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Gas Metal Arc Welding

By Hardish Trivedi

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 1


TRIVEDI
What Is GMAW ?
• A Fusion Welding Process – Semi Automatic
• Arc Between Consumable Electrode &Work
• Arc Generated by Electric Energy From a Rectifier
/ Thyrester / Inverter
• Filler Metal As Electrode Continuously fed From
Layer Wound Spool.
• Filler Wire Driven to Arc By Wire Feeder through
Welding Torch
• Arc & Molten Pool Shielded by Inert Gas through
Torch / Nozzle
PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 2
TRIVEDI
Gas Metal Arc Welding
• MIG – Shielding Gas Ar / Ar + O2 / Ar + Co2

• MAG – Shielding Gas Co2

• FCAW – Shielding Gas Co2 With Flux cored


Wire
Note:- Addition of 1 – 5% of O2 or 5 – 10% of Co2 in Ar.
increases wetting action of molten metal

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 3


TRIVEDI
Power Source For MIG / MAG

• Inverter- DC
• Thyristor – DC
• Diesel Generator – DC
• Rectifier – DC

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 4


TRIVEDI
Characteristic Of GMAW Power
Source
Constant V / Linier Characteristic

Appx. Horizontal
Curve
V1
V2

A1 A2
A
PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 5
TRIVEDI
Current & Polarity

DC- Electrode +Ve


Stable Arc
Smooth Metal Transfer
Relatively Low Spatter
Good Weld Bead Characteristics
DC- Electrode – Ve, Seldom Used
AC- Commercially Not In use
PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 6
TRIVEDI
Accessories Of GMAW
• Power Source
• Wire Feed Unit
• Shielding Gas Cylinder, Pressure gauges/
Regulator, Flow meter ( Heater For Co2 )
• Welding Torch
• Water Cooling System (For Water cooled Torch)
• Earthing Cable With Clamp

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 7


TRIVEDI
Tools For GMAW
• Head Screen With DIN 13 / 14 Dark Glass
• Hand Wire Brush / Grinder With Wire Wheel
• Cutting Pliers
• Hand Gloves
• Chipping Hammer / Chisel & hammer
• Spanner Set
• Cylinder Key
• Anti-spatter Spray
• Earthing Cable With Clamp

PRESENTATION BY: 8
HARDISH TRIVEDI
GMAW Torch
On / Off Switch

Shielding Gas Torch Handle


Spring Conduit

Gas Cup Nozzle Tip


Filler Wire - Electrode
Arc
Job

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 9


TRIVEDI
Equipment & Accessories
Pressure Regulator
Flow Meter

Shielding Gas
Heater
Solenoid (Only For
Switch Co2)
Valve
Shielding Gas
Cylinder
Welding Torch Wire Feeder
Copper Cup Wire Inside Spring Lining
Electrode / Contact Tip Wire
Wire Spool
Argon / Co2
Arc
– Shielding
Work
Power Source
With Inductance
Torch With Cable Max. 3Mtr
PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH
+ – 10
TRIVEDI
Types Of Wire Feeding In
GMAW
• Push Type
– Wire fed in to The torch by Pushing through Flexible Conduit
From A Remote Spool
• Pull Type
– Feed Rollers Mounted on The Torch Handle Pulls the Wire
From A Remote spool
• Self Contained
– Wire Feeder & The Spool On the Torch

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 11


TRIVEDI
Function Of Shielding Gas In
GMAW
• Prevents Air contamination of weld Pool
• Prevents Contamination During Metal Transfer
• Increases fluidity of molten metal
• Minimizes the spatter generation
• Helps in even & uniform bead finish

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 12


TRIVEDI
Shielding Gases For GMAW
• MIG: Argon Or Helium
For SS, CS, LAS & Non-ferrous
• MIG: Ar + 1 to 2 % O2, Wire With Add. Mn & Si
For SS, CS & LAS
• MIG: Ar + 5 to 20 % Co2 Wire With Add. Mn & Si
For SS, CS & LAS
• MAG: Co2 With Solid Wire
For CS
• FCAW: Co2 With Flux Cored Wire
For CS, LAS & SS Overlay

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 13


TRIVEDI
ASME Classification For CS
GMAW Wire
• SFA 5.18 : - CS Solid Wire
ER 70 S – 2, ER 70 S – 3
ER 70 S – 6, ER 70 S – 7

• SFA 5.20 :- CS Flux Cored Wire


E 71 T-1, E 71 T-2 ( Co2 Gas )
E 71 T-1M, E 71 T-2M ( Ar + Co2 Mix)

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 14


TRIVEDI
GMAW CS Wire
• Generally Copper Coated
– Prevents Oxidation / rusting in Storage
– Promotes Electric Conductivity in Arcing
• Available In Solid & Flux Cored
– Size in mm 0.8, 1, 1.2, 1.6, 2, 2.4, 3
• Manganese & Silicon ( Mn 1 – 2 %, Si Max 1%)
– Act As Deoxidizing Agents
– Eliminate Porosity
– Increase Wetting Of Molten Pool

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 15


TRIVEDI
Metal Transfer In MIG

• Short-Circuiting / Dip Transfer

• Globular Transfer

• Spray Transfer / Free Flight Mode

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 16


TRIVEDI
Metal Transfer In MIG
CS Solid Wire 1.2 mm Φ
Up to 120A 120 to 250A Above230A

14 – 22V 16 – 24 V 24 – 35 V

Dip/Short Circuiting Globular Spray / Free Flight

Co2 or Ar Co2 or Ar Only Ar / Ar+O2


PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 17
TRIVEDI
Short-Circuiting / Dip Transfer
• Wire In Contact With Molten Pool 20 to 200 times per Second
• Operates in Low Amps & Volts – Less Deposition
• Best Suitable for Out of Position Welding
• Suitable for Welding Thin Sheets
• Relatively Large opening of Root Can be Welded
• Less Distortion
• Best Suitable for Tacking in Set up
• Prone to Get Lack of Fusion in Between Beads

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 18


TRIVEDI
Globular Transfer
• Metal transferred in droplets of Size grater than wire
diameter
• Operates in Moderate Amps & Volts – Better Deposition
• Common in Co2 Flux Cored and Solid Wire
• Suitable for General purpose Welding

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 19


TRIVEDI
Free Flight / Spray Transfer
• Metal transferred in multiples of small droplets
• 100 to 1000 Droplets per Second
• Metal Spray Axially Directed
• Electrode Tip Remains pointed
• Applicable Only With Inert Gas Shielding – Not With
Co2
• Operates in Higher Amps & Volts – Higher Deposition Rate
• Not Suitable for Welding in Out of Position.
• Suitable for Welding Deep Grooves

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 20


TRIVEDI
Pulsed Spray Welding
• Power Source Provides Two different
Current Levels“Background” and “Peak”at
regular interval
• “Background” & “Peak” are above and
below the Average Current
• Best Suitable for Full Penetration Open
Root Pass Welding
• Good Control on Bead Shape and Finish
PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 21
TRIVEDI
Synergic Pulse GMAW
• Parameters of Pulsed Current (Frequency,
Amplitude, Duration, Background Current) Related
to Wire feed Rate
• One Droplet detaches with each pulse
• An Electronic Control unit synchronizes wire feed
Rate with Pulse Parameters
• Best Suitable for Most Critical Full Penetration
Open Root Pass Welding
• Good Control on Open Root penetration, Bead
Shape and Finish
PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 22
TRIVEDI
GMAW Process Variables
• Current
• Voltage
• Travel Speed
• Stick Out / Electrode Extension
• Electrode Inclination
• Electrode Size
• Shielding Gas & Flow Rate
• Welding Position

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 23


TRIVEDI
Parameter For 1.2 ф FC Wire
• Current – 200 to 240 A
• Voltage – 22-24
• Travel Speed 150 to 250 mm / min
• Stick Out / Electrode Extension – 15 to 20 mm
• Electrode Inclination – Back Hand Technique
• Shielding Gas – Co2, 12 L/Min

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 24


TRIVEDI
Parameter For 1.2 ф Solid Wire
• Current – 180 to 220 A
• Voltage – 20-22
• Travel Speed 150 to 200 mm / min
• Stick Out / Electrode Extension – 10 to 20 mm
• Electrode Inclination – Back Hand Technique
• Shielding Gas – Co2 – 12 L/Min

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 25


TRIVEDI
Results In Change Of Parameters
• Increase In Current
– More deposition, More Penetration, More BM Fusion
• Increase In Voltage
– More Weld Bead Width, Less Penetration, Less Reinforcement, Excess Spatter
• Increase In Travel Speed
– Decrease in Penetration, Decrease in Bead Width,
• Decrease In Gas Flow rate
– Results In porosity
• Long Stick Out / Electrode Extension
– Excess Weld Deposit With Less Arc intensity, Poor Bead Finish, Shallow Penetration

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 26


TRIVEDI
Common Defects In GMAW
1. Porosity 2. Spatters
3. Lack Of Fusion 4. Under Cut
5. Over Lap 6. Slag
7. Crack 8. Lack Of Penetration
9. Burn Through 10. Convex Bead
11. Unstable Arc 12. Wire Stubbing

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 27


TRIVEDI
Porosity

Cause Remedy
1) Less Mn & Si In Wire 1) Use High Mn & Si Wire
2) Rusted / Unclean BM / Groove 2) Clean & warm the BM
3) Rusted wire 3) Replace the Wire
4) Inadequate Shielding Gas 4) Check & Correct Flow Rate

Porosity . .

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 28


TRIVEDI
Spatters
Cause Remedy
1) Low Voltage 1) Increase Voltage
2) Inadequate Inductance 2) Increase Inductance
3) Rusted BM surface 3) Clean BM surface
4) Rusted Core wire 4) Replace By Rust Free wire
5) Quality Of Gas 5) Change Over To Ar + Co2

Spatters
• ••

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 29


TRIVEDI
Lack Of Fusion
Cause Remedy
1) Inadequate Current 1) Use Right Current
2) Inadequate Voltage 2) Use Right Voltage
3) Wrong Polarity 3) Connect Ele. + Ve
4) Slow Travel Speed 4) Increase Travel speed
5) Excessive Oxide On Joint 5) Clean Weld Joint

Lack Of Fusion

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 30


TRIVEDI
Undercut

Cause Remedy
1) Excess Voltage 1) Reduce Voltage
2) Excess Current 2) Reduce Current
3) Improper Torch angle 3) Train & Qualify the Welder
4) Excess Travel Speed 4) Reduce Travel Speed

Under cut

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 31


TRIVEDI
Overlap
Cause Remedy
1) Too Long Stick Out 1) Reduce Stick Out

2) Inadequate Voltage 2) Increase the Voltage

Overlap

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 32


TRIVEDI
Slag
Cause Remedy
1) Inadequate Cleaning 1) Clean each bead
2) Inadequate Current 2) Use Right Current
3) Wrong Torch angle 3) Train / Qualify welder
4) Improper bead placement 4) Train / Qualify Welder

Slag

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 33


TRIVEDI
Crack
Cause Remedy
1) Incorrect Wire Chemistry 1) Use Right Wire
2) Too Small Weld Bead 2) Increase wire Feed
3) Improper Preheat 3) Preheat Uniformly
4) Excessive Restrain 4) Post heating or ISR

crack

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 34


TRIVEDI
Lack Of Penetration*
Cause Remedy
1) Too Narrow Groove Angle 1) Widen The Groove
2) Inadequate Root opening 2) Increase Root Opening
3) Too Low Welding current 3) Increase Current
4) Wrong Torch angle 4) Train / Qualify Welder
5) Puddle Roll In Front Of Arc 5) Correct Torch Angle
6) Long Stick Out 6) Reduce Stick Out

* Applicable to SSFPW

LOPPRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 35


TRIVEDI
Burn through*
Cause Remedy
1) Excess Current 1) Reduce the Current
2) Excess Root opening 2) Reduce root opening
3) Inadequate Root face 3) Increase root face
4) Too Low Travel Speed 4) Increase Speed
5) Quality Of Gas 5) Use Ar + Co2

*Applicable to root pass


Burn trough

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 36


TRIVEDI
Convex Bead Finish
Cause Remedy
1) Low Current 1) Increase Current
2) Low Voltage 2) Increase Voltage
3) Low Travel Speed 3) Increase Travel Speed
4) Low Inductance 4) Increase Inductance
5) Too Narrow Groove 5) Increase Groove Width

Uneven bead finish

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 37


TRIVEDI
Unstable arc

Cause Remedy
1) Improper Wire Feed 1) Check Wire Feeder
2) Improper Gas Flow 2) Check Flow Meter
3) Twisted Torch Conduit 3) Straighten Torch Cab

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 38


TRIVEDI
Wire Stubbing

Cause Remedy
1) Too Low Voltage 1) Increase Voltage
2) Too High Inductance 2) Reduce Inductance
3) Excess Slope 3) Adjust Slope
4) Too Long Stick Out 4) Reduce Stick Out

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 39


TRIVEDI
Important Terminology used in
Critical Welding
• Preheating
• Post Heating or Dehydrogenation
• Intermediate Stress leaving
• Inter pass Temperature
• Post Weld Heat Treatment

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 40


TRIVEDI
What Is Preheating?
• Heating the base metal along the weld joint to a
predetermined minimum temperature immediately before
starting the weld.
• Heating by Oxy fuel flame or electric resistant coil
• Heating from opposite side of welding wherever possible
• Temperature to be verified by thermo chalks prior to
starting the weld

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 41


TRIVEDI
Why Preheating?
• Preheating eliminates possible cracking of weld and HAZ
• Applicable to
Hardenable low alloy steels of all thickness
Carbon steels of thickness above 25 mm.
Restrained welds of all thickness

• Preheating temperature vary from 75°C to 200°C


depending on hardenability of material, thickness & joint
restrain

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 42


TRIVEDI
How does Preheating Eliminate Crack?

• Preheating promotes slow cooling of weld and HAZ


• Slow cooling softens or prevents hardening of weld
and HAZ
• Soft material not prone to crack even in restrained
condition

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 43


TRIVEDI
What Is Post Heating?
• Raising the pre heating temperature of the weld joint to a
predetermined temperature range (250° C to 350° C) for
a minimum period of time (3 Hrs) before the weld cools
down to room temperature.
• Post heating performed when welding is completed or
terminated any time in between.
• Heating by Oxy fuel flame or electric resistant coil
• Heating from opposite side of welding wherever possible
• Temperature verified by thermo chalks during the period

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 44


TRIVEDI
Why Post Heating?
• Post heating eliminates possible delayed cracking
of weld and HAZ
• Applicable to
Thicker hardenable low alloy steels
Restrained hardenable welds of all thickness
• Post heating temperature and duration depends on
hardenability of material, thickness & joint
restrain

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 45


TRIVEDI
How does Post Heating Eliminate
Crack?
• SMAW introduces hydrogen in weld metal
• Entrapped hydrogen in weld metal induces
delayed cracks unless removed before cooling to
room temperature
• Retaining the weld at a higher temperature for a
longer duration allows the hydrogen to come out
of weld

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 46


TRIVEDI
What Is Intermediate Stress Relieving?
• Heat treating a subassembly in a furnace to a
predetermined cycle immediately on completion of
critical restrained weld joint / joints without allowing the
welds to go down the pre heat temperature. Rate of
heating, Soaking temperature, Soaking time and rate of
cooling depends on material quality and thickness
• Applicable to
Highly restrained air hardenable material

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 47


TRIVEDI
Why Intermediate Stress Relieving?

• Restrained welds in air hardenable steel highly


prone to crack on cooling to room temperature.

• Cracks due to entrapped hydrogen and built in stress

• Intermediate stress relieving relieves built in stresses


and entrapped hydrogen making the joint free from
crack prone
PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 48
TRIVEDI
What Is Inter- Pass Temperature?
• The temperature of a previously layed weld bead
immediately before depositing the next bead over it
• Temperature to be verified by thermo chalk prior to starting
next bead
• Applicable to
Stainless Steel
Carbon Steel & LAS with minimum impact

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 49


TRIVEDI
Why Inter Pass Temperature?
• Control on inter pass temperature avoids over
heating, there by
Refines the weld metal with fine grains
Improves the notch toughness properties
Minimize the loss of alloying elements in
welds
Reduces the distortion

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 50


TRIVEDI
What Is Post Weld Heat Treatment?
• Heat treating an assembly on completion of all
applicable welding, in an enclosed furnace with
controlled heating/cooling rate and soaking at a
specific temperature for a specific time.
• Rate of heating, Soaking temperature, Soaking
time and rate of cooling depends on material quality
and thickness
• Applicable to
All type of CS & LAS
PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 51
TRIVEDI
Why Post Weld Heat Treatment?

• Welded joints retain internal stresses within the


structure
• HAZ of welds remains invariably hardened
• Post Weld Heat Treatment relieves internal stresses
and softens HAZ. This reduces the cracking
tendency of the equipment in service

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 52


TRIVEDI
Thanks

PRESENTATION BY: HARDISH 53


TRIVEDI