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qarTveluri memkvidreoba (akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo

universitetis qarTveluri dialeqtologiis samecniero-kvleviTi


institutis perioduli samecniero Jurnali) tomi XII, gv., 142-149

TinaTin Turqia

erTi tipis meSvelzmnian formaTa normobrivi


sakiTxisaTvis qarTulSi

Tanamedrove qarTulSi meSvelzmniani formebi aqtiuria, Tumca ver


vityviT, rom awmyoSi meSvelzmniani formebis gamoyeneba zmnaTa
maincdamainc didi raodenobisaTvis iyos damaxasiaTebeli. amgvar formaTa
simravlis STabeWdilebas qmnis, upirveles yovlisa, III seriis formaTa
xmarebis intensiuroba (maTi dro-kilouri specifikis gamo), bolo xanebSi
aRwerilobiTi formebis gaaqtiureba evropuli zmnuri modelebis
gavleniT da, amasTan, im arcTu mravalricxovan zmnaTa semantikuri
aqtivoba, romlebic awmyoSi amJamad meSvel zmnebs mimarTaven I da II
piris gasaformeblad.
saliteraturo enas, miuxedavad didi mdgradobisa da normobrivi
SemosazRvrulobisa, axasiaTebs mudmivi aqtiuroba da cvalebadoba.
saliteraturo ena mudmivad maragdeba axali enobrivi formebiTa da ukve
arsebuli leqsikis axali Sinaarsobrivi niuansebiT. enaSi sistematurad
xdeba: 1. axali sityvebis Seqmna, 2. arsebuli leqsikis gadaazreba; 3.
nasesxobaTa "moqarTuleba", 4. aranormobriv paralelur formebs Soris
funqciaTa (an SinaarsTa) gadanawileba da sxv.
CvenTvis swored es bolo tipia saintereso. Cveni msjeloba exeba
dRevandel saliteraturo enasa da sasaubro metyvelebaSi gavrcelebul
erTi saxis statikur zmnaTa paralelur formebs: TrTixar da TrTi,
vZrwivar da vZrwi, tirixar da tiri, Senatrixar da Senatri, tyuixar da
tyui, vficavar, ficavxar da ficav, brwyinavxar da brwyinav, CasZaxixar da
CasZaxi, mRerixar da mReri, kvnesixar da kvnesi, miqrixar da miqri,
goravxar da gorav, davxarivar da davxari, miuZRvixar da miuZRvi,
ukivixar da ukivi...
Cveni masala aCvenebs, rom dasaxelebuli paralelizmebi dasturdeba
mxatvrul literaturaSic da masmediaSic. TiTqmis sistematuria maTi
paraleluri xmareba zepir mtyvelebaSi, amasTan, sasaubro enaSi ufro
xSirad swored meSvelzmniani formebi gvxvdeboda. am tendenciis axsnis
mizniT, Cven statikur zmnaTa is jgufi, romelic meSvelzmniani
warmoebisken aRmoCnda midrekili, Semdegi principiT davalageT: a) zmnebi,
romlebic mxolod meSvelzmnian formebs awarmoeben da b) zmnebi,
romlebic paraleluri formebis saxiT gvxvdebian.
unda aRiniSnos, rom meSvelzmnian formas awmyoSi iyeneben
erTpiriani, orpiriani da sampiriani zmnebi.
saerTod, pirveli da meore piris formaTa moZieba mxatvrul
literaturaSi, miT ufro, konkretulad erTi mwkrivisaTvis (Cvens
SemTxvevaSi, awmyosaTvis) ioli ar aRmoCnda, samagierod, es formebi yovel
fexis nabijze gvxvdeboda zepir metyvelebaSi, e.w. "yviTel presasa" Tu
naucbaTevad Targmnil serialebSi. amitom Cveni magaliTebi saliteraturo
teqstebidan moxmobil masalasTan erTad amgvari nimuSebiTacaa gajerebuli.
meSvelzmnian-umeSvelzmno paralelur formebSi igrZnoba mciredi
semantikuri sxvaobac _ zmniT gadmocemuli moqmedebis dinamikuri an
statikuri mimdinareobis TvalsazrisiT (am paraleluri formebisaTvis
saerTo III piri qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis rvatomeulSi
gardauval statikur zmnebadaa kvalificirebuli).
Cven saanalizod aviReT 100-mde erTeuli (Tumca, Tu am formaTa
sxvadasxva qcevis da gansxvavebuli zmniswinebiT xmarebis safuZvelze
warmoqmnil semantikur mravalferovnebas gaviTvaliswinebT, maTi
raodenoba gacilebiT didia).
specialur literaturaSi awmyo drois meSvelzmnian formebTan
dakavSirebiT miTiTebulia, rom es formebi gviandeli movlenaa
saliteraturo enisaTvis, Zvel qarTulSi meSvelzmniani formebi ar
dasturdeba. am sakiTxs sagangebo gamokvleva miuZRvna l. baramiZem. am
sakiTxs araerTxel Sexebia: b. jorbenaZe, z. sarjvelaZe da sxv. (b.
jorbenaZe. 1980, gv. 175-182; z. sarjvelaZe, 1997, gv. 144).
d. meliqiSvili aRniSnavs:
"rac Seexeba S1 da S2 piris meSvelzmnian formebs (davuweri+var,
dauweri+xar), saliteraturo enis ZeglebSi isini ufro gvian, X saukunis
werilobiT ZeglebSi Cndebian, Tumca salaparako enaSi gacilebiT adre
arian sagulvebelni.
amgvarad, axal qarTulSi miviReT formebi
statikuri awmyo (pirdapir) gardamavali I rezultativi
v-uweri-var da-v-u-weri-var
uweri-xar da-u-weri-xar
uweri-a da-uweri-a
"...rac Seexeba meSvelzmniani formebis gaCenas I da II pirSi, es
procesic Tavdapirvelad I rezultativis formebSi unda Casaxuliyo:
meSveli zmnis darTvam xeli Seuwyo am formaTa gadinamikurebas. Semdeg,
ufro gvian, meSveli zmnis darTvis tendencia Seexo statikur zmnebsac,
ramac am zmnebs zmnisaTvis yvelaze ufro tipuri Tviseba _ moqmedebis
procesis gamoxatvis Sinaarsi SesZina. Sdr.:
vzi _ vzivar (v)upyrie _ vupyri-var
zi _ zixar upyrie _ upyri-xar
aSkaraa, rom SinaarsiT meSvelzmniani formebi umeSvelzmno formebs
upirispirdebian statusis kategoriis mixedviT. marTalia, orive rigis
forma vzi//vzivar mdgomareobas gamoxatavs, magram II formaSi var meSveli
zmnis darTvam, Tu SeiZleba iTqvas, statikur vzi formas mobiluri
Sinaarsi SesZina (d. meliqiSvili, 2001, gv. 53-55).
moxmobili citatis sasargeblod metyvelebs Cven mier moZiebuli
konteqstebic:
"damdablebulis ojaxs vglovob da davtirivar"... (korneli,
"horaciusi", Targm. r. dodaSvilisa da l. Wubabriasi, gv. 148.)
"mitomac vstiri ganawiri vah Tu veswra ver".
"Sen Seuracxyof da dascini Cems cremls da sevdas"... (korneli,
"horaciusi", Targm. r. dodaSvilisa da l. Wubabriasi, gv. 166).
ras damcinixar (zepir. metyv.).
"tirixarT, Svilo? pirs maridebT? ratom? ra moxda?
egeb Tqven miTxraT, qalbatono? Tqvenc, Tqvenc tirixarT?" (Jan
rasini, "ifigenia", gv. 339.)
"Cu, nu stiri, genacvale..."
"yvelas gaurbi, eridebi da Zveleburad ar daagelveb etls
tolebSi..." (Jan rasini, "fedra", Targmani oTar WilaZisa, gv. 370).
"roca CemTan xar _ gagirbivar, ar xar da geZeb,
tyeTa wiaRSic Tvalwin midgas Seni saxeba
da mec amaod gavurbivar Sens silamazes..." (Jan rasini, "fedra",
Targmani oTar WilaZisa, gv. 386).
"Cven gavurbiT dapirispirebas politikur Zalebs Soris" (gaz. "axali
Taoba").
"wmindao taZaro, daemxe, daemxe,
daemxe! meufes aRara surxar!" (Jan rasini, "goTolia", Targmani daviT
weredianisa, gv. 480).
"Tu mogisurvebs, kidec dagimonebs" (Targmani).
"arazam pirze xeli miafara findRas, nu hyvirixar, Taruzam Tavis
feSqaSi miiRo da gzaze wavidao" (aka morCilaZe, gadafrena madaTovze da
ukan, 1998, gv. 35).
"amaod yviriT sadReiso gasaWirze, gamgoni aravinaa" (gaz. "axali
Taoba").
Cveni masala or ZiriTad jgufSi ganawilda: odenmeSvelzmnianTa da
paralelurformianTa.

I. paraleluri formebi:
v-TrT-i-v-ar/v-TrT-i, v-i-Zvr-i-v-ar/v-i-Zvr-i, v-i-brZv-i-v-ar/v-i-brZv-i, v-
Zrwi-v-ar/v-Zrw-i, v-SfoT-a(v)-v-ar/v-SfoT-av, v-tir-i-v-ar/v-tir-i, v-niSn-a-v-
ar/v-niSn-av, Se-v-natr-i-v-ar/Se-v-natr-i, v-tyu-i-v-ar/v-tyu-i, v-fic-a(v)-v-
ar/v-fic-av, v-i-cin-i-v-ar/v-i-cin-i, v-Svel-i-v-ar/v-Svel-i, v-frin-a(v)-v-ar/v-
fren//v-frin-av, v-Rrin-a(v)-v-ar/v-Rren//v-Rrinav, v-xvrin-a(v)-v-ar/v-xvrin-av,
da-v-Zrw-i-v-ar/da-v-Zrw-i, v-brwyin-a(v)v-ar/v-brwyin-av, Ca-v-Zax-i-v-ar/Ca-v-Zax-
i, v-mRer-i-v-ar/v-mRer-i, v-kvnes-i-v-ar/v-kvnes-i, v-cekv-a(v)-v-ar/v-cekv-av, mi-v-
qr-i-v-ar/mi-v-qr-i, mo-v-Zax-i-v-ar/mo-v-Zax-i, v-gor-av-v-ar/v-gor-av, v-i-Cqar-i-
v-ar/v-i-Cqar-i, da-v-bobR-av-var/da-v-bobR-av, Se-v-xar-i-v-ar/Se-v-xar-i, da-v-
xar-i-v-ar/da-v-xar-i, v-i-Zvr-i-v-ar/v-i-Zvr-i, mi-v-u-ZRv-i-v-ar/mi-v-u-ZRv-i, v-u-
kiv-i-v-ar/v-u-kiv-i...

II. zmnebi, romlebsac ar moepovebaT paraleluri umeSvelzmno


formebi:
v-gav-ar, v-ya-v-ar, gada-v-yav-ar, v-wer-i-v-ar, v-gd-i-v-ar, v-a-xso-v-ar, v-
job-i-v-ar, v-qux-v-ar, a-v-ya-v-ar, v-a-far-i-v-ar, v-a-kl-i-v-ar, v-u-zi-v-ar, v-
u-bi-v-ar, ga-v-rb-i-v-ar, v-u-Can-v-ar, v-u-sxed-v-ar-T, v-u-pyr-i-v-ar, v-u-kav-
iv-ar, v-a-xvev-i-v-ar, v-u-Rir-v-ar, v-Rir-v-ar...
sul 100 erTeulamde dagrovda. aqedan nawili Segvxvda paraleluri
meSvelzmniani da umeSvelzmno gaformebiT. es paralelizmi gansakuTrebiT
zepirmetyvelebaSi iCenda Tavs. 34 erTeuli odenmeSvelzmniani formiT
dadasturda. 23 erTpiriani zmna paraleluri warmoebiT Segvxvda. 8
orpirianidan 7 i-TemisniSniania (i- TemisniSnianebis simravlea).
oden meSvelzmnian formebSi 9 erTpiriani zmna aRmoCnda, 21 ki _
orpiriani. cxrilebSi warmodgenili zmnidan yvela grduvali statikurad
kvalificirda (qeglis safuZvelze).
meSvelzmniani awmyos semantikur Taviseburebaze msjelobisas b.
jorbenaZe aRniSnavs: "...jd-en-, wv-en-, dg-en- fuZeebi moqmedebiTi gvaris
formebidan aris gadmosuli statikur formebSi. moqmedebiTi gvaris
xsenebuli fuZeebi statikur zmnaTa sistemaSi gamoyenebis dros
meSvelzmnian warmoebas gviCveneben.. ase rom, aqac mtkicdeba enis tendencia
meSvelzmniani warmoebiT daupirispiros statikuri formebi dinamikurs:
dinamikuri zmnis fuZe meSveli zmniT gaformebis Semdeg statikurobis
funqciis gamoxatvis unars iZens:
dinamikuri gagebiT: statikuri gagebiT:
v-Civi (me mas) v-Civi-var (me)
v-tyui v-tyui-var
v-mReri v-mReri-var.
qarTulSi cnobili faqtia zmnaTa erTi nawilis sintaqsuri
labiluroba: gamoiyenebian xan orpiriani, xan erTpiriani zmnebis
funqciiT; pirvel SemTxvevaSi moqmedebiTi gvaris dinamikur zmnebs
utoldebian isini, meore SemTxvevaSi _ statikurebs.
morfologiuri sxvaoba ki ar iyo arc Zvel qarTulSi, magram
dialeqtebma scades gansxvavebis morfologiuri garCevac da am mizniT
statikurobis funqciiT gamoyenebul formebs meSveli zmna daurTes.
meSveli zmnis gamoyeneba am formebTan axali qarTulis Taviseburebaa,
Zveli qarTulisaTvis meSvelzmniani warmoeba ucxo iyo.
amisda kvalobaze, v-jden-var, v-wen-var tipis formebi, warmoebis
principis TvalsazrisiT, ar SeiZleba gamonaklisebad miviCnioT. enaSi
analogiuri tendencia odiTganve arsebula da es tendencia sxvadasxva
dialeqtma sxvadasxva intensivobiT gamoavlina: amitomac TiTqosda "kerZo
SemTxvevebi" iseve srulad asaxaven enis zogad tendenciebs, rogorc enaSi
sayovelTaod xmarebuli formebi (l. baramiZe, 1964).
CvenTvis cxadi gaxda, rom mxatvruli literaturis enac da
gansakuTrebiT, zepirmetyveleba meSvelzmniani awmyoTi ufro dinamikur
moqmedebas aRniSnavs, vidre umeSvelzmnoTi (romelic ufro statikuri
Sinaarsisaa).
awmyos mwkrivSi dasmul zmnaTa meSvelzmnian formebs Semdegi
Taviseburebebi aRmoaCnda:
meSvelzmnian-umeSvelzmno paraleluri formebi gviCveneben sxvadasxva
semantikas:
• moqmedebis dinamika:
"Sen sxvis CagonebiT sCadixar magas" (molieri, gv. 845).
"tirixarT, Svilo? pirs maridebT? ratom? ra moxda egeb Tqven
miTxraT, qalbatono? Tqvenc, Tqvenc tirixarT?" (rasini, gv. 339).
"Tqvenive Tavis siyvaruliT CadixarT amas" (rasini, gv. 843).
"gaimarTos konkursi-viqtorina deviziT: "maSa, raisaTvis
vcocxalvarT!" (axali epoqa, Cveni mwerloba, 22 Tebervali-1 marti, 2002,
gv. 5).
• awmyo zogadi (indefinituri):
rad tiri? ras sCadi? risTvis vcocxlobT? SenTvis vsuldgmulob...
Cveni dakvirvebiT, enaSi (gansakuTrebiT sasaubro enaSi) paraleluri
formebi arcTu mTlad stiqiurad ixmareba: umeSvelzmno formebi da
meSvelzmniani formebi mcireoden sxvaobas yovelTvis aCveneben;
"SiSisagan vZrwivar, ggonia? ra, sicivisagan vZrwivar, Senc xom
Zrwixar?"
da: "Cveulebriv, mis winaSe vZrwi da vkankaleb".
"Cu, nu tirixar da nu miSli nervebs!"
da: "arasodes ar vtiri aseT rameebze".
"tyuixar da arc ki grcxvenia".
da: arasodes tyui Tu ra?!"
"dedas vficavar, ar minaxavs araferi."
da: "rasac ificav, imas unda uerTgulo."
"mSobliuro Cemo miwav, Sens sayvarel saxels vficav".
"ise lamazi xar, rom varskvlaviviT brwyinavxaro".
da: "im varskvlavebSi vbrwyinavT me da Cemi daqali".
"arc mSurs da arc Sevnatrivar imis beds".
da: Sevnatri amaT da yoveldRe vcdilob gavaxaro".
"ade fexze, nu goravxar am WuWySi".
da: yoveldRe mis fexqveS gorav da ar gawuxebs Tavmoyvareoba".
"qveyanas win miuZRvixarT, yvelaze saSiS davalebebs asrulebT".
da: "saiTac mivuZRvi, iqiT momyvebian".
dasaxelebul magaliTebSi, Cveni azriT, meSvelzmniani formebi
amwuTier movlenebs gadmoscemen, xolo umeSvelzmnoni _ iseT moqmedebebs,
romlebic Cveulebriv xdeba, meordeba.
magaliTebis CamoTvla Sors wagviyvans, magram erTs ki vityviT: vtiri,
kvnesi, vkivi, kivi, kivis, ficav, CavsZaxi, Cavscqeri/Cavcqeri, Zrwi, vTrTi,
TrTi da sxv. (romelTac orTografiuli erTaderT misaReb variantad
asaxelebs), Sinaarsobrivad gacilebiT "uZravia", statikuria, vidre
orTografiuli leqsikonis mier dawunebuli vtirivar, vkvnesivar,
vficavar, CavZaxivar, Cavcqerivar, Sevxarivar, vZrwivar, vTrTivar,
cqmutavxar da sxv. am formebSi moqmedebis procesi ufri amJamieri da
dinamikuria. calkeul zmnebze dakvirvebac da am zmnaTa Semcveli
konteqstebic gviCvenebs, rom es paraleluri formebi srulad ar faraven
erTmaneTs (Sinaarsobrivad) da isini an paraleluri arsebobisaTvis
semantikuri arealis gadanawilebas eswrafvian, an erTmaneTs ecilebian
arsebobisaTvis brZolaSi; zogjer meore piris forma ufro midrekilia
meSveli zmnis darTvisaken, vidre pirvelisa (mag., SfoTavxar, brwyinavxar,
cqmutavxar, iZvrixar, goravxar, niSnavxar da sxv.); amgvari paraleluri
warmoebisaken zepiri metyvelebis midrekilebas kargad amCnevs
orTografiuli leqsikonic, romelic "saorWofo situaciaSi" amjobinebs
mxolod mesame piris formebis marTlwera ganixilos (Senatris, brwyinavs,
bzuis, iRvwis, iZvris) da Tavi aaridos iseTi formebis akrZalvas,
rogoricaa: ibrZvixar, iRvwixar, bzuixar, vbrwyinavar da sxv.
da bolos, vfiqrobT "dialeqtur morfologias" gza aqvs gadaketili
TiTqmis mTeli saukune, xolo ucxo leqsikas (mxolod fonetikuri
koreqtivebiT) uxvad viRebT, xom ar niSnavs es, rom qarTuli enis masalis
improvizirebasa da bunebriv denadobas saliteraturo qarTulSi
vabrkolebT da mxolod ucxour modelebs vuSvebT, rogorc
"galiteraturulebul" siaxles?!

damowmebuli literatura

l. baramiZe, 1964 - l. baramiZe, zogierTi tipis meSvelzmnian formaTa


Casaxva da ganviTareba qarTulSi: Tsu Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris
Sromebi, 9, 1964.
d. meliqiSvili, 2001 - d. meliqiSvili, qarTuli zmnis uRvlilebis
sistema, Tb., 2001.
z. sarjvelaZe, 1997 - z. sarjvelaZe, Zveli qarTuli ena, Tb., 1997.
b. jorbenaZe, 1980 - b. jorbenaZe, qarTuli zmnis formobrivi da
funqciuri analizis principebi, Tb., 1980.

TINATIN TURKIA

ON THE QUESTION OF THE NORM OF ONE TYPE


OF FORM WITH AUXILIARY VERBS IN THE
GEORGIAN LANGUAGE

The paper discusses a type of static verbs with parallel forms presently used in the
literary language and speech: trtixar/trti, tirixar/tiri, shenatrixar/shenatri, tquixar/tqui,
vpicavar/vpicav, kvnesixar/kvnesi, mik&rixar/mik&ri , goravxar/gorav,
davxarivar/davxari, ukivixar/ukivi ets.
The study of these verbs and the observation within the surrounding contexts
reveals that they do not cover each other and each member of the pair aspires for the
distribution of the semantic domains in their parallel existence or vies between each other
for the survival. Sometimes the second person form is more inclined to take the auxiliary
than the first person form (e.g. shpotavxar, goravxar, nishnavxar) etc. The compiles of
the orthographic dictionary of the Georgian language are well aware of the oral language
tendencies to make use of the parallel forms. That is why in the ‘vague’ situation they
prefer to discuss the third person verb form spellings (as shenatris, bzuis, ibrdzvis) and
avoid banning the forms like: ibrdzvixar, bzuixar etc.