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ENABLING AND EXTENDING PROMPTS: OPEN-ENDED PROBLEMPICTURES

PROBLEM PICTURE 1:

Question 1
How can I share these biscuits between two people so they have half each?

AusVELS - Number and Algebra


Mathematics Level 1, Number and Algebra: Fractions and decimals

Recognise and describe one-half as one of two equal parts of a whole.


(ACMNA016)

Mathematics Level 1, Number and Algebra: Number and Place Value

Develop confidence with number sequences to and from 100 by ones from
any starting point. Skip count by twos, fives and tens starting from zero
(ACMNA012)

(Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority 2013)

Enabling Prompt
*Models the task of sharing the group of cookies into halves by arranging two
rows of 9 using counters.
How can you arrange this group of counters (lets pretend theyre cookies) so we
can work out how many each person would get if they were shared evenly
between two people so they have exactly the same amount each?

AusVELS
Mathematics Level 1, Number and Algebra: Fractions and decimals

Recognise and describe one-half as one of two equal parts of a whole.


(ACMNA016)

Mathematics Level 1, Number and Algebra: Number and Place Value


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Develop confidence with number sequences to and from 100 by ones from
any starting point. Skip count by twos, fives and tens starting from zero
(ACMNA012)

(Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority 2013)

Justification for change to the original question


I changed the question slightly by prompting how can you arrange the counters
to help the student think of grouping and organisation which may help them
solve the problem. The use of modelling and altering the language slightly is
helpful to further support a student that may be struggling with the concept of
half as being two equal parts. The skills required are still the same but this
would support the students further through: prompting them to think of
arranging of the group, teacher modelling and allowing them to use concrete
materials to solve the problem this will assist them to be able to complete the
task themself. Alternatively, the image could be displayed on an Interactive
Whiteboard and students could use a pen to draw a line to show half or cross half
the cookies out.

Extending Prompt
What are some other ways you can share the cookies evenly between people?

AusVELS
Mathematics Level 2, Number and Algebra: Fractions and decimals

Recognise and interpret common uses of halves, quarters and eighths of


shapes and collections (ACMNA033)

(Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority 2013)

Justification for change to the original question


Students are still practicing sharing groups of collections into equal parts,
however the difficulty is increased whereby students are given the freedom to
use other fractions (quarters and eighths) to solve the problem. This extending
prompt moves from AusVELS Level 1 to Level 2 (ACARA 2013) achievement
standards for fractions and decimals. This is to cater for differentiation within the
classroom to ensure students are all being challenged to achieve their best.

Cross-Curriculum Links
This problem-picture could be used in conjunction with photos of other objects to
explore the concept of matter focusing on observable properties. Students could
list observable properties they are able to gain from the photographs and then
the teacher could guide students through investigations with hands on
exploration of real-life examples of the items in the photographs. There could be
a discussion about the different results people were able to come up with when
seeing the items in real life and what difference this made to their previous
observations. It could also be linked with literacy as students are required to
come up with adjective to describe the objects in the photographs and these
could be displayed on a word wall with the image at the top for each of the
problem-pictures.
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AusVELS - Cross-curriculum
Science, Foundation Level, Science Understanding: Chemical sciences

Objects are made of materials that have observable properties (ACSSU003)

(Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority 2013)

PROBLEM PICTURE 2:

Grade level: 1
Question 2
Choose a starting point in this playground and explain directions to a partner
from this starting point to your favourite piece of play equipment? (Using
everyday language of direction and location)

AusVELS - Measurement and Geometry


Mathematics Level 1, Measurement and Geometry: Location and
transformation

Describe position and movement (ACMMG010)

(Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority 2013)

Enabling Prompt
Choose your favourite item of play equipment and write (or draw) an example of
play equipment that is: near, next to and forwards from that piece of play
equipment.

AusVELS
Mathematics Level 1, Measurement and Geometry: Location and
transformation
3

Describe position and movement (ACMMG010)

(Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority 2013)

Justification for change to the original question


The question is still open-ended as there are multiple possible answers and still
requires the same skills for describing position and movement. However, by
asking students to describe items that are near, next to and forwards from this
simplifies the task for those who may not be able to describe their position and
movement based on the photo.

Extending Prompt
Draw a simple map of your path taken from home to school. Swap your map with
a partner and take turns to direct your partner (using language such as
clockwise, anti-clockwise and forwards) to mark out your trip to school using a
whiteboard marker.

AusVELS
Mathematics Level 1, Measurement and Geometry: Location and
Transformation

Give and follow directions to familiar locations (ACMMG023)

(Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority 2013)

Justification for change to the original question


I altered the original prompt in a way that required students to take this skills
they had used from solving the problem-picture task and apply it to a location
familiar to them. I modified the problem to allow for differentiation for those
students who achieved the original task simply. They were still focusing on the
same goal task, it was still open-ended as it had multiple solutions and it
required further application of location and transformation skills.

Cross-Curriculum Links
The problem-picture could be used for a Design, creativity and technology task.
The teacher could design a simple design brief such as Design and create a new
playground for the junior school at our school using predominantly recyclable
materials. This type of tasks is a great open-ended activity where although
there are criteria of the design brief that need to be met, students are able to
have input and freedom in not only their design, but the planning process also.
As a teacher I would circulate throughout the room and question students about
why they chose a particular piece of play equipment and encourage them to
justify their ideas for selection and design e.g. use of shapes due to their
strength and stability etc.

AusVELS - Cross-curriculum
Design, Creativity and Technology, Level 1: Learning focus

Students respond to simple design briefs, develop basic design ideas based
on their personal experiences of working with materials and components.
They discuss their design ideas and thought processes and begin to represent
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these visually through models, pictures and written responses. They consider
there is the possibility of more than one solution and begin to give
justification for changes in their thinking
(Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority 2013)

PROBLEM PICTURE 3:

Grade level: 1
Question 3
What are some events that are likely/unlikely and identify events as certain or
impossible when pulling items out of this packet of mini MnMs?

AusVELS - Statistics and Probability


Mathematics Level 1, Statistics and Probability: Chance

Identify practical activities and everyday events that involve chance. Describe
outcomes as likely or unlikely and identify some events as certain or
impossible (ACMSP047)

(Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority 2013)

Enabling Prompt
What are some things that are likely or might happen when I pull something out
of this bag of mini mnms?

AusVELS
Mathematics Level 1, Statistics and Probability: Chance

Identify practical activities and everyday events that involve chance. Describe
outcomes as likely or unlikely and identify some events as certain or
impossible (ACMSP047)

(Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority 2013)

Justification for change to the original question


I modified the original prompt by reducing the number of steps required. This
allows students to focus on one aspect at a time and once the teacher judges
they have grasped the concept of likely to happen they could allocate students
the task of coming up with some examples of events that are unlikely to happen.
I also simplified the language to might and used it in conjunction with likely to
ensure students are grasping the meaning of the language used.
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Extending Prompt
How could you test your likely, unlikely, certain and impossible events using this
real mnm packet? Record your results and create a rule for each.
Mathematics Level 1, Statistics and Probability: Chance

Identify practical activities and everyday events that involve chance.


Describe outcomes as likely or unlikely and identify some events as certain or
impossible (ACMSP047)
(Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority 2013)

Justification for change to the original question


I adapted the prompt to requiring students to part-take in investigations to test
their statements using a real mnm packet. The task is open-ended as students
are testing their individual statements they created and are required to come up
with a rule for each in their own language.

Cross-Curriculum Links
This planned prompt for this problem-picture required students to practice their
writing of unjoined letters to write their statements for events that are
likely/unlikely, certain and impossible. This could be extended into literacy
sessions and get students to write, self-edit (focus on spelling, capital letters and
full stops) and publish good copies of their statements. Students could then have
the freedom to present their work in a way of their choice. For example: a
PowerPoint, Typed Word document, poster, role play etc. Students are generally
more engaged in writing if it is something they are interested in. If this writing
task was planned after the students had been able to participate in their chance
investigations trialling their ideas, I feel they would be engaged and motivated to
write about this during their writing session.

AusVELS - Cross-curriculum
English, Level 1, Writing: Literacy

Write using unjoined lower-case and upper-case letters (ACELY1663)


Reread student's own texts and discuss possible changes to improve
meaning, spelling and punctuation (ACELY1662)

(Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority 2013)