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Anatomy and Physiology

of the Brain

Brain
The brain is divided into 3 different
areas with the same embryonic
origin.
Forebrain
Midbrain
Hindbrain

Forebrain
Has 2 Hemispheres
Divided into 4 lobes
Parietal lobe
Frontal lobe
Temporal lobe
Occipital lobe

Forebrain
Gyrus (gyri) =
folds
Sulcus (sulci) =
inside the gyrus
Lateral Fissure
Central sulcus
Preoccipital notch
Parieto-occipital
sulcus

Forebrain Areas
Both hemispheres (primary areas)
Primary
Primary
Primary
Primary

motor cortex
sensory cortex
auditory area
visual cortex

Only in dominant hemisphere ( secondary areas)


Exners area controls hand movement for writing
Brocas area - controls larynx and tongue for speech
Wernickes area main processing centre for spoken
language
Supramarginal language area interprets visual symbols as
written words
Angular gyrus language area

Forebrain Areas

Forebrain

Midbrain

Midbrain
Passes motor output from the
cerebral cortex to the Pons and
sensory input from the spinal cord to
the thalamus
Controls movement

Hindbrain
Made of 3 parts
Medulla oblongata
Pons
Cerebellum

Hindbrain
Medulla oblongata
Passes sensory input and motor output between
other parts of the brain and spinal cord

Pons
Passes impulses from one side of the cerebellum
to the other and between the medulla and
midbrain

Cerebellum
Compares intended movements with what is
actually happening to smooth and coordinate
movement.

Brain stem
Made of 3 parts
Midbrain
Pons
Medulla oblingata