Anda di halaman 1dari 37

1.

Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan satu struktur sel tumbuhan yang dilihat di bawah mikroskop elektron.
Diagram 1.1 shows a structure of plant cell viewed under an electron microscope.

(a) (i) Namakan organel berlabel X dan berikan fungsinya.


Name the organelle labelled X and give its function.
X : ................................................................................................
Fungsi / Function : ..............................................................................................
[2 marks]
(b)

Dengan menggunakan contoh yang sesuai, terangkan proses pergerakan bahan ke


dalam sel melalui struktur Y.
By using a suitable example, explain the process of movement of substance in to
the cell via structure Y.
.........
.........
.........
.........
[3 marks]

(c)

Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan keadaan satu sel tumbuhan selepas direndam dalam larutan Z.
Diagram 1.2 shows condition of a plant cell after immersed in solution Z.

(i)

(ii)

Namakan jenis larutan Z.


Name type of solution Z.

[1 mark]
Terangkan perubahan yang berlaku pada sel tersebut.
Explain the changes that happen in the cell.

[3 marks]

(d)

Selepas seminggu, seorang suri rumah mendapati sayur sawi yang disimpan di
dalam peti sejuk menjadi layu.
Terangkan keadaan tersebut dan bagaimana menjadikannya kembali segar?
After a week, a housewife noticedthat her vegetables in refrigerator wilted.
Explain the situation and suggest how to make it refresh?
.........
.........
.........
........
.........
[3 marks ]

(e) (i) Anda ingin menyimpan buah betik untuk tempoh lama. Terangkan satu kaedah
pengawetan yang boleh digunakan.
You want to keep papaya fruit for longer time. Explain one method preservation
that can be used.
.........
.........
.........
........
.........
[4 marks ]
(ii) Nyatakan satu kelemahan cara tersebut.
State one diadvatage of the method
.
[1 mark]
2

2.

Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan satu sel. / Diagram 1 shows a cell.

Nuclues/ Nuklues

Golgi apparatus
Jasad golgi

a)

b)

Nyatakan jenis sel diatas dan berikan satu sebab.


State the type of cell above and give a reason.

[1 mark]
Namakan X serta Y dan nyatakan fungsinya.
Name X and Y and state its function.
Organel/ Organelle X : ..
Fungsi/ Function:.
Organel/ Organelle Y :
Fungsi/ Function :
[4 marks]

c)

Encik Asri dan Puan Laila telah berkahwin selama lima tahun namun masih
belum dikurniakan anak. Mereka telah membuat pemeriksaan kesihatan dan di
dapati ianya berpunca daripada sperma Encik Asri kekurangan organel Z.
Terangkan bagaimana perkara ini menyumbang kepada masalah ini.

Encik Asri and Puan Laila have been married for five years but still not blessed
with children. They did medical check up and found that it is due to lacking of
organelle Z in Encik Asris sperms. Explain how this contributes to the problem.
..
...

[3 marks]
d)

Rajah 1.2 merupakan satu struktur berbentuk heliks ganda dua yang telah
dikemukakan oleh ahli sains James Watson dan Francis Crick pada tahun 1953.
Struktur itu boleh ditemui di dalam sel terutamanya di dalam nukleus .
Diagram 1.2 is a double helix-shaped structure that has been proposed by scientists
James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953. It can be found in the cells mainly in the
nucleus.

i.

ii.

Nyatakan unit asas bagi struktur tersebut.


State the basic unit of the structure.

[1 mark]
Terangkan peranannya dalam sintesis protein.
Explain its role in protein synthesis.

..

..
[3 marks]
4

3.

Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan mikrograf keratan rentas hujung akar bawang yang aktif
menjalankan proses mitosis
Diagram 2.1 shows a micrograph of cross-section tips of onion root which undergoes
mitosis actively.

a)

Nyatakan peringkat S dan terangkan perlakuan kromosom pada peringkat tersebut.


State stage S and explain the chromosomal behaviour in that stage
Peringkat S/ Stage S : ......
Perlakuan kromosom / Chromosomal behaviour:
...

[2 marks]

b)

Terangkan kepentingan mitosis kepada akar bawang.


Explain the importance of mitosis to onion root.

[2 marks]

c)

Sekiranya bilangan kromosom dalam setiap sel dalam Rajah 2 adalah empat, lukis
perlakuan kromosom selepas peringkat S di dalam ruangan di bawah. Terangkan
lukisan anda.
If the number of chromosomes in each cell in Diagram 2 is four, draw the behaviour
of chromosomes after level S in the space below. Explain your drawing

Explanation :................................................................................
................................................................................
Teknik kultur tisu yang mengaplikasi konsep mitosis telah menjadi satu industri
yang besar dalam pertanian terutama untuk beberapa jenis tanaman yang bernilai
komersil seperti pisang, kelapa sawit dan lain-lain lagi
Tissue culture techniques which apply the concept of mitosis became a major
industry in agriculture, especially for some types of commercial valuable crops
such as bananas, palm oil and others.
d)

Dengan mengunakan bahagian pokok yang dinamakan, Terangkan bagaimana


teknik kultur tisu digunakan dalam bidang pertanian.
By using a naming part of a plant, explain how tissue culture techniques is
implemented in agriculture.

....
[ 4 markah]

f)

Nyatakan bagaimana teknik kultur tisu membantu industri pertanian.


Explain how plant tissue culture help agriculture industry

...............................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
[2 markah]
(g)

Apabila En. Sali, seorang pekebun pisang diberi penerangan tentang teknik ini oleh
pegawai PELADANG, beliau telah menanam pokok pisang secara teknik kultur tisu di atas
tanahnya yang seluas 5 ekar. Anak pokok pisangnya hidup subur. Namun, tiga bulan
selepas itu, anak pokok pisangnya diserang penyakit Panama (Fusarium wilt) dan semua
anak pokok pisangnya mati dalam tempoh yang sama.
Terangkan mengapa perkara ini berlaku.
When Mr. Sali, a banana farmer was briefed on this technique by PELADANG officer, he
has planted banana trees using tissue culture techniques on his 5 acres land. The banana
tree thrives. However, three months later, the seedlings are attacked banana Panama
disease (Fusarium wilt) and all his banana trees died in a same period.
Explain why this happens.

[2 marks]

4.

Figure 2 shows cell X and cell Y during prophase stage for both type of cell division.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan sel X dan sel Y dalam peringkat profasa bagi kedua-dua jenis
pembahagian sel.
T

Cell X

Cell Y
FIGURE 2

(a) (i) Which cell undergoes meiosis?


Sel yang manakah mengalami meiosis?
..........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) State the reasons for your answer in (a)(i).
Nyatakan alasan bagi jawapan anda pada (a)(i).
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]
b) (i) Draw the anaphase stage for cell X and Y.
Lukiskan peringkat anafasa bagi sel X dan Y.

Cell X

Cell Y
[2 marks]
8

(ii) State one difference between anaphase in cell X and anaphase I in cell Y.
Nyatakan satu perbezaan antara peringkat anafasa pada sel X dan anafasa I pada sel Y.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(iii) Why anaphase I stage is so important for cell Y. Why?
Mengapakah fasa anafasa I sangat penting bagi sel Y. Mengapa?
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(c) (i) Name a process that occurs at the part labeled T in cell Y. Explain its importance.
Namakan satu proses yang berlaku pada bahagian berlabel T dalam sel Y. Terangkan
kepentingannya
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]
(ii) How many chromosomes are in daughter cell of X and Y
Berapakah bilangan kromosom dalam sel anak X dan Y
..........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(d) Diagram below shows formation of zigot. Rajah dibawah menunjukkan pembentukan zigot
Organisma multisel
Proses A
Gamet jantan

Gamet betina
Proses C

Proses B
Zigot

(i) Name the following process


Namakan proses berikut.
Proses A:
Proses C:
[ 2 markah ]
(ii) Explain process B./ Terangkan proses B.
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]
(iii)State part of plant and animal where process A occur.
Nyatakan bahagian pada tumbuhan dan haiwan yang melakukan proses A.
Plant/ Tumbuhan :.
Animal/ Haiwan

5.

: .
[2 markah ]

Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan tindak balas enzim terhadap substrat laktose.


Diagram 2.1 shows enzyme reaction on a substrate lactose.

a) (i)

(ii)

Substrate

Namakan hipotesis yang menggambarkan tindak balas enzim pada Rajah 2.1.
Name the hypothesis that showed on Diagram 2.1.
...
[1 mark]
Namakan Enzim X dan Bahan Y/ State enzyme X and Substance Y.
Enzim/ Enzyme X:
10

Bahan/ Substance Y: ..
[2 marks]
(iiii)

lengkapkan ruangan diatas/ Complete space above.


[1 mark]

(iv)

Nyatakan dua ciri enzim berdasarkan Rajah 2.1.


State two characteristics of enzyme that shows on Diagram 2.1.
1. ..................................................................................................................

2. ............
....
[2 marks]

(b) (i)

Terangkan kesan kepada aktiviti enzim terhadap substrat yang terdedah kepada
suhu melebihi 60C.
Explain the effects of enzyme activity to the substrate that exposed to temperature
over 60C.
................................................................................................................................

...
....
[2 marks]

(ii)

Terangkan kesan kepada aktiviti enzim terhadap substrat yang terdedah kepada suhu 0oC
Explain the effects of enzyme activity to the substrate that exposed to temperature 0C.
................................................................................................................................

...
....
[2 marks]

(iii)

Terangkan kesan kepada aktiviti enzim terhadap substrat yang terdedah kepada pH 2.
Explain the effects of enzyme activity to the substrate that exposed to pH 2
................................................................................................................................

11

...
....
[2 marks]

(c)

Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan graf perubahan pH ke atas kadar aktiviti enzim.


Diagram 2.2 shows a graph of pH changes on the rate of enzyme activity.

Rate of enzyme activity

pH value

i)

Nyatakan pH optimum bagi Q/ State optimum pH for Q

[1 mark]

ii)

Enzim P dan R terlibat dalam pencernaan protein dalam salur alimentari.


Namakan enzim P dan enzim R.
Enzymes P and R involve in protein digestion in alimentary canal.
Name enzyme P and enzyme R.
P: ...
R: ...
[2 marks]

iii)

Dengan menggunakan contoh substrat yang sesuai, terangkan tindak balas


enzim Q yang berlaku di duodenum.
By using suitable example, explain reaction of enzyme Q in duodenum.
........................................................................................................................

12

....
...
[2 marks]
(c)

Dalam satu majlis jamuan keraian, Aiman dinasihati oleh bapanya agar tidak
memakan makanan yang terlalu banyak sekaligus.
During a feast, Aiman has been advised by his father not to take in a lot of food at
the same time.
Huraikan kesan terhadap proses pencernaan di perut apabila makan terlampau
banyak sekali gus.
Describe the effect on digestion process in stomach if a lot of food intake at the
same time.
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
[3 marks]

6.

Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan sistem pencernaan dalam manusia.


Diagram 3.1 shows digestive system in human.

Liver/ Hati
T
W

13

(a) (i) Namakan bahagian berlabel W


Name the part labelled W.
....
[1 mark]
(ii) Terangkan satu ciri adaptasi pada W bagi menambahkan kecekapan fungsinya.
Explain one adaptation characteristics of W that increasing the efficiency on its
function.
.

[2 marks]

(b)

Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan satu unjuran daripada lapisan sebelah dalam struktur W.
Diagram 3.2 shows fingered-like projection from the inner lining structure of W.

(i) Namakan struktur yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 3.2.


Name the structure shows on Diagram 3.2.

.........
[1 mark]
(ii) Namakan contoh hasil pencernaan yang diserap ke dalam struktur X dan struktur Z.
Name example of digested products that absorbed into structure X and structure Z.
X: ...
Z: ...
[2 marks]
14

(c)

Terangkan fungsi hati dalam proses pencernaan.


Explain the function of liver in digestion.
..
.
.......
.................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(d)

Hasil pencernaan yang diserap oleh struktur Z akan dihantar ke hati.


The digested substances that absorbed by Z need to be transportedto liver.
Terangkan proses yang berlaku kepada hasil pencernaan yang dihantar ke hati
berdasarkan fungsi hati dalam menjalankan asimilasi
Explain the process that happen to the digested product brought to the liver based on the
function of liver in assimilation.

[4 marks]

(c)

Terangkan proses kimia yang berlaku ke atas nasi yang dimakan oleh seseorang individu
di sepanjang salur alimentarinya.
Explain chemical process that occur to rice eaten by an individual along alimentary canal.

[4 markah]

15

(d) Organ T individu A telah disahkan menghidapi sejenis penyakit dan terpaksa dibuang.
Terangkan kesan pembuangan organ T dan akibatnya kepada pencernaan individu A
tersebut.
Organ T is having infection and need to be removed. Explain the effect on digestion if
organ T is removed.

[3 markah]

7.

Figure 3 shows the use and production of energy in human body.


Rajah 3 menunjukkan penggunaan dan penghasilan tenaga di dalam badan manusia.
Glucose + oxygen

Carbon dioxide + heat

ATP + P

ADP~P

(a) (i) Name the processes labeled X./ Namakan proses yang berlabel X.
X :
[2 marks]
16

(ii) Name the organelle in the cell that is able to synthesis ATP.
Namakan organel di dalam sel yang boleh mensintesiskan ATP.
..
[1 mark]

RAJAH 5
(a) Nyatakan jenis respirasi dan persamaan tindakbalas yang diwakili oleh
State the type of respiration and write the equation of reaction represents
(i)

(ii)

Proses P

:.....................................................................................................

Persamaan

:.....................................................................................................

Proses Q

:.....................................................................................................

Persamaan

:.....................................................................................................
[4 markah]

17

(b) Proses P berbeza daripada segi penghasilan tenaga sekiranya dibandingkan dengan Proses
Q. Terangkan mengapa?
Process P is different interm of enegy production compare to process Q. Explain why.
..
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
[2 markah]
(c) Terangkan bagaimanakah gas yang terlibat dalam proses P diangkut melalui sistem
peredaran darah manusia.
Explain how gas involve in process P is transported through blood circulatory system.
..
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
[2 markah]
(d) Seorang pelajar sedang berlatih untuk menghadapi kejohanan olahraga peringkat sekolah.
Selepas latihan beliau mendapati pH darahnya menurun.
A student is practicing for school division of sports tournament. After training he notice
his blood pH level decerease.
(i)

Jelaskan mengapa pH darah pelajar itu menurun selepas latihan tersebut.


Explain why blood pH level of the student decrease.
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
[2 markah]

18

(ii)

Terangkan bagaimanakah penurunan pH darah dapat dikawal?


Explain how the decrease in blood pH can be controled?

.............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
[2 markah]

(e) Seorang pembuat roti mahu roti yang dihasilkannya lebih gebu dan lembut. Oleh itu beliau
bercadang untuk mencampurkan yis dalam adunan rotinya. Terangkan bagaimanakah cara ini
membantu.beliau mendapatkan roti dikehendaki.
A bread maker wants to make a bread which is more softer and tender. He is thinking to
add yeast into his bread mixture. How this method help him to get the bread he wants.

..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
[2 markah]

19

8.

Rajah di bawah menunjukkan keratan rentas sejenis daun tumbuhan dikotiledon.


Diagram shows a cross section of a dicotyledonous leaf.

Organelle W
S

(a)

Namakan struktur yang berlabel pada rajah di atas.


Name the structure labelled in diagram above.
P:.
Q:

R:.
[3 markah]
(b)(i) Terangkan satu adaptasi strukture P dalam memaksimumkan fotosintesis.
Explain one adaptation structure P to maximize photosynthesis
...........
...............................................................................................................................................
[2 markah]
(c)

Nyatakan fungsi struktur S dan jelaskan satu adaptasi struktur S untuk menjalankan fungsinya.
State one characteristic S and explain one adaptation of structure S to carry out its function.
............
...............
...........
[2 markah]
20

(e) Terangkan bagaimana daun pada rajah di atas diorganisasikan untuk menjalankan fungsinya.
Explain how leaf is organized to carryout its function.

[3 markah]
(f) Sekiranya tumbuhan ini ditanam di kawasan perindustrian, terangkan kesannya kepada
kadar fotosintesis.
If the plant is planted near industrial area, explain its effect on rate of photosynthesis.
............
...............
...........
[2 markah]
(g) Describe why glass house (green house) is needed to be build in temperate climate to
increase the products of agriculture.
Huraikan mengapakah rumah kaca (rumah hijau) perlu didirikan di kawasan iklim
sederhana untuk meningkatkan hasil pertanian.
.
.
.
.
[3 marks]

21

(h) Berikan dua perbezaan di antara tindakbalas cahaya dengan tindakbalas gelap dalam organlle W.
State two differences between light reaction and dark reaction in organelle W.
...........
...........
[2 markah]
(i) Explain why dark reaction will not occurs if light reaction is not presence
Terangkan mengapakah tindakbalas gelap tidak akan berlaku jika tindakbalas cahaya
tidak berlaku.
..
..
..
[2 markah]
9.

RAJAH 4
Rajah 4 menunjukkan perhubungan sebahagian daripada sistem peredaran darah, sistem
peredaran limfa dan sel-sel badan.
Diagram 4 shows relationship between blood circulatory system and lymphatic system.

22

(a)(i)

Labelkan bahagian bertanda R, S, T dan U dalam ruangan yang disediakan.


Label part R, S, T and U in space provided.
[2 markah]

(ii)

(b)

Tandakan anak panah arah pengaliran bendalir untuk menunjukkan perhubungan kedua-dua
sistem tersebut.
Mark an arrow to show from of fluid to show relationship between both system.
[1 markah]
Terangkan perbezaan komposisi bendalir U dengan bendalir R.
Explain the difference in composition between Fluid U and fluid R.
...............
...............
...............
...............
[2 markah]

(c)

Terangkan pembentukan bendalir R. / Explain the formation of fluid R.


...............
...............
...............
...............
[2 markah]
subSistem limfa bertindak sebagai pelengkap kepada sistem peredaran darah dari aspek
pengangkutan bahan dan pertahanan badan
Lymphatic system completing blood circulatory system in the aspect of transportation of
substance and body defense

(c )

Huraikan pernyataan di atas dari aspek


Describe the statement from both aspect
(i)

pengangkutan bahan/ Transportation of substances


..............
..............
..............
[2 markah]

23

(ii)

pertahanan badan/ body defence


.
..
..
[2 markah]

(d)

Penyakit untut atau elephantiasis adalah sejenis penyakit yang menpunyai gejala tangan
dan kaki membengkak
Elephanthantis is a disease that causes hand and leg get swollen
(i)

Apakah yang menyebabkan penyakit di atas berlaku.


What cause the disease.
..............
..............
[1 markah]

(ii)

Berikan rumusan kepentingan sistem limfa pada manusia


State the summary of lymphatic system in human
..

10.

Jarum

24

Rajah 5 menunjukkan suatu arka refleks yang berlaku apabila jari tangan secara tidak sengaja
dicucuki oleh sebatang jarum.
Diagram 5 shows an reflex arc that occur when finger accidentally pork by a needle

(a) Lengkapkan rajah di atas, dengan melukis neuron yang terlibat di dalam tindak
balas refleks .
Complete the diagram, with neurone involve in the refleks arc
[2 markah]
(b) Namakan struktur M dan N.
State stucture M and N
M :..
N :..
[2 markah]
(c) Bezakan di antara tindakan refleks di atas dengan tindakan luar kawal.
Compare reflex action and involuntary action.

[2 markah]
(d) With a fully labelled diagram, explain how the impulse are transmitted at the synapse.
Terangkan dengan gambarajah berlabel, bagaimana impuls dipindahkan melalui
synapse.

25

[4 marks]
(e) State why reflex action is important to us?
Nyatakan mengapa tindakan refles penting bagi kita?

[1 mark]
(g) If O is injured and damaged, predict what will happened to the person.
Jika O terluka, ramalkan apa yang akan berlaku kepada orang tersebut.

[1 mark]

26

11 Figure 3 shows a profile transect of a mangrove swamp.


Rajah 3 menunjukkan satu profil di kawasan paya bakau.

High Tide

Low Tide

ZONE R

ZONE S

ZONE T

Time

FIGURE 3
a) Name one species each represents zones R and S. Describe the adaptive structure of root
system for each species.
Nyatakan satu spesies tumbuhan yang mewakili Zon R dan Zon S. Huraikan struktur
penyesuaian sistem akar bagi setiap spesies yang dinyatakan.
(i) Zone R:...
Description :...

(ii) Zone S:...


Description :....

[4 marks]
b) (i) Name the process involve to form zones S and T.
Namakan proses yang menyebabkan zon S dan zon T terbentuk.
........
[1 mark]
(ii) Explain how the process in (b)(i) can happen?
Terangkan bagaimana proses di (b)(i) berlaku?
.....
.
27

......................................
..
..
[3 marks]
b)
c) Mangrove swamps area contain the lowest amount of oxygen, muddy soft soil and
submerged by high tide. Name the way of reproduction of species in zone S to solve that
problem?
Kawasan paya bakau mengandungi kandungan oksigen yang kurang, tanah yang
berlumpur dan selalu ditenggelami oleh air pasang. Namakan cara pembiakan spesies
tumbuhan di zon S bagi mengatasi masalah tersebut?
.. [1
mark]
d) A chemical factory is built near the mangrove swamps area. The untreated waste is
discharged directly into the sea.
Kawasan paya bakau itu telah didirikan kilang yang berasaskan industri kimia. Bahan
buangan industri itu disalurkan terus ke pantai berhampiran.
(i)

Explain the effects of the untreated waste on the mangrove swamps ecosystem.
Terangkan kesan aktiviti kilang tersebut terhadap ekosistem paya bakau.
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(ii)

Suggest one method to minimize the effects in (d)(i).


Cadangkan satu cara untuk mengurangkan kesan di (d)(i).
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

28

12. Figure 4 shows the forelimb and joint of humans .


Rajah 4 menunjukkan bahagian anggota hadapan dan sendi manusia.

P : ................................

T
Q

R: .....................................

FIGURE 4
(a) (i) Name the parts labelled P and R.
Namakan bahagian berlabel P dan R
[1 mark]
(ii) State the characteristic of P and R tissues which is adapted to its function.
Nyatakan ciri-ciri tisu P dan R yang disesuaikan untuk menjalankan fungsinya.
P :.....................................................................................................................
R :.....................................................................................................................
[2 marks]
(b) (i) Name the tissue that connects T and S
Namakan tisu yang menghubungkan T dan S.
....................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(ii)What happened if this tissue is torn?
Apakah yang berlaku jika tisu ini mengalami kecederaan (terkoyak)?
...................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

29

(c) (i) Circle and name a joint in the above diagram.


Bulat dan namakan satu sendi pada rajah di atas.
[1 mark]
(ii) Explain how the P, Q, R, S, T and joint enable the arm to bend.
Terangkan bagaimana P, Q, R, S, T dan sendi membolehkan lengan membengkok.
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
(d)

Why does the contraction of T muscle and Q muscle need a sufficient supply of
blood?
Mengapakah pengecutan otot T dan otot Q memerlukan bekalan darah yang
cukup?
.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(e) An old lady, age 60 years old suffers a disease of unhealthy joint.
Seorang perempuan tua, berumur 60 tahun mengalami suatu penyakit sendi yang
tidak sihat.
(i)
Name the disease.
Namakan penyakit itu.

(ii)

..............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
Why older people have a higher risk of the above disease?
Mengapakah orang tua mempunyai risiko lebih tinggi terhadap penyakit di
atas?
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

30

13.

Table 1 shows the percentages of certain components found different parts of kidney.
Jadual 1 di bawah menunjukkan peratus beberapa bahan yang di jumpai pada
beberapa bahagian ginjal.

Component/
Part of kidney
Bahan/
Bahagian pada ginjal
Urea/urea
Glucose/glukosa
Amino acids/asid amino
Salts/garam
Plasma protein/
protein plasma

Renal artery/
Arteri renal (A)
0.03
0.10
0.05
0.72
8.00

Concentration/ Kepekatan (%)


Glomerulus filtrate/
Ureter/ureter ( C)
Turasan glomerulus
(B)
0.03
2.00
0.10
0.00
0.05
0.00
0.72
1.50
0.00
0.00

TABLE 1
(a)

(i)

Name the process to form glomerulus filtrate.


Namakan proses yang menghasilkan turasan glomerulus.
...
[1 marks]

(ii)

Why plasma protein is not found in B?


Mengapa protein plasma tidak dijumpai dalam B?
..
..
[1 marks]

(b)

Using only the information in the Table 1, deduce the functions of the kidney
Dengan hanya menggunakan maklumat dalam Jadual 1, rumuskan fungsi ginjal.
(i)

..
..

(ii)

..
..
[2 marks]

31

(c)

Explain the process that occur between B and C that gives the result as in the Table 1.
Terangkan proses yang berlaku di antara B dan C yang memberi keputusan
seperti dalam Jadual 1.
..
..
..
.
..
[3 marks]

(d)

Explain how the proportions of the component present in C would change:


Terangkan bagaimana nisbah komposisi yang berada dalam C akan berubah:
(i)

after eating meat


selepas memakan daging

(ii)

if a person suffering from diabetes had not taken enough insulin


jika individu yang menderita diabetis tidak mengambil insulin yang
mencukupi

[4 marks]

32

14. Figure 4.1 shows the human female reproduction system and Figure 4.2 shows the
formation of twin.
Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan sistem pembiakan perempuan dan Rajah 4.2 menunjukkan
pembentukan anak kembar.
C
B

A
C
A

FIGURE 4.1

FIGURE 4.2
33

(a) Name the structures and process


Namakan struktur dan proses
i. Process A:
ii. Structure B: .........................................................................................................
iii. Structure C:
[2 marks]
(b) (i) Nucleus of structure B and sperm fuse together to form a zygote and then divides
repeatedly. What division process is involved?
Nukleus struktur B dan sperma berpadu bersama membentuk zigot dan membahagi
berulangkali. Apakah proses pembahagian yang terlibat?

[1 mark]
(ii) Circle the location of fertilisation occur in figure 4.1
Bulatkan kawasan persenyawaan yang berlaku pada rajah 4.1
[1 mark]
(iii) Describe two main stages in the development of a zygote in preparation for
implantation.
Huraikan dua peringkat utama perkembangan zigot dalam persediaan penempelan.

[3 marks]
(c) Based on Figure 4.2, explain the formation of a twin.
Berdasarkan Rajah 4.2, terangkan pembentukan anak kembar.
..
..
..
..
[3 marks]
34

(d) Structure D is an important organ for development of foetal. State two importances of the
organ.
Struktur D adalah merupakan organ penting dalam perkembangan fetus. Nyatakan dua
kepentingan organ tersebut.
..
..
..
[2 marks]

5. The structure on the head of a chicken (the comb) can be of different shapes. Figure 5 shows
how two different shapes of comb were inherited. Walnut comb is dominant.
Struktur di atas kepala ayam (balung) adalah pelbagai bentuk. Rajah 5 menunjukkan dua
bentuk balung yang diwariskan. Balung Walnut adalah dominan
Walnut comb

Pea comb
S

Offspring

FIGURE 5

Comb shape is controlled by one pair of allele.


Bentuk balung dikawal oleh sepasang alel
Key:

W dominant allele
W alel dominan

w - recessive allele35
w alel resesif

(a) Write the genotypes of the following chicken


Tuliskan genotip bagi ayam berikut
S :.
T :.
U :.
V :.
[2 marks]
(b) Draw the schematic diagram below to show genotype ratio and phenotype ratio if S and
V were bred together.
Lukis rajah skematik untuk menunjukkan nisbah genotip dan nisbah Fenotip jika S dan V
dikacukkan.
[5 marks]

(c) Explain how we can get phenotype ratio in (b).


Terangkan bagaimana kita mendapat fenotip dalam (b).
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
[2 marks]
36

(d) Explain how we can get chicken with pea comb if one of their parent is walnut comb?
.................
.................
.................
..................
[2 marks]

37