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Assessment 1

Holds the most has been created to elicit and assess Miss Ridlers year five

students conceptual understanding of capacity as the maximum amount a container can

hold.

A strong conceptual understanding of mathematics concepts allows teachers to

recognise the alternative conceptions and difficulties concepts create (Browning, Edson,

Kimani, & Aslan-Tutak, 2014). Capacity describes the maximum volume a container is

able to hold, while volume refers to the amount of space a three dimensional substance

or object occupies (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority

[ACARA], 2015). These definitions are not yet relevant to year five students, as within

the measurement strand of the Australian curriculum the terms volume and capacity

are used interchangeably until year four (ACARA, 2015).

By year five students should have a conceptual understanding of the attribute of

capacity as the amount a container is able to hold, and volume as the amount of space

an object or material takes up (ACARA, 2015). For instance, container A has a larger

capacity as it holds more then container B. Gough (2008) asserts understanding the

attribute of capacity is relevant to students everyday lives from deciding what glass to

use to have a drink to filling a ink cartilage, or bathe so it does not overflow.

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Danielle Ridler 142977

Assessment 1

understand standardisation and the relationship between units and unit-attributes

(Wrigley, 2011). In Australia, capacity is measured using the metric units for liquid

measurement: millilitres (ml) and litres (l), and solid measurement: cubic centimetres

(cm3) and cubic metres. This standardisation facilitates communication and allows for

formal objective measurements; I need 20mls of medicine each day opposed to

subjective, I need three spoons of medicine each day (Wrigley, 2011). As students do

not identify the relationship between cm3 and mls until year six Holds this much will

only assess students ability to measure capacity using formal liquid units ACMMG138

(ACARA, 2015).

In preparation for Holds the most the Australian Curriculum was utilised to

identify what students ought to be familiar with. Year five students should have

experience using informal direct comparisons to measure the capacities of different

containers and be familiar with language such as holds more, and holds the same

ACMMG037 (ACARA, 2015). Students should understand the importance of using

formal liquid metric units and have experience using scaled instruments to measure and

compare capacities ACMMG061;ACMMG084 (ACARA, 2015).

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Danielle Ridler 142977

Assessment 1

difficulties which impact ones conceptual understanding of capacity (Niemi, 1996). A

conceptual understanding of the attribute of capacity requires students to understand

several key ideas: conservation, iteration, additivity and proportionality. Students

in Piagets concrete operational stage of development (7-11 years), are developing the

logical thinking ability conservation (De Lisi, 1979). Conservation allows students to

recognise and understand how containers with different physical features are able to

have similar capacities (Kefaloukos & Bobis, 2011). An inability to conserve

predominately impacts young students; however, students with minimal practical

experience comparing containers may also demonstrate this understanding (Kefaloukos

& Bobis, 2011).Holds the most will identify students with a conservation

misconception through their choice of container and justification; for instance, the

student justifies their choice of the container by stating it is the tallest. However, due to

students age it is anticipated students are more likely to experience difficulties with

reading scaled objects and understanding the relationship between mls to ls then

conservation.

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Danielle Ridler 142977

Assessment 1

teachers to create rich assessment tasks that reveal and assess students performance of

conceptual understanding (Stephens, 2000). Students are not expected to measure

capacity with formal liquid units until year three, meaning students difficulties can

arise from a lack of experience (Van de Walle & Lovin, 2006). Students without an

understanding of iteration, the repeated use of standard units (mls or l) to fill a

container and additivity, adding the repeated use of standard units to find the capacity

of a container will experience difficulties finding and communicating the capacity of

containers using formal metric units (Van de Walle & Lovin, 2006).

Iteration and additive difficulties are linked to proportionality in which

students must recognise the relationship between the unit used to measure capacity and

the number of units required to measure capacity (Gough, 2008). For instance, a 2l

bucket will require more 300ml units to fill then using a 400ml unit would. Students

who experience difficulties with proportionality, and understanding the relationship

between units (1000mls in a l) will be identified through Holds this much by their

inability to convert ls to ml, and estimate how many times it will take to fill the bucket

using their container.

Holds the most

Page 4 of 10

Danielle Ridler 142977

Assessment 1

Students are placed in groups of four and instructed their task is to transport 2l of

water using a container of their choice in the fewest trips possible. The capacities of the

containers provided: range from 200 to 400mls, differ in physical appearance, and only

one is scaled with 10ml referents and a capacity of 300ml. There are two possible

solutions to this task, as there are two containers with a 400ml capacity. These two

containers differ in physical appearance: one is a pyramid with a narrow opening at the

top, while the other is a wide cylinder with a large opening.

Teams are given six minutes to measure out their 2L of water and decide what

container they will use for the task. During this time the teacher observes: the

conversations occurring in groups, how students are deciding what container to use and

how students are measuring their 2ls of water. Once complete students are gathered back

as a class and asked three questions outlined in figure 1, as a think, pair, share activity.

Students are asked to write down their answer and justify their thinking before

discussing it with their team. Teams briefly share with the class, then the activity begins.

Figure 1. Assessing students performance of understanding.

Page 5 of 10

Danielle Ridler 142977

Assessment 1

Holds the most requires students to use their conceptual understanding, skills

and knowledge of capacity as the maximum a container is able to hold in a practical

context (Beesey, Clarke, Clarke, Stephens, & Sullivan, 1998). Stephens (2000) asserts

practical tasks that encourage students to work cooperatively and communicate are

beneficial as students often display insights that would not be found by working

independently. This allows the teacher to identify whether students performances shows

evidence students are ready to move on to more difficult tasks or misconceptions,

knowledge and skills that require further instruction (Fry, 2014).

Students ability to measure and gain a conceptual understanding of capacity

using formal liquid measurement requires them to understand the relationship between

millilitres and litres, and their approximate size (Gough, 2008). Students difficulties are

often caused by their inability to understand what a millilitre and litre represents and

looks like. For this reason, students need explicit instruction through both practical and

pen-and-paper measurement tasks that use real world examples of capacity to

strengthen their understanding of the size of formal liquid units (Van de Walle &

Lovin, 2006). One way to achieve this is by getting students to compare and order

everyday objects such as milk cartons, cups and jugs by their capacity.

Using familiar objects allows students to create an internal referent that aids their

estimation abilities (Van de Walle & Lovin, 2006). For instance if one litre is the same as

a carton of milk, and my mums car holds 40l of petrol, then the sink must hold more

then 1l and less then 40l of water. Estimation also improves students measurement

sense, as through estimation students develop their understanding of formal liquid units

and their approximate size (Jones, Gardner, Taylor, Forrester, & Andre, 2012). For this

Page 6 of 10

Danielle Ridler 142977

Assessment 1

reason teachers should encourage students to estimate before measuring to check the

accuracy of their answer (Van de Walle & Lovin, 2006).

Difficulties measuring capacity may result from a lack of experience with

conversion and proper instruction of how to accurately read graduated scales (Gough,

2008; Lehrer, 2003). Some students may experience difficulties converting mls and ls as

it involves multiplying and dividing by 1 000. To cater for these students, teachers

should utilise students understanding of place value and decimals, and provide tasks

that require unit conversation. Van de Walle and Lovin (2006) asserts teachers should

also provide students with opportunities to read and use a range of measuring scales so

they can develop the rules for using scales accurately. For instance ensuring the scale is

on a flat surface and looking at the level at eye level.

Building on these ideas Miss Ridler has prepared a set of learning activities that

will support students development of the relationship between mls and ls and build a

foundation for students year five focus on identifying the appropriate units to measure

capacity (ACMMG108) (ACARA, 2015).

Learning activities

1. A graduated cylinder with 5ml referents is filled to 37mls. Students write down how

many mls of water is in the cylinder, and then share their answer with the class. Students

are asked: why doesnt everyone have the same answer?. Through discussion students

identify the rules of accurately reading a graduated cylinder.

2. Students are given several containers (milk cartons, tubs and jars) and asked to put

them in order by their capacity (smallest to largest). They are asked to estimate each

containers capacity, then measure the containers and decide whether they want to keep

or change their estimation before moving to the next container.

Page 7 of 10

Danielle Ridler 142977

Assessment 1

3. Students estimate the capacity of objects using referents e.g. water bottle, fish tank,

petrol tank, and then convert formal measurements e.g. millilitres to litres. Students then

solve: Joe said to find out how many millilitres are in litres you multiply it by 1000, is he

right? Why/why not?

Page 8 of 10

Danielle Ridler 142977

Assessment 1

References

Australian Curriculum, Assessment & Reporting Authority. (2015). The Australian

Curriculum

v7.2

Mathematics.

Retrieved

From

http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/mathematics/curriculum/f-10?layout=1

Beesey, C., Clarke, B. A., Clarke, D. M., Stephens, M., & Sullivan, P. (1998). Effective

assessment for mathematics. Carlton, Victoria: Board of Studies/ Addison Wesley

Longman.

Browning, C., Edson, A., Kimani, P., & Aslan-Tutak, F. (2014). Mathematical content

knowledge for teaching elementary mathematics: A focus on geometry and

measurement. Mathematics Enthusiast, 11(2), 333-383.

De Lisi, R. (1979). The educational implications of Piaget's theory and assessment

Techniques. ERIC Publications 68, 1-40

Fry, K. (2014). Assessing inquiry learning: How much is a cubic metre?. Australian

Primary Mathematics Classroom, 19(3), 11-15.

Gough, J. (2008). Just a Cup. Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 13(2), 9-14.

Jones, M. G., Gardner, G. E., Taylor, A. R., Forrester, J. H., & Andre, T. (2012).

Students' accuracy of measurement estimation: Context, units, and logical

thinking. School Science and Mathematics, 112(3), 171-178.

Kefaloukos, M., & Bobis, J. (2011). Understanding conservation: A playful process.

Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 16(4), 19-23.

Lehrer, R. (2003). Developing understanding of measurement. In J. Kilpatrick, W.G.

Martin, & D. Schifer (Eds.), A research companion to principles and standards

for school mathematics (pp. 179-192). Reston: National Council of Teachers of

Mathematics.

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Assessment 1

problem solutions, justifications, and explanations. The Journal of Educational

Research, 89(6), 351-363.

Stephens, M. (2000). Use of rich assessment tasks in mathematics teaching: an initiative

in Victorian schools. Catholic School Studies, 73(2), 53-57.

Van de Walle, J. A., & Lovin, L. H. (2006). Teaching student-centered mathematics,

grade K-3. Boston, Toronto: Pearson.

Wrigley, C. (2011). Metric versus imperial units of measurement: Relevance to science,

agriculture and our daily lives. Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian

Science Teachers Association, 57(3), 51-57.

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