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C QUAN CU M

(Organs of Speech)
Articulators above the larynx

Articulators above the larynx


Nose
Upper lip
Lower lip
Upper teeth
Lower teeth
Alveolar ridge
Hard palate
Soft palate (velum)
Pharynx

The Tongue

Li

Tip
Blade
Front
Back
Root

u li
mt li
phn trc li
phn sau li
gc li

B phn cu m bn trn thanh qun


mi
mi trn
mi di
rng trn
rng di
li (trn)
ngc cng
ngc mm (mc)
hu, hng

BNG K HIU PHIN M


(Phonetic Symbols)
ASS

IPA

ASS

IPA

STT

(Aerican
Symbol
System)

(International
Phonetic
Alphabet)

Examples

STT

(Aerican
Symbol
System)

(International
Phonetic
Alphabet)

Examples

#1

/:/

Noon, spoon

20

/s/

Place

#2

//

Again

22

/b/

Cab

#3

//

Ball, short

22*

/p/

Cap

#4

//

Long, blone

24

/d/

Bed

3*

#5

/a:/

Father, calm

24

/t/

Bet

#6

//

Black,
eyelashes

26

/g/

Bag

#21

//

No, dont

26

/k/

Back

#51

/a/

Now, brown

TH (voiced)

//

Teethe

#3Y

//

Boy, toy

TH
(unvoiced)

//

Teeth

10

#6Y

/a/

I, time

30

ZH***

//

Casual

11***

/r/

Shirt. Work

30

SH

/ /

Cash

N1

//

Full

32

NG

//

Sing

13

N2

//

Fill

33**

/l/

Feel

14

N3

/e/

Fell

34

/w/

Window

N4

//

Fumble

35

/j/

Yellow

16

/n/

One

DG

/d/

Ridge

17

/m/

Arm

CH

/t/

Rich

18*

/v/

Leave

18

/f/

Leaf

/i:/

Feel

20*

/z/

plays

/h/

Hand

28**
*
28**
*

36**
*
36**
*

40

Luyn thanh
(Tonal Action)

Ngi c nn tm cho mnh mt hun luyn vin ring, y chnh l video ca chng
trnh ny. M bng l bn bt u bui luyn ca mnh, v dn dn bn i vo gung o to ca
bng. iu quan trng l phi luyn thng xuyn. Xem i xem li bng nhiu ln. khi bn hc
xong mt lt th sau nn hc li mt s bi tu theo nhu cu ca mnh. di trung bnh ca
mt bng l 43 pht, va khp vi mt tit hc trn lp. Tuy nhin bn c th chia 43 pht y thnh
mt vi ln luyn cho ph hp vi thi kho biu hng ngy. Nn xc nh gi tp cho mnh to ra
mt k lut nht nh. Bn c th xp xp cc bui luyn theo nhu cu v mun ca mnh. iu
quan trng l cn luyn k c nhng ch kh cho n khi nm chc c mi thi. Chng ta c th
i tun t tng bng, tng bi theo trt t c sn, hoc cng c th cu trc cc bui tp theo
mnh, to ra s a dng, trnh nhm chn. Hay ni mt cch khc:
a. Bn c th chy t u n cui mt cnh luyn.
b. Hoc cu to bi luyn nh sau: v d 5 pht dnh cho luyn thanh (tonal action), 5 pht
luyn cu trc m (structural actionl), 10 pht luyn ph m (consonant action), 5 pht luyn li ni
(connected speech), 5 pht ng iu (intonation), v cui cng tp hp tt c luyn tng hp theo
mt cnh 15 pht.
Cn mt cch luyn na gy hng th luyn cho bn l luyn trn nn nhc. Trong bng ni
chung, bi luyn khng c nhc nn (tr mt hai cnh c bit). Bn c th nghe nhng nhc phm
bn a thch trong khi luyn ni. Nn tm ra thm nhng th php lm cho bui luyn ca bn thm
vui v, thm ch bun ci cng c. Bn thn li ni nhiu khi cng bun ci ri, vy khi
thy n bun ci th ti sao ta li khng vui ln. iu quan trng l lm g th lm nhng vn t
c mc tiu cui cng l sn sinh m. Chng c l do g m bn li khng c thng thc m
nhc m bn thch, v chng c g c th lm bn phn tn t tng, mt khi bn lm quen vi
kho hc.
Kho hc ny thc hin qua bng video. Cng ging nh cc loi bi tp bng video khc,
chng ta phi vn ng c th. Thoi mi nhng cng phu. Phi cm thy c im rung (points
of vibration) khi pht m. Hy vui v xoi ngi ra, vn vo bi tp to m thanh (sound-making
exercise). Tha cc bn, i khi nhng vic mnh tng v vn nht li vn c ch. iu rt
ng trong khi sn sinh li ni. Vy hy th lng, vui v ln, to mt sn phm tht ng ngc
nhin.
Sau mt thi gian luyn tp, bn c th pht hin ra ging ca bn hnh nh kho hn ln. Bi
luyn thanh (bng s 1) s bt u thm vo li ni hng ngy ca bn rt nhanh, ri kt qu c
nhn dn ln, ri ging ca bn s rung mnh hn, to cho mnh mt cht ging ng tin cy. Ri
4

khi xy dng c thc v cm nhn v m thanh, bn s pht hin ra mnh to c kh


nng mi, iu khin s nng ng ca li ni.
Vo lc u ngi c phi luyn tp mt cch c thc nng cao cht ging v cht
lng ca li ni, luyn c kh nng thay i ging na. Nh vy ngi hc cn luyn t c
kh nng nhy cm vi m thanh, ng thi iu khin c cc c quan cu m ca mnh.

Gii thiu nhm hun luyn


Gene zerma:
Connie Horwards:
Randy Talai:
Connie Horwards:
Gene zerma:
Randy Talai:
Gene zerma:

hi, welcome to the real world.


Hello. Hi.
Hello. Hi. Welcome to the real world?
Well, as real as it gets in Southern California.
This is Connie Horward, our Dialectician, and Randy Talai, our
Phonics Specialist.
And this is Gene Zerna, Voice and Speech Specialist and the director of
A-TEAM, Accent Modification Specialists Team in Los Angeles,
California.
And this is as real as it gets. Real American English the way Americans
really speak it.

Trong kho hc ny, chng ta s c hc ting M chnh thng, do ngi M ni: cu m r


rng khc chit, y biu cm v ging khng b pha tp. chng ta s hc cch cm nhn li ni ca
mnh (feel your speech), nhn bit m thanh nh mt yu t rung (experience sound as vibration),
v pht trin kh nng ghi nh mn cm v m ting M. Chng ta s pht hin ra nng lng ca
m thanh, nhng quy tc dng pht ra li ni. l nhng k thut m ngi dn chng trnh
chuyn nghip, pht thanh vin, v din vin vn s dng.

C hai iu cn ghi nh:


1. Dn lc vo bi tp. Xin nh l kho hc ny hun luyn bn pht m bng nhng k
thut m cc din vin thng dng. Ch khi cc bn nm c nhng k thut ny th mi c th
pht m ting M ging nh trong cc bi tp trn hnh. Gn cui chng trnh c mt s bi tp
kh l thch thc, nhng c gng nm bt trong kh nng ca mnh. Tt nhin chng ta khng th
hon thin ngay cc loi hnh bi tp, cc k thut ni mt lc c. Hy kin tr.
2. Luyn v luyn i luyn li. Sau khi luyn t u ti cui theo kho hc ny, cc bn
s cn phi luyn tip bng cch chn la mt s bi tp theo ring ca mnh luyn li. Khng
cn theo mt trt t no. Luyn li nhng g mnh cm thy cn v thy cn yu, cha hon thin.
Lm vic theo tin mnh c th kham ni. Xin ng vi.

Sau y l mt s bi tp trc khi vo luyn m. Cc bn c th m bng video v tp theo


bng, hoc c th tp khng cn bng, theo hng dn di y. Bi tp th gin v th thc hin
trc mi bui luyn m.

TH GIN V TH
Chng ta c mt s bi tp th gin v th. Trnh t nh sau:
A. T th:
- Nm nga u trn sn.
- Tay dui thng theo 2 bn sn.
- Ngh v nhng c bp ca c th mnh: cc c t c n ngc, cc c t ngc n bng,
c i, c bp chn.
- Hy th lng tt c nhng c bp y.
- Dn lng xung sn nhng ng ln gn. Th lng cc c lng.
B. Bi tp:
- Bt u th: ht su vo, th ht ra.
- Ht th vo qua ng mi ln ng ming.
- Th u, gin gn ct, mi th tht gin ra, trng gn ct xung, dn mnh xung sn.
Th u, hnh nh c lung kh ang chy t u qua ngc qua bng. Th lng u, u
t ngoo sang mt bn, th u, th lng u gi, bp chn, th u th su, th nh
nhng, ht th su, hnh nh d dy ang cng ra y hi (ngi Anh gi ng tc ny l
filling up the bucket), th lng hai vai, hy t t ngn u ln v ngi dy.

NGP (YAWNING)
Thc hin ng tc ngp t nhin. Mi ln tp ngp khong 10 ln.

GIN GN CT (STRETCHING)
-

Gin cc ngn tay v cc pha, gin c bn tay, ri gin tng ngn tay.
Vn c v pha trc (5 ln).
Vn c v ng ngi v pha trc (5 ln).
Phi hp: ngp, vn c v pha trc, gin cc ngn tay (5 ln).

TP NUT (SWALLOWING)
H mm ri ngm li v nut c mt ci. Dng li m t 1 ti 10 ri nut tip. C nh
vy 5 ln, n s bi trn c hng chng ta.

BI TP LUYN M
6

Sau bi tp th gin chng ta vo bi tp luyn m. Ting M khc vi nhiu ngn ng khc


ch dy thanh (vocal cords) c rung ln hn khi dng pht m nguyn m v ph m.
Sau y l bi tp to rung mnh: E, A, v Y
e
eee
eee
eee
eee

a
y
-yes
-you
-yesterday
-year

Y RUNG LN XUNG (Y BUZZ SIREN)


Bi tp 1: c phn sau y trc khi luyn theo bng
- Mc ch ca bi tp l cm nhn rung nh ting ong ve vo trn vm li
(gumridge/teeth-ridge), ngay st ng sau hm rng trn.
- Tp trung cm nhn rung ca E trn vm ming (the roof of the mouth), ngay
phn li ng sau hm rng trn.
- Hi chu mi ra pha trc d cm nhn sng m.
- By gi bt chc ting ci r nh nh: r ci ln cao, ht th vo, h ting ci xung.
- Khi to dng m ln cao (siren up), bn s c cm gic c mt rung (nh ting ong
vo ve) di chuyn chm chm t phn li sau rng vo su hn trn vm ming pha sau
mt cht. Khi h dng xung, rung y li di chuyn ngc tr li v phn li sau
rng.
e
-

Lm chm. To dng m ln cao (siren up), ht th vo, h dng m xung (siren


down). Cm nhn s di chuyn ca rung (vibration).

V TR Y- U T (Y- INITIAL POSITION)


Pht m ko di nhng m Y sau y trong 3 giy.
List 1
Yellow
You
Yard
Yell
Yield
Yes
Use
Nhc li, ko di ph m m Y trong 1 giy.
List 1
Nhc li, pht m m Y vi di va cm nhn c rung.
7

List 1

V TR Y- CUI T (Y- FINAL POSITION)


m Y ny kh mnh nhng ngn v v tr cui t. ko di pht m m Y trong 1 giy trong
nhng t sau:
List 2
Happy
Angry
Hungry
Thirsty
City
Ready
Nhc li, pht m m Y vi di va cm nhn c rung.
List 2

CU C M Y (THE Y- SENTENCE)
Ln th nht ko di m Y trong 1 giy.
Im hungry and thirsty, and Im not happy.
Im ready to yield to this city.
Yes, I yelled acrosst the yard.
Im angry that you used my yellow car.
Nhc li, pht m m Y vi di va cm nhn c rung.
Y sentence
Luyn cn thn, v chm ri. Dn dn n s i vo thi quen pht m ca bn.

T C E (E- WORD LIST)


Bc 1: pht m ko di m e trong 3 giy
List 3
He
She
We
Sweethearts
T-shirt
Sleeves
Jeans
Reading

Argentina
trees
green
feet
sleep
meet
cheese
8

Bc 2: pht m ko di m e trong 1 giy


List 3
Bc 3: pht m ko di m e va cm nhn rung ca n
List 3

CU C E (THE E- SENTENCE)
Bc 1: pht m ko di m E trong 3 giy.
We sweethearts are reading about Argentina.
He wore jeans and a T-shirt with short sleeves.
Lying under a green tree, eating meat and cheese, his feet fell asleep.
Bc 2: pht m ko di m E trong 1 giy.
Bc 2: pht m ko di m e trong 1 giy
E- sentence
Bc 3: pht m ko di m e va cm nhn rung ca n
E- sentence

+Y- RUNG (+Y- BUZZ)


+Y- Buzz l mt bin th ca Y- rung, mt nguyn m i (diphthong), tc l hai nguyn m
ho vo lm mt /ei/, th hin bng ch A.

T C CH A (A- WORD LIST)


Bc 1: Pht m ko di m /ei/ trong 3 giy
List 4
They
Name
David
Bathing suit
Cake

baby
plate
grapes
table
grey

Bc 2: Pht m ko di m /ei/ trong 1 giy


List 4
Bc 3: pht m ko di m /ei/ va cm nhn rung ca n
9

List 4

CU C M A (A- SENTENCES)
Bc 1: Pht m ko di m /ei/ trong 3 giy
The baby in the grey bathing suit is named David.
They laid the table with plates of cakes and grapes/
Bc 2: Pht m ko di m /ei/ trong 1 giy
A- Sentences
Bc 3: Pht m ko di m /ei/ va cm nhn rung ca n.
A- Sentences
m +Y v Y- rung l mt bi tp rt tt luyn cho ging bn m ln. N lm cho ging
bn thp xung mt cht, m tr nn su hn (deeper), li vo trong c hng hn (darker),
y hn (richer) v mang gii tnh r hn (sexier).

10

LUYN CU TRC M
(Structure Action)
Mc ch ca bi luyn ny khng nhng ch to ra mt ging ni tt, sn sinh ra nguyn m
mt cch chnh xc m cn luyn cho ging ni ca bn c th i xa c (travel over a distance)
i ph vi trng hp phi ni chuyn trc mt nhm ng ngi m khng c micr, hoc
khi ni chuyn trong tnh hung xung quanh n o. iu ny xy ra thng xuyn trong cuc sng,
v d nhng bui cm tra lm vic (working lunch): bn cng vic trong mt ba n tra ti mt
nh hng, mt hiu c ph y ting nhc. Loi hnh luyn ny gip cc bn trong nhng hon cnh
y vn c th ni cho ngi khc nghe thy li ni ca mnh mt cch d dng m khng cn phi
cng ging ra.

Phn di theo video

Trc khi vo bi luyn, cc bn nh luyn ngp, th gin v th

Hy c phn hng dn ny trc khi luyn theo video

Pht m nguyn m O mt tng ging thp (low-pitch tone). Ging nh Y-buzz, m


ny vang ln (resonate) vng ngc cng (hard palate), tc l vm ming. Hi m to ming
mt cht, c.

Vn c mt ra pha trc, mi hi trn. Ch ng ko x c mt xung m phi


vn ra pha trc, lm nh th sp ngp.

Trm mi li nh khi bt u ngp, nhng khng ngp m m ming to mt cht


(large lip-opening), c to AH /a:/, ri dn dn thu hp m ca mi c nguyn m
OO /:/.

T c mt s nguyn m /a:/ nh father, // nh long, call, // phone, v


/u:/ nh you, v m lt nhanh bt u t m ming rng ri khp nhanh li /au:/ nh
trong brown. Trong cc cch pht m ny, nhiu khi bn cm thy c m y nhiu hn l
thc s pht ra m y, v d nh /u/ trong phone v brown
11

#5 - /a:/ nh trong father, calm


(#5- /a:/ as in father, calm)
Nguyn m i hi m rng nht ca ming l #5- /a:/ nh trong cc t father
hoc calm

Nhng m ny hay b pht khng chnh xc thnh:

My folther was cohm.


My futher was cum.

L do l m ca ming nh qu. Nguyn m #5- /a:/ cn m m ln hn nhiu:


father, calm, car.

T C M #5 (THE #5 WORD LIST)


Bc 1: Vn c m ra ph trc mt cht v m rng ming. Cc bn nn c mt
chic gng con trc mt. Nhn vo gng m pht m, so snh m ming ca mnh
vi ngi hng dn trong bng video v bt u luyn.
List 5

Father

Calm

Arm

Palm

Car

Star

Bar

Yard

Barn

Sweetheart

Bc 2: c li nhanh hn mt cht, nhng vn gi gin ca c mt


12

List 5

Bc 3: c li nhanh hn na, gim gin ca c mt (cho t nhin hn)

List 5
#1- /u:/ nh trong t you, blue
(#1- /u:/ as in you, blue)

#1- /u:/. Khi m ming nh nht pht m mt nguyn m, chng ta c m #1- /u:/.
Ch mi trn, m nh nht, nhng ng chu cng mi ra. . m ny thng pht m
khng chnh xc thnh

Yoo. Bloo. Why are Yoo Bloo? (N1)

L do: Mi m khng ng tiu ch, m pht ra yu v ging b mo

Hy pht m nguyn m #1- /u:/trn mi, rung mnh theo tiu ch: you, blue.

T C M #1 (THE #1 LIST)
Bc 1:

List 6
You

Noon

Blue

Excuse

Two

Shoe

New

Spoon
13

To

Moon

Bc 2: c nhanh hn, vn gi gin ca c mt

List 6

Bc 3: c li nhanh hn na, gim gin ca c mt (cho t nhin hn)

List 6

m #4- // nh trong t long, blonde


(#4- // as in long, blonde)

#4- //. pht m nguyn m #4- //, bt u bng v tr cu m ca #5- /a/ gin c
m v chu mi v pha trc, c /a: -/, /a: -/. m ming chuyn t hnh oval sang
mt khu hnh hi hnh ch nht: long, blonde.

m ny thng b pht m nhm thnh:

She has loong bloonde. [N1/N4]


She has lohng blohnde hair. [#21]

m #4- // i hi phi m ming rng hn. Hy bt u bng v tr cu m ca #5.


Gin c mt v chu mi ra c /a: -/

ng tr c mt xung. ng m ming hp qu. M to ming.

14

T C M #4 (THE #4 LIST)
Bc 1: Gin c mt

List 7

Long

Clock

Blonde

Block

Not

Sock

Dollar

Rock

Body

Box

Bc 2: c nhanh hn, vn gi gin ca c mt

List 7
Bc 3: c li nhanh hn na, gim gin ca c mt (cho t nhin hn)

List 7

NG TC VN RA PHA TRC (STRETCHING)


Lm ng tc ngp thnh ting (yawning sounds). Vn ngi ra pha trc. Gp
thnh ting. Mi b phn c th vn ra, ngp thnh ting.

Nguyn m #3- /:/ nh trong t ball, short.


(#3 vowel /:/ as in ball, short)

15

Nguyn m #3 /:/. m ca ming trung bnh (half-open) sn sinh nguyn m


/:/ nh trong t ball, short. Nguyn m ny thng b pht m khng chnh xc l:

I kicked the bowl showrt. [#21]


I kicked the buhl shuhrt. [N4]

L do: Khi pht m ny, ming m hp qu hoc khp hn li, to ra mt khu hnh
nh khi pht m // hoc //. pht m c chnh xc m ny, gi m ca ming
mc trung bnh (middle position = half-open = half-closed). Cc bn hy nhn vo gng,
iu chnh m ming v c /:/ ball, short.

T C M #3 (THE #3 LIST)
Bc 1: m khu hnh ng yu cu

List 8

Ball

Forehead

Short

Laundromat

Four

Horse

Forty

Saw

Morning

Law

Bc 2: Gi nguyn khu hnh

List 8

Bc 3: Vi nguyn m ny, ng th lng hi th qu. Gi vn ra ca ming v


gi trung bnh
16

List 8

Nguyn m i #21 // nh trong t no, dont


(21#- // as in no, dont)

#21 - //. y l mt nguyn m i (dihthong), tc l hai m ha vi nhau thnh


mt. Hy bt u bng #2- //, ri chuyn sang hng pht m m #1 -// (ming m hp)
nh trong t no, dont, go.

m ny thng bi pht m khng chnh xc l


Nuh, duhnt, gun. [N4]

Trong cch pht m ny, m #1 -// b b st. pht m cho chnh xc, bt u m to
ming pht m #2 - //, ri lt nhanh (quick glide) sang #1-//: //...//. Chng ta phi
cm nhn c s thay i m ca ming.

No
Dont
Go

T C M #21 (THE #21 LIST)


Bc 1:

List 9

Know

Nose

Dont

Those
17

Go

Grow

Shoulder

Phone

Toe

Comb

Bc 2: Nhc li

List 9

Bc 3:
List 9

Nguyn m i #51-/a/ nh trong t now, brown


(#51- /a/ as in now, brown)

m #51- /a/. y l mt nguyn m i (diphthong). Khi pht m ny, phi hp


m ming rng nht ca m #5 /a:/, vi m hp nht ca m #1 //. S dng th php
lt nhanh (quick glide) t m n sang m kia: now, brown.

m ny thng b pht khng chnh xc thnh

Nuh its bruhn. [#2]

L do: khu hnh ming khng rng pht chnh xc m #5- /a:/, v sau khng
chuyn sang ng c khp cn c pht m #1- //. i vi m ny, chng ta cn
m ming tht rng nh yu cu ca m #5-/a:/ v sau di chuyn theo hng sang m
#1- //. Quan trng nht l s lt nhanh t #5 sang #1: /a/, now, brown.

T C M #51 (THE #51 LIST)


18

Bc 1:

List 10
Now

Hours

Brown

House

How

Towel

Eyebrow

Flower

Thousand

Clown

Bc 2:

List 10

Bc 3:

List 10

Nguyn m #6- // nh trong t black, eyelashes


(#6- // as in black, eyelashes)

Nguyn m #6- //. Bt u bng m #5- /a:/ v b mi (widen the lips) ng thi y
u li (the tip of the tongue) t vo pha sau hm rng di (lower teeth), li hi b ra
mt cht: // black, eyelashes

m ny thng hay b pht m khng chnh xc thnh:

Her eyelahshes are blahck. [#5]


19

pht m ny, chng ta phi t u li vo rng. Ch : ch c u li (tip of the


tongue), ch khng phi c mt li (blade of the tongue), t vo rng. m ny c pht
m su trong c hng (this vowel has a tendency to go back in the throat): // eyelashes,
black.

T C M #6 (THE #6 LIST)
Bc 1:

List 11

Hand

Has

Back

Afternoon

Eyelashes

Half past

Moustache

At

Black

Address

Bc 2:

List 11

Bc 3:

List 11

Nguyn m i #3Y- /a/ nh trong t boy, toy


20

(#3Y- // as in boy, toy)

By gi chng ta hc thm nguyn m i na. l #3Y- //. y l s kt hp gia


nguyn m #3- // vi Y-buzz- /i/

m ny thng b pht m khng chnh xc thnh

The both pled with a toh. [#2]

pht m chnh xc m ny , m ming rng hn mt cht so vi #3- //. Phi cm


nhn c rung ca /i/: // boy, toy

T C M #3Y (THE #3Y LIST)


Bc 1:

List 12
Boy

Oil

Toy

Boil

Joy

Coil

Soil

Loin

Foil

Annoy

Bc 2:

List 12

Bc 3:
21

List 12
Nguyn m i #6Y - /a/. y l nguyn m i, phi hp gia nguyn m #6 bi Ybuzz. Ming m rng nht (full mouth opening), t ng v tr u li (proper tongue-tip
placement), v cm nhn mt rung ngc cng khi m kt thc: /a/ I, time.

m ny thng b pht m khng chnh xc thnh

Ahm on tom. [#5/#4]

Chng ra li thy rng pht m ny, khu hnh phi m ti a pht m /a:/, ri di
chuyn v hng m //, phi cm nhn c rung ca /i/-/ai/: Im, time

Im on time

T C M #6Y (THE #6Y LIST)


Bc 1

List 13

Five

Time

Nine

My

Dime

White

Light

Eye

Type

Bc 2:
22

List 13

Bc 3:

List 13

Nguyn m /R/ nh trong t shirt, work


(R-Vowel as in shirt, work)

Nguyn m R l mt c th ca ting Anh M (American English) khc vi ting


Anh-Anh (British English). pht m nguyn m ny, hy m ming nh khi pht m
nguyn m #3- /:/. Ch hnh thnh mt khu hnh nh vy ch khng pht m ra (just the
shape of the sound). Pht m R nh sau: RRRRRRRR Read-RRRRR. Nh vy, hnh thnh
khu hnh ca #3 - /:/ ri pht m R: UR, shirt, work.

m ny thng b pht khng chnh xc thnh

I wore a clean shut to wuk.

Nu pht m ny su vo trong c hng th s to ra mt rung khng chnh xc.


Vy hy dng khu hnh ca #3, v pht m R-rung v pha trc: URRR.... URRR..... shirt,
work.

T C NGUYN M R (THE R-VOWEL LIST)


Bc 1:

List 14
23

Work

Curly

Shirt

Bird

Her

Earth

Thirty

Girl

Thirteen

Skirt

Bc 2:

List 14

Bc 3:

List 14

Cu dng cm nhn cu trc m


(Sentences for structural perception)

pht m c chnh xc, khng nn c theo tr nh ca mnh (nh th no c


th). Phi cm nhn li c tng m khi c theo ngi hng dn trong video.

Bc 1: Pht m ko di
Bc 2: Pht m nhanh hn mt cht nhng vn cn ko di
Bc 3: Pht m nhanh, gn vi m t nhin ca ngi M

1. Those five dollar blue jeans dont go at all badly with the flowered shirt you
found at the laundromat.
2. At exactly half past noon I used my hand to curl back my black moustache.
24

3. Father camly drove the brown car back from the barn down the palm-lined
boulevard.
4. The joyful boy was soiled with oil from coiling up with the annoying toy.
5. The bird ate thirty earthworms.
6. Her girlish skirt made the long blonde-haired thirteen-year-old every boys type.
7. Excuse me, do you know the new address on this block for those shoulder-to-toe
yard boxes I saw advertised on TV?
c thoi ca Olivia (Olivias monologue)

This is a New Orleans accent going into a Cajun accent


How you been, Darling? You still staying over by your mommas? Now I know you
want me to tell you a stor, so thats what Im going to do. Its a Cajun story about cousins
Beaudreau and Troclaire, those two coo-coo boys down in the swamps.
Now, Beaudreau and Trosclaire they said theyre gunna1 go do some fishin2 down on
the lake. So the two of them they get themselves a pirogue and they paddle, paddle, paddle
all the way out to the middle of the lake. And theyre fishing. They gunna cook up meals of
them fish for dinner. And they fishin and fishin and catchin movie more and more, and
Trosclaire he turn to Beaudreau and he say Sure. This is the best fishin hole we ever done
find. He says You know you right. We gotta mark this spot. So, Trosclaire he say to
Beaudreau I know exactemand3 what we need to mark this sopt. And he take himself out a
can of red paint out the bottom of the pirogue, and he paint himself a big rad X right there
in the bottom of the boat. And Beaudreau he turn to Trosclaire. He said Trosclaire you so
stupid! How you know tomorrow we gunna get the same boat?

25

1. Gunna = going to
2. Fishin= fishing
3. Exactemand = exactly
Ch thch: on trn l khu ng nn c nhiu li ng php

26

Nguyn m trung tnh


(Neutral Vowels)
Nu chng ta pht m chnh xc nguyn m trung tnh, n s l tin tt pht m
chnh xc cc ph m. Vt chng ta pht m nguyn m trung tnh trc, ri khi hc xong
cc ph m (bng s 4 v 5), chng ta li quay tr li vi nguyn m trung tnh trong phn
n tp. Nguyn m trung tnh yu cu pht m rt ngn v hi git (staccato) mt cht.
Th php tt nht l luyn cng mt lc vi cc ph m ng trc v sau n.

Nguyn m trung tnh, cn gi l nguyn m m, l loi nguyn m rt ngn khi


pht m li nm v tr ngh, hnh dng mi khng b m cng khng trn, v d m //,
v th khi ni nhanh (fast speech), ngi bn ng thng lt qua m ny rt nhanh, c khi
hu nh khng nghe thy n m ch nghe nhng ph m ng hai bn n. Li ni ny ngi
ta thng gi l dng thc rt gn, nh havent..

..(the vowel) pronounced with the tongue in the position it has when at rest, with the
lips neither spread nor rounded (Longman Dictionary of the English Language. Longman
1991 neutral 4a,b)

Phn theo di video:

Nguyn m trung tnh -1: OO //

N1

Nguyn m trung tnh -2: ih / /

N2

Nguyn m trung tnh -3: eh /e/

N3

Nguyn m trung tnh -4: uh / /

N4

GZThese four little sounds are big trouble.


27

Y
GH

Beeg trahble?
N2

N4

GZYes, indeed Big trouble. Much of your foreign accent comes from pronouncing these
neutral sounds like their larger parent vowels: /u/ /i:/ // /a/

Khu hnh trong pht m cc m ny v tr hp nht. Tt c bn m u l nhng m


rt ngn, hi git v nghe nh g g (shot, staccato and grunt-like sounds):

N1

N2

N3

N4

//

//

/e/

//

Ngi ngoi quc khi nghe ting M thng b l ging ngoi quc trong khi pht
nhng m ny.

Thc ra nhng m ny c lin quan ti nguyn m m (parent vowel) ca n

N1 - / / nh trong t full c lin quan n m /u:/ trong t fool

N1 full #1 fool

N2 - / / nh trong t fill c lin quan n m /i:/ trong t feel

N2 fill Y feel
N3 - /e/ nh trong t fell c lin quan n m /ei/ nh trong t fail, thm ch vi m //
nh trong t fallow

28

N3 fell +Y fail
#6 fallow

N4 // nh trong t fumble v lin quan n m /a:/ nh trong t father


N4 fumble #5 father
Chng ta coi nguyn m trung tnh nh mt khong chy c ly rt ngn gia hai ph m.
My glass is full /fl/
My glass is f-l
Fu:l

fll

Please fill /fi:l/ my glass


Please f-l my glass
Fil

fill

Feil

fell

Fa:mble

fmble

My glass fail
My glass f-ll

It was a fumble /fmbl/


It was a f-mble

Chng ta thy mt iu l khi nguyn m ny c pht m ngn li th ph m ng hai bn n


cng tr nn quan trng. Lc hu nh chng ta pht m lt t ph m ny b qua nguyn m
trung tnh sang ph m kia.
N1
N2
N3
N4

good
g-d
little
l-tl
them
th-m
custom c-st-m

29

Trong bi tp sau y, chng ta luyn phn bit gia nguyn m trung tnh v nguyn m m (parent
vowels) ca n. c mi cu 3 ln.
Bc 1: cm nhn nguyn m
Its a good tool
Bc 2: cm nhn ph m
Its a g-d tool
She eats little meat.
She eats l-tl meat.
She eats little meat.
They take neighbors with them.
They take neighborz w-th th-m.
They take neighborz with them.
Fathers custom was to wear a costume.
Fatherz c-st-m w-z to wear a costume.
Fatherz custom waz to wear a costume.
Nguyn m trung tnh N#1 nh trong t look (Neutral #1 as in look)
Cook
Book
Neighborhood
Boulevard
Look

foot
good
pull
put
should

Nguyn m #1 nh trong t do (#1 as in do)


You
To
Food
Fruit
Room

vacuum
school
supermarket
use
beauty

Nguyn m trung tnh N#2 nh trong t live (N#2 as in live)


Is
It
In
City
Building

big
window
milk
refrigerator
finished

Y- rung nh trong t he (Y- Buzz as in he)


Eat
Tv

beach
street
30

Read
Sleep
Clean

east
need
police

Nguyn m trung tnh N#3 nh trong t lend (N#3 as in lend)


Tent
Bed
Heavy
West
Second

seventh
tenth
rest
bread
red

+Y rung nh trong t cake (+Y- Buzz as in cake)


They
Make
Plates
Mail
Eighth

neighbor
bank
lake
station
trailer

Nguyn m trung tnh N#4 nh trong t love (N#4 as in love)


What
Country
Apartment
Rug
Oven

public
bus
from
second
gun

Nguyn m N#5 nh trong t father (#5 as in father)


Watch
Heart
Calm
Barn
Arm

army
palm
are
argue
art

By gi chng ta hy so snh nhanh tng i nguyn m. Nghe v nhc li nhng t c nguyn m


trung tnh. c tng i, mi i c 2 ln.
Trc ht chng ta phn bit Y-Buzz v N2
Bead-bid
Deep-dip
Peal-pill
Feet-fit

deem-dim
deed-did
teen-tin
feel-fill

beet-bit
deal-dill
keen-kin
seen-sin

bean-bin
peak-pick
keel-kill
seep-sip

Phn bit +Y- Buzz vi N3


31

Bake-beck
Dale-dell
Sale-sell
Wade-wed

bait-bet
yale-yell
laid-led
wait-wet

bail-bell
tail-tell
late-let
mane-men

date-debt
fail-fell
raid-red
mate-met

dock-duck
psalm-sum
shock-shuck
lock-luck

pop-pup
wan-won
shot-shut
rob-rub

pot-put
cop-cub
hob-hub
not-nut

coal-cull
goal-gull
moat-mutt
known-none

note-nut
pone-pun
pope-pup
bone-bun

tone-ton
home-hum
shoat-shut
soap-sup

Phn bit #5 hoc #4 vi N4


Bomb-bum
Calm-come
Cot-cut
Hot-hut
Phn bit #21 vi N4
Roan-run
Phone-fun
Hole-hull
Coat-cut

Phn bit nguyn m /u:/ ni N//


Wooed-wood
Pool-pull

whod-hood
stewed-stood

cooed-could
fool-full

shoed-should
luke-look

Chng ta luyn thm s phn bit ny trong cu. Mi cu c li 2 ln


1.
2.
3.
4.

We pulled him out of the swimming pool.


He put his foot in the new boot.
The woman said good-bye to her students.
He couldnt prove that the news was true.

Chng ta luyn thm cch pht m phn bit gia /u:/ v Y-1 bng cch t thm m y vo ng
trc m //, to thnh m /y/.
S tng phn gia #1 v Y1 -// (Contrasting #1-OO/Y1-/y/)
Boot-butte
Mooed-mewed
Coos-cues

Whose-hues
Food-feud
Whom-Hume

Moos-mews
Coot-cute
Coo-cue

Cooed-cued
Moot-mute
Booty-beaty

Tng kt
N1 LOOK
N2 LIVE
N3 LEND
N4 LOVE
CU TRUNG TNH (NEUTRAL SENTENCES)

32

Chng ta luyn li s phn bit gia m trung tnh (neutral vowels) v m m (parent
vowels) ca n
c mi cu sau y 3 ln
Bc 1: Cm nhn nguyn m
The neighborhood supermarket has good fruit
Bc 2: Cm nhn ph m
The neighborh-d supermarket has g-d fruit
Bc 3: c nhanh hn. Vn cm nhn ph m
The neighborhood supermarket has good fruit
CU C NGUYN M TRUNG TNH N#1 (NEUTRAL #1 SENTENCES)
I want you to vacuum the cooks room
I w-nt you to vacuum the c-ks room
I want you to vacuum the cooks room
Put your foot where it should help you get a good pull
P-t your f-t where it sh-d h-lp you g-t a g-d p-ll
Put your foot where it should help you get a good pull
The cook looked in the book for a boulevard in the neighborhood
The c-k l-ked in the b-k for a b-levard in the neighborh-d
The cook looked in the book for a boulevard in the neighborhood
CU C NGUYN M TRUNG TNH N#2 (NEUTRAL #2 SENTENCES)
She lives behind the fifth window
She l-vz behind the f-fth window
She livz behind the fifth window
East Sixth Street is the citys cleaneast
East S-xth Street-z the c-tyz cleaneast
East Sixth Street iz the cityz cleaneast
When the sweeping was finished I went to sleep
Wh-n the sweeping w-z f-n-shed I w-nt to sleep
When the sweeping waz finished I went to sleep
He put the milk and meat into the clean refrigerator
He p-t the m-lk and meat -nto the clean refr-gerator
He put the milk and meat into the clean refrigerator
The police office is in the fifth big building at the beach
The police off-ce -z -n the f-fth b-g b-lding at the beach
The police office iz in the fifth big building at the beach
CU C NGUYN M TRUNG TNH #3 (NEUTRAL #3 SENTENCES)
The red train pulled into the west station
The r-d train p-lled -nto the w-st station
The red train pulled into the west station
33

My neighbors plan to stay in a tent by the lake


My neighbors plan to stay in a t-nt by the lake
My neighbors plan to stay in a tent by the lake
The seventh and eighth loaves of bread felt heavy on the plate
The s-v-nth and eighth loaves of br-d f-lt h-vy on the plate
The seventh and eighth loaves of bread felt heavy on the plate
Rest in bed, thats the tenth mistake the bank made
R-st in b-d, thats the t-nth m-stake the bank made
Rest in bed, thats the tenth mistake the bank made
C NGUYN M TRUNG TNH N#4 (NEUTRAL #4 SENTENCES)
In the barn they argued about guns
In the barn they argued about g-nz
In the barn they argued about gunz
What rug does father want from the apartment
Wh-t r-g d-z father w-nt fr-m the -partment
I watched the second bus pass the park
I watched the sec-nd b-s pass the park
I watched the second bus pass the park
NGUYN M I TRUNG TNH (NEUTRAL DIPHTHONGS)
Nguyn m i trung tnh: oor /r/, eer /r/, our /r/ nh trong cc t
N1n
N2n
N3n
3n

Poor
Peer
Pear
pour

Nhng nguyn m ny c hnh thnh bng cch phi hp hai m trung tnh vi nhau v kt thc
bng m R rung. Trong cch k hiu, n l nguyn m trung tnh th hai
N1n
N2n
N3n
3n*

u+
+
e+
+

ur
r
er
r

Poor
Peer
Peer
Pour

M ming rng (big opening)


/r/

pour/floor

Chng ta luyn m d trc


N1n Word List: /r/
Poor
Tour
34

Pure
Sure
Manure
N2n Word list: /r/
Peer
Tear
Cheer
Sheer
Near
N3n Word List: /er/
Pear
Tear
Chair
Share
There

Where
Library
Cherries
Berries

3n Word List: /r/


Pour
Tore
Chore

Shore
Floor
Of course

35

N1n

N2n

N3n

3n

Poor

Peer

Pear

Pour

Tour

Tear

Tear

Tore

Pure

Cheer

Chair

Chore

Sure

Sheer

Share

Shore

Manure

Near

There

Floor

CU C NGUYN M I TRUNG TNH


(NEUTRAL DIPHTHONG SENTENCES)
1. Where is the shore?
2. The chair in the library tore.
3. We went from tears to cheers.
4. I was sure the tour was near manure.
5. It was a chore to share the floor in there.
6.

Pour pure pear juice for the poor woman.

36

PH M
(Consonant Action)
Ngi ta thng coi ph m l nhng m dng hnh thnh li ni ca chng ta.
Ngi no c li ni cu th (sloppy speech) th rt kh hiu v nhng ngi nu thng
pht m ph m khng r rng. Ngc li, nhng ai ni qu chnh xc (overly precise)
hoc gi l li ni n chi tit (clipped speech) cng rt kh hiu. Li pht m ca cc gio
vin thu xa cng ri vo kiu ny. Trong v kch c I love Lucy, Hans Conreid ng
vai mt anh chng ni theo kiu ny. Lucy sp xp v mi anh n v hng dn Ricky
cch khc phc ging Cuba ca anh. Kt qu tht ng bun ci. Nhn vt ca Hans
Conreid nhn mnh mi m trong khi ni, nghe qu gi to (artificial), khng t nhin
(unnatural), n chi tit (pedantic). Anh ta khng thc hin c bn cht ca s luyn m
(sound-linking) trong li ni hoc trong nhng m on cn ni nh i (contracted forms),
hoc pht m lt i (gliding).
Ngi hc ting thng hay mc bnh pht m ging nh vy. Thng th ngi hc c
ni r rng cho nn pht m ph m mt cch nng n. Bn cht ph m c mt gi tr
nhc iu (musical values) rt ln m thng nhng ngi khng c hun luyn k
khng nhn ra c. Nu bn thc hin c nhc iu ny, th li ni ca bn s vang
(sonorous) hn v thuyt phc (persuasive) hn, v hn na n khu bit ngha, c bit khi
ng cui t/cu.V d nu pht m t Wrote khng r m cui T, n s lm cho ngi nghe
lng tng khng bit c l wrote, hay road, hay rouge, (xem on i thoi ca GR
di y). i vi ngi hc ting anh, y l yu t quan trng nm bt mu nhp iu
(rhythm patterns) v ng iu (intonation) ca ting M. V d: khi chng ta hc cch ko
di s luyn m (legato qualities) trong cc m N v M th ngi nghe thy rt thch, thy
c nhc iu ca n. N lm cho li ni ca bn cha y s ngng m ca ngi nghe.
i vi nhng ngi hc xut thn t trong nc Trung ng hoc Vin ng, nhng
ngi ni th ting hay ct m (staccato), th bi luyn ko di N v M s thay i c
nhp iu li ni ca h. Kt qu l li ni ca h s gn gi hn vi nhc iu ca ting
M, ngi M s hiu h hn. Ngi hc t phng ng ti thng c v lp chp
(vi) (rushed), i khi rt cng (hard) hoc nghe c v git cc (aggressive), nu h ni
ting anh theo nhp iu ca ting m h. Ngoi ra, ngay c ngi M, nu cch ni ca
h b cng nhc hoc n chi tit, th nhng bi luyn m ny cng hu ch cho h.

PHN THEO DI VIDEO

Ph m t ngha ca li ni. N lm cho li ni c r rng hn.


37

- Nu vi t wrote m chng ta khng pht m m /t/ ng cui th ngi nghe khng


hiu l t g, h c th on nh sau: rode, rouge, roam, rope, robe,
- Ph m l cng c to ra nhc iu cho li ni, to ra nhp iu v giai iu.
- Ph m to ra s tng phn v a dng/bin th. Ph tr cho nguyn m n iu,
s ko di ph m cng thm s luyn ly hoc s ct m d chu lm cho li ni thuyt
phc hn.
- Cc nguyn m u l hu thanh, thun nht v trong quy trnh cu m khng gp
chng ngi, khng c xt; nhng ph m c th hu thanh, c th v thanh, v cc ph m
c pht m khc bit nh vo k thut s dng chng ngi (obstruction), v tr cn
(impendance), v ng tc st (friction). N s dng c li, mi v rng.
- Bi luyn ph m l mt loi bi luyn v tnh v sn sinh nng lng (energy), phi
hp s sn sinh nng lng pht ra m thanh (tonal energy), nng lng hnh thnh cu trc
m (structural energy), to dng s nng ng ca li ni (speech dynamics).
- Chng ta cn cm nhn ph m theo nguyn tc m mt nhc cng s dng khi anh
ta chi nhc c. Nhac cng khng bao gi dng sc mnh (force), khng bao gi p thnh
thnh (pound), khng bao gi c st sot (scrape), khng bao gi x y (push), v khng
bao gi sit nghn li (tighten).
- Bng di y bao gm tt c cc ph m ting M. N so snh m hu thanh vi
m v thanh (voiced and unvoiced). Chnh ph m c cp i lp, ngha l cp hu thanhv thanh. Nhng m nm trong ct bn tri l hu thanh. Nhng m nm trong ct bn phi
l v thanh, tc l nhng m trong qu trnh sn sinh khng c s tham gia rung ca du
thanh (vocal cords).
GZ: Hi, Welcome to the real world
CH: Consonants convey the meaning of speech-they make the spoken word intelligible.
RT: Wrote (khng pht m T)
GZ: (on) Rode ?
CH: Rouge?
GZ: Roam?
CH: Rope?
GZ: Robe?
CH: Role?
GZ: Rove?
CH: Rose?
GZ: Roast?
CH: Roach?
RT: (pht m tht r m T) Wrote
CH: Consonants are the instruments that provide musical accompaniment to speech
They provide rhythmic patterns and melodies.
GZ: If love is blind, love cannot hit the mark.
CH: Consonants provide contrast and variation. To the single note of the vowel, they
add a lingering legato sound.
38

GZ: Moms pleasure was to live in the sun


CH: or a crisp staccato.
GZ: Jack put a big bet on a hunch
CH: Where the vowels are all voiced, pure and unobstructed, frictionless sounds, the
consonants may be voiced or unvoiced, and are all produced differently, using techniques of
obstruction, impedance, and friction. Utilizing the tongue, the teeth and the lips.
GZ: Consonant Action, the third in our trinity of actions, is an energy, joining tonal
energy and structural energy to make up the totality of speech dynamics. Just as the energy
of Tonal Action is based on vibratory sense-memory
EEYAA-EEYAA-EEYAA
Structural action on muscular sense-memory
WOO-WOE-WAR-WOW
so the energy of Consonant Action is based on the feeling.
WONDERFUL TICKETS.
CH: Feel the consonants guided by the principles that guide the musician when he plays his
instrument. The musician never forces, never pounds, never scrapes, never pushes, and
never tightens.
GZ: I want you to feel a new speech sense almost like taste.
CH: This chart shows all of the consonant sounds. It compares voiced and unvoiced. Nine
consonants have cognates, that is, they have voiced or unvoiced counterpart. Those in the
left column are voiced; make with vocal cord vibration. Those in the right column are
unvoiced; make without vocal cord vibration.
Bng ph m (Consonant Chart)
VOICED (hu thanh)

UNVOICED (v thanh)

N nh trong t one
M nh trong t arm
So snh: V v F: V nh trong leave

F nh trong leaf

Nu khi pht m V m bn khng rung mc, n s tr thnh m F, v hai m ny ch khc


nhau c mt im duy nht l V c rung ca dy thanh, cn F khng c s tham gia ca
dy thanh, tc l khng rung
Z nh trong t plays

S nh trong t place

B nh trong t cab

P nh trong t cap

D nh trong t bed

T nh trong t bet

G nh trong t bag

K nh trong t back
39

Xin hy nh, nhng ph m ng ct bn tri l ph m hu thanh (c s tham gia ca


dy thanh) v ph m ng trong ct bn phi l ph m v thanh (khng c s tham gia
ca dy thanh) hoc m ni thm (whisper)
TH trong t teethe

TH trong t teeth
SH trong t cash

ZH trong t casual

Nhng m sau y khng c cp i lp, phn ln l hu thanh.


NG nh trong t sing
L nh trong t feel
W nh trong t window
Y nh trong t yellow
R nh trong t red

DG nh trong t ridge
DZ nh trong t seeds

H nh trong t hand
CH nh trong t rich
TS nh trong t seats

N hu thanh
-

N l ph m mi, hu thanh (voiced alveolar nasal consonant)


Hang ming (mouth-pasage/cave) b chn kn v u li (tip of the tounge) nng cao
chm vo li sau rng (teeth-ridge). Ngc mm (soft palate) h xung. Dng kh
(airsteam) t phi ra phi i qua ng mi. Dy thanh (vocal cords) rung.
N l m c vang ln, l m trc. N c nhc iu v lt cao.
cm nhn m : hi tch hai mi to ra mt k h gia hai hm rng, nh a mt
li chm vo vm trn vng ngc cng, cho m chy qua vng cng hng
(resonating area) v i ra ng hang mi (nasal cave)

T C M N (N WORD LIST)
c ko di m N trong nhng t sau y:

Rain
On

Department
One
40

Fender
Turn
Between

Phone
Emergency
station

CU C M N (N SENTENCES)
Ko di m N trong nhng cu sau y
Bc 1: c vi nhc iu ton phn, khng quan tm n ngha ca cu,
ch n tim nng nhc iu (musical potential) ca n

ch

There was rain on the fender


Bc 2: Nhc li cu c m N, biu hin ngha ca n. m N h tr thm ngha cho
cu
There was rain on the fender
Chng ta lm li:
Bc 1: Quan tm n nhc iu.
There was one telephone at the emergency station

Bc 2: Dng N th hin ngha cu.


There was one telephone at the emergency station

Turn between the van and the fire department

M hu thanh
-

M l ph m mi, mi mi (nasal labial consonant) c hnh thnh bng khp


ca hai mi
cm nhn m M: khp hai mi li vi nhau v pht ra m hm hm lin tc
trong ming (to hum).
Mi khp h, khng mm cht mi.
Cm nhn rung ca mi pha trong (the fleshy part of the lips)

T C M M (M WORD LIST)
c ko di m M trong nhng t sau y
41

Swim

Ambulance

Team

Number

From

Come

Welcome

Arm

Ice cream

Comb

CU C M M (M SENTENCES)
c ko di m M trong nhng cu sau y:
Bc 1: Cm nhn nhc iu
The swim team form Rome was welcomed
The ambulance number will come to mind
I got ice cream on my arm when I went for my comb

V hu thanh
m i lp (v thanh) l F
-

m V (m i lp vi n l F)
m st, mi rng, hu thanh (voice fricative labiodentals). Mi di chm hm
rng trn (lower lip touches upper teeth)

42

T C M Z (Z WORD LIST)
Pht m ko di Z trong nhng t sau:
these

wipers

moves

rains

dials

excuse

those

is

gears

nose

CU C M Z (Z SENTENCES)
Pht m ko di Z trong nhng cu sau:
These moves turn the dials.
Those gears run the wipers when it rains.
Excuse me, is my nose bleeding?

S - v thanh
m i lp (hu thanh) vi n l Z
- m S (m i lp l Z)
- m x, li, v thanh (unvoiced alveolar fricative)
- V tr cu m ging Z.
- Khi pht m S, chng ta thy c dng kh thot ra ngoi, mit qua khe h nh ting gi rt:
SSSSSSSS.
- Pht m nh nhng v trn, mt.
T C M S (S WORD LIST)
Ko di m S trong nhng t sau y:
its

police

face

bus

this

stop

office

across
43

close

gas

CU C M S (S-SENTENCES)
Pht m ko di S trong nhng cu sau y:
Its a nice face.
This office is close to the police station.
The bus stops across from the gas station.

B - hu thanh
m i lp (v thanh) vi n l P
- m B (m i lp l P).
- m n, mi mi, hu thanh (Voiced bilabial stop or plosive consonans).
- Hai mi khp kn lm cho dng kh (airstream) i ra b chn li. t nhin mi m hp
cho dng kh chy ra ngoi, to ra mt ting n nh.
- Cm nhn mt ting p nh trn i mi.
T C M B (B WORD LIST)
baby

tub

table

bed

bib

ribbon

boy

hubcap

boat

bird

CU C M B (B SENTENCES)
Pht m v p nh tay xung bn khi c m B. Cm nhn nhc iu ca n.
The baby at the table has a bib.
The boy played with a boat in the tub.
Under the bed was a ribbon, a hubcap, and a live bird.

44

Tp pht m so snh hai m V v B


vat - bat

curves - curbs

veil - bail

marvel - marbel

vest - best

calve - cab

very - berry

rove - robe

vend - bend

dove - dub

P - v thanh
m i lp (hu thanh) vi n l B
- m P (m i lp l B)
- m n, mi mi, v thanh (Unvoiced labial stop/plosive consonans)
- Phng thc pht m nh B. Khng c s tham gia ca dy thanh (vocal cords) to
ting rung nh m B.
- Cm nhn s n nh khng rung do dng kh khi thot ra ngoi to ra
T C M P (P WORD LIST)
paper

pipe

pencil

stop

apronhubcap
airplane

jump

cap

rope

CU C M P (P SENTENCES)
Pht m v p nh tay xung bn khi c m P. Ch nhp iu.
There is a paper and pencil in my apron.
The airplane captain wrote a cap and smoked a pipe.
Stop, put down the hubcap, lets jump rope.

D hu thanh

45

m i lp (v thanh) vi n l T
-

m D (m i lp l T)
m n, li, hu thanh (voiced alveolar plosive consonant)
Dng kh trong ming b ngn li v ngc mm nng ln (the raising of the soft
palate), u li (tip of the tongue) vn ln chm vo li sau rng (teeth-ridge). Khi
u li t nhin rt li, dng kh a ra ngoi to thnh ting n.
Dy thanh tham gia vo quy trnh cu m to thnh ting rung.
Cm nhn rung trn u li.

T C M D (D WORD LIST)
Pht m v p nh tay xung bn khi c m D
stand

inside

wood

windshield

bed

bird

red

hand

head*

outside

*Ch cm nhn s rung trn u li.


CU C M D (D SENTENCES)
Pht m v p nh tay xung bn khi c m D
Stand by the wood bed.
She put her red head inside the
windshield.
A bird in hand is worth two outside.

T V thanh
m i lp (hu thanh) vi n l D
-

m T (m i lp l D)
m n, li, v thanh (Unvoiced, alveolar plosive/stop consonant)
Phng thc cu m nh D, nhng dy thanh khng tham gia quy trnh cu m
to ting rung nh D
Cm nhn rung nh ca u li

46

T C M T (T WORD LIST)
Pht m v p nh tay xung bn khi c m T
wait

left

start

it

front

right

that

exhaust

post

at

CU C M T (T SENTENCES)
Pht m v p nh tay xung bn khi c m T. Cm nhn nhc iu, th hin ng ngha.
Wait-start in front
Take that post to the left.
It was right to exhaust many at once.

NHNG T KT THC BNG ED (-ED ENDINGS)


Chng ta hy cng xem xt cch pht m ui ed ca mt s t.
Nhm th nht: ui ed c pht m l T, v thanh.
V thanh
ripped

missed

tapped

fished

kissed

cashed

Nhm th hai: ui ed c pht m l D, hu thanh.


Hu thanh
handed
started
47

M T NG GIA T TR THNH D (MEDIAL T AS D)


m T ng gia t c pht m nh D nh. N khng hn l m D, nhng phng thc
cu m l tin v hng m D (go toward D). Chng ta khng pht m l: latter, better,
beautiful, m pht m l: lader, beder, beaudiful.
Lader would be beder beaudiful.
m T cng c pht m theo hng D khi ng sau T l mt t bt u bng mt nguyn
m. m T cng c pht m theo hng D, nu n ng gia hai nguyn m. Chng ta
khng c l: Get over there m c l Ged over there, khng c l right away m
c l righd away, khng c l Meet me at eight m l Meed me ad eight
Ged over there righd away. Meed me ad eight.

G hu thanh
m i lp (v thanh) vi n l K
-

m G (m i lp l K)
m n, mc, hu thanh (Voiced, velar, stop/plosive consonant)
Dng kh i ra b chn li v cung li (back of the tongue) nng ln chm vo ngc
mm/mc (soft palate/velar) chn ng qua hang mi (nasal cave). t nhin
cung li h xung m ng cho dng kh o ra ngoi, to thnh ting n, dy
thanh rung.
Khi pht m m ny, khng sit cht ch tip xc (cung li/mc), khng to ra sc
nn cao (pressing) v y khng kh o ra qu mnh (pushing).
Cm nhn ting p nh trn mt cung li.

T C M G (G WORD LIST)
Pht m v p nh tay xung bn khi c m G
dog

rug

pig

ignition

digging

green

burglary

wagon

egg

flag

CU C M G (G SENTENCES)
48

Pht m v p nh tay xung bn khi c m G


The dog and the pig were digging.
After the burglary I found an egg on the rug.
The ignition was cause by the green wagon with the flag.

K v thanh
m i lp (hu thanh) vi n l G
-

m K (m i lp l G)
m n, mc, v thanh (Unvoiced, velar, stop/plosive consonant)
Phng thc cu m nh G, nhng dy thanh khng tham gia quy trnh cu m,
khng to ting rung nh G
Cm nhn ting p nh trn mt cung li

T C M K (K WORD LIST)
Pht m v p nh tay xung bn khi c m K
walk

bank

block

sick

back

excuse

park

brake

thank

trunk

CU C M K (K SENTENCES)
Pht m v p nh tay xung bn khi c m K. Quan tm nhc iu v biu th ngha.
Walk one block back to the park.
I can thank the bank for making me sick.
Excuse me, but the brake shoe is not in the trunk.
49

PT
UNVOICED

VOICED BD
-

KT
UNVOICED

GD
VOICED

VOICED GD

BD
VOICED

UNVOICED KT

UNVOICED PT

Hai p (double drumbeats): pt, kt, gd, bd


C nhng t hp m c hai p (tap-tap)
Cm nhn c hai nhp p

T C PT (PT WORD LIST)


stopped
slept
roped
slipped
wiped
Hy cm nhn hai p trong nhng cu sau y:
CU C PT (PT SENTENCES)
We stopped and slept for a while.
I roped off the area where she slipped, and wiped
up.
T C KT (KT WORD LIST)
talked
act
backed
tucked
looked
Hy cm nhn hai p trong nhng cu sau y:
CU C KT (KT SENTENCES)
We talked before the act that he backed.
T
C GD
(GD
WORD
LIST) up.
I tucked
mine
away
and locked

50

tugged
rigged
hugged
begged
bagged
CU C GD (GD SENTENCES)
I tugged the rope and rigged the mast.
She hugged me and begged for what I had
bagged.
T C BD (BD WORD LIST)
jabbed
ribbed
robed
grabbed
stabbed
CU C BD (BD SENTENCES)
We jabbed and ripped him.
The robed man was grabbed from behind and
stabbed.

51

Ph m (tip theo)
(More Consonant Action)
Phn di theo video

Th gin: Ngp (Yawn). Vn ngi (Stretch). Lc ngi (Shake)


Cc bn nh lm mt s ng tc th gin trc khi vo luyn m. Cng th gin bao nhiu
m bn pht ra cng t nhin, cng hay by nhiu.
Bi luyn ph m (tip tc)
TH (hu thanh)

NG

DG

TH (v thanh)

CH

SH

DZ

ZH

TS

NG

DL

NK

TL

TH Hu thanh //
m i lp (v thanh) vi n l TH //
-

m TH hu thanh // (m i lp l TH v thanh //)


m xt, rng hu thanh (Voiced dental fricative consonant)
u li chm vo rng trn (tip of the tongue against the upper teeth), hoc nm
gia hai hm rng (tip of the tongue projects out between the upper and lower teeth).
Mt li tng i phng. Dy thanh (vocal cords) rung.
Cm nhn s rung trn u li.

T C M TH HU THANH (TH WORD LIST)


Pht m ko di m TH trong nhng t sau y
father

brother

with

these

those

clothes
52

there

that

this

the

CU C M TH HU THANH (TH SENTENCES)


Pht m ko di m TH trong nhng cu sau y
Father is with those others in there.
This brother and these clothes go together.
That is the best.

TH V thanh //
m i lp (hu thanh) vi n l TH //
-

m TH v thanh // (m i lp l TH hu thanh //)


m xt, rng v thanh (Unvoiced dental fricative consonant)
Phng thc cu m ging nh TH hu thanh, nhng dy thanh khng tham gia vo
quy trnh cu m to ting rung nh TH //
Cm nhn dng kh (airstream) trn ra nhng khng rung.

T C M TH V THANH (TH WORD LIST)


Pht m ko di m TH trong nhng t sau y
nothing

birthday

healthy

mouth

bath

something

three

tooth

things

throat

CU C M TH V THANH (TH SENTENCES)


Pht m ko di m TH trong nhng cu sau y
There is nothing healthy about a cold bath.
He got three things for his birthday.
In my mouth something from my tooth went down my throat.

53

SH V thanh //
m i lp (hu thanh) vi n l ZH //
-

m SH v thanh // (m i lp l ZH hu thanh //)


m xt, ngc-li v thanh (Unvoiced palato-alveolar fricative consonant)
u li v mt li chm vo phn li sau rng (tip and blade of the tongue against
the hinder part of teeth-ridge). Ngc mm hi nng cao. Hai hm rng khp li. Mi
hi chu ra. Dy thanh khng tham gia vo quy trnh cu m, khng rung.
hai ngn tay vo c: cm nhn khng c ting rung ca dy thanh.

T C M SH V THANH (SH WORD LIST)


Pht m ko di m SH trong nhng t sau y
shirt

shoe

wash

fashion

fresh

receptionist

fish

push

brush

shoulder

CU C M SH V THANH (SH SENTENCES)


Pht m ko di m SH trong nhng cu sau y
I took of my shirt to wash the fresh fish.
I brush my shoes and stay in fashion.
The receptionist pushed my shoulder.

ZH Hu thanh //
m i lp (v thanh) vi n l SH //
54

m ZH (m i lp l SH)
m xt, ngc-li hu thanh (Voiced palato-alveolar fricative consonant)
Sn sinh mt m nh SH ri trit tiu ting thanh (dy thanh khng tham gia vo
quy trnh cu m)
Cm nhn rung ca dy thanh, to ra vng cng hng gia rng v u li.

T C M ZH (ZH WORD LIST)


Pht m ko di m ZH trong nhng t sau y
measure

pleasure

garage

casual

usual

vision

leisure

rouge

massage

treasure

CU C M ZH (ZH SENTENCES)
Pht m ko di m ZH trong nhng cu sau y
Measure the garage the usual way.
For leisure I find massage a pleasure.
I had a casual vision: I saw a rouge treasure chest.

NG Hu thanh
-

m mi, mc, hu thanh (voiced velar nasal consonant)


Cung li chm vo phn trc ca ngc mm (back of the tongue against the fore
part of the soft palate). Ngc mm h thp chn ng qua ming. Dng kh thot ra
bng ng mi.
Cm nhn ting vang trong hang mi.

Ch : Ngi hc thng hay nhm ln v cch pht m G & K ng sau NG.


Trc ht chng ta hy luyn m NG ng cui t, khng c ting n trong khi li ri
ngc mm cui t.
T C M NG (NG WORD LIST)
Pht m ko di m NG trong nhng t sau y (khng c ting n bt ra)
55

king

sing

ring

nothing

tongue

wrong

swing

swimming

staying

string

CU C M NG (NG SENTENCES)
Pht m ko di m NG trong nhng cu sau y
The king had a ring through his tongue.
After the swing dance, shes staying to sing.
Theres nothing wrong with swimming in a string bikini.

NK hu thanh

NK: K n (drumbeat)

Ngoi l: Trong nhng t tn cng bng NK, chng ta cn pht m vi s bt hi (drumbeat


= aspiration) ca m K (to play the K drumbeat).
T/CU C M NK (NK WORD LIST/SENTENCE)
ink
honk
drunk
If I honk at the drunk hell spill the ink.

NG hu thanh

NG ng gia (Medial NG) khng n

Luyn m NG ng gia t, khng to ting n (drumbeat) khi phn kt thc t c ngha


ha chung vi c t. khng c ngha ring. V d nh trong nhng t sau y
T/CU C NG NG GIA (WORD LIST/SENTENCE)
swinging
singer
hanged
The swinging singer was hanged.

56

NG hu thanh

So snh hn (comparative)
So snh nht (superlative)
C m G n (play the G drumbeat)

Mt ngoi l na l dng thc so snh hn v so snh nht, pht m m G vi ting n.

57

T/CU C M G N (WORD LIST/SENTENCE)

younger

stronger

longer

The younger woman was stronger and lasted longer.

youngest

strongest

longest

The youngest man was strongest and lasted longest.

NG hu thanh

NG ng gia t: G/K n

Luyn m NG ng gia t sau c G hoc K n, khi phn kt thc t khng c ngha


ring. V d, y l s khc nhau gia G-mm (soft G)nh trong t singer v G-cng
(hard G) nh trong t anger. V d: a singer sings but an anger doesnt ang. Vy er
ng cui t khng c ngha ring tch bit ra khi c t. l G-cng.
T/CU (WORD LIST/SENTENCE)
anger

ankle

tangle

I felt anger when my ankle got tangled in the line.

NG hu thanh (tn ring)

NG: mt s tn ring

Ngoi l: Mt s tn ring, hu ht tn ting Anh.


Washington

Birmingham

Bingham

L Hu thanh
-

m nc L (liquid), cn gi l m li, bn hu thanh (voiced alveolar lateral)


u li chm vo li sau rng, to ra khu vc khp kn trong ming (complete
closure in the middle of the mouth), nhng dng kh vn thot ra c bng hai bn
mp li (side of the tongue). Dy thanh tham gia vo quy trnh cu m, to ra ting
rung. Ch : u li khng mit cht vo li.
58

Cm nhn ting vang (resonance) nh khi pht m nguyn m.

T C M L (L WORD LIST)
Pht m ko di m L trong nhng t sau y
school

illness

ball

cold

hospital

milk

file

ailment

list

feel

CU C M L (L SENTENCES)
After school they played ball.
The hospital files list all my illnesses.
Drink cold milk for your ailment, and youll feel better.

W hu thanh
-

m mi, mc (labiovelar vowel-like consonant)


m W l mt m gn ging nh nguyn m, bt u thi im kt thc ca nguyn
m #1. N gn ging nh U nhng ng tc pht m ngn hn nhiu.
Hai mi khp li to ra mt khong trng nh nht gia hai mi. Trn mi. m ny
ng trc mt nguyn m khc, c ting vang: oo-w-ay (way).
Cm nhn s chu ra ca hai mi khi pht m nguyn m #1 sau khp cht mi
hn (reducing the lip opening) cn bt m (impede W), chuyn nhanh sang nguyn
m ng sau. Thc ra m W trong ng m hc c coi l m approximant, tc la
mt loi ph m nhng trong quy trnh cu m, cc c quan c m (articulators)
tham gia cu m tin li tip cn nhau, nhng cha tip cn c th pht
ra mt ph m hon chnh nh mt m n, hoc m mi, hoc m xt. ng v
mt ng m hc (phonetically) n ging nh nguyn m, nhng ng v mt m v
hoc (phonologically) n li ging nh mt ph m. V th trc y ngi ta gi n
l bn nguyn m (semivowel)

T C M W (W WORD LIST)
Pht m ko di mW trong nhng t sau y
swimming
sandwich
once

wagon

twice

water

waves

washing

59

CU C M W (W SENTENCES)
Cm nhn ting vang ca m W trong nhng cu sau y
I Bent swimming once or twice in the waves.
The sandwich wagon needs water for washing.
LUYN M W (W LINKING)
Nguyn m #1/:/, #21 //, or #51/a/ ng cui t luyn sang nguyn m u ca t ng
sau.
1

you

are
W

go

inside
W

now

enter
W

60

Y Hu thanh
-

Y /j/ cng l mt loi approximantnh W: ngc, approximant (palatal


approximant). N gn ging mt nguyn m trc (front) v ng (close) nh /i:/.
Cc c quan cu m tham gia cu m m ny bt u tin li gn v tr ging nh
pht m m /i/, nhng ri lp tc ri v tr ny chuyn sang pht m nguyn m
ng sau n. Ee-y-oo (you).
Cm nhn Y-rung ri ct nhanh khi n lt sang nguyn m ng sau.

T C M Y (Y WORD LIST)
Cm nhn vang ca m Y trong nhng t sau y
yellow

yesterday

onions

you

yard

lawyer

CU C M Y (Y SENTENCES)
Cm nhn vang ca m Y trong nhng cu sau y
I found yellow onions in the yard.
Yesterday you spoke to the lawyer.
LUYN M Y (Y LINKING)
Y-Buzz, + Y-Buzz, 3Y, hoc 6Y ng cui t luyn sang nguyn m u ca t ng sau.

61

he

insists
y

+Y

today

is
y

3Y

employ

everyone
y

6Y

lie

on it
y

R Hu thanh
-

m ngc li (palate-alveolar approximant)


u li tin dn n khu vc li sau rng, ging nh khi chun b cho m T hoc D,
nh trn thc t u li khng chm hn vo bt c khu vc no ca vm ming.
nh vy u li gi mt cong nht nh (the tip of the tongue curls upward)
m R rung mnh trong ting M to ra cm gic t (word) b ko lui vo trong c
hng. hy cm nhn s rung rung trong c hng. ng c l rhadio, rhunning
m c l radio, running.
Mt c th ring ca ting M khc ting Anh l ch: ting Anh gi l non-rhotic
accent, tc l ging ni trong m R ch xut hin trc nguyn m; cn ting M
(v Scots, West England) l rhotic accent ngha l ging ni trong m R xut hin
c u t (v d: read /ri:d/), cui t (trc ch ngng, v d: car /ka:r/) v trc
mt ph m khc (v d bird /b:rd/).

T C M R (R WORD LIST)
Cm nhn rung mnh ca m R trn ngc cng
reporter
regular
running

carrying

radio

red

waitress

refrigerator

photographer

raining

62

CU C M R (R SENTENCES)
Cm nhn rung ca m R trong nhng cu sau y
The reporter was running around the radio station.
The waitress brought the photographer his regular order.
Im not carrying that red refrigerator while its raining.

H v thanh
-

m xt thanh hu v thanh (Unvoiced glottal fricative consonant)


Ging nh ting th tho ca gi, m H chuyn nhanh sang nguyn m ng sau.
Th di nh nh, ta to ra m H, thc ra cng khng hn l mt m hon chnh v khi
th tho th mi phi t th pht m nguyn m i sau n.
Cm nhn mt ng tc ngp ngng trc khi pht m nguyn m ng ng sau H.

T C M H (H WORD LIST)
Pht m m H trong nhng cu sau y
hat

hair

head

hand

house

T BT U BNG WH NHNG PHT M L HW (WH PRONOUNCED HW


LIST)
when

whisper

what

which

whistle

CU C M H (H SENTENCES)
Pht m m H v HW trong nhng cu sau y
63

You need a hat on your head when you leave the house.
What boy whistle at her hair?
Whisper behind your hand which one.

DG hu
thanh /d/

m i lp (v thanh) vi n l CH /t/
-

m DG hu thanh (m i lp l CH)
m tc xt hu thanh /d/ (Voiced affricate consonant). y l s phi hp hai m
D /d/ v ZH //.
a u li ln chm vo li sau rng trn pht m m D, sau nhanh chng
h u li xung pht m m vang ZH.
X l s ct m tht nhanh v nh.
Cm nhn ting va p nh gia u li v li sau rng.

T C M DG (DG WORD LIST)


Cm nhn mt ng tc ct m nhanh v vang trong nhng t sau y
job

garbage

orange

engineer

juice

badge

cabbage

jumping

refrigerator bridge

CU C M DG (DG SENTENCES)
Cm nhn m DG trong nhng cu sau y. Quan tm gi tr nhc iu.
You did a good job squeezing the orange juice.
I took the cabbage from the refrigerator and threw it in the garbage.
The engineer wearing the badge saw someone jumping from the
bridge.

CH v thanh /t/

64

m i lp (hu thanh) vi n l DG /d/


-

m CH v thanh /t/ (m i lp l DG /d/)


m tc xt v thanh (Unvoiced affricate consonant). y l s phi hp hai m T /t/
v SH //
u li chm vo li sau rng trn pht m T, ri nhanh chng mit mt trn
ngc cng pht m m SH //. Hai ng tc phi di chuyn tht nhanh to thnh
mt m.
Ct m nhanh
Cm nhn ting va p nh gia u li v li sau rng trn.

T C M CH (CH WORD LIST)


Cm nhn s ct m trong nhng t c m CH sau y
check-up

church

chicken

cheese

kitchen

lunch

watch

match

teach

chair

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CU C M CH (CH SENTENCES)
Cm nhn m CH trong nhng cu sao y

Check-up on the chicken while youre in the kitchen.


Watch others teach at the church.
The color of our cheese lunch matched the chair.

SH v thanh //
So snh m v thanh CH /t/
Luyn cp m sau y, so snh hai m SSH (ct bn tri) v CH (ct bn phi)
shop

chop

sheep

cheap

shoes

choose

shopper

chopper

shared

chaired

cashed

catches

mash

match

dish

ditch

wish

witch

crush

cruntch

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DZ hu thanh
/dz/

m i lp (v thanh) vi n l TS /ts/
-

m DZ (m i lp l TS)
m u li v mt li, hu thanh (Voiced tongue-point-plus-tongue-blade
consonant)
Chm u li vo li trn pht m m D, sau h u li xung trong khi m
Z rung ngay khi li h xung.
Dung ng tc ct m nh, nhanh. Khng ko di m Z.

T C M DZ (DZ WORD LIST)


Cm nhn ting ct m ca DZ trong nhng t sau y
husbands

ads

hands

tends

foods

finds

sounds

holds

roads

ends

CU C M DZ (DZ SENTENCES)
Cm nhn m DZ trong nhng cu sau y. Quan tm n nhc iu
Her husbands hands mixed the foods.
The sounds on these roads have been used in many ads.
The gardener tends plants and finds a basket that holds ends.

TS v thanh /ts/
m i lp (hu thanh) vi n l DZ /dz/
-

m TS v thanh (m i lp l DZ hu thanh)
m u li v mt li, v thanh (Unvoiced tongue-point-plus-tongue-blade
consonant)
Chm u li vo li trn pht m T, sau mit m S.
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Dng ng tc ct m nhanh v nh
Cm nhn ting gi va p gia u li v rng
Khi TS xut hin cui t sau mt ph m khc, phi cm nhn c nhng m
ng trc n: K, P, S, F, v N

T C M TS (TS WORD LIST)


Cm nhn ting ct m trong nhng t sau y
sports

lights

hurts

paints

parents*

parts

thats

whats

carrots

minutes

*Ch ng pht m t ny l parrots


CU C M TS (TS SENTENCES)
Cm nhn m TS trong nhng cu sau y
His dislike of sports hurts his parents.
Thats where the carrots grow under lights.
The machince paint parts in whats minutes saved per part.

So snh

DL hu thanh

TL v thanh

TL v thanh

DL hu thanh

DL v TL l hai m i lp
m hu thanh v v thanh u li-li (Voiced and unvoiced tongue-tip to gumridge
consonants)
Bt u t D hoc T ri rt ra khi li, quay nhanh tr li pht m L
Cm nhn ting click khi trt t m D hoc T sang L.

T C M DL/TL (DL/TL WORD LIST)


needle
little
Cm nhn hai m DL, TL trong nhng t sau y
middle
bottle
puddle

rattle

cradle

dental

medal

cattle

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CU C M DL/TL (DL/TL SENTENCES)


Cm nhn DL v TL trong nhng cu sau y
The little bottle caused a rattle.
There was a needle in the middle of the puddle under the
cradle.
His dental work on cattle won him a medal.
M DL/TL NG GIA T (THE MEDIAL DL/TL)
Cm nhn ting click ca hai m D v T, nhng khng ko di m L v ng sau n l mt
nguyn m.
T C M DL/TL NG GIA (MEDIAL DL/TL WORD LIST)
wildly

restless

idling

lately

boldly

correctly

worldly

exactly

endless

perfectly

CU C M DL/TL NG GIA T (MEDIAL DL/TL SENTENCES)


Cm nhn DL v TL trong nhng cu sau y
Ive been wildly restless lately.
The engine is correctly idling at exactly the right speed.
He acted boldly and perfectly worldly, but I thought it was endless.
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