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Tabelul 2.

Principalele tipuri de elemente de transfer (filtre, regulatoare)


Nr. crt.
Ecuatie diferentiala
Raspuns indicial ys(t)
F.r.p.
f.d.t. H(s)
Simbolizare
Hodograf
Tipul
amplasare poli-zerouri
ET
h+{H}
0

1.

y(t) = k u(t)

ET-P

3
H(jw) = k

(t ) = k s (t )

C.I.p.
|H|dB /H

Realizare sistemica

Realizare prin
FA cu AO

Coef. ec.
Recursive
(MT)

|H|dB = 20 lg k

H(s) = k
k = R1/R0

(k > 0)

2.
ET-I

= k

------------

y ( t ) = k u (t ) d t

y (t ) =

H ( s) =

(t ) =

u (t )

ts ( t )

|H|dB = 20 lg k 20 lg w
arg{H} = - /2

H(jw)=k / jw

x =

Ti > 0

1
sT

y=x

= -1

kT e

kTe

2
2

Ti = R0C1

k = 1/ Ti
w0i = wt = 1/Ti

p1 = 0
3.
ET-D

y(t) =Td (t)


H(s) = s Td (Td > 0)
(m > n)

(t ) = T d s (t )

|H|dB = 20 lg k+20 lg w
arg{H}= + /2

H(jw) = Td jw

-------------

ETideal

Td=R1C0

w0d = wt =1/Td
z1 = 0

=1

2T

T
2
- T
T
e

d
e

0
4.

1
T*y(t)+y(t) = k u(t)

H(s) =

ETPT1

k
1+ sT

2
ys (t) = k (1 - e-t / T )s(t)

|H|dB =
H(jw) =

k
1 + jwT

20lgk - 20lg( 1+ (w/ w0 ) )


2

x = -

arg{H}= arctg(/0)

k> 0, T>0

x +

y=x

k = R1/R0
T = R0C0/4

=
=

T
T

T
T

- 2T

+ 2T
e

kT
e

+ 2T

kT

+ 2T

w0 =1/T
p1= - 1/T

5.
ETPD-T1

T y + y = k (u + Td u )
k (1 + sTd )
H ( s) =
1 + sT

ys (t) = k1 + TTd e-t / T s( t)

H(jw) =

k (1 + jw Td )
1 + jwT

20 lg k + 20 lg 1 + (w / w0d)

- 20 lg 1 + (w / w0)

x = -

x +

y = k 1 - T d
T

k>0, T>0, Td>0,


T >Td :
PDT1 cu intarz.anticip.

x + k T d

T
T

p1 = -1/T , z1 =-1/Td
1

- 2T

= kTe

- 2T d

T + 2T
- 2T
T
b =k
T + 2T
0

k=R1/R0
T=R1C1
Td=R0C0

T < Td :
PDT1 cu anticip.intarz.

- 2T

6.
ETDT 1

T y + k = kT u
H (s ) =

-t / T

y(t) = k e

k T s
1+ sT

(t)

H(j w ) =

20 lg k + 20 lg (w / w 0)

j w kT
1 + jw T

- 20 lg 1 + (w / w 0)

k>0 , T>0

z1 = 0

1
y = K u + u (t ) dt
Ti 0

7.
ETPI

x = -

t
= K 1 +
Ti

s (t )

K
(1 + s Ti )
s Ti
K > 0 ; Ti > 0

H(j w ) =

ETPD

T e - 2T
T e + 2T

- 2 kT
Te + 2T
2 kT
b 1 = T + 2T
e

b
k=R1/R0
T=R0C0

+ 20 lg

1 + (w

/w 0i )

K = R1/R0
Ti=R1C1
x=

k (Te - 2 Ti )
2Ti

k (Te + 2 Ti )
2Ti

y=x+ku

H(jw) = k (1+ jwTd)


= K (s (t ) + T d d (t ))

20lgk + 20lg 1 + (w /w

0i )

Se determina
MM-ISI aferent unui
ET-PDT1 cu Td < T
ca realizare sistemica

=1

2T d

= k 1 T e

= 2k

k = R1/R0
Td = R0C0

p1 : --- ; z1 = -1/Td

= -1

K
u
Ti

w0d = 1/Td

z1 = -1/Ti

y = k u + Td u

H(s) = k (1+sTd)
m >n , Td >0

20 lg K - 20 lg (w /w 0i ) +

K
(1 + j w T i )
j w Ti

w0i=1/Ti
8.

x+

y=-kx+ku

const. de timp derivativa

H(s) =

p1 = 0

w0 =1/T

k T = Td
p1= - 1/T ;

Td
Te

1
y = K R u + u dt + Td u
Ti

9
ETPID

H(s) = KR 1+ + sTd
sTi

KR > 0; Ti > 0; Td > 0


Dac Ti > 4Td :

y = K [s(t) +
R

H(j w) = K R (1 +

s(t) +Td d (t)]

20 lg k r - 20lgw + 20lg 1 + (w / w )
0r1

1
+
jw Ti

+ 20lg 1 + (w / w )
0r 2

+ jw T d )

(se determina
MM-ISI aferent unui
ET-PI-DT1 cu
Td>>T)

1 - w (w 0 r1 - w 0 r 2 )
2

- arctg

H(s) = kr (1+ sTr1 )(1+ sTr2 )


s

0 r1

-w

0r 2

kr=1/R0C1
Tr1=R1C1,
Tr2=R0 C0

Se
discretizeaza
f.d.t. aferenta
unei conexiuni
serie
PD T1-PI

w0i = 1/Ti w0d = 1/Td


w0r1 = 1/Tr1
w0r2 = 1/Tr2

kr > 0 , Tr1> 0 , Tr2 > 0

kr=1/R0C1
Tr1 Tr2 =R1C1 R2C2

p1 = 0; z1 = - 1/Tr1 ;
z2 = -1/T2
m>n

10.

T 2 y + 2x T y + y = k u
k
ET- H (s ) =
1 + 2x Ts + T 2 s 2
PT2

K
-t / T1
t /T 2
T e -T2 e
T1 -T2 1

Tr1 +Tr2 =
R1C1+R2C2+R2C1

H(jv) =

1/ 2

K w20

w0 + 2xwjw - w
2

2 2
2
w w
20 lg k - 20 lg 1-

+
2
x


w 0 w 0

k >0 , T>0 , x > 0


2

1 -x

=
K
sin
t +j

ys
2
T

1-x

tg j =

1
1-x
x

1, 2

w0 = 1/T

=-

x+

=+

; j (0,-p)

x
2x

2
1
(x j 1 - x )
T

arctg

w0
2
1 - (w w 0)

T
-1+ 2 e
2T
a =
N

x+
1

1-

=+

2z
T

x
1

T
2

x1 -

y = k x1

a0 =

y = x2
varianta (b):

0<x<1

Te Te
+
T 2T
N

(a)varianta:

u
2

K=R1/R0
T1=R1C1
T2=R0C0/4
H(s) =

K
(1+ sT1)(1+ sT2)

T
k e
2T
b0 =
N

T
2k e
2T
b1 =
N
b2 = b0
N =1+ x

Te Te
+
T 2T