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- Process Control Instrumentation Technology 8th Edition [Solutions Manual] (Curtis D. Johnson)
- HAZOP Example
- Air Flow Process Control
- [Cpdc Lab Report] Control Valve Characteristics
- Harmonic Rsf Supermini Catalog
- A Mechatronics Approach in Intelligent Control Systems of the Overhead Travelling Cranes Prototyping, 2008
- History of Control System
- Exercise Chapter 2
- IMO PS Autopilots
- Executive Summary p&Id
- systemsandcontrol-131220040132-phpapp02.pdf
- 3.4 E-OLSS Electronic Control
- Advanced Motion Controls BR3410NI-A03-AC120
- ELEC3320- Lecture Notes 1
- Experiment 6
- Servo Atmel
- HVAC Controls
- Lecture Note (Online) (Dr. Siva)
- Fyp Control and Automation of Scara June 2011 Nust Eme
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Introduction to Process

Control

Introduction to

Process Control

The term control means methods to force

parameters in the environment to have

specific values.

In general, all the elements necessary to

accomplish the control objective are

described by the term control system.

Control system exist in nature.

This can be as simple as

Making the temperature in a room stay at 21C.

Move large equipment with precision.

Elevator system.

regulate the position and speed.

2

Liquid is flowing into a tank

at some rate Qin.

The liquid in the tank has

some height or level h.

so the higher the level, the

faster the liquid flows out.

If the output flow rate is not

exactly equal to the input

flow rate, the level will either

rise or drop.

A self regulating system

does not provide regulation,

if the input flow rate

changed, then the level

would change also, so it is

not regulated to a reference

value.

3

A Human Aided

Control System

human, so that it maintains the

value h.

This can be achieved by a sensor

(sight tube, S) to measure the

level.

The actual liquid level is called the

controlled variable.

A valve has been added so that the

output flow rate can be changed by

the human. The output flow rate is

called the manipulated variable or

controlling variable.

The level of height in the sight tube

is compared to the set-point value.

If the measured value is larger, the

human opens the valve wider to

increase the output flow rate

If the level lowers toward the setpoint. If the measured value is

smaller than the set-point, the

human closes the valve a little to

decrease the output flow rate and

allow the level to rise toward the 4

set-point.

An Automatic

Control System

Machines, electronics, or

computers replace the

operation of the human.

Sensor is used to measure the

value of the level and convert it

into a proportional signal, s.

This signal is used as input to

the controller which performs

the function of evaluating the

measurement and providing an

output signal, u.

This control signal used to

change the valve setting via an

actuator connected to the valve

by a mechanical linkage.

When automatic control is

applied to systems like the

example to regulate the value

of some variable to a specific

reference, it is called process

control.

5

Servo-Mechanism

The objective is to force

some parameter to vary in

a specific manner

In stead of regulating a

variable to a specific

reference, the

servomechanism forces the

controlled variable value to

follow variation of the

reference value

Servo mechanisms force

the robot arm to follow a

path form point A to point

B, this done by controlling

the speed of motors

driving the arm and the

angles of the arm parts

6

This is a type of control system concerned

with controlling a sequence of events

rather than regulation or variation of

individual variables.

Example: the manufacture of paint.

This sequence is described in terms of

events that are timed to be started and

stopped on a specific schedule.

These discrete state control systems are

often implemented using specialized

computer based equipment called

programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

7

Tank A

(Red 30%)

Tank B

(White

70%)

Objective:

To produce pink color

paint.

Stir

1

Valve A

Valve B

Mixing Tank

(Pink 100%)

Heater

turn it off after obtained 30% of

the red paint.

Step2 Turn on Valve B and

turn it off after obtained 70% of

the red paint.

Step3 Turn on Stir and Heater

for 10 minutes.

Step4 Turn on Valve C

Valve C

Tank A Tank B Tank C Tank D

To provide a practical,

working description of

process control.

Model may be

constructed using

blocks to represent

each distinctive

element.

The characteristics of

control operation then

may be developed

from a consideration

of the properties and

interfacing of these

elements.

9

Process (Plant)

A process (plant) can consist of a complex

assembly of phenomena that relate to

some manufacturing sequence.

Many variables may be involved in such a

process and it may be desirable to control

all these variables at the same time.

There are single variable processes, in

which only one variable is to be controlled,

as well as multivariable process, in which

many variables, perhaps interrelated, may

require regulation.

10

Measurement

To effectively control a variable in a process, we

must have information about the variable itself.

Such information is found by measuring the

variable.

A measurement refers to the conversion of the

variable into some corresponding analog of the

variable. Ex: pressure, voltage, current.

A sensor or transducer is a device that performs

the initial measurement and energy conversion of

a variable into analogous electrical or pneumatic

information. Ex: pressure, distance, motion.

Transducer: converts voltage to current.

The result of the measurement is a

representation of the variable value in some form

required by the other elements in the process

control operation.

11

Error Detector

The difference

between the actual

level, h, and the

set-point level, H,

and deduced an

error.

Error determination

must be made

before any control

action is taken by

the controller.

12

Controller

filter.

Depending upon the difference of the

measurement and the controlled

variable, the controller evaluates and

determines the effort required to

drive the process toward the setpoint value

13

Control Element

It provides those required changes in the

controlled variable to bring it to the setpoint.

This element accepts an input from the

controller, which is then transformed into

some appropriate action performed on the

process.

Ex: the control valve that adjusts the

output flow rate of liquid from the tank.

14

Actuator

required between the controller and

the final control element.

It uses the controller signal to

actuate the final control element.

The actuator translates the small

energy signal of the controller into a

larger energy action on the process.

15

control loop

16

control loop

17

Construct a block diagram of a

refrigerator control system. Define

each block in terms of the

refrigerator components.

18

19

A process control system is used to regulate the

value of some process variable

The variable used to measure the performance of

the control system is the errors, e(t), which is the

difference between the reference value, r(t), and

the controlled (actual) variable, c(t).

Mathematically, the relationship can be expressed

as:

e(t ) = r (t ) c(t )

A real control system is evaluated based on the

following requirements. (1) Stability. (2) Transient

response. (3) Steady state performance.

20

system objective is represented by

three requirement:

The system should be stable.

The system should provide the best

possible steady-state regulation.

The system should provide the best

possible transient regulation.

21

Stability

The necessary correct

action should taken

on the process to

eliminate the error.

The process can

become unstable if

the action is done

wrongly.

The control system

must be designed

and adjusted so that

the system is stable.

22

SSE should be minimum in any process

system.

But, there some deviation error value

occur about the setpoint.

This range of deviation is expected and

acceptable.

If the error drift out of the range, the

control system will correct it.

Ex: 150C 2C, allowable temp range is

148C to 152C

23

Transient Response

Transient error occur when sudden change

of setpoint (Ex: temperature change from

20C to 22C) or some other process

variable value (fluctuation of the

surrounding temperature).

Transient regulation specifies how the

control system reacts to bring the

temperature to the new setpoint value for

the purpose to minimize the bad effect on

the process.

24

Damped Response

Setpoint is changed to a new

value.

Controlled variable increases

to the new setpoint in

duration of tD.

Some overshoot, emax occur

during the rising period of the

controlled variable.

The duration tD is often define

as the time from the start of

the disturbance until the

controlled variable to go from

10% to 90% of the changed.

Different tuning gives

different values of emax and

tD, either larger duration with

smaller peak error or vice

verse.

25

Cyclic/Underdamped Response

When setpoint changed,

the controlled variable

oscillates about the

setpoint.

emax and tD (also called

settling time) be

measured as well.

The duration is measured

from the time when the

allowable error is first

exceeded to the time

when it falls within the

allowable error and stays.

emax and tD can be varied

by tuning the minimum

area or quarter

26

amplitude.

tuning is adjusted until

the net area under the

error-time is minimum.

For quarter amplitude,

adjust the amplitude of

each peak of the cyclic

response be a quarter of

the preceding peak, a2

= a1/4, a3 = a2/4 and so

on.

A = e(t ) dt = minimum

27

Transient Response

Elevator system: a slow transient response makes passengers

impatient, excessively rapid response makes them

uncomfortable.

Too fast a transient response could cause permanent physical

damage.

Steady-State Response

This response resembles the input and remains after the

transient have decayed to zero.

Elevator system: stopped near the desired floor for the

passengers to exit.

28

A process control loop has a setpoint of

175C and an allowable deviation of

5C. A transient cause the response

shown. Specify the maximum error and

settling time.

29

30

Two different tunings of a process-control

loop result in the transient response

shown. Estimate which would be preferred

to satisfy the minimum area criteria.

31

32

The second cyclic transient error

peak of a response test measure 4.4

%. For the quarter-amplitude

criteria, what error should be the

third peak value?

33

34

Does the response satisfy the

quarter-amplitude criterion?

35

36

An analog sensor converts flow

linearly so that flow from 0 to 300

m3/h becomes a current from 0 to

50mA. Calculate the current for a

flow of 225 m3/h.

37

38

Analog processing

Data are represented by the magnitude of

voltages and currents.

Digital processing

For modern control system.

Data are represented as binary bits.

a process, ex: thermal sensor produces

the output voltage which magnitude is

proportional to the measured temperature

in the control loop.

39

Output analog data

b represent by a

smooth and

continuous curve

which varies

according to the

measured variable c.

The output is

nonlinear because

the same c does

not result in the

same b.

40

0s.

When analog data converted to digitally,

some range of analog numbers is encoded

by a fixed number of binary digitals.

This will cause loss information because a

fixed number of binary digitals has a

limitation resolution. Ex: 4.25 V and 4.75

V both are represented by 01002.

Also lost of smooth and continuous data

representation between the output values

and the measured variable values. Only in

discrete representation.

41

Data Conversions

Convert analog voltages into a digital representation.

Interface between the o/p of sensor and the i/p of digital

computer.

Convert digital voltages into a analog representation.

Interface between the o/p of digital computer and the

i/p of the final control element (Ex: relay, valve, etc)

42

Suppose each bit change in a 4-bit

ADC represents a level of 0.15 m.

a) What would the 4 bits be for a level

of 1.7 m?

b) Suppose the 4 bits were 10002. What

is the range of possible levels?

43

44

NO/OFF Control

Most elementary control.

Controller output only produces two

digital representation binary signals:

1 and 0.

The final control element only has

two stages: ON and OFF.

45

Ve = K (Vref V )

Tref.

A sensor converts temp. values into a resistance values in an analog

way.

R varies smoothly and continuously with T.

Signal conditioning converts the variable R into an analog voltage V.

The differential amplifier multiplies the difference between V and Vref

by a gain K to produce an error voltage Ve.

Relays will either be open or closed so that the heater or cooler will

either be on or off.

46

This system exhibits a deadband, where the behavior of the system is

different at the same value of temperature.

Programmable Logic

Controllers (PLC)

nature (Ex: conveyor, heater, valve, motor etc).

These discrete controls can be done by hard wiring

relay refer as relay logic controller.

It replaced by PLC.

Thermal-limit switches are used instead of sensor to

indicate when the temperature has risen above or

fallen below the limit temperatures.

47

For the process control shown, suppose that the relays

close at 1.5V and open at 1.1 V. This means that as the

voltage on the relay reaches 1.5V, it closes, and does not

open again until the voltage drops to 1.1V (i.e. there is a

deadband). The amplifier has a gain of 10, the reference is

3V, and the sensor outputs is 150mV/C. Calculate the

temperature at which the heater turns on and off and at

which the cooler turns on and off.

48

49

In control process, if the process variables

involve a range of variation, the controller should

able to produce the control signals which

proportion to the range of the process variable

changing.

The common used analog representation is:

Electric system: electric current in wires, 4 to 20 mA.

Pneumatic system: gas pressure in pipes, 3 to 15 psi.

variable information over some distance, ex:

between control room and the plant.

50

data about the controlled variable to the

control room.

Gas pressure in pipes is used to transmit a

feedback signal to a valve to change flow

as the controlling variable.

51

Transfer Function

output for the block.

Described into two parts: static and dynamic.

Static TF: describes the input/output relationship

when the input is not changing in time

(constant). It presented in the form of equation,

tables or graph.

Dynamic TF: describes the input/output

relationship when the input is changing in time

(time response). It presented by a differential

equation in time

52

Linearity

In signal conditioning, for each value of the input

variable, there exists one unique value of the

output variable.

The relationship between the input and output

can be represented by linear equation (straightline):

cm = mc + c0

c = variable to be measured

m = slop of straight line

c0 = offset of intercept of straight line

cm = output of measurement

53

Suppose the temperature range 20

C to 120 C is linearly converted to

the standard current range of 4mA to

20 mA.

a) What current will result from 66 C?

b) What temperature does 6.5 mA

represent?

54

Using linear equation to solve :

a) When T = 66C

I m = mT + I o

4mA = m(20C ) + I o

20mA = m(120C ) + I o

Solve for m :

16mA = (100C )m

m = 0.16mA / C

Then, solve for I o :

b) When I = 6.5mA

I 0.8mA

T= m

0.16mA / C

(6.5 0.8)mA

=

0.16mA / C

= 35.6C

4mA = 3.2mA + I o

I o = 0.8mA

I m = (0.16mA / C )T + 0.8mA

55

A sensor resistance changes linearly

form 100 to 180 as temperature

changes from 20 C to 120 C. Find

a linear equation relating resistance

and temperature.

56

Using Linear Equation

R = mT + R 0

Form the equation

as :

100 = m ( 20 ) + R 0

180 = m (120 ) + R 0 Temp. Range:

Solve for m :

R = 0.8T+84

Resistance Range:

100 ~ 180

180 100

= 0 .8 / C

m =

120 20

Solve for R 0 :

100 = 0 . 8 ( 20 ) + R 0

R 0 = 100 16 = 84

The linear equation

R = 0 . 8T + 84

relating resistance

and temperatu re is :

57

Suppose a liquid level ranging from

5.5 m to 8.6 m is linearly converted

to pneumatic pressure ranging from

3 psi to 15 psi.

a) What pressure will result from a level

of 7.2 m?

b) What level does a pressure of 4.7 psi

represent?

58

59

A level sensor inputs a range from

4.50 ft to 10.6 ft and outputs a

pressure range from 3 psi to 15 psi.

a) Find an equation between level and

pressure.

b) What is the pressure for the level of

9.2 ft?

60

61

input c(t).

If the input is changed from ci to cf, the output

should be produced according to the range of

input variation instantaneously (ideally).

Practically, all sensor exhibit some lag between

the output and input and some characteristic

variation in time before settling on the final

value.

62

First-Order Response

input.

The time response is determined by the

solution of a first-order differential

equation as shown:

b(t ) = bi + (b f bi )[1 e

t /

]

63

transfer function and initial input

Bf = final sensor output from static

transfer function and final input

= sensor time constant

The sensor output start to change at t =

0 and reach constant after 5 time

constants.

The sensor output is exponentially

increase from bi to bf.

This equation is used to predict a finite

starting slope.

64

of time constant:

b(t ) bi = (b f bi )[1 e t / ]

The sensor output for the first time constant can

be found by substitute t =

The output function becomes:

b(t ) bi = (b f bi )[1 e / ]

b(t ) bi = 0.6321(b f bi )

One time constant represents the time at which

the output value has changed by approximately

63% of the total change.

The output approximately reached its final value

after five time constants.

65

A sensor measures temperature

linearly with a static transfer function

of 33 mV/C and has a 1.5 s time

constant.

a) Find the output 0.75 after the input

changes from 20 C to 41 C.

b) Find the error in temperature this

represents.

66

bi = 33mV ( 20 ) = 660 mV

b f = 33mV ( 41) = 1353 mV

= 1 .5 s

5 = 5(1.5) = 7.5 s

Temp. Range:

Output Voltage (V)

20C ~ 41C Sensor:

33mv/C,=0.75s

b (t ) = bi + (b f bi )[1 e t / ]

41C

b (0.75) = 660 + (1353 660 )[1 e 0.75 / 1.5 ]

= 660 + 693 (1 0.6065 )

20C

= 660 + 272 .6955

= 932 .69 mV

The corespondi ng temperatu re for this value of output is :

932 .69 C

T=

= 28 .26 C

Output at 0.75s

33mV / C

0.75s

The actual temperatu re is 41 C, so the error is :

41 C - 28.26 C = 12.74 C

The output of the sensor wil l achieved 1353mv after 5 which is represent 41 C.

67

A pressure sensor measures 44 psi

just before a sudden change to 70

psi. The sensor measures 52 psi at a

time 4.5 s after the change. What is

the sensor time constant?

68

69

A photocell with a 35-ms time

constant is used to measure light

flashes. How long after a sudden

dark-to-light flash before the cell

output is 80% of the final value?

70

71

An alarm light goes ON when a

pressure sensor voltage rises above

4.00 V. The pressure sensor outputs

20 mV/kPa and has a time constant

of 4.9 s. How long after the pressure

rises suddenly from 100 kPa to 400

kPa does the light go ON?

72

73

A pressure sensor has resistance that change

with pressure according to R = (0.15 k/psi)p +

2.5 k. This resistance is then converted to a

voltage with the transfer function

10 R

V=

volts

R + 10k

The sensor time constant is 350 ms. At t = 0, the

pressure changes suddenly from 40 psi to 150

psi.

a) What is the voltage output at 0.5 s?

b) What is the indicated pressure at this time?

c) At what time does the output reach 5.0 V?

74

75

76

At t = 0, a temperature sensor was suddenly

changed from 25 C to 100 C . The sensor

outputs voltage given by the expression V =

(0.06V/C)[T 20 C]. The following table gives

the voltages measured and the times. Determine

the average time constant of the sensor.

t(second)

V(volts)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.3

1.8

2.8

3.4

3.9

4.2

77

78

opens the valve and an open relay closes the valve. Input flow is not

controlled. The relay closes at 6.0 V and opens again at 4.8 V. The level

sensor has a transfer function of Vh = 0.8h + 0.4 V.

a) Find the value of amplifier gain, K, required to open the valve when the level reaches 1.5

m.

b) At what level does the valve close?

c) Suppose Q1 = 5 m3/min, Q2 = 2 m3/min and Qout = 9 m3/min (when open). What is the

period of the level oscillation?

79

80

A pressure-measurement system uses a sensor that

converts pressure into voltage according to the

transfer function, Vp = 0.5(p)1/2. This voltge is then

converted into a current. As the pressure varies from

0 psi to 100 psi, the current varies from 4 mA to 20

mA.

a) Find the transfer function equation for the conversion of

voltage to current.

b) What pressure change, p, will cause the current to change

by 1 mA from 19 mA to 20 mA?

c) What pressure change, p, will cause the current to change

by 1 mA from 4 mA to 5 mA?

d) Why is the pressure change not the same as in b) and c)

even though the current changed by 1 mA in both cases?

81

82

gases inside a steel chamber. A computer is used to measure the

pressure. The pressure sensor has a transfer function of Vp = 0.05(p +

500)1/2 and a first-order time constant of = 2.0 s. When an explosion

occurs, the pressure rises virtually instantaneously from 0 to some

maximum, pmax. At t = 0, the explosion occurs, and the computer must

take a reading at t = 1 s, and determine the pressure pmax. This is before

the sensor signal has stabilized.

b) Suppose the sensor signal at t = 1.0 s is 1.45 V. What is the value of pmax.

c) Suppose pmax = 2500 psi; what value will the sensor voltage have at 1.0 s?

d) What equation will the computer be programmed to use in order to find pmax

from the sensor voltage taken at 1.0 s.

83

84

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