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Plasmadynamics Lab.

Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Nob. Harada
Dept.
D t El
Electrical
t i l and
d Electronic
El t i System
S t Engineering,
E i i
Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Japan
Currently: Propulsion Research Center,
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL
Plasmadynamics Lab.

What Is MagnetoHydroDynamics
Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

„ Interaction Magnetic field,


Electric field and Plasma flow

„ Magnetic field and Plasma


Magnetic Field flow produce Electric field
Faraday’s
y E.M.F.

Faraday’s e.m.f.„ Electric field (Current) and


Lorentz Force
E = u× B
F = J×B Magnetic field produce Flow
Lorentz Force

Electric Field
(Current) Plasma FLOW
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Principle of MHD Generator


Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Operating Principle for MHD Generator


uxB
J x
Load
B u
z
Cathode
wall
a
JxB
Insulating
y
Wall „ MHD Generator is energy
Magnetic
Field
conversion machine

Working Anode
wall
Electric
Current
L t enthalpy
Lost th l : Δh = u ⋅ J × B
Fluid
(Plasma)

Elec. Power out : P = J ⋅E


Plasmadynamics Lab.

Principle of MHD Accelerator


Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Operating Principle for MHD Accelerator


JxB x
External
Power Supply
B u
z
Cathode E
wall
J
y
Magnetic
ag et c
Field
Elec. Power in : P = J⋅E
Working Anode Electric
Fluid wall Current
(Plasma)
Increase of : Gas velocity
or Gas Pressure
Lorentz Force: F = J × B
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Why MHD??
what are advantages? Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

„ Simple Structure
„ only MHD channel (electrodes, insulator) and Magnet
„ High Power density ---- high electric field, current density
„ compact machine
„ small output applications
„ High temperature operation ---- looking for suitable material
„ no turbine, and no rotating machine
„ ceramic material can be used
„ High Efficiency
„ Save energy resources & Low Environmental Issues
„ No moving parts
„ no turbine and no rotating generator
„ good for space aplications
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Application Principle
off MHD P
Processes Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

„ MHD Power Generation


MHD Channel
Gas Flow Deceleration

Electric Power
„ MHD Acceleration
„ Thruster
„ Hypersonic Wind Tunnel MHD Channel
Gas Flow Acceleration

Electric Power

„ Flow Control
„ Aerodynamic Control
„ Thermal Management
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Closed Loop System


for LNG Fired CCMHD Power Plant Nagaoka Univ. Tech.
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Closed Loop for Nuclear Based CCMHD


P
Power Supply
S l in
i Space
S Nagaoka Univ. Tech.
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Closed Loop in Solar Energy Based


CCMHD Power Supply in Space Nagaoka Univ. Tech.
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Operating Temperature
and Power Generation efficiency Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Ceramics,
Insulator,
%)
ciency (%
Electrode
Electrode,
Heat Source
60
MHD/G.T. MHD s
single
ge
on Effic

Turbine Blade MHD/S.T.


Material
50
eneratio

Steam G.T./S.T.
Working Fluid
40
ower Ge

S.T.

30
Po

300 1000 2000 3000

System
y Top
p Temperature
p (K)
( )

„ Higher Efficiency requires Higher Temperatures.


Plasmadynamics Lab.

Shock-tube MHD Facility


Nagaoka Univ. Tech.
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Disk type MHD Generator


Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

„ Simple Structure, Easy design of Magnet, Better Uniformity


Plasmadynamics Lab.

Shock tube Experiments


Conditions and Results Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Generator Channel ISTEC-1(Swirl) RLN1 RLN2 IS-1(Swirl)

Working gas He + Cs Ar + Cs
g
Stagnation p
pressure ((MPa)) 0.23 0.19 0.24 0.28 0.24
Stagnation temperature (K) 2190 2000 ~2500 2400
Thermal Input (MW) 1.26 1.15 1.57 3.48 2.13
Aexit / Athroat 24.4 10.1 14.4 4.25 5.91
-4
Seed fraction 5 6x10
5.6x10 3 5x10-4
3.5x10 9 0x10
9.0x10 -4
12 4x10
12.4x10 -4
6 4x10-4
6.4x10
Load resistance (Ω) 5.0 2.0 0.22 0.10 0.14
Magnetic flux density (T) 2.55 2.7 3.0 3.0
Output Power (kW) 461 319 408 569 540
Enthalpy Extraction Ratio (%) 31 6
31.6 27 7
27.7 26 5
26.5 17 2
17.2 25 4
25.4
Adiabatic efficiency (%) 46 55 37.4 46.2 54.3

Thermal Input with respect to 0 K


Plasmadynamics Lab.

Plasma control
b RF electromagnetic
by l t ti field
fi ld (1) Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

140
with RF
(RF power 4~6kW)
120 without RF

100
with RF
er [kW]

80
Powe

60

40
Pstag = 0.095MPa
20 Tstag = 2650K
RL = 0.07Ω without RF
0
0 5 10 15
Seed Fraction [×10-44]
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Plasma control
by RF electromagnetic field (2) Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

140
with
ith RF
(RF power 5~6kW)
120
without RF

100 T t = 2275K
Tstag
with RF
wer [kW]

80

60
Pow

40

20

0
without RF
0 5 10 15
S dF
Seed ti [×10-44]
Fraction
Plasmadynamics Lab.

FUJI-1 CCMHD Blow-Down Facility


(Tokyo Inst.
Inst Tech.,
Tech Japan) Nagaoka Univ. Tech.
Plasmadynamics Lab.

System
y of Fuji-1
j Blow-Down Facility
y
Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Working Gas: Ar + Cs
Argon Liq.
q Blow duration: 60 - 90 sec.
sec
Argon
Thermal Input : 1.6 – 5 MW
Stag. Pressure: 0.35 – 0.60 MPa
SCM
S.C.M Stag Temperature: 1900-1980
Stag. 1900 1980 K

MHD
Generator Cooler to
Natural Vacuum
Gas Ar Tank

Air
Load
High.
g Resistance
T
Temp.
H.E.

Evacuation Seed Injection System He Refrigerator


Plasmadynamics Lab.

Typical Experimental
Conditions and Results Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Run Number A4118 A4126 A4127

Stagnation Pressure [MPa] 0.434


0 434 0.545
0 545 0 351
0.351
Stagnation Temperature [K] 1980 1973 1914
Thermal Input [MW] 2.75 3.38 2.17
<3.24> <3.99> <2.57>
Seed Fraction [×10-4] 2.9 3.7 3.3
Load Resistance [Ω] 0.48 0.48 0.48
A1 & A2 material copper stainless steel coated
W t Concentration
Water C t ti [ppm]
[ ] 300 160 160

Max.Power Output [kW] 506 544 410


Max.Enthalpy Extraction [%] 18.4 16.1 18.9
<15.6> <13.6> <16.0>

< > value based on 0 K


Plasmadynamics Lab.

Basic Equations:
Two Fluid (Temperature) model Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Equations for heavy particles Equations for electrons


Continuity Continuity of ions

∂t
( ρA) + ∂ ( ρuA) = 0
∂x
∂ +
∂t
( ) (
ni A +
∂ +
∂x
)
ni uA = n&i + A
Momentum equation Momentum equation

( ρuA) + ∂ ( ρuuA) = ( J × B − ∇p ) ⋅ A (=Generalized Ohm’s law)
∂t ∂x
β ⎛ 1 ⎞
Energy equation J+ J × B = σ ⎜⎜ E + u × B + ∇pe ⎟⎟

B ⎝ ene ⎠
(Es A) + ∂ [(Es + p ) ⋅ uA] = AJ ⋅ E − AQL
∂t ∂x Energy equation
2
∂U e J
Electric fields and current density ∇ ⋅ (U eu ) = − Coll. − Rad . − QL
∂t σ
( ) (
E y = KuB, E x = β uB − E y , J y = σ uB − E y )
Vapplied Ey
K= =
Vopen uB K is loading factor
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Plasma and Fluid Structure


Numerical (Computer) simulation Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Pstag=0.4MPa, Tstag=1850K
S.F=1.4×10-4

0 2
Mach Number

2500 Te [K] 8500 2500 8500


Te [K]
r-θ ((r=54-110mm)) R.L.=1.9Ω
E.E.=8.6%, I.E.=35.3% r-z(r=41-120mm) R.L.=3.8Ω
E.E.=10.0%, I.E.=29.8(23.9)%
Pressure Ratio = 0.36 (0.26)
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Numerical Results
off Constant-Mach
C t t M h Line
Li Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Fluid-dynamical
Fluid dynamical
wake

Mach
Number

Flow direction
Swirl vane
Installed in nozzle
Plasmadynamics Lab.

System of CCMHD Single Cycle


for Deep Space Exploration Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Auxiliary
Power p=constant
MHD Generator Tmax

Temperature
e
8
101 [MW] 236 Propellant 2500[K]
7 Nuclear 8 94 Power
Reactor Conditioning 9
7
Qheat W ggen 40 6
0 4 2 10
Diffuser Tmin
135 [MW] 140 [MW] 5 3 1
500[K]
9 Electric Entropy
Thrustor
Regenerator
54[MW] g
Qregen Output of Nuclear Reactor: 101 MW
61 [MW]
Thermal Input to MHD: 236 MW
6
O t t Electric
Output El t i Power:
P 94 MW
Staged Compressor/Inter cooler
Enthalpy Extraction: 40 %
W comp
Isentropic Efficiency: 70 %
Electric Motor 65 [MW] Compressor Power: 54 MW
Number of compressors: 3
5 4 3 2 1 10
Isentropic efficiency: 85 %
Radiator Loss power from Radiator: 58 MW
58 [MW]
Qrad
Plasmadynamics Lab.

MHD assisted Hypersonic Wind


Tunnel (TsAGI,
(TsAGI Russia) Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

TsAGI: Central Institute of Aerohydrodynamics, near Moscow


Plasmadynamics Lab.

MHD assisted Hypersonic Wind


Tunnel - test section - Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Test cylinder

Secondary nozzle
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Prospects of MHD Acceleration


for Hypersonic Test Facility Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

300
0 ft)

on
de (1,000

entatio
200
TsAGI W/T

Augme
Altitud

100

MHD A
0
0 5 10 15 20
Mach No. or Flight Velocity (1,000 ft/s)
Plasmadynamics Lab.

MHD Accelerator Test Bed


MAPX – NASA MSFC Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Secondary
Seed Acc. Channel Pole Pieces Nozzle
Mixer

Arc Heater

View

Nozzle
Magnet
Parc = 1
1.5
5 MWe Test Chamber

To = 4000~4500K
Mp = 1.25~1.5 Magnet Cart Pacc = 2 MWe
B= 2 T
Mexit = ~3.5 and further
acceleration at 2nd nozzle

Coils
Plasmadynamics Lab.

MHD Accelerator Test Bed - MSFC Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Iron-core Magnet
A H
Arc Heater
t
Plasmadynamics Lab.

X43C Hypersonic Vehicle


with MHD Assisted Scramjet Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Chemical
Rocket

Pay
Load

Fuel
H2

Oxidizer
O2

Scramjet Engine
(Air Breathing Engine)
Plasmadynamics Lab.

MHD Hypersonic Propulsion


MHD Energy By
By--Pass “AJAX”
AJAX Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Power MHD
Distribution Accelerator

Ionizer
External
MHD
Generator Internal
MHD
Generator

„ Convert in-coming gas enthalpy into Electricity -> Power Generation


„ Decrease Gas velocity and Temperature, increase pressure
¾ optimize of combustion conditions
„ Boost thrust as MHD accelerator
¾ improve acceleration performance
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Concept of MHD Assisted


S
Scramjet
j t Engine
E i Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

M > 10~15
Altitude > 50 km

Pre-ionizer Electric Power

Fuel

MHD Generator
(Power Generation) MHD Compressor MHD Accelerator
A l t
(Inlet Control) (Thrust Booster)
Plasmadynamics Lab.

X43C Hypersonic Vehicle


with MHD Assisted Scramjet Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Air Intake
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Control of Shock on Lip


using MHD Interaction - concept-
concept Nagaoka Univ. Tech.
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Control of Shock on Lip


using MHD Interaction - simulation - Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

w/o MHD w/o MHD


Bow Shock
Bow Shock
Spillage Ingested

MHD Assist MHD Assist


Shock-on-Lip Shock-on-Lip
Scenario 1 Scenario 2
Plasmadynamics Lab.

MHD control
of Leading Edge Flow / Shock Nagaoka Univ. Tech.
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Control of Bow Shock Location


using MHD Interaction - simulation - Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

without MHD interaction (B=0)


( )

with MHD interaction (B=1.0T)


Plasmadynamics Lab.

Typical Summary of
Drag and Heat Flux Reduction Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Pressure, Pa Total pressure force,


force N Total heat flux,
flux kW
B = 0.0 20
8000 B = 0.2 T
30
B = 0.4 T
B = 0.6 T 15
6000 B = 0.8 T
B = 1.0 T 20

4000 10

10
2000 5

0
0
0.00 0.01 0.02 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Distance along Cylinder surface, m Magnetic Field, T
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Typical Results of Experiments


(TsAGI Russia)
(TsAGI, Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

Pre-Magnet pulse During Magnet pulse

„ increase of shock stand


stand-off
off suggested
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Comparison of Experimental Result


and Numerical one Nagaoka Univ. Tech.
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Summary
y
Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

„ Introduction of Magnetohydrodynamics,
Magnetohydrodynamics MHD
„ Expected Applications:
„ MHD Electrical Power Generation
„ High Power Density ---- compact system ---- Space power
„ High efficiency ---- Save Energy

„ MHD Acceleration
„ Ground Testing of Hypersonic Vehicles
„ Propulsion
p System
y to Access Space
p
„ Flow Control
„ Drag reduction & Heat flux control
--- for hypersonic and re-entry vehicles
Plasmadynamics Lab.

Our Research field needs:


Nagaoka Univ. Tech.

„ Not only;
„ Magnetohydrodynamics, Physics, Electrical &
Electronic
El t i engineerings,
i i Mechanical
M h i l engineering,
i i
Numerical analysis…….
„ But also;
„ Chemistry, Chemical Engineerings
„ Chemical Kinetics of non-equilibrium Plasma
„ Advanced materials for high-temperature
high temperature & high-
high E, B field
„ Supersonic Combustion
„ Ceramics as high-temp.
high temp. insulators and electrodes