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Essential University Physics, 3e (Wolfson)

Chapter 18 Heat, Work, and the First Law of Thermodynamics

18.1 Conceptual Questions
1) When a gas undergoes an isothermal process, there is
A) no change in the pressure of the gas.
B) no change in the temperature of the gas.
C) no change in the volume of the gas.
D) no work done by (or on) the gas.
E) no heat added to the gas.
Var: 1

process is
A) isochoric.
B) isothermal.
D) isobaric.
Var: 1

3) The process shown in the T-V diagram in the figure is an

B) isothermal compression.
C) isochoric compression.
D) isobaric compression.
E) isothermal expansion.
Var: 1

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4) The process shown in the pV diagram in the figure is an

B) isothermal expansion.
C) isochoric expansion.
D) isobaric expansion.
E) isochoric compression.
Var: 1

5) The process shown in the pV diagram in the figure is

B) isothermal.
C) isochoric.
D) isobaric.
Var: 1

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6) Consider two cylinders of gas identical in all respects except that one contains oxygen O2 and
the other helium He. Both cylinders initially contain the same volume of gas at 0C and 1 atm of
pressure and are closed by a movable piston at one end. Both gases are now compressed
adiabatically to one-third their original volume.
(a) Which gas will show the greater temperature increase?
A) the O2
B) the He
C) Neither; both will show the same increase.
D) It is impossible to tell from the information given.
(b) Which gas will show the greater pressure increase?
A) the O2
B) the He
C) Neither; both will show the same increase.
D) It is impossible to tell from the information given.
Answer: (a) B (b) B
Var: 1

7) When a fixed amount of ideal gas goes through an isothermal expansion

A) its internal (thermal) energy does not change.
B) the gas does no work.
C) no heat enters or leaves the gas.
D) its temperature must decrease.
E) its pressure must increase.
Var: 1

8) When a fixed amount of ideal gas goes through an adiabatic expansion

A) its internal (thermal) energy does not change.
B) the gas does no work.
C) no heat enters or leaves the gas.
D) its temperature cannot change.
E) its pressure must increase.
Var: 1

9) When a fixed amount of ideal gas goes through an isobaric expansion

A) its internal (thermal) energy does not change.
B) the gas does no work.
C) no heat enters or leaves the gas.
D) its temperature must increase.
E) its pressure must increase.
Var: 1

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10) When a fixed amount of ideal gas goes through an isochoric process
A) its internal (thermal) energy does not change.
B) the gas does no work.
C) no heat enters or leaves the gas.
D) its temperature must increase.
E) its pressure must increase.
Var: 1

11) An ideal gas increases in temperature from 22C to 42C by two different processes. In one
process, the temperature increases at constant volume, and in the other process the temperature
increases at constant pressure. Which of the following statements about this gas are correct?
(There may be more than one correct choice.)
A) The heat required to cause this temperature change is the same for both the constant-volume
and the constant-pressure processes.
B) More heat is required for the constant-pressure process than for the constant-volume process.
C) The change in the internal (thermal) energy of the gas is the same for both the constantvolume and the constant-pressure processes.
D) The root-mean-square (thermal) speed of the gas molecules increases more during the
constant-volume process than during the constant-pressure process.
Var: 1

12) A container of ideal gas has a movable frictionless piston. This container is placed in a very
large water bath and slowly compressed so that the temperature of the gas remains constant and
equal to the temperature of the water. Which of the following statements about this gas are true
for this process? (There may be more than one correct choice.)
A) Heat leaves the gas during the compression.
B) Since the gas and water are at the same temperature, no heat can flow between them, which
makes this an adiabatic compression.
C) The internal (thermal) energy of the gas does not change during the compression.
D) The internal energy of the gas increases during the compression because work is done on the
gas.
E) Since the temperature of the gas remains constant, the pressure of the gas must also remain
constant.
Var: 1

13) When an ideal gas increases in volume at constant pressure, the average kinetic energy of the
gas molecules
A) increases.
B) decreases.
C) does not change.
D) may either increase or decrease, depending on whether or not the process is carried out
E) may or may not change, but insufficient information is given to make such a determination.
Var: 1
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18.2 Problems
1) The figure (not to scale) shows a pV diagram for 1.8 g of helium gas (He) that undergoes the
process 1 2 3. Find the value of V3. The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol K = 0.0821
L atm/mol K, and the atomic weight of helium is 4.0 g/mol.

A) 17 L
B) 69 L
C) 34 L
D) 8.6 L
Var: 50+

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2) The figure shows a pV diagram for 8.3 g of nitrogen gas (N2) in a sealed container. The
temperature T1 of the gas in state 1 is 79C. What are (a) the pressure p1 of the gas in state 1 and
(b) the temperature T2 of the gas in state 2? The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol K =
0.0821 L atm/mol K, and the ATOMIC weight of nitrogen is 14 g/mol.

A) (a) 86 atm, (b) 700C.

B) (a) 19 atm, (b) 700C.
C) (a) 86 atm, (b) 160C.
D) (a) 19 atm, (b) 160C.
Var: 50+

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3) The figure shows a pV diagram for 4.3 g of oxygen gas (O2) in a sealed container. The
temperature T1 of the gas in state 1 is 21C. What are the temperatures T3 and T4 of the gas in
states 3 and 4? The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol K = 0.0821 L atm/mol K, and the
ATOMIC weight of oxygen is 16 g/mol.

A) -52C, 390C
B) 16C, 47C
C) 220C, 660C
D) 11C, 32C
Var: 50+

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4) The figure shows a pV diagram for 0.95 mol of gas that undergoes the process 1 2. The gas
then undergoes an isochoric heating from point 2 until the pressure is restored to the value it had
at point 1. What is the final temperature of the gas? The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol K
= 0.0821 L atm/mol K.

A) -160C
B) 15C
C) 390C
D) 120C
Var: 50+

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5) The figure shows a pV diagram for 0.0066 mol of gas that undergoes the process 1 2 3.
What is the pressure p2. The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol K = 0.0821 L atm/mol K.

A) 5.3 atm
B) 5.3 105 atm
C) 16 atm
D) 1.6 106 atm
Var: 30

6) How much work is done by 3.00 mol of ideal gas when it triples its volume at a constant
temperature of 127C? The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol K.
A) 12.7 kJ
B) 9.97 kJ
C) 11.0 kJ
D) 15.3 kJ
E) 1.20 kJ
Var: 1

7) An ideal gas in a balloon is kept in thermal equilibrium with its constant-temperature

surroundings. How much work is done by the gas if the outside pressure is slowly reduced,
allowing the balloon to expand to 6.0 times its original size? The balloon initially has a pressure
of
and a volume of
The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol K.
A) 120 J
B) 390 J
C) -330 J
D) 6.0 J
Var: 50+
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8) A steel container, equipped with a piston, contains 21 mol of an ideal gas at 465 K. The
container is compressed isothermally to 90% of its original volume. How much work is done on
the gas? The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol K.
A) 8600 J
B) -73,300 J
C) -8500 J
D) 11 J
Var: 1

9) A certain amount of ideal monatomic gas is maintained at constant volume as it is cooled from
455K to 405 K. This feat is accomplished by removing 400 J of heat from the gas. How much
work is done by the gas during this process? The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol K.
A) 0.00 J
B) 200 J
C) 400 J
D) -400 J
E) -200 J
Var: 1

10) An ideal monatomic gas cools from 455.0 K to 405.0 K at constant volume as 831 J of
energy is removed from it. How many moles of gas are in the sample? The ideal gas constant is
R = 8.314 J/mol K.
A) 2.50 mol
B) 2.15 mol
C) 1.50 mol
D) 1.33 mol
E) 0.725 mol
Var: 1

11) 3.0 moles of an ideal gas with a molar heat capacity at constant volume of 4.9 cal/(molK)
and a molar heat capacity at constant pressure of 6.9 cal/(molK) starts at 300 K and is heated at
constant pressure to 320 K, then cooled at constant volume to its original temperature. How
much heat flows into the gas during this two-step process?
A) 710 cal
B) -720 cal
C) 0.00 cal
D) 120 cal
E) -120 cal
Var: 1

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12) A quantity of ideal gas requires 800 kJ to raise the temperature of the gas by 10.0 K when the
gas is maintained at constant volume. The same quantity of gas requires 900 kJ to raise the
temperature of the gas by 10.0 K when the gas is maintained at constant pressure. What is the
adiabatic constant for this gas?
A) 0.889
B) 1.13
C) 1.22
D) 1.67
E) 1.40
Var: 1

13) The temperature of an ideal gas in a sealed 0.40- rigid container is reduced from 350 K to
The final pressure of the gas is
The molar heat capacity at constant volume of the
gas is 28.0 J/mol K. The heat absorbed by the gas is closest to
A) -24 kJ.
B) -31 kJ.
C) 24 kJ.
D) 31 kJ.
E) 0.00 kJ.
Var: 50+

14) The temperature of an ideal gas in a sealed 0.40

container is reduced from 400 K to
The final pressure of the gas is
The molar heat capacity at constant volume of the
gas is 28.0 J/mol K. The work done by the gas is closest to
A) 0.00 kJ.
B) -19 kJ.
C) -25 kJ.
D) 19 kJ.
E) 25 kJ.
Var: 50+

15) A compression, at a constant pressure of 190 kPa, is performed on 5.0 moles of an ideal
monatomic gas. The compression reduces the volume of the gas from
to
The
ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol K. The work done by the gas is closest to
A) -13 kJ.
B) 13 kJ.
C) -33 kJ.
D) 33 kJ.
E) 0.00 kJ.
Var: 50+

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16) A monatomic ideal gas undergoes an isothermal expansion at 300 K, as the volume increased
from
to
The final pressure of the gas is
The ideal gas constant is R =
8.314 J/mol K. The change in the internal (thermal) energy of the gas is closest to
A) 0.00 kJ.
B) 12 kJ.
C) 25 kJ.
D) -12 kJ.
E) -25 kJ.
Var: 50+

17) A monatomic ideal gas undergoes an isothermal expansion at 300 K, as the volume increased
from
to
The final pressure is
The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314
J/mol K. The heat transfer to the gas is closest to
A) 3.3 kJ.
B) 1.7 kJ.
C) -3.3 kJ.
D) -1.7 kJ.
E) 0.00 kJ.
Var: 50+

18) An expansion process on an ideal diatomic gas has a linear path between the initial and final
states on a pV diagram. The initial pressure is
the initial volume is
and the
initial temperature is
The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol K. The final pressure is
and the final temperature is
The work done by the gas is closest to
A) 4500 J.
B) 2300 J.
C) 3400 J.
D) 5600 J.
E) 6800 J.
Var: 50+

19) An expansion process on an ideal diatomic gas has a linear path between the initial and final
states on a pV diagram. The initial pressure is
the initial volume is
and the
initial temperature is
The final pressure is
and the final temperature is
The change in the internal (thermal) energy of the gas is closest to
A) -3100 J.
B) -1800 J.
C) 3100 J.
D) 1800 J.
E) 0.00 J.
Var: 50+
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20) An adiabatic compression is performed on an ideal gas. The final pressure is equal to 0.560
times the initial pressure and the final volume equals 1.50 times the initial volume. What is the
adiabatic constant for the gas?
A) 1.33
B) 1.43
C) 1.48
D) 1.52
E) 1.67
Var: 1

21) An ideal gas with = 1.67 is initially at 0C in a volume of 10.0 L at a pressure of 1.00 atm.
It is then expanded adiabatically to a volume of 10.4 L. What is the final temperature of the gas?
A) -7.1C
B) 2.5C
C) -23C
D) 68C
E) -20C
Var: 1

22) During an isothermal process, 5.0 J of heat is removed from an ideal gas. What is the change
in internal (thermal) energy of the gas?
A) 0.00 J
B) 2.5 J
C) 5.0 J
D) 7.5 J
E) 10 J
Var: 1

23) During an isothermal process, 5.0 J of heat is removed from an ideal gas. How much work
does the gas do during this process?
A) 0.00 J
B) 2.0 J
C) 5.0 J
D) -5.0 J
E) 10 J
Var: 1

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24) During an adiabatic process, an ideal gas does 25 J of work. What is the change in the
internal (thermal) energy of the gas during this process?
A) 0.00 J
B) 50 J
C) 25 J
D) -25 J
E) -50 J
Var: 1

25) In an isochoric process, the internal (thermal) energy of an ideal gas decreases by 50 J. How
much work does the gas do during this process?
A) 0.00 J
B) 25 J
C) 50 J
D) -25 J
E) -50 J
Var: 1

26) In an isochoric process, the internal (thermal) energy of an ideal gas decreases by 50 J. How
much heat is exchanged with the gas during this process?
A) 0.00 J
B) 25 J
C) 50 J
D) -25 J
E) -50 J
Var: 1

27) A system has a heat source supplying heat to an ideal gas at a rate of 187.0 W and the gas is
doing work at a rate of 130.9 W. At what rate is the internal (thermal) energy of the gas
changing?
A) 56.1 W
B) 318 W
C) -56.1 W
D) 187 W
Var: 1

28) The gas in a perfectly insulated system does work at a rate of

internal (thermal) energy of the gas changing?
A) -13 W
B) 13 W
C) 0.00 W
D) 6.5 W
Var: 50+
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At what rate is the

29) An ideal gas is allowed to expand slowly at constant temperature to twice its original
volume. During the expansion, the gas absorbs 200 kJ of heat.
(a) What is the change in the internal (thermal) energy of the gas during the expansion?
(b) How much work does the gas do during the expansion?
Answer: (a) zero (b) 200 kJ
Var: 1

30) An ideal gas initially at 300 K and occupying a volume of 20 L is adiabatically compressed.
If its final temperature is 400 K and = 1.30, what is its final volume?
A) 7.7 L
B) 14 L
C) 22 L
D) 52 L
Var: 1

31) A container with rigid walls is filled with 4 mol of air with CV = 2.5R. How much does the
internal (thermal) energy change if the temperature of the air rises from 16C to 437C? The
ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol K.
A) 35 kJ
B) 421 J
C) 3.5 kJ
D) 8.75 kJ
Var: 1

32) An ideal gas with = 1.30 occupies 7.0 L at 300 K and 200 kPa pressure. It is compressed
adiabatically to 1/7 of its original volume, then cooled at constant volume to 300 K, and finally
allowed to expand isothermally to 7.0 L. How much work does the gas do during this process?
The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol K = 0.0821 L atm/mol K.
A) -980 J
B) 6400 J
C) -270,000 J
D) -6400 J
E) 980 J
Var: 1

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33) The pV diagram shown is for 7.50 moles of an ideal diatomic gas taken through a cycle from
a to b to c. The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol K.

(a) What is the highest temperature reached by the gas during the cycle?
(b) What net work does the gas do during the cycle?
(c) How much heat is exchanged with the gas during part bc of the cycle? Does it enter or leave
the gas?
(d) What is the change in the internal (thermal) energy of the gas during part bc of the cycle?
(e) What is the change in the internal (thermal) energy of the gas during the entire cycle?
Answer: (a) 208C (b) 4.00 kJ (c) 30.0 kJ, leaves the gas
(d) -30.0 kJ (e) 0.00 J
Var: 1

34) A cylinder contains 23 moles of an ideal gas at a temperature of 300 K. The gas is
compressed at constant pressure until the final volume equals 0.43 times the initial volume. The
molar heat capacity at constant volume of the gas is 24.0 J/mol K and the ideal gas constant is
R = 8.314 J/mol K. The heat absorbed by the gas is closest to
A) -130 kJ.
B) -94 kJ.
C) 130 kJ.
D) 94 kJ.
E) -33 kJ.
Var: 50+

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35) A cylinder contains 24.0 moles of an ideal gas at a temperature of 300 K. The gas is
compressed at constant pressure until the final volume equals 0.63 times the initial volume. The
molar heat capacity at constant volume of the gas is 24.0 J/mol K and the ideal gas constant is
R = 8.314 J/mol K. The change in the internal (thermal) energy of the gas is closest to
A) -64 kJ.
B) -86 kJ.
C) 64 kJ.
D) 86 kJ.
E) -22 kJ.
Var: 50+

36) During an adiabatic process, 20 moles of a monatomic ideal gas undergo a temperature
change from 450 K to 320 K starting from an initial pressure is 400 kPa. The ideal gas constant
is R = 8.314 J/mol K.
(a) What is the final volume of the gas?
(b) How much heat does the gas exchange during this process?
(c) What is the change in the internal (thermal) energy of the gas during this process?
Answer: (a) 0.31 m3 (b) 0.00 J (c) -32 kJ
Var: 1

37) The figure shows the pV diagram for a certain thermodynamic process. In this process, 1500
J of heat flows into a system, and at the same time the system expands against a constant external
pressure of
If the volume of the system increases from
to
calculate the change in internal (thermal) energy of the system. If the internal (thermal) energy
change is nonzero, be sure to indicate whether this energy change is positive or negative.

Var: 50+

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38) A fixed amount of ideal gas goes through a process abc. In state a, the temperature of the gas
is 152C, its pressure is 1.25 atm, and it occupies a volume of 0.250 m3. It then undergoes an
isothermal expansion to state b that doubles its volume, followed by an isobaric compression
back to its original volume at state c. (Hint: First show this process on a pV diagram.) The ideal
gas constant is 8.314 J/mol K, and 1.00 atm = 1.01 105 Pa.
(a) How many moles does this gas contain?
(b) What is the change in the internal energy of the gas between states a and b?
(c) What is the net work done on (or by) this gas during the entire process?
(d) What is the temperature of the gas in state c?
Answer: (a) 8.93 moles (b) 0.00 J (c) 6.10 103 J (d) 213 K
Var: 1

39) A cylinder contains 1.2 moles of ideal gas, initially at a temperature of 116C. The cylinder is
provided with a frictionless piston, which maintains a constant pressure of
on the
gas. The gas is cooled until its temperature has decreased to
For the gas
and the ideal gas constant
(a) Find the work done by (or on) the gas during this process. Is the work done by or on the gas?
(b) What is the change in the internal (thermal) energy of the gas during this process?
(c) How much heat is transferred to (or from) the gas during this process? Does this heat flow
into or out of the gas?
Answer: (a) W = -890 J (the negative sign means that work is done on the gas)
(b) -1200 J
(c) Q = -2100 J (the negative sign means that heat flows out of the gas)
Var: 50+

40) In a thermodynamic process involving 7.8 moles of an ideal gas, the gas is at an initial
temperature of 24C and has an initial volume of 0.040 m3. The gas expands adiabatically to a
volume of 0.080 m3. For this gas, CV = 12.27 J/mol K, and the ideal gas constant is R = 8.314
J/mol K. Calculate the work done by the gas during this expansion.