Anda di halaman 1dari 60

SISTEM IMUN

ridwan@sith.itb.ac.id

3 lapisan pertahanan tubuh

1. Skin: The First Line of Defense


2. Cellular Counterattack: The Second
Line of Defense
3 Th
3.
The Immune
I
Response:
R
The
Th Third
Thi d
Line of Defense

Fungsi
u gs S
Sistem
ste Integumen
tegu e

Kulit merupakan batas antara tubuh


dengan lingkungan
Kulit sebagai garis pertahanan pertama
(Skin: The First Line of Defense)
Kulit sebagai satu pembatas terhadap
infeksi (The Skin as a Barrier to Infection)

Bagaimana patogen masuk ke


dalam tubuh ?
Masuk melalui sistem integumen
g serta saluran
, mata, telinga
respirasi dan pencernaan.

Bagaimana tubuh memberi respon


jika patogen masuk ke dalam tubuh ?

Perlawanan pertama
yang dilakukan tubuh
adalah dengan respon
immun non spesifik : sel
Makrofag dan cairan limfa
Cairan limfatik mengalir
melalui sistem limfatik
(lymphatic system) yang
berfungsi juga dalam
sirkulasi sistem immun
seluler
Sel Macrophages mefago
sitosis mikrobial ukuran
besar
The lymphatic system. The lymphatic system consists
of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and lymphatic
organs, including the spleen and thymus gland.

A macrophage in action (1800). In this scanning electron micrograph,


a macrophage is fishing with long, sticky cytoplasmic extensions.
Bacterial cells that come in contact with the extensions are drawn
toward the macrophage and engulfed.

Apa dan dari mana sel


makrofag berasal ?

Sel makrofag
Sel makrofag merupakan sel khusus yang
bersifat fagositik terhadap invaders yang
masuk ke tubuh , berasal dari struktur sel
hati, limfa, dan sumsum merah.
Sel makrofag bersirkulasi dalam cairan
antar
t sel.l

Selanjutnya apa yang akan terjadi


jika ada infeksi ?

Monosit melalui kapiler masuk ke jaringan


penghubung lokasi infeksi monosit
berubah menjadi makrofag

In response to an infection
infection, monocytes (an
undifferentiated leukocyte) found in the blood squeeze
through capillaries to enter the connective tissues.
Th
There,
att the
th site
it off the
th infection,
i f ti
the
th monocytes
t are
transformed into additional macrophages.

Adakah Pertahanan Seluler


Selain sel makrofag ?

Neutrofil
Neutrofil adalah sel darah putih yang
bekerja seperti makrofag menelan dan
membunuh bakteri dengan cara
fagositosis. Selanjutnya neutrofil
mengeluarkan cairan kimia yang dapat
membunuh bakteri lain yang berada di
sekitarnya.
sekitarnya

Natural killer cells


Tidak membunuh
dengan fagositosis,
melainkan menyerang
sel target yang telah
terinfeksi.
caranya : memasukan
porfirin ke sel target
terjadi lubang pada
membran sel target
air masuk sel pecah

NK sel membunuh sel yang terinfeksi bakteri

How complement creates a hole in a cell membrane. As the


diagram shows, the complement proteins form a complex
transmembrane pore resembling the perforin
perforin-lined
lined pores formed
by natural killer cells.

Sel apa saja yang diserang


NK SEL ?

NK SEL bertugas membunuh

1. Sel yyang
g terinfeksi oleh bakteri/virus
2. Sel kanker
3 Sel tumor
3.
Implikasinya : untuk melawan kanker bisa

dengan jalan memperbanyak NK SEL

Sistem
S
ste pertahanan
pe ta a a KIMIAWI

Cara lain dari pertahanan seluler yang


juga efektif adalah dengan sistem
p
system
y
yyang
g terdiri
complement
approximately 20 different proteins that
circulate freely in the blood plasma.
Protein tsb membentuk agregat dan
merusak dinding sel bakteri/fungi,
t b t k lubang
terbentuk
l b
d
dan air
i masuk
k sell
bakteri pecah

Ada yang mau bertanya ?


Apa yang dimaksud
respon inflamasi ?

The events in a local inflammation. When an invading microbe has


penetrated the skin, chemicals, such as histamine and p
p
prostaglandins,
g
cause nearby blood vessels to dilate. Increased blood flow brings a
wave of phagocytic cells, which attack and engulf invading bacteria.

Pertahanan lapis ke-2


Pertahan non spesifik : respon
g monosit,
seluler oleh makrofag,
neutrofil, basofil, eosinofil, NK sel,

Bagaimana respon immun spesifik


berlangsung (pertahanan lapis ke 3) ?
By Cells of the Specific
Immune System

T cells direct the cell-mediated response,


B cells the humoral response
response.

Sel terkontaminasi mikroba menampilkan antigen dikenali reseptor antibodi

T cells bind to foreign antigens in conjunction with MHC proteins. The


CD4 coreceptor on helper T cells requires that these cells interact with class-2
MHC ((or MHC-II)) proteins. The CD8 coreceptor on cytotoxic
y
T cells requires
that these cells interact only with cells bearing class-1 MHC (or MHC-I)
proteins.

Bagaimana kerja T cell ?

The T cell immune defense. After a macrophage has processed an antigen, it releases interleukin-1, signaling helper
T cells to bind to the antigen-MHC protein complex. This triggers the helper T cell to release interleukin-2, which
stimulates the multiplication of cytotoxic T cells. In addition, proliferation of cytotoxic T cells is stimulated when a T cell
with a receptor that fits the antigen displayed by an antigen-presenting
antigen presenting cell binds to the antigen-MHC
antigen MHC protein complex.
Body cells that have been infected by the antigen are destroyed by the cytotoxic T cells. As the infection subsides,
suppressor T cells turn off the immune response.

Cytotoxic T cells destroy cancer cells. (a) The cytotoxic T cell


(orange) comes into contact with a cancer cell (pink). (b) The T cell
recognizes that the cancer cell is nonself
nonself and causes the destruction
of the cancer.

Bagaimana kerja B Cells ?

Antibodi immunoglobulin

1. IgM. This is the first type of antibody to be secreted during the


primary response and they serve as receptors on the lymphocyte
surface. These antibodies also promote agglutination reactions
(
(causing
i antigen-containing
ti
t i i particles
ti l tto stick
ti k ttogether,
th or agglutinate).
l ti t )

2. IgG. This is the major form of antibody in the blood plasma and is
secreted in a secondary response.

3. IgD. These antibodies serve as receptors for antigens on the B cell


surface. Their other functions are unknown.

4. IgA. This is the major form of antibody in external secretions, such


as saliva and mothers milk.

5. IgE. This form of antibodies promotes the release of histamine and


other agents that aid in attacking a pathogen. Unfortunately, they
sometimes trigger a full-blown response when a harmless antigen
enters the bod
body producing
prod cing allergic ssymptoms,
mptoms ssuch
ch as those of ha
hay
fever.

Apa tugas sel Thelper ?

Bagaimana tubuh membentuk


kekebalan terhadap virus tertentu ?

Aspek aplikatif antibodiantigen

Gejala Alergi

Bersin-bersin
Bersin
bersin
Hidung berlendir
M t berair
Mata
b i
Timbul bercak-bercak merah di kulit

Tugas
1 Jelaskan apa yang dimaksud dengan
1.
Autoimmune Diseases
2 Jelaskan respon immun yang terjadi
2.
jika :
a. tubuh
t b h terkontaminasi
t k t i
i virus
i
b. tubuh terluka benda tajam
c. tubuh mengidap sel kanker

Siap untuk tes ????

Tes sistem immun


1 Uraikan bagaimana terjadinya respon
1.
inflamasi
2 Jelaskan macam sistem pertahanan
2.
tubuh yang kita miliki ?
3 Bagaimana
3.
B
i
respon ttubuh
b h jik
jika ttubuh
b h kit
kita
terkontaminasi oleh virus ?

Autoimmune Diseases
Autoimmune diseases are produced
by failure of the immune system to
recognize and tolerate self antigens
antigens.
This failure results in the activation of
autoreactive T cells and the
production of autoantibodies by B
cells causing inflammation and organ
cells,
damage.