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Water-level Indicator Simple, two-wire, remote monitoring unit Three-LED level display, 9V battery powered Circuit diagram: Part: FL,RZ,RIO-R12__15K 1/4U Resistors F9,R4 IK 1/40 Fesistors FS TOOR 1/40 Resistor F6 AIK 1/alt Resistor F7,R5,RIS 3KS 1/4 Resistors F9,RLA, RLS. 2K7 1/4 Resistors a, ajonr 93% Folyester or Ceranic Capacitor DL gum Green LED D2 ‘sun Yellow LED D3 ‘sun Red LED q, BC547 45% 100uA NPW Trensistor xe, 4012 dual 4 input MAND gate IC 12, TH393 dual Couparator TC 31,32 Two ways output sockets BL, SPST pushbutton EL ov PP? Batrery Clip for PP3 Battery Two steel rods of appropricte length mments: The whole project was developed on a friend's request, Its purpose was to remotely maniter the water-lovel in 2 motal tank lecated in the attic by moans af a vary simple control unit laced in the kitchen, some ficars below Mains requirements ware: © No separate supply for the remote circuit © Main and remote units connected by @ thin two-wire cable © Simple LEO cisplay for tha main unit © Battery operation to avoid problems related to mains supply and water proximity © As the circuit was battery operated a law current consumption was obviously welcomed The very small remote unit is placed near the tank and measures the water level in three ranges by means of twa steel reds. Each range will caver ane third of the tank canacity: © Almast empty - sicnaled by means of a red LED (D3) in the contral unit dsalay © About half-level - signaled by means of a yellow LED (02) in the control unit display © Almost full - signaled by means of a green LED (01) in the contral urit display Circuit operation: Whon tho wator-level is balow tho steel rods, no contact is eccurnng from the motal can and the rods, which are supported by a small insulated (wooden) board. The small circuit built around 1C3 draws no current and therefore no voltage drop is generated across RS. [C2a, 1C28 and Qi are wired as a window comaaratar and, as there is zero voltage at input pins #2 and #6, D2 will iluminate. When the water comes in contact with the first rod, pin #13 of 1C1 will go high, as its input pins #9 to #12 were shorted to negative by means of the water contact, Therefore, Re will be connected actoss the full supply voltage and the remote circuit will craw a current of agaut ama. This current will causa a voltage crop af about 0.9 acress RS and tho windaw comperatar will datact this voltage and will change its stato, snitching off D3 and illuminating D2. When the water will reach the second rod, alsa pin #4 of IC1 will go high for the same reason expiainad akcve, Now either R3 and Ré wil he connected acrass the full supply voltage and the total currant drawing of tha remate circuit will be abcut Lam, The valtage drap across RS will be now about 1.87 and the window comparator wil switch off Dz and will drive D1. The battery wil last very long because the circuit wil be mostly in the off state, Current is needed only for 2 few seccnds when PI is pushec ta check the water-level anc ane af the LEDs illuminates, Notes: © Tho twa steal rads must bo supaertad by a cmall insulated (wacden) board © IC1 and Ri-R4 are mounted on a small board placed near cr on the Steel rods support © The two-wire cable cannecting the remote circuit baard to the main control hoard, Le. 31 to 12, can be of any size and type (preferably thin for obvious reasons). [t can be very lang, if necessary © The circuit can be used also with non-metal tanks, praviced e third stee! rad having the height of the tank will be added and connected to pin #7 of [CL, R3, Ré and IL The 4012 chip was chosen aecause It contains two gates and was at hand, put you can use twa of the gates contsined inte 4001, 4911, 4093, 4049, 4089 ete. Chips, provided all inputs of each gate are tied tagether and all inputs of unused gates are connected to the positive rai, leaving outaut pins open