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Lauren Kennedy 30125179

Inclusive teacher

Assessment Task 2:
Report - 2000 words

Assessment 2
This report critically examines Steves strengths, interests and learning needs. This
information has been used to create learning programme to support Steve during his
time in care and at home. He attends an early learning centre in Melbournes northwestern suburbs three days a week. This centre implements an emergent
curriculum, based on the childrens developing interests. The national quality
standards outlies that educators must create a curriculum that enhances each
childs learning and development (Australian Childrens Education and Care
Authority, 2012). Steve was diagnosed with Autism in 2013. Steve has just
celebrated his 4th birthday, At home he lives with his mum and dad in a small
apartment with no backyard. Steves extended family lives in New Zealand, this
means mum and dad work different shifts at work to ensure Steve has a caregiver
home on the days he does not attend childcare. Steve always has a car, a train or a
plane in his hand during play and sleep times while he is in care. Steve has contact
with an occupational therapist and is funded by Noahs Ark to have an aide to
support him while he is in care, his educators have contact with both of these
external providers to help develop consistent strategies.
Strengths, interests and learning needs


Identity: Child has a strong sense of identity

Steve has a strong sense of belonging

Educators are aiming to have Steve

and feels safe secure and supported in

confidently explore and engage with

the Purple room.

social and physical environments

Steve is always happy to part from his

parents, showing he feels secure in this

through relationships and play. This is a

developing skill, educators have
observed Steve becoming more
confident within his social abilities.

Steve is also able to Communicate his

needs for comfort and assistance

Lauren Kennedy 30125179

Inclusive teacher

Assessment Task 2:
Report - 2000 words

Community: Child is connected with and contributes to their world

Steve is playful and responds positively

Educators aim to encourage social and

to his educators. Steve investigates and

sharing behaviours, though small group

explores new ideas through his play.

play experiences with Steve.

Steve enjoys participating in the

program provided making choices about
where he wants to play throughout the
day (inside or outside). He enjoys
playing with cars, trucks and trains and
is able to incorporate his friends in this
play and is developing his interest in
creative arts.

Wellbeing: Child a has a strong sense of wellbeing

Social & Emotional: Steve demonstrates Educators will continue to encourage
trust and confidence with familiar

and support Steve to use appropriate

educators- this is not always the case

actions when resolving conflict through

with unfamiliar educators.

discussions, redirection and positive

Physical: Steve indicates to educators


when he is hot or thirsty for example.

Steve often used his gross motor skills
during outdoor play. Similarly he is able
to use his fine motor skills during
experiences such as drawing, painting
and lego construction.

Learning: Children are confident and involved learners

Lauren Kennedy 30125179

Inclusive teacher

Assessment Task 2:
Report - 2000 words

Steve follows and extends his own

Educators will continue to develop

interests with enthusiasm, energy and

Steve concentration at specific


experiences encouraging him to

Steve applies a range of thinking

participate for longer periods.

strategies within his play to solve

problems. this is evident when Steve
comes across a problem, for example if
a car that he wants is stuck in a block,
Steve will experiment with trial and error
until he is successful.

Communication: Children are effective communicators

Steve engages in enjoyable reciprocal

Steves educators will continue to

interactions with his educators using

encourage Steve to participate in group

verbal and non-verbal language.

literacy sessions, such as singing and

stories; encouraging him to sit with his
peers during these times.

Steve will participate in group times

occasionally, he enjoys listening to
songs, but dislikes lots of loud noises,
covering his ears when it gets too loud.

Steves Interests

Transport, anything with wheels or that moves, he prefers small cars, trains or
planes that he can fit in his hand over large objects.

Sensory, Steve enjoys the texture of paint on his hands

Books or magazines that have pictures of familiar characters such as Thomas

or Lighting Mc Queen.

Lauren Kennedy 30125179

Inclusive teacher

Level 1: the

Educators support Steve at

right to food,

meal times


Children feel safe, secure

and supported.

(clothing) etc;

Assessment Task 2:
Report - 2000 words

Children develop their

autonomy, inter-

Educators, offer Steve a

dependence, resilience and

spoon at meal times


Children take increasing

Educators offer Steve options

responsibility for their own

at meal times

health and physical


Educators scaffold Steves

Children show an increasing

self-help skills such as pulling

awareness of healthy

up pants or putting a jumper

lifestyles and good nutrition

Level 2: the

Educators support Steves

right to

interactions with peers.

physical safety

and supported


Children feel safe, secure

Children engage in
learning relationships


Educators will supervise

dangers and

Steve during play times, to

things that

help prevent climbing on

to explore natural and built

might harm:



safety, security

and protection;

Children use their senses

Children experience the

benefits and pleasures of
shared learning exploration

Level 3: the

Educators support Steves

right to love,

language development with

enjoyable interactions

affection, care,

use of simple words in his

using verbal and non-


language as well as English.

verbal language

closeness to

Children engage in

Lauren Kennedy 30125179

Inclusive teacher


Assessment Task 2:
Report - 2000 words
Children use language
and representations from

Educators sing songs that are

play, music and art to

familiar and follow Steves

share and project



Children are independent

communicators who
initiate Standard
Australian English and
home language
conversations and
demonstrate the ability to
meet the listeners needs

Level 4: the

Educators offer Steve

right to feel

experiences that include his

and interest in their

valued by

interests in car, trains, and


others, to be



Children express wonder

Children follow and extend

their own interests with

and have

Educators praise and


encourage Steves

enthusiasm, energy and


Children persevere and

experience the
satisfaction of

Educators will develop simple


goals that are achievable for

Steve, this will be an ongoing

Children persist even

continuously developing

when they find a task



Lauren Kennedy 30125179

Inclusive teacher

Assessment Task 2:
Report - 2000 words

Level 5: the

Educators support Steves

right to realise

interest in painting, to help

investigate, imagine and

ones potential

develop pincer grip for writing

explore ideas

Maslow calls


this selfactualisation

Children use play to

Children recognise and

Educators develop Steves

communicate their bodily

verbal skills with familiar

needs (for example, thirst,

songs and rhymes

hunger, rest, comfort,

physical activity)

Educators will use strategies

Children are happy,

to assist and support Steves

healthy, safe and

toilet training.

connected to others

Children engage in
increasingly complex
sensory motor skills and
movement patterns

Children combine gross

and fine motor movement
and balance to achieve
increasingly complex
patterns of activity
including dance, creative
movement and drama

(Table adapted from: Nice, 2015)

Additional information:
While in care Steve has funding for 5 hours each day. This means there is an
additional staff member in the room on these days. However the hours that the staff
member works, do not concede with the hours that Steve attends. The first step that
needs to adjusted is the hours that the funded staff member works, at the moment
she comes in half an hour to an hour before he does, and he is in care much later
after the additional educator leaves, this is not beneficial to anyone. We have worked

Lauren Kennedy 30125179

Inclusive teacher

Assessment Task 2:
Report - 2000 words

the educators lunch break around the times that Steve is asleep, so this adds more
one on one time while he is awake.

Planned learning program:

Educators must work with other professionals that Steve has contact with and his
parents to ensure consistent strategies are in place to help achieve the best possible
outcomes for Steves learning and development.
Toilet training:
Independent toileting is something that many children achieve around the ages of 24 year (Berk, 2013), however for children with autism can find this process much
more difficult, particularly those who have trouble coping with change. Many articles
have linked successful toilet training to positive reinforcement, this means, both
verbal and non-verbal praise and rewards (Cicero& Pfadt, 2002). There have also
been studies that have proven the effectiveness of video modelling, which involves
an animated video in conjunction with positive reinforcement, this found over 6
weeks the children in the study had a dramatic increase compared to those who
were not shown the video (Keen, Brannigan & Cuskelly, 2007). This shows the
influence that visual aids have, working within the confides of a childcare setting that
has a strict no screens policy an option is a visual picture chart that offers step by
step instructions is a viable option to help prompt toilet training, visual aids can be
downloaded from the internet such as raising children network (see appendix),
there are programs to create such aides, for example storyboard, or if the child has
contact with outside sources such as hospitals or Noahs ark, they will often give
centres these resources.
Meal times:
Children with autism are more likely to suffer from food sensitivity that children who
are typically developing (Bandini, Anderson, Curtin, Cermak, Evans, Scampini, &
Must, 2010). Educators in the past have just offered Steve toast, however, it is
important to offer a range of food offering alternatives and choices, as seen in
observation 1 Steve asks for custard, he takes interest in the peaches in his bowl.
This is the first step towards introducing new foods, allowing a child to play with the

Lauren Kennedy 30125179

Inclusive teacher

Assessment Task 2:
Report - 2000 words

food and explore the texture many increase the likelihood of consumption, mixing
new foods with food the child enjoys can also help (Autism Speaks, 2013).
Language development:
It is not uncommon for children with autism to have language delays (Cohen, &
Volkmar, 1997). The use of action songs and hand rhymes can help to increase
childrens language skills (Fellowes & Oakley, 2010). Steve also has a second
language at home, having some phrased used in Marwari. The effects of being in a
bilingual environment have not yet been fully researched for children with ASD,
however this did not seem to change the rate at which language was develop
positively or negatively (Hambly & Fombonne, 2012). Educators will continue to use
familiar words with Steve in both English and Marwari.
Educators must sing simple songs and anticipate Steve will sit through one or two
songs rather than a whole group time for example. Song cards are useful to help
Steve make choices about which song he would like to sing, giving him two choices
of recognisable songs. There are many websites and applications that offer these
cards for example have created an app, that can be
downloaded on phone or tablet, meaning it is portable and can be taken anywhere.
The use of picture cards gives choice and can help to develop Steves non-verbal
communication skills.
Social interactions:
Australian Childrens Education and Care Authority, (2012) states that Every child is
supported to participate in the program. Steve, has shown some interest in social
interactions with his peers as recorded in observation 5. Children with autism display
many antisocial behaviours, as they are not sure how else to interact with their
environment (Kamps, Leonard, Vernon, Dugan, Delquadri, Gershon, & Folk, 1992).
Educators are working on demonstrating appropriate responses in small group
settings, for example in observation 6, Steves educator could have given him a soft
ball, this is an appropriate toy to throw and would have been able to allow Steve to
have simple interaction with his peer. This is where having a funded educator helps,
someone extra to help guide Steves interactions with his peers and create positive
associations with small group play situations based on Steves interests.

Lauren Kennedy 30125179

Inclusive teacher

Assessment Task 2:
Report - 2000 words

Research has been undertaken into the use of Social Stories. These stories that
describe social situations, skills and knowledge and put them into a speficially
designed format that explains the concept or cues. There has been a positive
correlation between the use of these stories and the social development of children
with ASD (Karkhaneh, Clark, Ospina, Seida, Smith, & Hartling, 2010).
Steve is learning how to play and interact with his peers and his environment. It is
the educators role to help guide Steves interactions positively, in consultation with
his occupational therapist and his parents to present consistent approaches to his
learning and development. Steve will continue to develop his skills with this
guidance. Educators plan and implement programs for all children based on their
developing interests and skills, regardless of gender, ability, race or religion. This
means Steve will be supported as any other child would to meet their full potential.

Lauren Kennedy 30125179

Inclusive teacher

Assessment Task 2:
Report - 2000 words

Australian Childrens Education and Care Authority (2013) National Quality
Standards. Retrieved from:
Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace
Relations (2009). Belonging, Being and Becoming The Early Years Learning
Framework: Australia.
Autism Speaks (2013). Seven Ways to Help a Picky Eater with Autism. Autism
Speak Inc. retrieved from:
Bandini, L. G., Anderson, S. E., Curtin, C., Cermak, S., Evans, E. W., Scampini, R. &
Must, A. (2010). Food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorders and
typically developing children. The Journal of pediatrics,157(2), 259-264.
Berk, L. (2013). Child Development, 9th edition. USA: Pearson Education.
Cicero, F. R., & Pfadt, A. (2002). Investigation of a reinforcement-based toilet
training procedure for children with autism. Research in Developmental
Disabilities, 23(5), 319-331.
Cohen, D., & Volkmar, F. (1997). Autism and pervasive developmental
disorders. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York.
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. (2009). Victorian Early
Years Learning and Development Framework; For Children Birth to Eight Years.
Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority.
Dissanayake, C., Green, C. & Tennison, O. (2013) Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
Raising Children Network (Australia) Limited. Retrieved from:
Fellowes, J. & Oakley, G. (2010). Language, Literacy and Early Childhood
Education. South Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.
Hambly, C., & Fombonne, E. (2012). The impact of bilingual environments on
language development in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism
and Developmental Disorders, 42(7), 1342-1352.

Lauren Kennedy 30125179

Inclusive teacher

Assessment Task 2:
Report - 2000 words

Kamps, D. M., Leonard, B. R., Vernon, S., Dugan, E. P., Delquadri, J. C., Gershon,
B., & Folk, L. (1992). Teaching social skills to students with autism to increase peer
interactions in an integrated firstgrade classroom. Journal of Applied Behaviour
Analysis, 25(2), 281-288.
Karkhaneh, M., Clark, B., Ospina, M. B., Seida, J. C., Smith, V., & Hartling, L.
(2010). Social Stories to improve social skills in children with autism spectrum
disorder: A systematic review. Autism, 1362361310373057.
Keen, D., Brannigan, K. L., & Cuskelly, M. (2007). Toilet training for children with
autism: The effects of video modeling. Journal of Developmental and Physical
Disabilities, 19(4), 291-303.
Nice, K. (2015). Lecture notes 9/05/15. Federation University.

Lauren Kennedy 30125179

Inclusive teacher

Assessment Task 2:
Report - 2000 words

Observation 1:
Steve walked over to the afternoon tea trolley and pointed to the custard, he placed
his hand on the custard while looking at his educator. Do you want some custard
Steve? his educator asked. Steve continued to touch the custard. His educator
poured some custard into a bowl and placed some peaches in with the custard Steve
followed his educator to the table and sat down. He picked up the spoon and put it
down on the table, he put his hands into the custard and began putting his hands to
his mouth and eating the custard. Steve looked at the peaches, he picked up a
peach and held it to his mouth. Steve sniffed the peach and then put it back into his
bowl. Steve continued to eat the custard avoiding the peaches in the bowl.
Steve clearly communicated his desire to his educator. He shows an understanding
that his needs will be met when the he asks. Steve is able to feed himself with his
hands. Steve engages his sensory capabilities, when he attempts the peach before
deciding he didnt want to eat that.

Observation 2:
Steve sat at a table outside holding his train up close to his face. Spencer, Spencer
he said talking to his train.
Steve demonstrated that he has knowledge about the Thomas trains he can name
them and enjoys interacting with his trains. This is a clear interest.

Observation 3:
Steves educator approached Steve with a piece of paper and textas while he was
sitting at a table playing with his trains. She placed a texta in Steves hand and

Lauren Kennedy 30125179

Inclusive teacher

Assessment Task 2:
Report - 2000 words

asked him to draw a picture for his mum. Steve looked at the texta and made a few
marks on the page, holding the texta with a palmer grip. He then looked at the tip of
the texta again and put it in his mouth. Steves educator took the texta out of Steves
mouth and passed him another colour, he made a few marks on the page before
looking at the tip of the texta and putting it in his mouth. This happened with twice
more, with the next colour Steves educator passed him, he put it straight to his
mouth. This happened twice more before Steve walked away.
Steve explores experiences using this senses. He is able to make marks on the
page for short periods with guidance and support from his educator.

Observation 4:
Steve walked in with his mum during group time. He scanned the room, looking at
his educators, he then smiled. His mum came and joined the group, sitting on the
floor. Steve started to walk towards the outside door. His mum called him. He looked
back over his shoulder. Steve stopped. Turning to face the group. He watched the
group (and his mum) singing. Steve turned back to the door and ran outside.
Steve feels safe and comfortable on drop off, he knows where he would like to play
and happily makes his way to the yard. Steve is aware of his surroundings and
responds to his name.
Observation 5:
Steve looked at his peer, who was facing away from him. He continued to look at
them, trying to gain their attention. The child did not turn around. Steve picked up a
handful of sand and threw it at his peer. She stood up and turned around and said,
stop Steve. Steve smiled, his peer brushed the sand off herself. Steve picked up
another handful of sand and threw it at his peer. She ran away. Steve smiled picking
up another handful of sand. His educator intervened and stopped Steve from
throwing the sand. The girl returned to her play Steve ran up to her and went to pick

Lauren Kennedy 30125179

Inclusive teacher

Assessment Task 2:
Report - 2000 words

up another handful of sand. His educator stopped him, the other child went to play
somewhere else
Steve is beginning to want to connect with his peers, he is learning how to gain their
Observation 6:
Steve walked into the room, he picked up a catalogue of teaching resources from the
art shelf. Steve sat on the floor and began to flip through the pages. Steve found a
page with a Lightening McQueen couch. Steve stoped flipping the pages and looked
at that page. 10 minutes later Steve was still sitting on the floor looking at this page.
Steve follows his interests with enthusiasm and concentration, he is able to spend
extended periods exploring his own interests.

Lauren Kennedy 30125179

Inclusive teacher

Assessment Task 2:
Report - 2000 words

Toilet training aid

Sourced from: