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Chapter 1

Introduction to Process

Introduction to
Process Control
The term control means methods to force
parameters in the environment to have
specific values.
In general, all the elements necessary to
accomplish the control objective are
described by the term control system.
Control system exist in nature.
This can be as simple as
Making the temperature in a room stay at 21C.
Move large equipment with precision.
Elevator system.

Motor provides the power, control systems

regulate the position and speed.

Self Regulated System

Liquid is flowing into a tank
at some rate Qin.
The liquid in the tank has
some height or level h.
so the higher the level, the
faster the liquid flows out.
If the output flow rate is not
exactly equal to the input
flow rate, the level will either
rise or drop.
A self regulating system
does not provide regulation,
if the input flow rate
changed, then the level
would change also, so it is
not regulated to a reference

A Human Aided
Control System

Artificial regulation of the level by a

human, so that it maintains the
value h.
This can be achieved by a sensor
(sight tube, S) to measure the
The actual liquid level is called the
controlled variable.
A valve has been added so that the
output flow rate can be changed by
the human. The output flow rate is
called the manipulated variable or
controlling variable.
The level of height in the sight tube
is compared to the set-point value.
If the measured value is larger, the
human opens the valve wider to
increase the output flow rate
If the level lowers toward the setpoint. If the measured value is
smaller than the set-point, the
human closes the valve a little to
decrease the output flow rate and
allow the level to rise toward the 4

An Automatic
Control System
Machines, electronics, or
computers replace the
operation of the human.
Sensor is used to measure the
value of the level and convert it
into a proportional signal, s.
This signal is used as input to
the controller which performs
the function of evaluating the
measurement and providing an
output signal, u.
This control signal used to
change the valve setting via an
actuator connected to the valve
by a mechanical linkage.
When automatic control is
applied to systems like the
example to regulate the value
of some variable to a specific
reference, it is called process

The objective is to force
some parameter to vary in
a specific manner
In stead of regulating a
variable to a specific
reference, the
servomechanism forces the
controlled variable value to
follow variation of the
reference value
Servo mechanisms force
the robot arm to follow a
path form point A to point
B, this done by controlling
the speed of motors
driving the arm and the
angles of the arm parts

Discrete State Control Systems

This is a type of control system concerned
with controlling a sequence of events
rather than regulation or variation of
individual variables.
Example: the manufacture of paint.
This sequence is described in terms of
events that are timed to be started and
stopped on a specific schedule.
These discrete state control systems are
often implemented using specialized
computer based equipment called
programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

Tank A
(Red 30%)

Tank B

To produce pink color


Valve A

Valve B

Mixing Tank
(Pink 100%)


Step1 Turn on Valve A and

turn it off after obtained 30% of
the red paint.
Step2 Turn on Valve B and
turn it off after obtained 70% of
the red paint.
Step3 Turn on Stir and Heater
for 10 minutes.
Step4 Turn on Valve C

Valve C
Tank A Tank B Tank C Tank D

Process Control Block Diagram

To provide a practical,
working description of
process control.
Model may be
constructed using
blocks to represent
each distinctive
The characteristics of
control operation then
may be developed
from a consideration
of the properties and
interfacing of these

Process (Plant)
A process (plant) can consist of a complex
assembly of phenomena that relate to
some manufacturing sequence.
Many variables may be involved in such a
process and it may be desirable to control
all these variables at the same time.
There are single variable processes, in
which only one variable is to be controlled,
as well as multivariable process, in which
many variables, perhaps interrelated, may
require regulation.


To effectively control a variable in a process, we
must have information about the variable itself.
Such information is found by measuring the
A measurement refers to the conversion of the
variable into some corresponding analog of the
variable. Ex: pressure, voltage, current.
A sensor or transducer is a device that performs
the initial measurement and energy conversion of
a variable into analogous electrical or pneumatic
information. Ex: pressure, distance, motion.
Transducer: converts voltage to current.
The result of the measurement is a
representation of the variable value in some form
required by the other elements in the process
control operation.

Error Detector
The difference
between the actual
level, h, and the
set-point level, H,
and deduced an
Error determination
must be made
before any control
action is taken by
the controller.


It is also known as compensator or

Depending upon the difference of the
measurement and the controlled
variable, the controller evaluates and
determines the effort required to
drive the process toward the setpoint value


Control Element
It provides those required changes in the
controlled variable to bring it to the setpoint.
This element accepts an input from the
controller, which is then transformed into
some appropriate action performed on the
Ex: the control valve that adjusts the
output flow rate of liquid from the tank.



Often an intermediate operation is

required between the controller and
the final control element.
It uses the controller signal to
actuate the final control element.
The actuator translates the small
energy signal of the controller into a
larger energy action on the process.

Ex: Physical diagram of a process

control loop


Block diagram of the process

control loop


Problem 1.3 (Pg. 45)

Construct a block diagram of a
refrigerator control system. Define
each block in terms of the
refrigerator components.


Problem 1.3 (Pg. 45) Solution


Control System Evaluation

A process control system is used to regulate the
value of some process variable
The variable used to measure the performance of
the control system is the errors, e(t), which is the
difference between the reference value, r(t), and
the controlled (actual) variable, c(t).
Mathematically, the relationship can be expressed

e(t ) = r (t ) c(t )
A real control system is evaluated based on the
following requirements. (1) Stability. (2) Transient
response. (3) Steady state performance.

A practical statement of control

system objective is represented by
three requirement:
The system should be stable.
The system should provide the best
possible steady-state regulation.
The system should provide the best
possible transient regulation.


The necessary correct
action should taken
on the process to
eliminate the error.
The process can
become unstable if
the action is done
The control system
must be designed
and adjusted so that
the system is stable.

Steady-State Regulation (SSE)

SSE should be minimum in any process
But, there some deviation error value
occur about the setpoint.
This range of deviation is expected and
If the error drift out of the range, the
control system will correct it.
Ex: 150C 2C, allowable temp range is
148C to 152C

Transient Response
Transient error occur when sudden change
of setpoint (Ex: temperature change from
20C to 22C) or some other process
variable value (fluctuation of the
surrounding temperature).
Transient regulation specifies how the
control system reacts to bring the
temperature to the new setpoint value for
the purpose to minimize the bad effect on
the process.

Damped Response
Setpoint is changed to a new
Controlled variable increases
to the new setpoint in
duration of tD.
Some overshoot, emax occur
during the rising period of the
controlled variable.
The duration tD is often define
as the time from the start of
the disturbance until the
controlled variable to go from
10% to 90% of the changed.
Different tuning gives
different values of emax and
tD, either larger duration with
smaller peak error or vice

Cyclic/Underdamped Response
When setpoint changed,
the controlled variable
oscillates about the
emax and tD (also called
settling time) be
measured as well.
The duration is measured
from the time when the
allowable error is first
exceeded to the time
when it falls within the
allowable error and stays.
emax and tD can be varied
by tuning the minimum
area or quarter

For minimum area,

tuning is adjusted until
the net area under the
error-time is minimum.
For quarter amplitude,
adjust the amplitude of
each peak of the cyclic
response be a quarter of
the preceding peak, a2
= a1/4, a3 = a2/4 and so

A = e(t ) dt = minimum

Transient Response
Elevator system: a slow transient response makes passengers
impatient, excessively rapid response makes them
Too fast a transient response could cause permanent physical

Steady-State Response
This response resembles the input and remains after the
transient have decayed to zero.
Elevator system: stopped near the desired floor for the
passengers to exit.

Problem 1.4 (Pg. 46)

A process control loop has a setpoint of
175C and an allowable deviation of
5C. A transient cause the response
shown. Specify the maximum error and
settling time.


Solution Problem 1.4 (Pg. 46)


Problem 1.5 (Pg. 46)

Two different tunings of a process-control
loop result in the transient response
shown. Estimate which would be preferred
to satisfy the minimum area criteria.


Problem 1.5 (Pg. 46) Solution


Problem 1.6 (Pg. 46)

The second cyclic transient error
peak of a response test measure 4.4
%. For the quarter-amplitude
criteria, what error should be the
third peak value?


Problem 1.6 (Pg. 46) Solution


Problem 1.7 (Pg. 46)

Does the response satisfy the
quarter-amplitude criterion?


Solution Problem 1.7 (Pg. 46)


Problem 1.8 (Pg. 46)

An analog sensor converts flow
linearly so that flow from 0 to 300
m3/h becomes a current from 0 to
50mA. Calculate the current for a
flow of 225 m3/h.


Problem 1.8 (Pg. 46) Solution


Analog and Digital Processing

Analog processing
Data are represented by the magnitude of
voltages and currents.

Digital processing
For modern control system.
Data are represented as binary bits.

Data represented the physical variable in

a process, ex: thermal sensor produces
the output voltage which magnitude is
proportional to the measured temperature
in the control loop.

Analog and Digital Data

Output analog data
b represent by a
smooth and
continuous curve
which varies
according to the
measured variable c.
The output is
nonlinear because
the same c does
not result in the
same b.

Digital data only have two values, 1s and

When analog data converted to digitally,
some range of analog numbers is encoded
by a fixed number of binary digitals.
This will cause loss information because a
fixed number of binary digitals has a
limitation resolution. Ex: 4.25 V and 4.75
V both are represented by 01002.
Also lost of smooth and continuous data
representation between the output values
and the measured variable values. Only in
discrete representation.


Data Conversions

Analog-to-Digital converters (ADCs)

Convert analog voltages into a digital representation.
Interface between the o/p of sensor and the i/p of digital

Digital-to-Analog converters (DACs)

Convert digital voltages into a analog representation.
Interface between the o/p of digital computer and the
i/p of the final control element (Ex: relay, valve, etc)


Problem 1.10 (Pg. 46)

Suppose each bit change in a 4-bit
ADC represents a level of 0.15 m.
a) What would the 4 bits be for a level
of 1.7 m?
b) Suppose the 4 bits were 10002. What
is the range of possible levels?


Solution Problem 1.10 (Pg. 46)


NO/OFF Control
Most elementary control.
Controller output only produces two
digital representation binary signals:
1 and 0.
The final control element only has
two stages: ON and OFF.


Ve = K (Vref V )

Objective: to maintain the temp. in a system at some reference value,

A sensor converts temp. values into a resistance values in an analog
R varies smoothly and continuously with T.
Signal conditioning converts the variable R into an analog voltage V.
The differential amplifier multiplies the difference between V and Vref
by a gain K to produce an error voltage Ve.
Relays will either be open or closed so that the heater or cooler will
either be on or off.
This system exhibits a deadband, where the behavior of the system is
different at the same value of temperature.

Programmable Logic
Controllers (PLC)

Most of the manufacturing operations are ON/OFF in

nature (Ex: conveyor, heater, valve, motor etc).
These discrete controls can be done by hard wiring
relay refer as relay logic controller.
It replaced by PLC.
Thermal-limit switches are used instead of sensor to
indicate when the temperature has risen above or
fallen below the limit temperatures.


Problem 1.11 (Pg. 47)

For the process control shown, suppose that the relays
close at 1.5V and open at 1.1 V. This means that as the
voltage on the relay reaches 1.5V, it closes, and does not
open again until the voltage drops to 1.1V (i.e. there is a
deadband). The amplifier has a gain of 10, the reference is
3V, and the sensor outputs is 150mV/C. Calculate the
temperature at which the heater turns on and off and at
which the cooler turns on and off.


Solution Problem 1.11 (Pg. 47)


Analog Data Representation

In control process, if the process variables
involve a range of variation, the controller should
able to produce the control signals which
proportion to the range of the process variable
The common used analog representation is:
Electric system: electric current in wires, 4 to 20 mA.
Pneumatic system: gas pressure in pipes, 3 to 15 psi.

These signals are used primarily to transmit

variable information over some distance, ex:
between control room and the plant.


Current is used to transmit measurement

data about the controlled variable to the
control room.
Gas pressure in pipes is used to transmit a
feedback signal to a valve to change flow
as the controlling variable.


Transfer Function

Describes the relationship between the input and

output for the block.
Described into two parts: static and dynamic.
Static TF: describes the input/output relationship
when the input is not changing in time
(constant). It presented in the form of equation,
tables or graph.
Dynamic TF: describes the input/output
relationship when the input is changing in time
(time response). It presented by a differential
equation in time

In signal conditioning, for each value of the input
variable, there exists one unique value of the
output variable.
The relationship between the input and output
can be represented by linear equation (straightline):

cm = mc + c0

c = variable to be measured
m = slop of straight line
c0 = offset of intercept of straight line
cm = output of measurement

Example 1.7 (Pg. 25)

Suppose the temperature range 20
C to 120 C is linearly converted to
the standard current range of 4mA to
20 mA.
a) What current will result from 66 C?
b) What temperature does 6.5 mA


Example 1.7 (Pg. 25) Solution

Using linear equation to solve :

a) When T = 66C

I m = mT + I o

I m = (0.16mA / C )(66C ) + 0.8mA = 11.36mA

4mA = m(20C ) + I o
20mA = m(120C ) + I o
Solve for m :
16mA = (100C )m
m = 0.16mA / C
Then, solve for I o :

b) When I = 6.5mA
I 0.8mA
T= m
0.16mA / C
(6.5 0.8)mA
0.16mA / C
= 35.6C

4mA = 0.16mA / C (20C ) + I o

4mA = 3.2mA + I o
I o = 0.8mA
I m = (0.16mA / C )T + 0.8mA

Example 1.14 (Pg. 32)

A sensor resistance changes linearly
form 100 to 180 as temperature
changes from 20 C to 120 C. Find
a linear equation relating resistance
and temperature.


Example 1.14 (Pg. 32) Solution

Using Linear Equation
R = mT + R 0
Form the equation

as :

100 = m ( 20 ) + R 0
180 = m (120 ) + R 0 Temp. Range:
Solve for m :

20C ~ 120 C Sensor:

R = 0.8T+84

Resistance Range:
100 ~ 180

180 100
= 0 .8 / C
m =
120 20
Solve for R 0 :
100 = 0 . 8 ( 20 ) + R 0
R 0 = 100 16 = 84
The linear equation
R = 0 . 8T + 84

relating resistance

and temperatu re is :

Problem 1.17 (Pg. 47)

Suppose a liquid level ranging from
5.5 m to 8.6 m is linearly converted
to pneumatic pressure ranging from
3 psi to 15 psi.
a) What pressure will result from a level
of 7.2 m?
b) What level does a pressure of 4.7 psi


Problem 1.17 (Pg. 47) Solution


Problem 1.24 (pg. 48)

A level sensor inputs a range from
4.50 ft to 10.6 ft and outputs a
pressure range from 3 psi to 15 psi.
a) Find an equation between level and
b) What is the pressure for the level of
9.2 ft?


Problem 1.24 (pg. 48) Solution


Sensor Time Response

Sensor produces output b(t) as a function of

input c(t).
If the input is changed from ci to cf, the output
should be produced according to the range of
input variation instantaneously (ideally).
Practically, all sensor exhibit some lag between
the output and input and some characteristic
variation in time before settling on the final

First-Order Response

The output change in time following a step

The time response is determined by the
solution of a first-order differential
equation as shown:
b(t ) = bi + (b f bi )[1 e

t /


Bi = initial sensor output from static

transfer function and initial input
Bf = final sensor output from static
transfer function and final input
= sensor time constant
The sensor output start to change at t =
0 and reach constant after 5 time
The sensor output is exponentially
increase from bi to bf.
This equation is used to predict a finite
starting slope.

The sensor output function is expressed in term

of time constant:

b(t ) bi = (b f bi )[1 e t / ]
The sensor output for the first time constant can
be found by substitute t =
The output function becomes:

b(t ) bi = (b f bi )[1 e / ]
b(t ) bi = 0.6321(b f bi )
One time constant represents the time at which
the output value has changed by approximately
63% of the total change.
The output approximately reached its final value
after five time constants.

Example 1.15 (Pg. 38)

A sensor measures temperature
linearly with a static transfer function
of 33 mV/C and has a 1.5 s time
a) Find the output 0.75 after the input
changes from 20 C to 41 C.
b) Find the error in temperature this


Example 1.15 (Pg. 38) Solution

bi = 33mV ( 20 ) = 660 mV
b f = 33mV ( 41) = 1353 mV

= 1 .5 s
5 = 5(1.5) = 7.5 s

Temp. Range:
Output Voltage (V)
20C ~ 41C Sensor:

When t = 0.75s, the output of the sensor is :

b (t ) = bi + (b f bi )[1 e t / ]

b (0.75) = 660 + (1353 660 )[1 e 0.75 / 1.5 ]
= 660 + 693 (1 0.6065 )
= 660 + 272 .6955
= 932 .69 mV
The corespondi ng temperatu re for this value of output is :
932 .69 C
= 28 .26 C
Output at 0.75s
33mV / C
The actual temperatu re is 41 C, so the error is :
41 C - 28.26 C = 12.74 C
The output of the sensor wil l achieved 1353mv after 5 which is represent 41 C.


Problem 1.27 (Pg. 48)

A pressure sensor measures 44 psi
just before a sudden change to 70
psi. The sensor measures 52 psi at a
time 4.5 s after the change. What is
the sensor time constant?


Problem 1.27 (Pg. 48) Solution


Problem 1.28 (Pg. 48)

A photocell with a 35-ms time
constant is used to measure light
flashes. How long after a sudden
dark-to-light flash before the cell
output is 80% of the final value?


Problem 1.28 (Pg. 48) Solution


Problem 1.29 (Pg. 48)

An alarm light goes ON when a
pressure sensor voltage rises above
4.00 V. The pressure sensor outputs
20 mV/kPa and has a time constant
of 4.9 s. How long after the pressure
rises suddenly from 100 kPa to 400
kPa does the light go ON?


Problem 1.29 (Pg. 48) Solution


Problem 1.30 (Pg. 48)

A pressure sensor has resistance that change
with pressure according to R = (0.15 k/psi)p +
2.5 k. This resistance is then converted to a
voltage with the transfer function

10 R
R + 10k
The sensor time constant is 350 ms. At t = 0, the
pressure changes suddenly from 40 psi to 150
a) What is the voltage output at 0.5 s?
b) What is the indicated pressure at this time?
c) At what time does the output reach 5.0 V?

Problem 1.30 (Pg. 48) Solution


Problem 1.30 (Pg. 48) Solution


Problem 1.31 (Pg. 48)

At t = 0, a temperature sensor was suddenly
changed from 25 C to 100 C . The sensor
outputs voltage given by the expression V =
(0.06V/C)[T 20 C]. The following table gives
the voltages measured and the times. Determine
the average time constant of the sensor.













Solution Problem 1.31 (Pg. 48)


S. Problem 1.5 (Pg. 50)

Figure bellow shows a simple level-control system in which a closed relay

opens the valve and an open relay closes the valve. Input flow is not
controlled. The relay closes at 6.0 V and opens again at 4.8 V. The level
sensor has a transfer function of Vh = 0.8h + 0.4 V.

a) Find the value of amplifier gain, K, required to open the valve when the level reaches 1.5
b) At what level does the valve close?
c) Suppose Q1 = 5 m3/min, Q2 = 2 m3/min and Qout = 9 m3/min (when open). What is the
period of the level oscillation?


S. Problem 1.5 (Pg. 50) Solution


S. Problem 1.6 (Pg. 51)

A pressure-measurement system uses a sensor that
converts pressure into voltage according to the
transfer function, Vp = 0.5(p)1/2. This voltge is then
converted into a current. As the pressure varies from
0 psi to 100 psi, the current varies from 4 mA to 20
a) Find the transfer function equation for the conversion of
voltage to current.
b) What pressure change, p, will cause the current to change
by 1 mA from 19 mA to 20 mA?
c) What pressure change, p, will cause the current to change
by 1 mA from 4 mA to 5 mA?
d) Why is the pressure change not the same as in b) and c)
even though the current changed by 1 mA in both cases?


S. Problem 1.6 (Pg. 51) Solution


S. Problem 1.7 (Pg. 51)

Figure bellow shows a system for measuring the pressure of exploding

gases inside a steel chamber. A computer is used to measure the
pressure. The pressure sensor has a transfer function of Vp = 0.05(p +
500)1/2 and a first-order time constant of = 2.0 s. When an explosion
occurs, the pressure rises virtually instantaneously from 0 to some
maximum, pmax. At t = 0, the explosion occurs, and the computer must
take a reading at t = 1 s, and determine the pressure pmax. This is before
the sensor signal has stabilized.

a) Explain how pmax can be determine from a measurement taken at t = 1.0 s.

b) Suppose the sensor signal at t = 1.0 s is 1.45 V. What is the value of pmax.
c) Suppose pmax = 2500 psi; what value will the sensor voltage have at 1.0 s?
d) What equation will the computer be programmed to use in order to find pmax
from the sensor voltage taken at 1.0 s.


S. Problem 1.7 (Pg. 51) Solution