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Non-ideal gas law

11 Chemistry

Ideal gas law: PV = nRT

Works only under hypothetical ideal
circumstances (the best of all
possible words is usually easier and
more fun to think about than about
real life)

Deviation from ideality

Ideal gas assumptions about gas
1) No volume
2) No attractive forces
3) Near STP

Ideal gas low does not work if

Deviation from ideality

At high pressures, molecules become
closer together.
Volume is therefore not just the
volume of the container but the
volume minus the space the gas
takes up

Deviation from ideality

At low Temp. molecules are moving
slowly and attractions between
particles may become important.
How will the actual (measured)
pressure compare to the ideal
(predicted) pressure?
measured P < ideal P because of fewer
collisions with the walls

Intermolecular Forces
What is the source of attractions between
Molecules have variable polarizability the ability
to deform the electron cloud with a nearby charge
Larger molecules are easier to deform
Temporary polarity arises from momentary
electron cloud deformation. This induces
temporary polarity in nearby molecules.
Attractions between adjacent temporary dipoles
are called London dispersion forces or van der
Waals forces.

Induced temporary dipoles

Real Gases
Van der Waals Equation:
Two terms added to the ideal gas
1) one to correct for volume of
2) one to correct for intermolecular
where a and b are empirical constants

Quiz Question 1
Why does the volume of the gas particles become important
when the volume of the container is decreased?
a. The gas particles become cooler so they increase the
pressure along the container wall
b. There is more pressure on the gas molecules so they
become larger in volume
c. The gas particles take up more volume relative to the
overall volume
d. The gas particles are compressed so they take up less
volume relative to the overall volume. The gas particles
become hotter so they increase the pressure along the
container wall

Quiz Question 2
What types of conditions are
considered 'non-ideal'?
a. Very high densities
b. Very high pressures
c. Very low volumes
d. Very low temperatures
e. All are correct

1. Real gases behave like ideal gases except at very high
2. The gas constant, R, is equal to 0.0821 when the pressure is
expressed in kilopascals.
3. As more gas particles are added to a container, there are
fewer collisions because the particles dont go as far.
4. The number of moles of a gas is inversely proportional to its
volume at STP.
5. At a constant temperature, the pressure exerted by one
mole of a gas decreases if the volume available is increased.
6. The ideal gas equation will only give correct values if the
temperature is expressed in degrees Celsius.
7. One mole of oxygen at 760 mmHg and 0 C occupies a
volume of one L.