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Free Response Questions (FRQs) Research Methods Unit 2

1. Identify which research method is best for each situation below.

Also, be sure to define the research method and explain why it would
be best. For homework, address all six situations. For test, choose at
least four to address. (12 points)
A. Determine the favorite foods of adolescents.
B. Determine whether or not frustration causes aggression.
C. Determine whether level of education is associated with
criminal behavior.
D. Determine conversational patterns of men and women.
E. Determine why a violinist gave up a flourishing career in
business to play in the local symphony.
F. Determine the parenting patterns used on a child who is
having behavior problems.
2. Imagine that you are a sports psychologist interested in the
usefulness of a new visualization technique that has been developed
for Olympic divers. You have decided to conduct an experiment to
determine if the technique is effective. Discuss the importance of each
of the following in regard to the experiment you are designing:
population, sample, hypothesis, independent variable, dependent
variable, operational definitions, control group, random assignment,
and replication. (9 points)
Population: Why is it important? What is it in this experiment?
Sample: Why is it important? What is it in this experiment?
Hypothesis: Why is it important? What is it in this experiment?
IV: Why is it important? What is it in this experiment?
DV: Why is it important? What is it in this experiment?
ODs: Why is it important? What is it in this experiment?
CG: Why is it important? What is it in this experiment?
Random assignment: Why is it important? What is it in this
Replication: Why is it important? What is it in this experiment?
Population: All Olympic divers
Sample: The Olympic divers that you choose at random to be your
Hypothesis: If an Olympic diver uses the visualization technique, then
he or she will dive better/more successfully.
IV: visualization technique
DV: diving
ODs: 10 min. visualizing; scores on form, splash, etc.
CG: normal warm-up process or nothing; definitely no visualizing

Random assignment: randomly assign divers to one group or the other

Replication: someone else recreates the same experiment with
different divers/participants and possibly different procedures

3. After reviewing the ethical guidelines adopted by the American

Psychological Association (APA), determine which of the following
research practices are ethical or unethical and explain why. (10 points)
A. Require psychology students to participate as subjects in a
research study.
B. Tell subjects that once they begin a study as a research
subject, they must continue until the research is complete.
C. Withhold information about the hypothesis and research
D. Carry out a study that causes discomfort in people after
securing informed consent that includes full information about
possible risks.
E. Use animals to check the side-effects of a drug thought to
cure depression.

4. In the following experiments identify: a possible hypothesis, the

independent variable, the dependant variable, the operational
definitions of both, the experimental conditions, and the control
conditions. For homework, address all. For test, choose at least two to
address. (14 points)
A. A study was conducted on the effects of caffeine on studying.
Experimental subjects were given 32 ounces of a caffeinated
beverage. Subjects in the control group were given a
decaffeinated beverage that looked and tasted like the
caffeinated beverage consumed by the experimental group.
After consuming the drinks, all subjects were provided with a
chapter of text to read and then were tested.

Hypothesis: If a person ingests caffeine, then he/she will not

be able to study well OR he/she will score lower on a test of
content studied.
IV: caffeine
OD of the IV: 32 ounces of caffeinated
DV: studying
OD of the DV: score on test
EG: given 32 ounces caffeinated beverage
CG: given 32 ounces decaffeinated beverage
B. A study was conducted on the effects of classical music on
aggressive behavior. Experimental subjects listened to
classical music. Subjects in the control condition were
exposed to a white noise machine for the same period of time.
Following 45 minutes of exposure to classical music or white
noise, all subjects were put in a situation in which they were
able to engage in aggressive behavior with a punching bag.
C. A study was conducted on the effects of exercise on
relaxation. Experimental subjects engaged in supervised
aerobic exercise for 45 minutes. The control group engaged in
a supervised study session for 45 minutes. Following the
exposure, all subjects were told to wait in a room for the
experimenter to return. During this period, they were hooked
up to medical equipment monitoring their heart rate, muscle
tension, respiration and blood pressure.
Random assignment: