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DEFINITION OF VALUES

Robert Part and EW Burgess


Anything capable of being appreciated (wish for) is a
value
Howard Becker
Values are any object of any need
Punsalan and Badayos
Values is coined from valere which means firm or
strong.
It is an essential human characteristic that requires
strength in order to attain a particular end goal
Dr. Alex Tiempo
Valera Latin word means to measure
Three sub-concepts, the one who measures, the
thing that one measures and standard of
measurement
Standard of measurement:
o Subjectivity of values based on feelings or
opinions
o Objectivity of values facts rather than
feelings
Esther Esteban
Objective value absolute moral value
o Source of these values is believed to be from
the absolute truth God
o E.g. Ten Commandments, All kinds of evil
actions
o Characteristics: External, Objective,
Universal
Subjective value behavioural/cultural value
o Emanate from within
o Either the personal values of an individual
mans or collective concepts of a cultural
group
o Characteristics: Situational, Subjective,
Societal
ECONOMIC VALUE
Based on the material and measurable entities such
as the value of currency, stocks, inflation and
deflation
Milton Rokeach
Professor of social psychology at Michigan
University and Washington State University
Value - refers to the desire, happiness, interest, moral
responsibility and main purpose of an individual.
Edgar Sheffield Brightman
Person and Reality: An Introduction to Metaphysics
Claims that values can be considered as the ultimate
realization of ones desire

NATURE OF VALUES
Values affect ones personal and social behavior
Values have both affective and cognitive aspects
Though there are these so-called absolute values
which are generally shared by each individual, there
are unique to every man
Values also determine the whole identity of a nation
Value as good
Aristotle
Nichomachean Ethics book
Goodness and happiness are not identical
Good life is not only focused on enjoyment but on a
successful and fulfilled life as well.
Goodness can be associated with the end (real
purpose)
St. Thomas Aquinas
Goodness in every existing entity
Church doctrine on hating the sin instead of the
sinner.
CLASSIFICATIONS F. Landa Jocano
Three general concepts: As object, as ideas, as an
action.
CLASSIFICATION Ancient Philosophers
Values as Utilitarian good
Values as a Delectable/Pleasurable Good
Values as becoming Good
SOURCES OF VALUES
Family Primary source of values
Peer Group No man is an island John Donne
Media/Technology Tree possible analysis;
Structural- functional analysis, Social - conflict
analysis, Symbolic interaction analysis
Teachers (School)
Catholic church (Religious sectors)
HIERARCHY OF VALUES
Sensory < Vital < Spiritual < Holy
CHARACTERISTIC OF VALUES Max Scheler
They are always given in pairs, the positive value
has its corresponding counter value
They are pure valuable essences or qualities.
They are objective and transcend the sentimental
perception to which they appeal
They are hierarchically given, dependent and
relative among themselves and with the perceiver.
VALUES SKILLS AND DEVELOPMENT
Meaning system values originated from within,
manifested through human behaviour.
System skills
Interpersonal skills

Instrumental skills
Imagination skills

PROPERTIES OF VALUES Tomas Andres


Understanding Values
Value is relative, subjective, objective, bipolar and
hierarchical.
CONFLICT VALUES THEORY
The idea manifest that conflict exists within the
perception, interpretation and application of values
Conflict of values does not necessarily connote the
character of contradictions since these opposition
between values need not be primary conflict existing
in the ideal realm.
Whether there is a clash/struggle between the two
opposing/same values, conflict will still exist.
Nicolai Hartmann (Ethics)
Three antitheses of values Kinds of conflict values)
Qualitative and quantitative opposition
o Subjectivity of values, however it also
creates an objective validity which leads into
the singularity of values
Relational oppositions
o This attachment is also synonymous to
relationship of individual subject and object.
The Modal Conflict of values
o Opposition between the necessity and
freedom
o Necessity no restriction, no laws
o Freedom with restriction, consolidated
community rights and interest that are
based on the protection of the communitys
consolidated rights and interest.
o According to Andres, actions are to be based
on hierarchy of general moral values
VALUES CLARIFICATION PROCESS Dr. Sidney Simon
The one who enhance this concept in his academic
literatures entitled Values & Teaching and Values
Clarification
This theory was principally based on the
behavioural approach as perceived by Dr. Louis
Raths; somehow similar to John Deweys doctrine of
instrumentalism
Doctrine of Intrumentalism
o Clear distinction between Philosophy and
Man.
o Philosophy serves as an essential tool for
realization of action

Idea act as an instrument of man to deliver


needed social reforms
o Intelligence is a purposive act in which it can
only be attained through experience.
o Value clarification is vital to fulfil the end
goal of man that is to become human.
o Holds that individual have tendency to
become thoughtful and wise provided that
the appropriate values are being used
according to their respective intelligence.
o Values should penetrate the life of a person
in order for these values to be personal and
significant.
Choosing Values
o One must have the freedom /will to perform
the process of choosing values.
Prizing Values
o Actualization of the first persons.
Acting on Values
o Clarified/identified pattern of values is to
be repetitively performed.
7 ELEMENTS OF VALUING PROCESS
Values are chosen from among alternative
Values are chosen freely
Examine the consequences
Value are prized and cherished
Affirm it publicly
Act on it
Act repeatedly and consistently
THREE- DIMENSIONAL PROCESS IN VALUING
Dr. Harold Lasswell (Prof. of Yale University) develop
the value theory
Also used by Dr. Ray Rucker as the theory in field
of education.
8 value categories
o Rectitude refers to the rightness of
principle of conduct
o Well-being desirable status of existence.
o Wealth an abundance of valuable
material or possession
o Power (influence) ability to perform acts
which can affect the social/behavioural
condition of another individual.
o Enlightenment a status which involves
deep understanding
o Skill refers to the ability of a person to
accomplish a task.
o Respect involves stick observation of
rights and established privileges.
o

Affection state of being emotionally


attached.
Cited by Berth K. Simpson in the book entitled
Becoming Aware of Values
o Dimension #1 to develop within man
each one these basic need areas.
o Dimension #2 to participate in the
sharing and shaping the eight basic needs of
man in the lives of others.
o Dimension #3 to recognize the ways in
which other influence the shaping and
sharing of values within man.
FIVE PRINCIPLES OF VALUING
o Enhancement and Deprivation - It is
natural for a man to head towards
development of ones in order to fulfil his
goals.
o Base and Scope base value are means in
acquiring the scope value
o Balanced Life value needs should
properly attained in order to have a balance
life.
o Democratic Goal known for liberal. less
evil principle.
o Shaping and Sharing values are dynamic,
thus these re continuously undergoing the
process of shaping, reshaping, correcting
and adjust
Identifying the scope value:
o What can man do to help himself be
enhanced?
o What can others do to help and be
enhanced?
o How can man reorganized the ways in
which other are enhanced or become more
enhance?
SIX PROCESSES IN VALUING
o Berth K. Simpson in his becoming Aware of
Value published in San Diego California
(1973)
Goal-Setting (1) Goals that are coming from
individual, (2) Goals that are set by the teacher or
parents.
Problem Solving 5 components operation involved
in the process of problem solving, as enumerated by
Arnsperger, Rucker, and Press
o (1) Definition of the goal
o (2) Review of the past trends used in
problem solving
o

(3) Examination of the present condition


(4) Establishment of future development of
there is an uncertain chance of correcting
each condition
o (5) The discovery of appropriate two or
more alternative which their scientific
appraisal in terms of value.
Modeling
o Primarily involves positive and enhancing
comments instead of destructive and
untruthful criticism
Active listening
o In order to do this one must have
positiveness, open-mindedness, honest,
empathic listening, sincerity, truthfulness,
and eye contact.
Decision-making
o Application of the chosen alternative values
Memory appraisal
o Approach that can be employed on an
individual basis to gain a better perception
of the long range of balance or imbalance in
the value categories (Andres 190)
THE PHASE THEORY OF VALUES
4 phase of values/ phase of consciousness in
value development
Phase one : SELF
Stage 1: Satisfaction
Stage 2: individual has geared towards
emotional needs that are also physically
related
Phase two : s/he tends to come out his/her
respective
Stage 1: Values marked by the need to
belong
Stage 2: Personal Values these are
institutionalized which reflects the need to
be capable and successful in the world
Phase three
Stage 1: Highly dependent and even selfseeking
Stage 2: There is an compelling atmosphere
of mandatory legal responsibilities
Phase Four : s/he tends to think globally
Stage 1: Individual perception of the world
changes drastically
Stage 2: Changes experienced; actions are
based on we than I
o
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