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# CHAPTER

CHAPTER

29

Earth as a Sphere

Paper 1

## 1. The longitude of P is 80E.

8. A = (50N, 180E)
B = (50N, 40E)
C = (0, 40E)
D = (0, 0)

= 105 10
= 95

9.

3.

P(30W)

30

P(75N)

20W
20

75

150

75

160

S Q

Paper 2

= 70 25
= 45

Greenwich
Meridian

40

6.

Equator

40

40

80

20

J(40N)
60W

20W

120E
S

80E

K
S

5.

2.

95

85
60

K(60E)

= 85 60

= 25

6. Position

Position
Position
Position

= 85 + 95

= 180

## of H = (56N, (180 135)E)

= (56N, 45E)
of J = (0, 135W)
of K = (30S, 0)
of L = (30S, 45E)

(b) BOC = 40 + 40
= 80

= 42N

## (c) Latitude of point G

= (90 25)N

= 65N

40 40
A

P(65N)

50

C
0

BNC = 80 60
= 4800 nautical miles

K(10N)
10 0
28

65

50

75S

7. (a) AOB = 50
AB = 50 60
= 3000 nautical miles

= 70S

## 8. (a) Difference in longitude between P and Q = 180

PQ = 180 60
= 10 800 nautical miles

M(28S)
N(50S)

(b) TR = PQ cos 60
= 10 800 cos 60
= 5400 nautical miles

= 65 10

= 55

9. (a) PQ = x 60
3600

x =
60
= 60

## (b) Difference in latitude between K and M

= 10 + 28

= 38
(c) Difference in latitude between P and N

= 65 + 50

= 115

T
S

= 60 + 10

= 70

L(10W) 0

40N

J(85E)

10

4.

50E
P

M(95W)

60W

(b) RQ = y 60
1500

y =
60
= 25

= 10N

= 120E

Paper 1

## Hence, the position of Q is (10N, 120E).

1. Longitude of K
= (180 65)W
= 115W

2.

8.
N

N
P

20

G
40

Q
0

30
O

0
H(20S, 15E)

The latitude of Q
= (10 + 30)N
= 40N

= 20N

= 5W

Paper 2

1.

= 110E

A(58N, 20E)

32

58

Equator

## 4. Longitude of L = (180 65)W

= 115W

5. B is due east of P.
The difference in longitude between P and B
= 10 + 20
= 30

(a) Longitude of B

= (180 20)W

= 160W

(b) Position of C

= (58S, 160W)

## 6. Latitude of X = (90 70)N

= 20N
Longitude of X = 105W

## (c) Distance from A to B via N

= (32 2) 60

= 3840 nautical miles

## (d) (i) Distance = Speed Time

= 640 8 1
2

= 5440 nautical miles

## (d) (i) AD = 600 5.5

= 3300 nautical miles
3300 nm

(ii)

A(20E)

55

58N

9040

(ii)
y 60 cos 58 = 3300
3300

y =
60 cos 58
= 103.79

5440
GOJ =
60

= 90409

## Hence, the position of D is (58N, 12347E).

2. (a)

Longitude of D
= (103.79 + 20)E
= (123.79)E
= 12347E

Latitude of J
= (90409 55)S
= 35409S

3. (a)

F(55N, 108W)
G

H
O

62W

Longitude of H = (180 108)E

= 72E
N

Latitude of H = 32N

Longitude of H = (180 12)W

= 168W

Hence, the location of H is (32N, 168W)

(b)

35 35
55

55
O

0
G
O

p
32

0
F

## Shortest distance from F to H

= FNH
= (35 + 35) 60
= 4200 nautical miles

3480
60

p + 32 = 58
p = 58 32

p = 26
GOF =

## (c) Distance from F to G

= (108 62) 60 cos 55

= 1583.07 nautical miles

32

F(32S, 12E)
D (32S, 65W)

(b)

G(pN, 12E)

3480 nm

5.

## (c) Distance from D to F

= (65 + 12) 60 cos 32

= 3917.98 nautical miles

N
B

4800 nm

7397.98

Average speed =
12

= 616.5 knots
4.

x
30

40

40E

yE

(b) (i)
AB = 4800
(30 + x) 60 = 4800
4800

30 + x =
60

30 + x = 80

x = 80 30
= 50

100E

## (a) Longitude of X = (180 40)E

= 140E

Position of X = (30N, 140E)

30

40N

## (a) Latitude of G = 40S

Longitude of G = (180 100)W

= 80W

Position of G = (40S, 80W)

(ii)
BD = 3857
(40 + y) 60 cos 50 = 3857
3857

(40 + y) =
60 cos 50

y = 100 40
= 60

## (b) Distance from D to N

= (90 40) 60

= 3000 nautical miles

## (c) Total distance travelled from A to D

= AB + BD

= 4800 + 3857

= 8657 nautical miles

4320
60
= 72

(c) DOH =

8657
Average speed =
10.5

= 824 knots

D(40N)
O

A(30S, 40W)

40 + y

## (d) Total distance travelled from D to F and to G

= 3917.98 + 3480

= 7397.98 nautical miles

72

0
H

= (58N, 5W)

Latitude of H
= (72 40)S
= 32S

(b)
1800 nm

## (d) Distance from D to F

= (100 40) 60 cos 40

= 2757.76 nautical miles

H
x

Time of flight
2757.76
=
500

= 5.52 hours

## Mathematics SPM Chapter 29

2.

1800
x =
60
= 30

N
L(35N)

Latitude of K = (58 30)N

= 28N

= 35 + 40
= 75

1800
4

= 450 knots

= (25N, 140E)

## 7. (a) Laitude of Q = 65N

Longitude of Q = (180 100)W

= 80W

4.

3720
(b) UOT =
= 62
60
50
N(50S, 70W)

## (c) Distance QR = 3720 cos 65

= 1572.14 nautical miles

= 10.32 hours

(d) Distance TR = 65 60

= 3900 nautical miles
Total time of flight

M(50N, 110E)
50

The longitude of T = (80 62)W

= 18W

0
M(40S)

(c) JH = 95 60 cos 58
= 3021 nautical miles

35
40

5.

N G(80N, 138E)

3900 + 1572.14
=
530

O
80

F(80S, 42W) S

Paper 1
6. Latitude of H = (90 20)N

= 70N

= 20 + 60
= 80

7.

= 20 + 80
= 100

U(0, 0E)

40
V

= 35N

= 120W

= 50S

Paper 2

= 15E

1. (a)

N
P(55N, 80W)

## Hence, position of R is (50S, 15E).

R
Q

9.

O
J(50N, 80E)
K

30
20

10E

Longitude of R = (180 80)E

= 100E

(b)

35 35
55

55
O

10.

P(50N, 15W)

S
50

30

PNR
35 2 60
=
PSR
[360 (35 2)] 60

70
=
290
7
=
29

## (c) QP = (80 + 10) 60 cos 55

= 3097 nautical miles

= (65N, 70W)

## Mathematics SPM Chapter 29

(d)

(c)

Q
55

1980 nm
R

PR = 1980

x 60 = 1980
1980
x =
60
= 33

Hence, latitude of R = (56 33)N

= 23N

2. (a)

(d)

56N

P(56N, 30W)

P(30W)
0

56

## Difference in longitude between P and V

= 30 + 26
= 56

Time of flight
PV
=
speed
56 60 cos 56
=
600

= 3.13 hours

Q(56S, 150E)

Longitude of Q = (180 30)E

= 150E

## Hence, position of Q = (56S, 150E)

3.

30
26

V(26E)

(b)

Let the latitude of the final location, T = xS

QT = 6480

(55 + x) 60 = 6480
6480

55 + x =
60

x = 108 55
= 53

56

N
B(34N, 152E)

A(34N, 28W)
56

0
O

34

## Shortest distance from P to S

= (56 + 90) 60
= 8760 nautical miles

## (a) (i) Distance from A to B along the common

parallel of latitude

= 180 60 cos 34

= 8954 nautical miles
(ii)
ANB = 2(90 34) 60

= 2 56 60

= 6720 nautical miles

PSR
=
speed
180 60
=
750

= 14.4 hours

(b) (i)

6720
=
600

= 11.2 hours
(ii)

34N
O

5.

## Let aeroplane Q reached point C when

aeroplane P reached point B.

AC = 6720
x 60 cos 34 = 6720
6720

x =
60 cos 34
= 135.1

## (b) QP = (60 20) 60 cos 35

= 1966 nautical miles
(c) Let POV = y
PV = 4740
60 y = 4740
4740

y =
60
= 79

36N
Q

5220 nm

R
T

Hence, latitude of V
= (79 35)N
= 44N

PNR
=
speed
180 60
=
864

= 12.5 hours

## (a) Longitude of R = (180 55)E

= 125E
(b) QP = (55 10) 60 cos 36
= 2184 nautical miles
(c) Let POT = x
PT = 5220
60 x = 5220
5220

x =
60
= 87

P
35S

(a) Longitude of R

= (180 60)W

= 120W

55W 10W N
P

4740 nm

Longitude of point C
= (135.1 28)E
= 107.1E

4.

20E 60E

6.

N
D(40N, 120E)

Hence, latitude of T
= (87 36)S
= 51S

40
30

G
S

## (a) (i) Latitude of F

= (70 40)S

= 30S

8.

(ii) Longitude of G

= (180 120)W

= 60W

79N
42N

(a)

= (80 37)E
= 43E

## (c) (i) PQ = 4800 cos 67

= 1876 nautical miles

105E

1876
(ii) Time of flight =
600

= 3.13 hours

42N

9.
O

35
35
0

70

R(105E)

50E
30W

Q(35E)

40

Given PQ = QR,

hence, longitude of P = 35W

## (b) (i) RQ = 70 60 cos 42

= 3121 nautical miles

0
C
40S

## (a) Longitude of C = (180 30)E

= 150E

(ii) Shortest distance from R to T

= (79 42) 60

= 2220 nautical miles

## (b) (i) AB = (30 + 50) 60 cos 40

= 3677 nautical miles

total distance
=
speed
3121
+ 2220
=
500

= 10.68 hours

## (b) Let ROT = x

RT = 4800
x 60 = 4800
4800

x =
60
= 80

35E

(a) PR = 67 60
= 4020 nautical miles

x
4800 nm T

## Hence, total distance travelled

= 4200 + 9353
= 13 553 nautical miles

7.

67N
Q

(b) DF = 70 60
= 4200 nautical miles

FG = 180 60 cos 30
= 9353 nautical miles

37W

(ii)
AOC = 180 (2 40)

= 100
ASC = 100 60

= 6000 nautical miles

10

## (c) Distance travelled

= 10 570

= 5700 nautical miles

11.

5700 nm

40

10W

A
S

xS

R
S

5E

## Let the difference in latitude between A and the

new point, D, be .

60 = 5700
5700
=
60
= 95

= 10 + 5

= 15
(b)

= (95 40)N
= 55N

xS
P(10W)

7.5

Q
R(5E)

10.
G

65N

65

4800 nm

## (c) PQ = 7.5 60 cos 40

= 344.7 nautical miles

O
P

## (d) Time of flight

344.7
=
400

= 52 minutes

20E
S

(a) Longitude of G

= (180 20)W

= 160W

## (b) Let FOP = x

FP = 4800

x 60 = 4800
4800
x =
60
= 80

Longitude of Q
= (10 7.5)W
= 2.5W
= 230W

12. (a)

Hence, latitude of P
= (80 65)S
= 15S

P(60N, 40W)

## (c) (i) FG = 180 60 cos 65

= 4564 nautical miles

Q(60N, 140E)

60

(ii)
GOF = 180 (2 65)

= 50

## (b) Shortest distance from P to Q

= PNQ

= (180 60 2) 60

= 3600 nautical miles

Distance GNF

= 50 60

= 3000 nautical miles

11

2400
=
60

= 40

60N

P(40W)

180 x

## (ii) Let XCZ = q

XZ = 2100
q 60 cos 60 = 2100
2100

q =
60 cos 60
= 70

Longitude of X

= (70 15)W

= 55W

Q(140E)

PX
x
=
180 x
XQ
x
600t
=
180 x
400t
x
3 =

2
180 x

3(180 x) = 2x

540 3x = 2x

540 = 5x

x = 108

## Average speed of the flight

4500
=
10

= 450 knots

PX = 108 60 cos 60
= 3240 nautical miles
600t = 3240
3240
t =
600
= 5.4

## Hence, the position of X is (60S, 55W).

(iii) Total distance from Z to X and to Y

= 2100 + 2400

= 4500 nautical miles

14.

Hence, longitude of X
= (108 40)E
= 68E

60N

60

30

13.

140W

40E

P xN

20W

Y
X

C
q

40E

(ii) Distance from A to B

= (20 + 40) 60 cos 30

= 3118 nautical miles

Z(60S, 15E)

3118
=
400

= 7.795 hours

PNQ = 3000
y 60 = 3000
3000

y =
60
= 50

## Common latitude of P and Q

180 50
= N
2

= 65N

Hence, the value of x is 65.

30S

## (a) (i) Distance from B to C

= (60 + 30) 60

= 5400 nautical miles

12

## Distance travelled by aeroplane Y from D when

aeroplane X reached A
= 600 7.795
= 4677 nautical miles
Hence, distance of aeroplane Y from A when
aeroplane X reached A
= 5400 4677
= 723 nautical miles

15.

40W
D

56N

A
50E
S

## (a) (i) Distance from A to B

= (40 + 50) 60

= 5400 nautical miles

(ii) Distance from C to D

= 5400 cos 56

= 3020 nautical miles
(b) (i) Total distance from A to C and to D

= (56 60) + 3020

= 6380 nautical miles

6380
=
12

= 531.7 knots

13