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ANALISIS FAKTOR RISIKO MALARIA DI DATARAN TINGGI

KECAMATAN BOAWAE DAN DATARAN RENDAH KECAMATAN KEO


TENGAH KABUPATEN NAGEKEO TAHUN 2014
Kristina Molo1, Dwita Anastasia Deo2, Sidarta Sagita3
1
Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Nusa Cendana
2
Departemen Parasitologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Nusa Cendana
3
Departemen IKKOM Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Nusa Cendana
ABSTRAK
Malaria adalah penyakit menular endemik di banyak daerah tropis di dunia,
disebabkan oleh protozoa obligat intrasel genus Plasmodium, biasanya ditularkan
oleh gigitan nyamuk Anopheles yang terinfeksi. Angka API (Annual Parasite
Incidence) di NTT tahun 2012 yaitu 23 per 1000 penduduk menempati urutan ke3 Nasional. Puskesmas Keo Tengah Kabupaten Nagekeo angka API 51 per 1000
penduduk tahun 2013, sedangkan Puskesmas Boawae angka API 46 per 1000
penduduk tahun 2013. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui faktor risiko
kejadian malaria di dataran tinggi Kecamatan Boawae dan dataran rendah
Kecamatan Keo Tengah Kabupaten Nagekeo Tahun 2014. Jenis penelitian adalah
penelitian observasional desain kasus kontrol dengan metode pengambilan sampel
adalah simple random sampling. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Agustus
September 2014. Jumlah sampel 132 responden terdiri dari 33 kasus dan 33
kontrol pada Desa Kelewae yang berada di dataran tinggi Kecamatan Boawae, 33
kasus dan 33 kontrol pada Desa Mbaenuamuri di dataran rendah kecamatan Keo
Tengah. Faktor risiko diidentifikasi menggunakan kuesioner dan observasi dan
menghitung nilai OR. Nilai signifikan p < 0,05. Variabel yang memiliki hubungan
dengan kejadian malaria pada dataran tinggi Desa Kelewae yaitu kebiasaan berada
di luar rumah malam hari (p = 0,041; OR = 2,941; 95% CI= 1,031 8,394)
sedangkan pada dataran rendah Desa Mbaenuamuri yaitu kerapatan dinding (p
=0,049; OR = 0,371; 95% CI = 0,137 1,005). Kerapatan dinding berhubungan
dengan kejadian malaria di dataran rendah Desa Mbaenuamuri sebagai faktor
risiko. Kebiasaan keluar pada malam hari berhubungan dengan kejadian malaria
di dataran tinggi Desa Kelewae sebagai faktor risiko.

Kata kunci: Malaria, faktor risiko, keluar malam, kerapatan dinding.

RISK FACTOR ANALYSIS OF MALARIA IN HIGHLANDS OF BOAWEA


SUBDISTRICT AND LOWLANDS OF CENTRAL KEO SUBDISTRICT 2014
Kristina Molo 1, Dwita Anastasia Deo 2, Sidarta Sagita 3
1 Faculty of Medicine, University of Nusa Cendana
2.Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nusa Cendana
3. Department of IKKOM Faculty of Medicine, University of Nusa Cendana
ABSTRACT
Malaria is an endemic infectious disease in that can be found in many tropical
regions of the world, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus
Plasmodium, usually transmitted by the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito.
The numbers of API (Annual Parasite Incidence) in East Nusa Tenggara Province
in 2012 is 23 per 1000 population and ranks 3rd Nationally. Community Health
Center of Central Keo Nagekeo District showed the number of API is 51 per
1000 population in 2013, while the number of API in Community Health Center
of Boawae is 46 per 1000 population in 2013. The objective of this study was to
determine the risk factors on the incidence of malaria in the highlands of Boawea
sub-District and and in the lowlands of Central Keo sub-District Nagekeo District
2014. The study was an observational study with case-control design using simple
random sampling. The study was conducted in the month of August-September
2014. The number of samples were 132 respondents consisted of 33 cases and 33
controls who lives in Kelewae Village located in the highlands of Boawae subDistrict, 33 cases and 33 controls in Mbaenuamuri Village located in lowlands of
Central Keo sub-District. Risk factors were identified using questionnaires and
observations and calculated the value of OR. Significant value of p <0.05.
Variables that had a correlation with the incidence of malaria in the highlands of
Kelewae Village was the habits of being outside the house at evenings (p = 0.041;
OR = 2.941; 95% CI = 1.031 to 8.394), while the lowlands of Mbaenuamuri
Village was wall density (p = 0.049 ; OR = 0.371; 95% CI = 0.137 to 1.005). The
incidence of malaria in lowlands of Mbaenuamuri village related with density of
walls as a risk factor and int the highlands of Kelewae village related with the
habits of being outside the house at evenings as a risk factor.
Keywords: Malaria, risk factors, being outdoors at night, density of walls.