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# Experiment No.

Object: -

## Apparatus used: - Model No. ME 539D is used for this experiment.

S.N. Apparatus
1
Voltmeter
2
Voltmeter
3
4
5
6
7
8

Ammeter
Ammeter
PN-junction diode
Connecting wires
potentiometer
Rheostat

Type
mc
mc

Range
0-3 v
0-30 v

mc
0-10 M.A.
mc
0-100 M.A.
germanium
PVC
5 Amp.

Quantity
1 no.
1 no.

Remark
ME 539D
MASS

1 no.
1 no.
1 no.
1 no.

## Theory: - The diode is a two terminal device. The v-I characteristics of a

PN- diode represents a curve between the external voltage applied across its
terminals and the current that flow through the diode due to this applied
voltage.
There are two types of characteristics:1. forward bias characteristic
2. reverse bias characteristic
Forward Bias-When the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the p-type
semiconductor and negative terminal of the battery is connected to the n
type semiconductor .

## Reverse Bias- When the positive terminal of the battery is connected to

the n-type semiconductor and negative terminal of the battery is connected
to the p-type semiconductor.

## Procedure:-for forward bias characteristic

1. Make the connection as per the ckt. Diagram.
2. Apply the variable voltage across the diode with the help of
potentiometer.
3. Note the corresponding current from millimeter and voltage from
voltmeter.
4. Repeat the procedure again.
5. Plot the graph between forward voltage and current.

## For reverse biased

1. Now connect the ckt. As per the diagram.
2. Apply the variable voltage across the diode with the help of
potentiometer.
3. Note down the corresponding current from micro ampere meter and
voltage from voltmeter.
4. Repeat the process again.
5. Plot the graph between reverse voltage and current.

Observation:S.N.

Forward biased
voltage
Current

Reverse biased
Voltage
current

1
2
3
4

Result: - discuss the nature of the curves obtain for forward and reverse
mode.

Precautions:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## All connections should be tight.

All steps should be followed carefully.