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CPRE 381 Lab 7: Single-Cycle Datapath Implementation

In 1813, sir William Brunton have had it with horses. The smell, the
moody attitude, and the unmistakable viewpoint from the cart, and the
poor suspension (or lack thereof) of the horse cart and after a few
romantic dates gone horribly wrong, because it was not well
understood at the time how gassy horses react with scented candles,
he runs to his blacksmith shop. And two years later, lo and behold, out
rolls the Sir Bruntons Mechanical Traveler. Better known among the
public as the Iron Horse. See they called it that because it wass the
first known locomotive in history, and people did not have something
to compare it to and say wow Billy, that sure looks like a train.
It had a pair of mechanical hind-legs. They
had mechanical feet that gripped the rails
at the rear of the engine, and push it
forwards. It had a top speed of a blazing
three miles an hour. Riding the iron horse
surely was one merry way to get around the
town, puffering around on a coal fired
potbelly stove and a water tank on wheels,
with mechanical feet sticking out from the
trunk. Like a sir. It sounded like an
excellent idea on paper.
Until, 31st of July in 1815, during a
demonstration, the iron horse exploded,
killing the rider, thirteen spectators, and
injuring several others. The first recorded

railway disaster. Also first time humanity understands why a datapath


is needed in a complex system.

You should have noticed by now, that if you just connect the various
components inside a CPU that you built so far (ALU, register file, etc),
you will end up with an unstable system just like the Iron Horse. There
is a need for some central control that will regulate the operation of all
those units and ensure they are running at proper order, optimum
efficiency not too fast, not too slow, and certainly not causing any
data hazards.
The steam speed governor, as seen in the picture above, is the
simplest datapath controller. This simple mechanical governor ensured
the steam machines of the day operated in synchronism, and
preferably, not explode. When the fire got too hot and machine moved
too fast, the bronze balls moved up with centrifugal force and let out
some steam from the system, effectively regulating the engine to
safety. Ride like a sir, and, go home in one piece. Brilliant.

In this lab you will construct a full single-cycle datapath. This datapath
will be based on components built in previous labs; register file,
memory, ALU it is extremely important your previous designs are in
perfect design for success in this lab.

Part 1 Control
0
M
u
x

Add
4
Instruction [31 26]

PC

Instruction [25 21]

Read
address

Instruction [15 11]

ALU
result

ALU

ALU
result

RegDst
Branch
MemRead
MemtoReg
ALUOp
MemWrite
ALUSrc
RegWrite
Read
register 1

Instruction [20 16]


Instruction
[31 0]

Instruction
memory

Control

Add
Shift
left 2

0
M
u
x
1

Read
data 1
Read
register 2
Registers Read
Write
data 2
register

Zero
0
M
u
x
1

Write
data

Write
data
16

Instruction [15 0]

Sign
extend

Read
data

Address

Data
memory

1
M
u
x
0

32
ALU
control

Instruction [5 0]

The figure above shows the basic datapath you will implement. The
control logic has been highlighted. Below is an abbreviated truth table
for the Control unit. Assume the op codes are 000000, 100011,
101011, and 000100 for R-format, lw, sw and beq respectively.
Instruction
R-format
lw
sw
beq

RegDst
1
0
X
X

ALUSrc
0
1
1
0

M emtoReg
0
1
X
X

Reg
Write
1
1
0
0

M em
Read
0
1
0
0

M em
Write
0
0
1
0

Branch
0
0
0
1

ALUOp1
1
0
0
0

Below is the truth table for the ALU Control unit including dont care
conditions. It takes both the inputs from the Control unit as well as the
function field for R-Type instructions.
ALUOp
ALUOp1
ALUOp0
0
0
X
1
1
X
1
X
1
X
1
X
1
X

F5
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Funct field
F4 F3 F2 F1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
0
0
X
0
0
1
X
0
1
0
X
0
1
0
X
1
0
1

Operation
F0
X
X
0
0
0
1
0

010
110
010
110
000
001
111

ALUp0
0
0
0
1

1. Design the Control and ALU Control units in Verilog.


2. Implement your designs.
3. Test and verify each component to show that it matches the truth
tables for all operation types.
4. Verify in the log files that your designs do not use any registers
or latches. They should be combinational only.
Part 2 Assembling the Datapath
Once you have tested and verified your control logic, you can assemble
the full single-cycle datapath from the figure above. Below is an
itemized list of components with hints and instructions for assembly.
1. Complete a design for the full datapath choosing your datapath
width.
2. Implement the datapath design in Verilog.
3. Create a list of the MIPS instructions that can be implemented in
this datapath.
4. Write a small program that will demonstrate the functionality of
all instructions.
5. Convert the program instructions to their binary equivalents and
create a memory initialization file (MIF) used to initialize the
instruction memory.
6. Create a MIF file for the data memory to contain any variables
you need to initialize to evaluate your instructions.
7. Simulate and verify the functionality of the list of instructions on
the datapath design.
Program counter
The program counter is the main sequential device that drives the
entire datapath. It is simply a register that must address the
instruction memory. For this implementation we will use a small
instruction memory of 256 words. You should size your program
counter appropriately.
Adders
There are two adders shown in the datapath of the program counter.
They are shown with ALU symbols, but always perform addition and
therefore you can use an adder in place of a general purpose ALU.
Optimization Notes: if your instruction memory is word
addressable, you can increment by 1 instead of 4 and the shift-left-2
unit can be eliminated. Further optimization can be applied by
combining the first adder, PC register and the branch multiplexor
into a single unit (up-counter with a load input). This approach

could be used even for the version where addresses are


incremented by 4 if you recognize that the same logic applies, and
the two least significant bits are always grounded (zero).
Shift Left 2
Note that you will not need to implement this device for your
datapath because you are to make your memories word
addressable instead of byte addressable. However, it is important
to understand that this type of shift does not require any logic. The
two least significant bits are simply grounded (set to zero) and the
higher order bits are simply routed from the inputs ignoring the two
most significant bits on the input.

Instruction Memory
Use the memory wizard to instantiate a memory device to be used
for instructions. Create a device with 256 words, each 32 bits wide.
Make the device word addressable to match your program counter.
You can select either a ROM or RAM device but assume that you will
only ever load the contents from a memory initialization file (MIF) as
in the memory lab, and the contents will not be changed within the
datapath.
Sign Extend
A sign extension is also a very simple unit requiring no special logic.
It simply repeats the MSB for all of the upper bits in the word (i.e. all
1s for a 1 MSB and all 0s for a 0 MSB). Connecting the MSB input
to all of the upper bit outputs can create this functionality. For your
datapath assume that only an 8-bit immediate is available
(instruction[7:0]) and apply your sign extension appropriately.
Register File
Reuse the register file you designed in a previous lab. You may
extend it to handle 32 registers and 32 bit words as MIPS supports,
or you may organize your datapath to support 16-bit values and use
only 16 registers. (Instruction length and data width need not
match.) If you extend your register file, the address bits from the
instructions will be the same as in MIPS. If you do not, you may
simply ignore the MSB of each address field in the instruction.
General Purpose ALU
Reuse the ALU designed in a previous lab. Size the ALU to match
the datapath width of your register file.
Data Memory

Instantiate a memory module as in a previous lab to store data.


Make the width of the data match that of your ALU and register file.
Make the memory word addressable with 256 words of memory.
Control and ALU Control
Use the components designed in Part 1 of this lab.
Various multiplexors
Size appropriately for the selected datapath width.
FINAL NOTES
You will use this datapath to implement more advanced versions of
a datapath design in the upcoming labs. Please take your time and
make sure it is designed properly and works to perfection.