

with Fe deficiency.

and secondary nutrients. Care must be exercised in the use of


micronutrients, since the difference between deficient and toxic

Copper (Cu) An activator of several enzymes. May play a role in

levels if often small. Micronutrients should not be applied as a

vitamin A production. A deficiency interferes with protein synthesis.

shotgun application to cover possible deficiencies. They should

Symptoms of Copper Deficiency Stunted growth. Poor pigmentation.

be applied only when the need has been demonstrated. Zinc (Zn) An

Wilting and

essential constituent of several important enzyme systems. Controls


the synthesis of indoleacetic acid (IAA), an important plant growth

eventual death of leaf tips.

regulator. Symptoms of Zinc Deficiency Decrease in stem


length and a rosetteing of terminal leaves. Reduced fruit bud

Boron (B) Functions in plants in differentiation of meristem cells.

formation. Mottled leaves (interveinal chlorosis).

With B deficiency, cells may continue to divide, but structural

Iron (Fe) Required for the formation of chlorophyll in plant cells.

components are not differentiated. Also, apparently regulates

Serves as an activator for biochemical processes

metabolism of carbohydrates in plants. Once assimilated, B is not


remobilized in plants, and a continuous supply is necessary at all
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growing points. Deficiency is first found in the youngest tissue of

cupping or rolling of leaves.Chlorine (Cl) Required in photosynthetic

the plant. Symptoms of Boron Deficiency Death of terminal growth,

reactions in plants. Deficiency is very rare due to its universal

causing lateral buds to develop and producing a witches-broom

presence in nature. Symptoms of Chlorine Deficiency Wilting

effect. Thickened, curled, wilted, and chlorotic leaves. Reduced

followed by chlorosis. Excessive

flowering or improper pollination.

branching of lateral roots. Bronzing of leaves. Chlorosis and


necrosis.

Molybdenum (Mo) Required by plants for utilization of nitrogen.


Plants cannot transform nitrate nitrogen into amino acids with Mo.
Symptoms of Molybdenum Deficiency Stunting and lack of vigor.
Marginal scorching and

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