Anda di halaman 1dari 133

I.

Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen


Bisnis Jasa

1. Jasa Dalam Ekonomi Modern


Perkembangan sektor jasa erat kaitannya dg
tahaptahap perkembangan aktivitas ekonomi :

Primer (extractive),
pertanian,
pertambangan, perikanan, kehutanan.
Sekunder (goods production),
manufaktur,
dan pemrosesan.
Tersier (domestical service),
restoran
dan hotel, salon kecantikan, laundry & dry
cleaning, pemeliharaan dan reparasi.
Kuarter (trade),
transportasi,
perdagangan
eceran, komunikasi,
keuangan dan asuransi,
real estate, dan
pemerintahan.
Kuiner (perbaikan dan peningkatan kapasitas
manusia),
kesehatan, pendidikan, riset,
rekreasi, dan kesenian.

I.

Aspek-Aspek Khusus
Manajemen Bisnis Jasa

Peran sektor jasa dalam suatu perekonomian semakin m

Kesempatan kerja yg diciptakannya


Semakin meningkatnya jumlah tenaga kerja wanita yg
terserap dalam sektor jasa
Besarnya pembelian sektor ini u/ alat-alat seperti
komputer, peralatan kantor dan komunikasi (pembelian
sektor jasa lebih besar dibandingkan pembeelian sektor
manufaktur)
Meningkatnya sumbangan sektor jasa terhadap GNP
(suatu negara) yg menggeser dominasi sumbangan sektor
manufaktur atau ekstraktif (AS: peran sektor Jasa +
70% dari GNP)
Meningkatnya tenaga kerja jasa dalam pemrosesan
informasi dan dalam industri-industri berteknologi tinggi.
Tumbuh suburnya kerjasama sektor jasa dg sektor
manufaktur yg saling menguntungkan
Adanya kompleksitas kehidupan
2

I.

Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen


Bisnis Jasa

2. What Is a Service?
A service is an act or performance offered by one
party to another.
Services are economic activities that create value and
provide benefits for customers at specific times and
place as a result of bringing about a desired change in
or on behalf of the recipient of the service
(Lovelock)
Setiap tindakan atau unjukkerja yg ditawarkan oleh
salah satu pihak kpd pihak lain yg prinsipnya bersifat
intangible dan tidak menyebabkan perpindahan
kepemilikan apapun.
Jasa sebagai deeds (tindakan, prosedur, aktivitas);
proses-proses, dan kinerja yang intangible.

I.

Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen


Bisnis Jasa
Suatu penawaran dapat bervariasi dari dua kutub
ekstrim: satu sisi murni berupa brg (tangible),
dan disisi lainnya murni jasa (intangible).
Thus, dapat dibedakan menjadi 5 kategori:

Produk fisik murni (garam, sabun mandi, dll)


Produk fisik dg jasa pendukung (penawaran
disertai satu atau beberapa jasa pendukung)
Hybrid (penawaran terdiri dari brg dan jasa
yg porsinya sama)
Jasa utama yg didukung dg barang dan jasa
minor
Jasa murni

I.

Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen


Bisnis Jasa
High
salt
Soft Drinks
VCR
Tennis Racquet
New Car

Tangible Elements

Made-to-Measure Clothing
Furniture Rental
Fast-Food Restaurant
Plumbing Repair
Lawn care
Oil Change on Car
House Cleaning
Airline flight
Teaching
Investment Mgt

Low

Intangible Elements

High

Figure: Value Added by Tangible vs Intangible Elements in Goods5 &


Service

I.

Aspek-Aspek Khusus
Manajemen Bisnis Jasa

Ten generic differences between services and


physical goods:

Nature of the product


No customer ownership of services
Service product as intangible performance
Greater involvement of customers in the
production process
Peoples as part of the product
Greater difficulties in maintaining quality control
standards
Harder for customer to evaluate
No inventories for service after production
Importance of the time factor
Different distribution channels

I.

Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen


Bisnis Jasa

High in experience
qualities

High in credence
qualities

Difcult to evaluate

Medical
diagnosis

Auto repair

canal

Legal services

TV repair

Haircuts

Vacation

Restaurants
meals

Automobiles

Houses

Furniture

Jewelry

High in search
qualities

Child care

Most services

Most goods

Clothing

Easy to evaluate

Figure: Continum of Evaluation for Different Types of Products

I.

Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen


Bisnis Jasa

3. Karakteristik Jasa

Intangibility

Jasa tidak dapat dilihat, dirasa, diraba, dicium atau


didengar sebelum dibeli. Berbeda dg brg yg objek
fisiknya jelas, dapat dimiliki, jasa dapat dikonsumsi
tanpa dapat dimiliki secara fisik.

Heterogeneity

Jasa memp. sifat sangat variatif karena mrp.


nonstandardized output, artinya, banyak variasi
bentuk, kualitas dan jenis, bergantung pd siapa,
kapan, dan di-mana jasa tersebut dihasilkan.
Tiga faktor penyebab variabilitas kualitas jasa:
- kerjasama atau partisipasi pelanggan selama
penyampaian jasa
- moral/motivasi karyawan dalam melayani pelanggan
- beban kerja perusahaan.

I.

Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen


Bisnis Jasa
Perishability of output
Jasa merupakan komoditas yg tidak tahan lama
dan tidak dapat disimpan. Bila suatu jasa tidak
digunakan (tidak terjual), maka jasa tersebut akan
berlalu begitu saja. Oleh karenanya perusahaan
jasa harus mampu mengevaluasi kapasitasnya u/
menyeimbangkan penawaran dan permintaan.
Inseparability or simultaneity of production
and consumption
Pada jasa, proses operasi terjadi secara
bersamaan dg proses konsumsi. Interaksi antara
penyedia jasa dan pelanggan akan menentukan
hasil dari jasa. Pelanggan hadir dan merupakan
bagian dari proses operasi jasa.

I. Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis


Jasa
4. Paket Jasa
Paket Jasa?
Ka
rak
te
ris
tik

Serangkaian brg/jasa yg diberikan (tersedia) dalam


suatu lingkungan ttt

Supporting facility,
Sumberdaya/fasilitas fisik yg harus ada sebelum
suatu jasa ditawarkan kepada konsumen. Kriteria yg
digunakan pelanggan u/ menilai fasilitas fisik:
kesesuaian arsitektural, dekorasi interior, tata letak
fasilitas, dan peralatan pendukung lainnya.
contoh: rumah sakit, golf course, pesawat terbang.
Fasilitating goods,
Bahan-bahan yang dibeli atau dikonsumsi oleh
pembeli, atau item-item yg diberikan pelanggan.
Kriteria penilaian yg digunakan pelanggan u/ menilai:
konsistensi, kuantitas, dan variasi atau pilihan yang
tersedia.
10

I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis


Jasa
Explicit service,
Semua manfaat yg dapat diamati dan dirasakan
dg panca indera, meliputi karakteristik jasa
yang esensial atau intrinsik. Kriteria penilaian
pelanggan: pelatihan bagi para personel jasa,
keleng-kapan, konsistensi, dan ketersediaan
(lokasi, akses, dan pelayanan 24 jam)
Implicit service,
Manfaat psikologis yg dirasakan pelanggan,
merupakan karakte-ristik ekstrinsik yang
melengkapi suatu jasa. Kriteria penilaian pelanggan : sikap personel jasa, privacy dan
keamanan, kenyama-nan, suasana, waktu tunggu,
status, dan perasaan tenteram/ tenang.

11

I.

Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen


Bisnis Jasa

5. Pendekatan Terpadu thd Manajemen


Jasa

Delapan Komponen Manajemen Jasa Terpadu

Product Elements
Manajer harus memilih fitur dari core product (brg
atau jasa) dan serangkaian elemen jasa pelengkap yg
mengelilinginya, dg merujuk pd manfaat yg diinginkan
pelanggan dan seberapa baik pesaing menghasilkannya
dan menyajikannya kepada pelanggan
Place, Cyberspace, and Time
Penyampaian elemen produk kepada pelanggan
mencakup keputusan tempat dan waktu penyampaian,
apakah menggunakan saluran distribusi fisik atau
elektronik (atau keduanya), bergantung kpd sifat jasa
yg ditawarkan. Kecepatan dan kemudahan (place and
time) bagi pelanggan menjadi determinan penting
didalam strategi penyampaian jasa.
Process
Penciptaan dan penyampaian elemen produk kepada
pelanggan mem-butuhkan proses desain dan
implementasi yg menggambarkan metode dan urutan
tindakan dimana sistem operasi jasa bekerja.
12

I.

Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen


Bisnis Jasa

Productivity and Quality


Elemen ini harus diperlakukan secara stratejik sbg.
rangkaian yg saling terkait. Productivity, dikaitkan
dg bgmana input diubah men-jadi output yg bernilai
bg pelanggan. Quality, merujuk kpd tingkat dimana
jasa memuaskan pelanggan dg memenuhi kebutuhan,
keinginan, dan harapannya.
People
Sebagian besar jasa bergantung pada interaksi
langsung antara pe-langgan dg personal perusahaan,
(potong rambut, makan direstoran)
Promotion and Education
Tidak ada program pemasaran yg bisa berhasil
tanpa komunikasi yang efektif. Komponen ini
memainkan tiga peranan vital: memberikan
informasi dan advis yang diperlukan, membujuk
target customers, ttg kegunaan produk ttt,
mendorong mereka u/ melakukan pembelian.
Didalam pemasaran jasa komunikasi lebih bersifat
educational, terutama bagi pelanggan baru.

13

I. Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis


Jasa
Delapan . . . .

Physical Evidence
Tampilan gedung, keindahan taman, kendaraan,
desain interior, peralatan, staff/personel
perusahaan, signs, printed material, dan visible
cues lainnya menunjukkan bukti fisik kualitas
suatu perusahaan jasa. Pada jasa dg elemen fisik
yg sedikit (ch: Asuransi), periklanan penting untuk
menciptakan simbol-simbol yg bermakna bagi
pelanggan.
Price and Other User Costs
Komponen ini menunjukkan berbagai pengeluaran
dan biaya yg dibebankan kepada pelanggan dalam
mendapatkan manfaat jasa yg dibutuhkan.

14

I. Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa


Hubungan SDM, Operasi dan Pemasaran Jasa

Didalam bisnis jasa,ketiga fungsi manajemen: pemasaran, operasi


dan sumberdaya manusia, memainkan peran sentral dan saling
terkait dalam memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan.
Perusahaan jasa harus memahami implikasi dari 8 komponen
manajemen jasa terpadu u/ mengembangkan strategi yg efektif.

Operation
Management

Marketing
Management

Customers

Human
Resources
Management

Figure: Interdependence of Marketing, Operations,


15 and
Human Resources

I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa


Penciptaan Value didalam Bisnis Jasa
What is value?
Is the worth of a specific action or object
relative to an individuals (or organizations)
needs at a particular point in time, less the
costs involved in obtaining those benefits

Perusahaan menciptakan value dg menawarkan berbagai


tipe jasa yang dibutuhkan pelanggan, menggunakan
kapabilitas yg dimiliki secara tepat , dan menyampaikannya dg berbagai kemudahan dan menyenangkan pada
tk harga yg acceptable.
Perusahaan menerima value dari pelanggan dalam bentuk
uang yg dibayarkan untuk membeli dan menggunakan jasa
yg diminta.
Transfer of value tersebut menggambarkan satu dari konsep
paling mendasar dalam pemasaran, yi: exchange. (take place
when one party obtains value from another in return for
some-thing else of value).
Pertukaran (the exchange of value) tidak terbatas pada
buying and selling, tetapi juga terjadi ketika karyawan
bekerja pada suatu organisasi.
Karyawan memperoleh benefit dari pekerjaan yang dilakukan dalam bentuk: gaji, insentif, dan berbagai pengalaman
berharga seperti pelatihan, on-the-job experience, dan
bekerja dengan kolega yg ramah.
16

I. Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa


6. How Do Service Differ from One Another?
Core Product versus Supplementary Service

Sebagian besar jasa terdiri dari sebuah rangkaian, mencakup

variasidari elemen-elemen jasa, termasuk beberapa physical


goods.
Adalah penting membedakan antara core product yang dibeli
pelanggan,dan seperangkat jasa pelengkap yg sering
menyertai produk tersebut.

Reservation
Valet
Parking

Cashier
Business
Center
Room
Service
Wake-up
Call

Reception
A bed for
the night in an
Elegant Private
Room with
Bathroom

Telephone

Baggage
Service
Coctail Bar
Restaurant

Entertainment/
Sports/Exercise
17
Figure: Core Product and Supplementary Service for Luxury Hotel

I. Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa

7. Klasifikasi Jasa

Jasa dapat diklasifikasikan berdasarkan 7 kriteria (Lovelock; 2001)

Tingkat tangibilitas dan intangibilitas dari proses


jasa
Apakah jasa memerlukan sesuatu yg bersifat
fisik/berwujud (kendaraan pd jasa angkutan), atau
prosesnya melibatkan lebih banyak sesuatu yg tidak
berujud (mengajar, konsultasi)
Apa atau siapa penerima langsung dari proses jasa
Kepada siapa jasa tersebut diarahkan?:
- services directed at people bodies (potong rambut)
- services directed at goods and other physical
posseeeions (reparasi)
- services directed at peoples minds (pendidikan)
- services directed at intangibles assets (bank,
asuransi)
Tempat dan waktu penyampaian jasa
Apakah pelanggan yg datang kelokasi jasa, atau
provider yg mendatangi pelanggan
18

I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa

Kustomisasi versus standarisasi


Apakah pelanggan akan menerima jasa yg sama
atau apakah fitur jasa disesuaikan u/ memenuhi
persyaratan konsumen
Sifat hubungan dg konsumen
Apakah pelanggan dapat diidentifikasi (nasabah
Bank) atau tidak (pengguna telepon coin)
Sifat permintaan dan penawarannya
Apakah sifat permintaannya tetap atau
berfluktuasi
Sejauh mana fasilitas, peralatan, dan orang mrp
bagian dari pengalaman jasa.
Sejauh mana pelanggan jasa diekspose pada
elemen-elemen fisik dalam sistem
penyampaiannya.

19

I. Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen Bisnis Jasa


Klasifikasi Jasa

Basis

Klasifikasi

Contoh

1. Segmen Pasar

Konsumen akhir

2. Tingkat

Konsumen organisasi Konsultan


manajemen
Rented-goods
Penyewaan mobil
service
Reparasi mobil

Keberwujudan
3. Keterampilan
Penyedia Jasa

Salon kecantikan

Owned-goods service Pemandu wisata


Non-goods service
Professional service Dokter
Nonprofessional
service
Profit service

Supir taksi

Non-profit service

Yayasan sosial

5. Regulasi

Regulated service

Angkutan umum

6. Tingkat

Equipment-based

ATM

4. Tujuan
organisasi

Intensitas
Karyawan
7. Tingkat Kontak
Provider dg
Pelanggan

service

Bank

Pelatih sepakbola

People-based service
High-contact service Universitas
Low-contact service Bioskop

20

I.

Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen


Bisnis Jasa
Tingkat Interaksi dan Kustomisasi
Rendah

Tingkat Intensitas
Tenaga Kerja

Rendah

Tinggi

Service factory:

Service shop:

Penerbangan

Rumah Sakit

Transportasi dg truk

Reparasi mobil

Hotel

Jasa reparasi lainnya

Resor dan rekreasi

Mass service:

Professional service:

Penjualan grosir &


ritel

Dokter

Tinggi Sekolah
Aspek ritel dari

Pengacara
Akuntan
Arsitek

perbankan
komersial
21
Figure: Matriks Proses Jasa (Fitzsimmons, dkk)

I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen


Bisnis Jasa

8. Jasa Sebagai Proses

Sebagai proses, jasa dihasilkan dari tiga proses: input (orang),


sumberdaya, dan informasi.
A process implies taking an input and transforming it into output

Kategorisasi Proses Jasa

People processing involves tangible actions to people


bodies.
Pelanggan secara fisik harus hadir selama proses penyampaian
jasa u/ menerima manfaat jasa yg diinginkan.
ch: penumpang pesawat, potong rambut, perawatan gigi.
Possession processing includes tangible actions to goods and
other physical possession belonging to the customer.
Objek yang membutuhkan proses harus ada dan tidak
diperlukan kehadiran pemiliknya.
ch: cleaning service/loundry service, reparasi kendaraan
Mental stimulus processing refers to intangible actions
directed at peoples minds.
Pelanggan harus hadir secara mental. Pelanggan bisa hadir
dilokasi dimana jasa diproduksi (such a lecture at the class),
atau dilokasi lain yg dihubungkan dg broadcast signals atau
melalui telecomunication lingkages.
Information processing describes intangible actions
directed at a customers assets.
Keterlibatan langsung pelanggan sedikit diperlukan ketika
transaksi pertama dilakukan, hubungan selanjutnya dengan
pelanggan dapat dilakukan melalui surat, telepon atau internet.
ch: Asuransi, Bank, Konsultan.
22

I.Aspek-Aspek Khusus Manajemen


Bisnis Jasa
What is the nature
Of the service act?

Who or what is the recipient of the service

Tangible
Actions

Intangible
Actions

People

Possessions

People processing

Possession processing

(service directed at people


bodies):

(service directed at physical


possessions):

passenger transportation
health care
lodging
beauty salons
Physical therapy
Fitness center
Restaurant/bars
barber
funeral service
recreation

freight transportation
repair and maintenance
warehousing/storage
ofce cleaning service
retail distribution
laundry and dry cleaning
refueling
landscaping/gardening

Mental stimulus processing


Information processing
(services directed at peoples (services directed at intangible
minds):
assets):
broadcasting cable
accounting
advertising/PR
banking
arts and entertainment
data processing
management consulting
data transmission
education
insurance
information services
programming
music concerts
legal service
psychotherapy
research
religion
securities investment
voice telephone
software consulting

Figure: Understanding the Nature of the Service Act

23

II.Masalah-Masalah Dalam Bisnis Jasa


1. Masalah yang berkaitan dengan

Intangibility

Jasa tidak dapat disimpan


Jasa tidak dapat dilindungi dengan
hak paten
Perusahaan tidak dapat dengan
mudah dan cepat mengkomunikasikan
suatu jasa
Harga sukar ditetapkan

24

II.Masalah-Masalah Dalam Bisnis Jasa


Strategi Mengatasi

Menekankan petunjuk-petunjuk yg tampak (tangible


cues) yaitu : tempat (desain interior, eksterior),
SDM (ramah, responsif, murah senyum, rapi),
peralatan (komputer, meja, kursi, dll), media komukasi (brosur, pamflet, leaflet, papan pengumunan),
simbol perusahaan, dan harga.
Menggunakan SDM lebih banyak dp sumberdaya
lainnya
Mendorong komunikasi melalui word-of-mouth, dg
cara pemberian insentif ttt kpd pelanggan yg dapat
menarik pelanggan baru
Menciptakan citra (image) organisasi yg kuat, melalui
iklan, logo/simbol, perilaku manajemen dan karyawan yang positif (responsif, etis, peduli lingkungan,
dan terpercaya
Memanfaatkan akuntansi biaya (manajemen biaya dan
akuntansi manajemen) dalam menetapkan harga
Melakukan komunikasi purnabeli (post-purchase
communication): mengumpulkan informasi kepuasan
pelanggan, keluhan pelanggan, saran dan kritik
pelanggan, informasi produk baru kpd pelanggan 25

II. Masalah-Masalah Dalam Bisnis Jasa


2. Masalah yang berkaitan dengan inseparability
Konsumen terlibat dalam aktivitas produksi
jasa
Kegiatan pemasaran dan produksi sangat
interaktif
Produksi massa yang terpusat sangat sukar
dilakukan dalam bisnis jasa

Strategi Mengatasi
Melakukan seleksi dan pelatihan thd public
contact personnel (frontliner employees yang
berhubungan langsung dg konsumen)
Mengelola konsumen
Menggunakan berbagai macam lokasi jasa
(multisite locations)
26

II, Masalah-Masalah Dalam Bisnis Jasa


3. Masalah yang berkaitan dengan
Karakteristik Variability

Sangat sulit melakukan standarisasi dan


pengendalian kualitas
Strategi Mengatasi

Mengindustrialisasikan jasa dg cara menambah


dan memanfaatkan peralatan canggih serta
melakukan standarisasi produksi, (misal:
franchising)
Melakukan service customization (meningkatkan
intensitas interaksi antara perusahaan dan
pelanggan, shg. Produk dan program pemasaran
dapat disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan dan keinginan
pelanggan
27

II, Masalah-Masalah Dalam Bisnis Jasa


4. Masalah yang berkaitan dg karakteristik
perishability

Jasa tidak dapat disimpan


Strategi Mengatasi

Menggunakan berbagai pendekatan u/ mengatasi


permintaan yg berfluktuasi (manajemen permintaan)
ch: mengurangi permintaan pd periode permintaan puncak dg
cara: menaikkan harga atau diferensiasi harga, atau
demarketing (diskon bila konsumen berbelanja jauh hari
sebelum lebaran misalnya)

Melakukan penyesuaian thd permintaan dan kapasitas


secara simultan shg tercapai keseim-bangan antara
keduanya (manajemen penawaran)
ch: menggunakan karyawan paruh waktu pada periode sibuk,
menyewa atau berbagi fasilitas dan peralatan tambah-an dg
perusahaan lain.

28

III. Mengelola Service Encounters


1. Pelanggan dan Operasi Jasa
Technology and Customer Contact
- Perkembangan teknologi sering menawarkan cara
baru bagi bisnis jasa u/ menciptakan dan
menyampaikan jasa (core and suplementary
service) berdasarkan informasi (Technology-based
model of service delivery).
contoh:
Penggunaan teknologi internet, ATM, pelayanan 24
jam melalui telepon pada industri perbankan.
Implikasinnya pelanggan dapat menghemat
lebih banyak waktu untuk melakukan transaksi
karena tidak harus mendatangi Bank Branch.

29

III. Mengelola Service Encounters

Service Encounters: ?
A service encounter is a period of time during which
customers interact directly with a service (it describe
personal interactions between customers and
employees).
Differing Level of Customer Contact
Three levels of customer contact :
* High-contact service (pelanggan mendatangi
fasilitas jasa, secara aktif terlibat dalam proses
penyampaian jasa)
* Medium-contact service (pelanggan
mendatangi fasilitas jasa atau didatangi, tetapi tidak
terlibat secara fisik dalam proses penyampaiannya
* Low-contact service (sangat sedikit terjadi
kontak antara pelanggan dg provider)

30

III. Mengelola Service Encounters


Figure: Levels of Customer Contact with Service
Organizations

High

Emphasizes
Encounters with
Service Personnel

Nursing home
Haircut
Star Hotel
Good Restaurant

Airline Travel

Management Consulting

Retail Banking
Motel
Fast Food

Telephone Banking
Car Repair

Dry Cleaning

Insurance

Movie Theatre
Cable TV

City Bus

Emphasizes
Encounters
With Equipment

Home Banking
Mail-Based Repairs
Internet-Based Service

Low
31

III. Mengelola Service Encounters


2. Jasa Sebagai Sistem
Sebagai suatu sistem jasa merupakan kombinasi dari
komponen (subsistem): service operation, service
delivery and service marketing

Physical Support
Technical
Technical
Core
Core

Other
Customer
Customers
Contact Pesonnel

Backstage
Front Stage
(invisible) (visible to Customer
Figure: The Service Busines as a System

32

III. Mengelola Service Encounters


Service Operation
System

Visible component operasi jasa:


- Service personnel (relating to the actors)
- Physical facilities, equipment, and other
tangibles (relating to the stage set)
The stage set :
- Backstage, fasilitas yg merupakan
technical core dari sistem jasa (little interest to
customers). Kegagalan backstage personnel
and system bekerja akan mempengaruhi
kualitas frontstage acivities.
- Frontstage, mencakup semua element
terdiri dari: physical support dan contact
personnel yang merupakan garis depan dalam
sistem operasi jasa (visible to customer)

33

III. Mengelola Service Encounters


Proporsi dari overall service operation yg
terlihat oleh pelanggan bervariasi bergantung
kepada level of customer contact.
- High-contact service, secara langsung
melibatkan pelanggan secara fisik, pelanggan
mendatangi service factory (lebih dominan
melibatkan fronstage, walaupun masih
terdapat aktivitas backstage yang tidak
terlihat oleh pelanggan
- Medium-contact service, memerlukan
keterlibatan yg lebih rendah pelanggan
didalam penyampaian jasa. Konsekuensinya
keterlibatan visible component dalam service
operation system juga lebih rendah.
- low-contact service, biasanya memp.
strategi u/ meminimalkan customer contact
dg service provider. Backstage element
berada pada lokasi yang berbeda. Frontstage
elements biasanya terbatas pada kontak
melalui post dan telekomunikasi.

34

III. Mengelola Service Encounters


Service Delivery System
Service delivery berkaitan dg dimana, kapan, dan bagaimana
service product disampaikan kepada pelanggan.
Service delivery as a subsystem, mencakup visible elements of
the service operating system (buildings, equipment, and personnel) and entail exposure to other customers.

n
o
i
t
c
a
r
e
t
n
i
t
c
e
Dir

Service
Delivery

Customers

Consists of a series
of processes that
customers experiences as a performance

n
o
i
t
a
m
s
r
e
o
i
f
g
n
i
o
l
,
o
c
i
n
n
h
o
c
r
e
t
t
t
c
c
e
n
a
l
t
o
e
i
n
t
o
e
a
c
s
c
i
t
U
n
c
u
e
r
i
m
d
m
e
o
c
c
u
&
d
e
r
To

Self-service delivery often offers


Potential disadvantages:
customers
greater
convenience
The shift from personal
than face-to-face contact
service to self-service
automated gasoline pump
sometimes distrubs
customers,
ATM
coin-operated food
drink dispencers
The strategy is:
Give information campaign to edu self-guided museum tour
cate customers and promote the
benefits of the new approach

35

III. Mengelola Service Encounters


Service Marketing System
Service Delivery System
Service Operation System
Interior &
Exterior
Facilities
Technical
Core

Other
Customers

The
Equipment
Customer
Service
People

Other
Customers

Backstage

Other Contact Point

Advertising

Sales Calls
Market Research
Surveys
Billing/Statement
Miscelllaneous Mail
Phone Calls, Fax
Random exposures to
Facilities/ Vehicles
Chance Encounters
with Service Personnel
Word-of-Mouth

Frontstag
e
Figure: The Service Marketing System for High-Contact Service
Service Op.
System

Service Delivery System

Mail

Technical
Core

Self Service
The
Equipment Customer
Phone, Fax
Web Site

Backstage

Frontstage

Other Contact Points

Advertising

Market Research
Surveys
Billing/Statement
Random Exposure to
Facilities, Personnel
Word-of-Mouth
36

Figure: The Service Marketing System for Low-Contact Service

III. Mengelola Service Encounters


Table: Tangible Elements and Communication Component in the Service Marketing System

Service Personnel
Contacts with customers may be face-to-face, by
telecommunication (telephone, fax, telegram, telex,
electronic mail and express delivery services.
This personnel may include:
- sales representatives
- customer service staff
- accounting/billing staff
- operations staff who do not normally provide
direct service to customers (e.g, engineers, janitor)
- designated intermediaries whom customer
perceive as directly representing the service firm

Service facilities and equipment


- building exteriors, parking areas, landscaping
- building interiors and furnishings
- vehicles
- self-service equipment operated by customers
- other equipment
37

III. Mengelola Service Encounters


Table: Tangible Elements and Communication Component in the Service Marketing System

Nonpersonal communications
- form letters
- brochures/catalogs/instruction
manuals/web sites
- advertising
- signate
- news stories/editorials in the mass
media

Other people
- fellow customers encounterd during
service delivery
- word-of-mouth comments from friends,
acquintances, or even strangers

38

III. Mengelola Service Encounters


3. Mengelola Service Encounter U/
Hasil yg
Memuaskan

Managing People in Service Encounters

Tugas manajer:
Menyiapkan service personnels yang memiliki:
Technical skill (technical aspects aspect of the job
quickly and accurately) and
Interpersonal skills (how to serve customer
respectively)
Service employees perlu diberi pelatihan, otoritas,

dan dukungan manajemen sehingga dapat memberikan pelayanan terbaik kepada pelanggan (in satisfactory outcomes.
Bentuk lain dari kontrol perilaku karyawan, manajer
harus mampu menjadi the role model bagaimana
memberikan pelayanan yang terbaik kepada
pelanggan.
39

III. Mengelola Service Encounters


Critical Incidents in Service Encounter

The Customer Perspective


Menentukan titik kegagalan yang paling mungkin didalam
service encounter, dimana terdapat risiko signifikan
kekecewaan pelanggan, merupakan langkah pertama in
taking corrective action untuk mengatasi kejadian tersebut.
Negative critical incidents yang diselesaikan dg baik,

mempunyai potensi besar untuk meningkatkan loyalitas


karena provider menunjukkan kepada pelanggan bahwa
perusahaan benar-benar peduli kpd mereka.
The Employee Perspective
Customer-employee contact is a two-way street

Memahami pandangan karyawan thd situasi yg dihadapi sangat penting, karena thoughtless or poorly
behave customers sering menyebabkan needless
problems bagi service personnel yang berusaha
keras melayani mereka dg baik.

40

III. Mengelola Service Encounters


4. The Customer as Coproducer
Tabel : Level of Customer Participation across
Different Services
1.

Low (Customer Presence Required during Service


Delivery)
- Product are standardized
- Service is provided regardless of any individual
purchase
- Payment may be the only required customer input
Examples:
- End customer:
* Bus travel
* Motel stay
* Movie Theatre
- Business-to-business:
* Uniform cleaning service
* Interior greenery maintenance

41

III. Mengelola Service Encounters


2. Moderate (Customer inputs required for service
creation)
- Client inputs customize a standard service
- Provision of service requires customer purchase
- Customer inputs (information, materials) are necessary
for an adequate outcome, but the service firm provides
the service
Examples:
- End customer
* Hair cut
* Annual physical exam
* Full-service restaurant
- Business-to-business
* Agency-created advertising campaign
* Payroll service
* Independent freight transportation
42

III. Mengelola Service Encounters


3.

High (Customer coproduces the service product)


- Active client participation guides the customized
service
- Service cannot be created apart from the customers
purchase and active participation
- Customer inputs are mandatory and coproduces the
outcomes.
Examples:
- End customer:
* Marriage counselling
* Personal training
* Weight-reduction program
- Business-to-business:
* Management consulting
* Executive management seminar
* Install wide area network (WAN)
43

III. Mengelola Service Encounters


5. Service Firms as Teachers
Semakin banyak pekerjaan diharapkan kpd pelanggan

u/ melakukannya, semakin banyak informasi yang


diperlukan pelanggan ttg begaimana hal tsb dilakukan.
Thus, perusahaan bertanggung-jawab mendidik
inexperienced customers tersebut.
Lack of knowledge, dapat membawa kpd frustation
with the process and unsatisfactory results termasuk
menempatkan pelanggan pada risiko, karenanya
customer education sangat diperlukan, dan memegang
peran kunci didalam strategi komunikasi pemasaran
bagi bisnis jasa.
Customer education approaches: brochures and
posted instructions
Advertising for new services often contains significant
educational content
Case:
Thoughtful banks place a telephone beside their ATMs, so
that customers can call a real person for help and advice
at any time if they confused about the onscreen
44
instructions.

IV

1. The Purpose of Design


Developing new products or services for existing
markets,
Developing new products or sercvices for new markets
Developing new applications for existing products or
services
Improving the quality of existing product or services
Reducing the cost of an existing product or service
Minimizing dangers, nuisances, or pollution associated
with the use of product or service
:
Reducing or eliminating difficulties associated with the
production or use of a product or service
Standardizing a product or service line
Adapting a product or service to new legal requirements
or opportunities
Improving customer or public relations
Specifying and describing the new product or service
concepts in sufficient detail for them to be implemented
by another person or group
45

IV

4 Basics Characteristics in
New Service Development

It must be objective, not subjective


It must be precise, not vague
It must be fact driven, not opinion
driven
It must be methodological, not
philosophical

46

IV

2. Stage in New-Service Development


Business Strategy Development or Review
new-Service Strategy Development
idea Generation
Front-End
Planning

STOP

Screen ideas against new service strategy

Concept Development and Evaluation


STOP

Test concept with customers and employees

Business Analysis
STOP

Test for profitability and feasibility

Service Development and Testing


STOP

Implementation

Conduct service prototype test

Market Testing
STOP

Test service and other marketing-mix elements

Commercialization
Postintroduction Evaluation
47

IV
3. The Relationship of Design to
Marketing
and Production

Customer
Cutomer
Needs

Marketing
Performance
Spects

Product/service
designers
Design
Spects

Production or
service delivery

Product or
service

Marketing
48

IV

4. Design Process
The design process is often controlled by a procedure known
as project management.
With project management, the design project is broken down
into a hierarchy of tasks for the design of subsystems and
components.
The major advantages of formal manag. of the design process:
1. Project purpose, tasks, and subtasks are clearly defined,
2. Responsibilities for the tasks are well defined
3. There is frequent and complete reporting for coordination
and performance/task/cost evaluation
4. The development time is shortened
5. The concentrated team effort produces higher morale
The major disadvantages:
1. It is difficult to find good project managers
2. Ornazational planning is a complex process and may result
in lower utilization of company personnel
3. Any snag that delays the coordinated design effort may
delay the entire project and cause snowballing
4. Time pressures may stifle creativity
49

IV
The process of designing a service involve steps:

1. Accumulation of Information,
Informasi utama ttg desain jasa berupa
spesifikasi kinerja (the design
specifications) yang diperoleh dari
manajemen atau staf pemasaran. Informasi
lain yang diperlukan:
- state-of-the-art technology
- architectural input,
- the availability of human skills
- equipment options must be thoroughly
researched
Note: the Marriot Corporation is a good exp. of a company
that accumulates volumes of information, mostly
from its competitors, when designing new services.
50

IV

2. Development of Conceptual Alternatives


Mengubah spesifikasi kinerja menjadi pilihan desain jasa
(alternative service designs). Alternative designs pada
tahap ini disecut concepts karena pada dasarnya baru
berupa ide-ide yang belum diimplementasikan atau di
definisikan secara detail.
contoh:
Service
Performance Spects Alternative Concept
Movie theatre

Waiting in ticket line


not to exceed 5 minute

Mail-order
Banking

Supply withdrawal cash Arrange with local bank to


to customers within
supply cash by electronic
24 hours
fund transfer
Send cash by overnight
express service

Private
transportation

Move customers about


city rapidly

Multiple ticket booths


Coin-operated entrance
gates
Advance ticket purchases
by phone with credit
cards

Taxi system
Jitney system (i.e, shared
51
rides)

IV

3. Design and Testing of Prototype


Prototipe atau sampel jasa dikontstruksikan dan diuji. Ada
beberapa teknik yang dapat digunakan spt: uji coba rute
baru (local bus route),simulasi komputer, yg memungkinkan
konsumen untuk melihat sistem operasi secara hipotetis
dari new product yg diuji. Banyak organisasi jasa memp.
Multiple outlets (Mc.Donalds), dimana prototipe yg
berbeda dapat diuji.

4. Final Design, Drawings, and Specifications

The final service design akan dipengaruhi oleh teknologi


dari proses jasa. The final design harus benar-benar sesuai
dengan preferensi pasar.
Thus, penelitian ttg: customer needs, attitudes, and preferences, the results of market tests harus benar-benar
dapat digunakan dalam pengambilan the final decision.
the last steps in the design process: menyiapkan spesifikasi
narritive dari the bundle of intangibles supplied.
Spesifikasi desain perangkat jasa memberikan gambaran
ttg jasa secara jelas bahwa pengalaman jasa yg sama dapat
direplikasi diberbagai lokasi (paket jasa yg dijual
perusahaan tsb).
52

IV

5. Service Design System Approaches


Personalized service (Jasa personal)
Pendekatan ini keyakinan bahwa jasa merupakan susuatu yg
sifatnya personal (dilakukan oleh individu ttt, dan ditujukan
kepada individu lainnya). Karenanya setiap pelanggan harus
dilayani secara personal sesuai kebutuhannya.
Production line approach (Pendekatan lini produksi)
Jasa secara rutin disediakan dalam lingkungan yg terkendali
untuk menjamin konsistensi kualitas dan efisiensi operasi.
Beberapa karakteristik yg menunjang keberhasilan pendekatan ini:
a. Adanya keterbatasan karyawan dalam bertindak (ditujukan
untuk standarisasi dan konsistensi dalam kualitas)
b. Adanya pembagian kerja (division of labor), sesuai dengan
spesialisasi ketrampilan karyawan.
c. Menggantikan sdm dengan teknologi tertentu (pemanfaatan
teknologi dan komputerisasi sbg. substitusi secara sistematis). Misal: penggunaan ATM didalam industri perbankan.
d. Standarisasi jasa. (misal: franchising),
memungkinkan upaya perencanaan dan prediksi lebih awal
atas pelayanan dan permintaan pelanggan. Tugas menjadi
lebih jelas, aliran pelanggan teratur, terciptanya keseragaman kualitas jasa, proses jasa menjadi lebih mudah dikendalikan.
53

IV
Memisahkan operasi kontak tinggi dan operasi tanpa kontak
langsung dengan pelanggan.
Manfaat:
- perusahaan dapat menciptakan persepsi personalized service
bagi pelanggan
- perusahaan dapat mencapai skala ekonomis melalui pemrosesan volume kerja.
Keberhasilan pendekatan ini bergantung pada 2 faktor:
a.Tingkat kontak dengan pelanggan (tinggi, sedang, rendah).
- berkaitan dg kehadiran pelanggan secara fisik dalam sistem
jasa.
- Diukur berdasarkan %-tase atau perbandingan antara waktu
kehadiran pelanggan dalam sistem jasa dg waktu total penyampaian suatu jasa.
- Pada high-contact service, kehadiran dan partisipasi pelanggan sangat menentukan timing permintaan, sifat jasa, dan
kualitas jasa.
b. Pemisahan high-contact operation dan noncontact operation
lansung dg pelanggan, akan mempengaruhi desain sistem
jasa yg dibutuhkan.
- high-contact operation, membutuhkan karyawan yg terampil
dalam melayani pelanggan
- noncontact operation, tidak harus secara fisik berhubungan
langsung dg pelanggan (operasi dapat dijadwalkan u/
mencapai kapasitas optimal). Contoh: back-stage operation.
54

IV
Partisipasi Pelanggan
Berdasarkan tk. Keterlibatan pelanggan, sistem penyampaian
jasa dapat dipandang dari dua titik ekstrim.
Swalayan
(self-service)

Ketergantungan penuh
pada penyedia jasa

Thus,ada dua macam kontribusi yg dapat diberikan pelanggan


dalam sistem penyampaian jasa:
a. Menggantikan provider labor dengan customer labor.
(penggunaan fasilitas ATM).
b. Memperhalus atau mengurangi variasi permintaan jasa.
metode yang digunakan:
- Sistem reservasi dan appointment, untuk menghindari
antrian panjang, dan mendapatkan kepasatian pelayanan,
(praktek dokter, hotel, perusahaan penerbangan).
- Penetapan harga diferensial, dilakukan untuk mendorong
pelanggan memanfaatkan jasa pada waktu-waktu diluar
jam sibuk, (tarif murah telp. Interlokal pada jam-jam ttt).
- Mengelola atau memperkuat permintaan pada periode
tidak sibuk, agar perbedaan permintaan dengan periode
sibuk tidak terlampau tajam (minivacation weekends pada
hotel).
- Mengembangkan jasa komplementer selama jam sibuk,
55
(penggunaan fasilitas ATM ).

IV
Swalayan (self-service)
Pada pendekatan ini tk keterlibatan pelanggan sangat tinggi.
pelanggan berperan secara aktif dalam proses jasa, (Supermarket; pelanggan memilih sendiri produk yg diinginkan,
membawa sendiri brg belanjaannya).

56

IV

6. Tipe Operasi Jasa


Proyek
sejumlah aktivitas saling terkait, didefinisikan dg jelas, diselesaikan dlm tahap waktu ttt. Jasa profesional yg berkaitan dg
penanganan proyek : arsitek, konsultan, pengacara, akuntan,
dokter.
Batch (job shop)
jasa disesuaikan dengan spesifikasi dan kebutuhan pelanggan.
Faktor terpenting dalam tipe ini adalah kemampuan u/ melaksanakan berbagai kombinasi dan tahapan/rangkaian aktivitas yg
berbeda bagi setiap konsumen, (jasa katering, perawatan medis,
bengkel.
Lini (flow shop)
Berhubungan dengan penyampaian jasa yg telah distandarisasi, sehingga rangkaian operasi yg dilakukan relatif sama,
(registrasi di perg. Tinggi, pemeriksaan kesehatan di RS,
pengurusan STNK/SIM)
Proses berkesinambungan (ongoing process)
Beroperasi selama 24 jam penuh, siap memberikan pelayanan
kapanpun dibutuhkan (kepolisian, Barisan Pencegah dan
Pemadam Kebakaran.
57

1. Arti dan Tipe Harapan Pelanggan Jasa


Sifat dan sumber harapan yg muncul diantara berbagai kelompok konsumen, pada dasarnya relatif sama.

Expectation of
End-and business-customer groups,
Experienced and inexperienced customers
Customers of pure and of product-related services
Had fundamentally the same nature and antecedents

Levels of Expectations
Desired service
The level of
service the
customer
hopes to
receive

Zone of
Tolerance
Adequate service

The extent to which


customers recognize
and are willing to
accept this
variation

The level of
service the customer
58
will accept

The Zone of Tolerance


Different customers posses different zone of tolerance.
Merupakan salah satu aspek didalam range of reasonable
service, bahwa pelanggan mempunyai zona toleransi yg berbeda, (some customers have narrow of tolerance, requiring a
tighter range of service from provider, while other customers
allow a greater range of service).
Zone of tolerance vary for service dimensions
Zona toleransi pelanggan jasa bervariasi berdasarkan atribut
atau dimensi jasa. Semakin penting atribut/dimensi jasa
tersebut bagi pelanggan semakin sempit zona toleransinya.
Level
of
Expectation

Desired service
Zone of
Tolerance

Desired service

Adequate service

Zone of
Tolerance
Adequate service

Most important Factors

Least important factors

Figure: Zone if tolerance for Different Service Dimensions

59

Zone of tolerance vary for first-time and recovery service.


Zona toleransi untuk first time service biasanya lebih tinggi
dari pada recovery service.
- Harapan pelanggan lebih tinggi kepada service outcome dan
the process selama recovery service.
- Fluktuasi didalam zona toleransi pelanggan individual lebih
mengarah kepada fungsi perubahan pada adequate service
level (move up and down due to situational circumtances) dari
pada the desired service level (tends to move upward incrementally due to accumulated experiences).
Figure: Zone of tolerance for first-time and recovery service
First-Time Service
Outcome
Process
Recovery Service
Outcome
Process
Low

High
Expectations

60

2. Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Harapan


Pelanggan
Sources of Desired Service Expectations

Figure: Factors that influence desired service


Enduring service
intensifiers

Expected
Service
Desired service

Personal needs
Including physical,social, psychological, and functional needs

Zone
of
Tolerance

Are individual, stable factors that


lead the customer to a heightened
sensitivity to service.
Adequate service
derived service expectation (the
most important of these factors),
terjadi ketika harapan pelanggan dipicu oleh orang lain atau
kelompok dimana individu tsb berinteraksi.

personal service philosophy, pelanggan mendasarkan generic


attitude ttg makna dari jasa dan perlakuan yg pantas (proper
conduct) dari service provider.
61

Sources of Adequate Service Expectations


Figure: Factors that Influence adequate service

Transitory service
intensifiers
Desired service
Perceived service
alternatives

Self-perceived
service role

Zone
of
Tolerance
Adequate service

Situational
factors

Predicted
Service

The level of service


customers believe they
are likely to get.
62

Transitory service intensifiers,


Bersifat temporer, jangka pendek, faktor individual yang membuat seorang pelanggan lebih menyadari kebutuhannya akan
jasa tersebut
ch: Personal emergency situations in which service is urgently needed,
(such as traffic accident) riase the level of adequate service expectation, particularly level of responsiveness required and considered
acceptable.

Perceived service alternatives,


Jasa yang sama yang bisa diperoleh pelanggan dari provider
yang lain (competitors). Semakin banyak pesaing, semakin banyak pilihan pelanggan, akan semakin tinggi level of adequate
service, (the customer will be less tolerant of the service performance)

The customers self-perceived service role,


Didefinisikan sbg. persepsi pelanggan thd tingkat dimana pelanggan mempunyai pengaruh atas the level of service yang
mereka terima (partisipasi pelanggan dalam proses service
delivery tinggi). A dissatisfied customer who complains will be
less tolerant than one who does not voice his or her concerns.

Situational factors,
Kondisi kinerja jasa yg dipandang pelanggan sbg sesuatu yg
berada diluar kendali service provider. Semakin maklum pe-63
langgan dg faktor situasi, semakin tinggi tk toleransi pelanggan.

Sources of Both Desired and Predicted Service Expectations


Figure: Factors that influence desired and predicted service
Explicit service
promises

Expected
Service

Implicit service
promises

Desired Service
Word-of-mouth
Zone
of
Tolerance
Adequate Service

Past experience
Predicted Service

64

Explicit service promises,


Pernyataan/janji personal ( when they are communicated by
salespeople or repair personnel) dan nonpersonal (when they
come from advertising, brochures, and other writte publications)
tentang jasa yg dibuat oleh perusahaan kepada pelanggan,
(completely in the control of the service provider).

Implicit service promises,


Jasa dikaitkan dengan isyarat lain dari explicit promises yg
bermuara pada kesimpulan ttg seperti apa jasa yg akan diterima
oleh pelanggan ybs. Quality cues didominasi oleh harga dan
elemen tangibles dari jasa tersebut.

Word-of-mouth communication,
Komunikasi dari mulut kemulut sangat penting dalam konteks
jasa yg sulit dievaluasi sebelum pembelian dan mengalami langsung proses jasa tersebut.

Past experience,
Pengalaman masa lalu konsumen didalam mengkonsumsi jasa
merupakan kekuatan lain didalam mempengaruhi desired and
predicted service.
(look at this statement, My expectations are definitely influenced by my
past experience . . . My expectations are more realistic because of the
knowledge Ive gained.)
65

3. A Model of Customer Service Expectations


Figure: Nature and determinants of customer expectation
of service
Explicit Service
Promises

Enduring Service
Intensifiers

Advertising
Personal selling
Contracts
Other communications

Derived expectations
Personal service
philosophies

Personal Needs

Transitory Service
Intensifiers
Emergencies
Service problems

Perceived Service
Alternatives
Self-Perceived
Service Role
Situational Factors
Bad weather
Catastrophe
Random overdemand

Expected
Service
Desired Service
Zone
Of
Tolerance
Adequate
Service

Implicit Service
Promises
Tangibles
Price

Word-of Mouth
Personal
Expert (consumer reports, publicity, etc)

Past Experience
Predicted Service

Gap 5

Perceived Service

66

1. Customer Perceptions
How customer perceive services, how they
asses/evaluate, whether they have experienced
quality service and whether they are satisfied.
Internal customer,
are employees within the firm
who in their jobs, depend on
others in the organization for
internally provided goods and
Services.

External customer,
individuals and business that
buy goods and services from
the organization.

Asumsi: bahwa dimensi jasa dan cara customer mengevaluasi


jasa, dianggap tidak ada perbedaan, apakah mereka internal atau
external customer.
Satisfaction
Satisfaction,
umumnya dipandang
sbg konsep yg lebih
luas.

vs Service quality

Service quality,
focuses on dimensions of service,
mrp komponen dari kepuasan
pelanggan (satisfaction),.
67

Figure: Customer perception of quality and customer satisfaction

Reliability
Responsiveness
Assurance

Service
Quality

Situational
Factors

Empathy
Tangibles
Product
Quality

Price

Customer
Satisfaction

Personal
Factors
68

2. Customer Satisfaction
Adalah tingkat perasaan seseorang setelah membandingkan
kinerja produk/jasa yg ia rasakan dibandingkan dg harapannya.
Satisfaction is the consumers fulfilment response. It is a judgement that a product or service feature, or the product or service
it self, provides apleasurable level of consumption-related
fulfilment.
Product and Service Features,
kepuasan pelanggan dengan produk atau jasa, dipengaruhi secara signifikan oleh evaluasi pelanggan thd fitur produk atau jasa.

Ch: important features for a resort hotel : the pool area, access to golf
facilities, restaurants, room comfort and privacy, helpfulness and
courtesy of staff, room price, and so forth.

Consumer Emotions,
Emosi pelanggan dapat mempengaruhi persepsi pelanggan terhadap kepuasan thd produk dan jasa yg dikonsumsi. Specific emotion
bisa dipicu oleh pengalaman konsumsi itu sendiri, ia akan mempengaruhi kepuasan konsumen thd jasa.

Attribution for Service Success or Failure,


atribusi thd keberhasilan dan kegagalan jasa juga mempengaruhi persepsi pelanggan thd kepuasan. Ketika pelanggan merasa surprised dg
outcome (jasa yg diterima lebih baik atau lebih buruk dari yg diharapkan), konsumen cenderung berusaha mencari alasan, dan penilaian 69
mereka thd alasan tsb dapat mempengaruhi kepuasannya.

Perceptions of Equity or Fairness,


Kepuasan pelanggan juga dipengaruhi oleh persepsi pelanggan terhadap kewajaran jasa yg diterima. Pelanggan akan bertanya pada diri mereka: apakah saya telah diperlakukan sama dibandingkan dg pelanggan ?
apakah pelanggan lain diperlakukan lebih baik, memperoleh harga yg
lebih baik, memperoleh jasa dg kualitas yg lebih baik?
(note: notions of fairness are central to customers perceptions of satisfaction with product and service).

Outcomes of Customer Satisfaction


Mengapa semua perhatian tertuju pada kepuasan pelanggan?
Studi menemukan bahwa peningkatan level of customer
satisfaction dapat dihubungkan dengan customer loyalty
and profit.
Dalam konteks makro, satisfaction mrp indikator penting
dari quality of life.
1 = very dissatisfied
2 = dissatisfied
3 = neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4 =satisfied
5 = very satisfied

100
loyalty
(repetition) (%)

Figure:
Relationship between customer
satisfaction
and loyalty
in competitive
industries

50

70

3. Service Quality
Lima perspektif terhadap kualitas menurut Garvin:
1.Transcendent view of quality,
Memandang kualitas sbg innate excellence, artinya, kualitas
dapat dirasakan atau diketahui, tetapi sulit didefinisikan dan di
operasionalkan. Biasanya diterapkan didunia seni.
2.The Product-based approach,
Memandang bahwa kualitas merupakan merupakan karakteristik atau atribut yg dapat dikuantitatifkan dan dapat diukur. Perbedaan dlm kualitas mencerminkan perbedaan dalam jumlah
beberapa unsur (atribute) yg dimiliki produk. Bersifat objektif,
karenanya tidak dapat menjelaskan perbedaan dalam selera,
kebutuhan, dan preferensi individu.
3. User-based definition,
Berpendapat bahwa kualitas bergantung pada orang yg memandangnya (bersifat subjektif dan demand oriented). Suatu
produk dianggap berkualitas tinggi jika mampu memuaskan
preferensi individu yg bersangkutan.
4. The manufacturing-based approach,
Bersifat supply-based terutama memperhatikan praktek-praktek engineering and manufacturing, dan mendefinisikan kualitas sbg. kesesuaian dg. persyaratan (conformance to require71
ment). In service, we would say that quality was operations driven.

5. Value-based definitions,
Memandang kualitas dari segi value and price. Dengan mempertimbangkan trade-off antara kinerja (or conformance) dan
harga, kualitas didefinisikan sbg affordable excellence.
Kualitas dipandang bersifat relatif, produk dg kualitas tertinggi
belum tentu paling bernilai (yg paling bernilai adalah brg/jasa
yg paling tepat dibeli.
So, Service quality ?
2 factors of servqual:
expected service,
perceived service

Tingkat keunggulan yg
diharapkan dan pengendalian
atas tingkat keunggulan tersebut
untuk memenuhi keinginan
pelanggan.

Manfaat superior service quality:

Loyalitas pelanggan meningkat


Pangsa pasar lebih besar
Harga saham yg lebih tinggi
Harga jual yang lebih tinggi
Produktivitas yang lebih tinggi
72

Figure : The benefit of quality


Price
Advantage
Customer-Driven
Quality

Market Share
Customer
Value
Productivity
&
Growth

Customer Atribute
& Design
Specification
Productivity
Quality
Specification

Lower Cost
Lower
Quality Cost

Investment in Improving Quality

73

The Service Excellence ?


Pelayanan yg unggul:
Sikap, cara karyawan dalam melayani pelanggan secara
memuaskan, dg memenuhi 4 unsur pokok:
-kecepatan
- ketepatan
- keramahan
- kenyamanan
Komponen utama total quality of service
1. Technical quality,
komponen yg berkaitan dg kualitas output jasa yg diterima pelanggan:
- search quality, kualitas yg dpt dievaluasi pelanggan sebelum
membeli jasa, (ch: harga jasa)
- experience quality, kualitas yg hanya dpt dievaluasi setelah
pelanggan mengkonsumsi jasa.
- credence quality, kualitas yg sukar dievaluasi pelanggan meskipun telah mengkonsumsi jasa
2. Functional quality,
komponen yg berhubungan dg kualitas cara jasa disampaikan
3. Corporate image,
profit, reputasi, citra umum, dan daya tarik khusus yg dimiliki
74
perusahaan

Service Quality Dimension.


Reliability
Responsiveness
Competence
Access
Courtesy
Communications
Credibility
Security
Understanding
Tangibles

Tangibles, appearance of physical facili

ties, equipment, personnel, and


written materials.
Reliability, ability to perform the promised
service dependably and accurately.
Responsiveness, willingness to help customers and provide prompt service.
Assurance, employees knowledge and
courtesy and their ability to inspire
trust and confidence.
Empathy, caring, individualized attention
given to customers

Parasuraman, dkk

Menurut Gronroos:
Tiga kriteria pokok kualitas
Jasa:
1. outcome-related criteria,
2. Process-related criteria
3. Image-related criteria

Di
ja
bar
kan
men
ja
di

6 Unsur:
Profesionalism and skills,
Attitudes and behavior
Accessibility and flexibility
Reliability and trustworthiness
Recovery
Reputation and credibility
75

Prinsip-Prinsip Kualitas Jasa


Kepemimpinan,
strategi kualitas perusahaan harus merupakan inisiatif dan komitmen dari manajemen puncak.
Pendidikan,
semua personil perusahaan mulai dari top management sampai karyawan operasional harus memperoleh pendidikan mengenai kualitas.
Perencanaan,
proses perencanaan stratejik harus mencakup pengukuran dan
tujuan kualitas yg digunakan dalam mengarahkan perusahaan
untuk mencapai visinya.
Review,
proses review merupakan alat yg paling efektif bagi manajemen
untuk mengubah perilaku organisasi untuk menjadi lebih baik
dan lebih baik lagi.
Komunikasi,
implementasi strategi kualitas dalam organisasi dipengaruhi
oleh komunikasi, baik antara karyawan perusahaan dg pelanggan, antar karyawan, antara karyawan dg manajemen dan stakeholder lainnya.
Penghargaan dan Pengakuan (total human reward) kepada kar76
yawan yg berprestasi untuk meningkatkan motivasi kerja.

Model Kualitas Jasa (Gap Model)


Consumer
Word-of-mouth
Communication

Kebutuhan
Personal

Pengalaman
Yang Lalu

Jasa Yang
Diharapkan
Gap 5

Jasa Yang
dirasakan
Service
Provider

Penyampaian
Jasa

Gap 4

Komunikasi
Eksternal

Gap 3

Penjabaran
Spesifikasi

Gap 1

Source: A.Parasuraman, at al

Gap 2

Persepsi
manajemen

77

Quality Defined as Gap Between Perceptions and Expectations


Gap 1: Consumer Expectation-Management Perception Gap,
service managers tidak selalu dapat memahami dg tepat
fitur jasa seperti apa yg diinginkan oleh pelanggan.
Gap 2: Management Perception-Service Quality Specifications
Gap
manajemen tidak selalu mampu menyusun standar kinerja yg tepat sesuai dengan yg diinginkan oleh pelanggan.
Gap 3: Service Quality Specifications-Service Delivery Gap,
meskipun guidelines ttg appropriate quality sudah dibuat, jasa yg berkualitas sering gagal didalam penyampaiannya kepada pelanggan.
Gap 4: Service Delivery-External Communication Gap,
media iklan dan komunikasi lainnya yg digunakan oleh
perusahaan dapat mempengaruhi harapan pelanggan
terhadap jasa yg ditawarkan. Risiko yg dihadapi adalah
apabila jasa yg disampaikan tidak sesuai janji.
Gap 5: Expected Service-Perceived Service Gap,
kunci untuk menjamin penyampaian jasa yg berkualitas
adalah dg memenuhi atau melebihi harapan pelanggan.
gap terjadi apabila pelanggan mengukur kinerja jasa dg
cara yg berbeda, atau keliru didalam mempersepsikan78
kualitas jasa.

Merujuk pada service quality model, beberapa hal yg perlu


diperhatikan:
identifikasi atribut kunci kualitas jasa dari sudut pandang manajemen dan konsumen.
penekanan terutama pada gap yg terjadi antara persepsi dan
harapan pelanggan dengan penyedia jasa
pemahaman tentang implikasi teratasinya kesenjangan yg ada
terhadap pengelolaan jasa.
Steps in the systmatic development of quality (Murdick, dkk):
Identify customer expectations
design the service to meet customer expectations of quality
develop and implement a quality training program
design and implement a quality control program
Figure: the service profit chain
Internal
Service
quality

Employee
Employee
Satisfacretention
tion

External
Service
quality

Customer
Satisfaction

Customer
retention

Profit
79

Pengukuran Kualitas Jasa


Dua hal yg perlu diperhatikan:
spesifikasi determinan
Ditentukan oleh:
kualitas jasa
tk kontak jasa
perangkat kualitas jasa
proses atau ouput jasa
yg bisa diukur
Dua pertanyaan penting berkaitan dg kualitas:
- apa yg seharusnya diberikan jasa tersebut?
- apa yg benar-benar telah diberikan jasa tersebut?
So, kualitas jasa mrp penilaian atas sejauh mana suatu jasa sesuai dg apa yg seharusnya disampaikan.
Dua pertanyaan berikut yg perlu dijawab:
apa yang diukur?
- apakah process or output quality?
- apakah physical or interactive quality?
- apakah technical, functional, or
corporate quality?

Result and process


oriented

Sumber kualitas menurut Gummesson:


design quality
production quality
Customer
and
process
oriented
delivery quality
relationship quality

80

Bagaimana Mengukurnya?
berkaitan dengan instrumen/formula yang bagaimana yang
dapat digunakan untuk mengukur kualitas jasa.
Alternatif Pengukuran Kualitas Jasa

Skor Kualitas Jasa = (skor kinerja skor harapan)

Skor Kualitas = Skor Derajat x (Skor Kinerja Skor Harapan)


Jasa
Kepentingan

Skor Kualitas Jasa

(Skor Kinerja)

Skor Kualitas = Skor Derajat x (Skor Kinerja)


Jasa
Kepentingan
81

VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS


PELANGGAN

1. Faktor Penting dalam Penentuan


Standar Jasa

Standarization of Service Behaviors and Actions

Penterjemahan harapan pelanggan kedalam standar


kualitas yg spesifik bergantung pada tingkat dimana
tugas-tugas dan perilaku yg terbentuk dapat
distandarisir atau routinized.
- Beberapa eksekutif dan manajer menganggap jasa
tidak dapat distandarisir
Reasons: that customization is essential for providing
high-quality service, such as accounting consulting,
engineering, and dentistry, professionals provide
customized and individualized services; so,
standardizing of the task is perceived as being
impersonal, inadequate, and not in the customers
best interests, inconsistent with employee
empowerment.
- Kenyataannya many service task are routine, even
in highly customized services artinya, banyak aspek
dari service provision yang dapat di rutinisasi.
Exp: Physicians and dentists, can and do standardise
recurring and nontechnical aspects of service such
as : checking patients in, weighing patients, billing
patients, collecting payment, and taking routine
measurements
82

VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS


PELANGGAN

Standarisasi jasa dapat terjadi dalam tiga bentuk :


.

Substitution of technology for personal


contact and human effort
(exp: automatic teller machine, airport Xray machines)
Improvement in work methods
(exp: routinized tax and accounting
service developed by firms).
Combinations of these two methods.

83

VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS


PELANGGAN

Formal Service Targets and Goals


- Perusahaan yg sukses didalam penyampaian jasa yg

berkualitas secara konsisten, membuat standar formal


untuk memandu karyawan didalam penyampaian jasa.
Seperti: lama waktu transaksi, pencatatan frekuensi
kegagalan penyampain jasa, seberapa cepat menangani
keluhan pelanggan dan upaya keras peningkatan
kualitas jasa dg menentukan tujuan yg bermuara pada
pemenuhan harapan pelanggan.
- Beberapa tipe dari formal goal setting yg relevan
didalam bisnis jasa:

1). There are specific targets for individual


behavior or actions

exp: consider the behavior calls the


customer back quickly an action that signal
responsiveness in contact employees.
Jika the service goal diatas dinyatakan dg statement
yg umum, karyawan akan memberikan interpretasi yg
berbeda karena tidak ada ukuran pas dari kata quickly,
apakah 5 menit, 1 jam 1 hari dll, shg menimbulkan
inkonsistensi thd penyampaian jasa. Thus, harus
dinyatakan dg jelas standar waktu dari call the
customer back quickly.
84

VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA


BERBASIS PELANGGAN

2). Involves the overall departement or


company target, most frequently
expressed as a percentage, across
all execution of behavior or action.
exp: a departement might set as its overall
goal to call the customer back within four
hours 97 % of
the
time, and collect
the data over
a months or years time
to evaluate the extent to which it meets
the target.

85

VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS


PELANGGAN

Customer Not Company Defined Standards


- Pada dasarnya semua perusahaan mempunyai pengukuran
dan standar jasa yg ditentukan oleh perusahaan yg
dibangun untuk mencapai tujuan perusahaan akan
produktivitas, efisiensi, biaya, atau kualitas teknis.
- Untuk menutupi gap 2 (customer-driven service designs
and standards- company perceptions of customer
expectations), standar yg ditetapkan oleh perusahaan
harus berdasarkan pada persyaratan dan harapan
pelanggan daripada hanya berdasarkan tujuan internal
perusahaan.
Implikasi:
a). Knowing customer requirements, priorities, and
expectation levels can be both effective and efficient.
b). Anchoring service standards on customers, can save
money by identifying what customer values, thus
eliminating activities and features that the customer
either does not notice or will not pay for.

86

VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA


BERBASIS PELANGGAN

2. Customer-Defined Service Standard

Tipe standard jasa yg dekat dg provider gap 2 adalah


customer-defined standards operational goals and
measures based on pivotal customer requirements that are
visible to and measured by customer.
Customer-defined standards allows for the translation of
customer requirements into goals and guidelines for employee
performance.
Terdapat 2 tipe dari customer-defined service standard :
- Hard customer- defined standard
- Soft customer-defined standard

Hard Customer-Defined Standard


- Federal Express standards, diantaranya SQI, masuk kedalam
kategori hard standards and measure : things that can be
counted, timed , or observed through audits.
- Exp: A series of 35 studies accros numerous industries from
the Arthur D. Little management consulting firm f ound that:
* the most frequently cited customer complaint was late
product and service delivery (44%), followed by product
and service quality mistake (31%)
87

VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA BERBASIS


PELANGGAN

Hard service-standards for reliability, dapat


dilakukan dg membangun reliability standards untuk
menciptakan value system yg handal dalam bisnis
jasa.
contoh:
- a generic reliability standard that would relevant to
virtually any service company is right first time, yg
berarti bahwa jasa yg disiapkan disampaikan secara
tepat the first time menurut penilaian pelanggan,
- Another example, right on time which means
that the service is performed at the scheduled time,
(waktu penyampaian jasa terjadwal dan tepat waktu)

88

VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA


BERBASIS PELANGGAN

Hard service-standards for responsiveness,


disiapkan untuk menjamin kecepatan dan
ketepatan penanganan terkait dg penyampaian
jasa perusahaan, misal:
- Pengiriman produk (within two working days),
- Penanganan komplain (by sundown each day),
- Menjawab pertanyaan (within two hours)
- kedatangan untuk repair calls (within 30 minutes of
estimated time)

Responsiveness perceptions akan menurun


ketika pelanggan menunggu lama untuk bisa
menghubungi perusahaan melalui telepon, atau
terjebak kedalam a phone mail sistem.

89

VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA


BERBASIS PELANGGAN
soft Customer-Defined Standard

Semua prioritas pelanggan tidak dapat dihitung,


ditentukan waktunya atau diobservasi melalui audit.
For exp: understanding and knowing the customer is
not a customer priority for which a standard that count,
time, or observes employees can adequately capture.
Soft measures dapat didomumentasikan menggunakan
perceptual measures.
Disebut soft standards and measures, karena ia
merupakan opinion-based measures yang tidak
diobservasi dan harus dikumpulkan melalui komunikasi
(talking to) dengan pelanggan, karyawan, atau pihak lain
yg terkait.
Soft standards memberikan arah, panduan dan feedback
kepada karyawan cara mencapai kepuasan pelanggan
dan dapat dikuantifikasi dengan mengukur persepsi dan
kepercayaan pelanggan.
Soft standards sangat berguna terutama untuk personto-person interaction, seperti pada selling process and
delivery process for professional services.
90

VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA


BERBASIS PELANGGAN

3. Proses Pengembangan Customer-Defined Standards


1. Identify existing of desired service encounter sequence
2. Translate customer expectation into behaviors/actions
3. Select behavior/actions for standards
4. Set hard or soft standards
Measures by
Audits of
Operating Data

Hard

5. Develop feedback
mechanisms

soft

Measure by
TransactionBased Surveys

6. Establish measures and target levels


7. Track measures against standards
8. Provide feedback about performance to employees
9. Update target levels and measures
Figure: Process for setting customer-defined standards

91

VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA


BERBASIS PELANGGAN

Identify Existing or Desired Service Encounter


Sequence

Mencakup penggambaran rangkaian service encounter


Service blueprint dapat digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi
rangkaian service encounter yg diinginkan.
Idealnya perusahaan membuka diri untuk menemukan
rangkaian service encounter yang sesuai dengan keinginan
pelanggan

Translate Customer Expectations into


Behaviors and Actions for Each Service Encounter

Abstraksi customer requirements and expectations harus


diterjemahkan secara konkrit kedalam tindakan dan
perilaku spesifik yg dikaitkan dg masing-masing enconter
didalam rangkaian service encounter
Informasi atas tindakan dan perilaku harus dikumpulkan
dan diinterpretasikan oleh sumber yg objektif seperti
oleh lembaga penelitian atau departemen didalam
perusahaan tanpa hambatan didalam pengambilan
keputusan akhir sehingga tidak bias ( really customerdefined standards)
92

VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA


BERBASIS PELANGGAN

Select Behaviors and Actions for Standards


Mencakup penetapan prioritas tindakan dan perilaku yang akan
dibangun sesuai dg customer-defined standards.
The following are the most important criteria for creation of the
standards:

The standards are based on behaviors and actions that are very
important to customers. (Customer-defined standards need to focus
on what is very important to customer)

The standards cover performance that needs to be improved


or maintained. (Customer-defined standards should be established
for behavior that needs to be improved or maintained).

The standards cover behaviors and actions employees can


improve (Employees perform according to standards consistently

only if they understand, accept, and have control over the behaviors
and actions specified in the standards).
The standards are accepted by employees (Employees will
perform to standard consistently only if they understand and accept
the standards).
The standards are predictive rather than reactive (Customerdefined standard should not be established on the basis of complaints
or other forms of reactive feedback).
The standards are challenging but realistic
(If standards are not
challenging, employees get little reinforcement for mastering them)
93

VII.PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA


BERBASIS PELANGGAN

Decide Whether Hard or Soft Standards Are Appropriate

Involves deciding whether hard or soft stnadards should be


used to capture the behavior and action.
Seperti misalnya, speed of complaint handling (menggunakan
a hard measure), satisfaction (menggunakan, soft measure)

Develop Feedback Mechanisms for


Measurement to Standards

One critical aspect of developing feedback mechanisms is


ensuring that they capture the process from the customers view
rather than the company view , (this is a difficult step for most
companies).

Establish Measures and Target Levels

That companies establish target levels for the standards.


The techniques:
- Simple perceptionAction correlation studies
- Hypothetical Satisfaction Performance Surveys
- Competitive Benchmarking

94

VII. PENENTUAN STANDAR JASA


BERBASIS PELANGGAN

Track Measures against Standards

Statistical process control and other types of charts are


everywhere tracking characteristics of its concreten and crushed
stone and process such as the time it takes customer to fill their
trucks
Customer complaints are also tracked through what the
company callsproduct service discrepancy report, and rootcause analysis and update are distributed to all plants.
Note:
We simply have to know how were doing

Provide Feedback about Performance Employees

Communicate the performance on its service quality indicator


daily so that everyone in the company knows how it is performing,
SQI measurement gives everyone in the company immediate
feedback on activity that is strongly related to customer
perception.

Periodically Update Target Levels and Measures

Involves revising the target levels, measures, and even


customer requirements on a regular enough basis to keep up
with customer expectations
95

1. Consumer Complaining Behavior


Customer response to service failure:
do nothing
complain in some form to the service firm
take action through a third party (consumer advocacy
group, consumer affairs or regulatory agencies, and civil
or criminal court).
abandon this supplier and discourage other people from
using the service (negative word-of-mouth)

Types of Complainers
Passives, this group of customers is least likely to take any action
Voicers, this customers actively complain to the service provider,
but they are less likely to spread negative word-of-mouth, to
switch patronage, or to go to third parties with their complaint.
Irates, this customers are more likely to engage in negative
word-of-mouth to friends and relatives and to switch providers than
are others.
Activists, these customers are characterized by above average
propensity to complain on all dimension. They will complain to the
provider, they will tell others, and they are more likely than any
other group to complain to third parties
96

Service failure

Do nothing

Take action

Switch
providers
Complain to
provider

Complain to
family and friends

Switch
Providers

Stay with
provider

Complain to
third party

Stay with
Provider

Figure: Customer response the service failure


97

Why dont unhappy customers complain?


There are three reason why dissatisfied customers dont complain:
they didnt think it was worth the time or effort
they decided no one would be concerned about their problem
or resolving it
they did not know where to go or what to do

Impact on repurchase intentions


when complaints are satisfactorily resolved, theres a much better
chance that the customers involved will remain brand loyal and
continue to repurchase the items in questions
TARP found that intentions to repurchase different types of products
range from 69 to 80 percent among those complainers who
completely satisfied with the outcome of complaint.

What do customers expect?


Customer expect fair treatment:
outcome fairness (customer expect outcomes, or compensation
that match the level of their dissatisfaction)
procedural fairness (fairness in term of policies, rules, and
timelines of complaint process)
interaction fairness (customer expect to be treated politely, with
care, and honesty)

98

2. Impact of Service Recovery Efforts on


Customer Loyalty
complaint handling harus dilihat sbg a profit center bukan
sebagai a cost center termasuk menciptakan formula u/
membantu perusahaan terkait dg value of retaining a profitable customer thd seluruh biaya yg dikeluarkan u/
menjalankan an effective complaint handling unit
Hasilnya:
- impressive return on investment; from 50 to 70% for banking, 20
to 150% for gas utilities, over 100% for automotive service, and
from 35 400% for retailing
(source : TARP)

Service Recovery Following Customer Complaints


Service recovery, mrp upaya yg sistematis yg dilakukan perusahaan untuk mengambil tindakan koreksi terkait dg kegagalan jasa yg
disajikan kepada pelanggan (play a crucial role in achieving (or
restoring) customer satisfaction)
Beberapa komplain dilakukan: ketika jasa sedang disampaikan,
dan ketika jasa sudah selesai dikonsumsi (how the complaint is
handled may determine whether the customer remains the firm or
seeks new suppliers in future).
99

3. The Service Recovery Strategy


Components of an effective service recovery system
Do the job
Right the
First time

Effective
+ Complaint
Handling
Identify
Service
complaints

Increased satisfaction
And loyalty

conduct research
monitor complaints
develop complaint as
opportunity culture

Resolve
Complaints
Effectively

Developed effective
Systems and training
in complaint handling

Learn from
The recovery
experience

Conduct
Root-Cause Analaysis

Feedback

Figure: Components of an effective service


recovery system

100

Principles of Effective Problem Resolution:


recovering from service failure requires commintment,
planning, and clear guidelines
service recovery efforts should be flexible, and employees
should be empowered to use their judgement and communication skill to develop solutions that will satisfy complaining
customer
Guidelines for Effective Problem Solution (Lovelock):
Act fast (take care of the problems on the front line,
empower employees)
Admit mistake but dont be defensive
Show that you understand the problem from each customer
point of view
Dont argue with customers
Acknowledge the customers feelings
Give customers the benefit of the doubt
Clarify the steps needed to solve the problem
Keep customers informed of progress
Consider compensation
Persevering to regain customer goodwill
101

4. Service Guarantees
Service guarantees are powerful tools for promotion
and achieving service quality for the reasons:
a. Guarantees force firms to focus on what their
customers want and expect in each element of the
service
b. Guarantees set clear standards, telling customers
and employees alike what the company stand for.
c. Guarantees require the development of the systems
for generating meaningfull customer feedback and
acting on it
d. Guarantees force service organizations to
understand why they fail and encourage them to
identify and overcome potential fail points
e. Guarantees build marketing muscle by reducing the
risk of the purchase decision and building long-term
loyalty
102

Benefit of Service Guarantees:


A good guarantees forces the company to focus on its
customers
An effective guarantees sets clear standards for the
organization
A good guarantees generates immediate and relevant
feedback form customers
When the guarantee is invoked there is an instant
opportunity to recover
Information generated through the guarantee can be
tracked and integrated into continuous improvement
efforts
Studies of the impact of service guarantees suggest
that employee morale and loyalty can be enhanced as
a result
For customers, the guarantee reduces their sense of
risk and builds confidence in the organization

103

Types of Service Guarantees:

Satisfaction versus service attribute guarantees


Service guarantees can be unconditional satisfaction
guarantees or attribute guarantees,
- satisfaction guarantees; if client unhappy, they dont pay
for the service.
- attribute guarantees; firms offer guarantees of particular
aspects of service that are important to customers (e.g,
package delivery by a certain time, etc)

External versus internal guarantees


Guarantees dont have to be just for external customers,
that internal service guarantees one part of the
organization guaranteeing its service to others are
effective ways of aligning internal service operation.

104

Characteristic of effective guarantees:

Unconditional,
the guarantee should make its promise
unconditionally
Meaningfull (that are important to customer),
- berikan garansi atas elemen-elemen jasa yg
penting bagi pelanggan
- ganti rugi sebaiknya sepenuhnya dapat menutupi
ketidakpuasan pelanggan
Easy to understand and communicate,
- bagi pelangganmereka perlu memahami apa
sebenarnya yang mereka harapkan
- bagi employeesmereka perlu memahami apa
yang harus dilakukan
easy to invoke and collect,

105

1. Sifat Manajemen SDM


a). Manpower planning
perencanaan sdm memastikan bahwa
perusahaan memiliki karyawan dalam jumlah
yang tepat, dengan berbagai kualifikasi sesuai
dengan kebutuhan (at the right times and
place)
perencanaan sdm tersebut harus menjadi,the
firms strategic plan, intermediate plan, and
operating.
manpower planning in large service firms is
similar to that of manufacturing firms.

106

b). Recruiting and Selecting


Recruiting,
- mengidentifikasi dan menarik orang yg dapat
menempati posisi ttt didalam firm.
- dimulai dg menyiapkan job descriptions dan
spesifikasi keterampilan dan kemampuan calon
karyawan untuk posisi tersebut.
note: in services, many white-collar workers and

tradepeople are directly concerned with servicing the


customers, often while the customer is waiting or is in
contact with the employee, so, employee recruiting and
selection are extremely important for the service firm

Employee Selection,
- harus berdasarkan kriteria for performance of the job

yang jelas (so, the application form should be designed


to uncover the applicants skills and abilities for job
performance).
- teknik lain yang dapat digunakan: testing, interviews,
references and probationary periods of employment
107

c). Training & Development (T&D)


Tujuan :
- for changing an employees behavior to prepare the
employees for a job
- upgrade the employees performance on the job

Pada bisnis jasa, program T&D umumnya berbeda diantara:


- managers
- professional personnels
- office and clerical (including information processors)
- technicians (spt: lab assistants or auto repair
mechanics)
- operative employees (spt: bus drivers, mail clerk, etc)

108

d). Utilizing Human Resources

Means arranging their work to make them both productive


and motivated.
Faktor penentu keefektifan utilisasi sdm:
- job structure and work that provide an opportunity for
stretch performance
- participation in decisions that have a direct effect on the
persons job
- open communications and equitable scheduling of
assignments
- component supervision and organizational flexibility
- economic and noneconomic rewards that recognize
achievement and equity
- opportunity for growth
- a culture that encourages caring for both customer and
worker needs

109

e). Rewarding Employees


Methods for compensating employees in order to
Attract and retain them:

Develop a public image of the company such that employees have


pride in working for the firm
Provide flexitime working conditions so that people may fit their
work to their personal needs and lifestyle, including working at other
jobs
Reward employees for participating in suggestions that can make
their work more productive
Structure jobs so that employees have control over their work and
responsibilities that challenge them
Provide first-class facilities (such as private offices, lounges,
cafetarias, etc,
Reduce the cost of employment for the worker
Compensate by salary or commission
Design the service so that the customer does more of the work (exp
self-service stores, cafetarias, ATM, etc)

110

2. Types of Service Employees


Private-profit, not for profit, and
government workers
Full-time versus contingent workers
White-collar versus blue collar workers
Professional service employees versus
consumer service employees

111

1. Peramalan Dalam Operasi Jasa


Pentingnya peramalan dalam operasi jasa berkaitan dg karakteristik bisnis jasa:
permintaan jasa sangat fluktuatif
sifat jasa yang tidak berwujud
jasa diproduksi dan dikonsumsi secara bersamaan
Proses Peramalan Jasa
Penentuan tujuan peramalan,
berkaitan dg penentuan: variabel yg akan diestimasi, pengguna
ramalan, alasan dibutuhkannya peramalan, biaya peramalan,
jangka waktu peramalan, derajat ketepatan peramalan, waktu
melakukan peramalan.
Penyusunan model,
menyusun/ mengembangkan model (penyajian secara ringkas
dan lugas ttg sistem atau aspek yang akan diramal) yg tepat,
agar diperoleh hasil peramalan yg sahih (valid) dan handal
(reliable).
Pengujian model,
model harus diuji sebelum digunakan, agar validitas dan reliabilitas hasil peramalan dapat dipertanggungjawabkan.
112

Penerapan model,
model yg telah diuji diterapkan u/ peramalan masa yad sesuai dg
jangka waktu yang diinginkan.
Revisi dan Evaluasi secara kontinu,
- revisi dilakukan berkaitan dg adanya perubahan baik internal
maupun eksternal (harga, biaya promosi, peraturan pemerintah,
teknologi, dll).
- evaluasi dilakukan dg membandingkan ramalan yg telah dibuat
dg hasil aktualnya, u/ menilai tepat tidaknya metode ramalan yg
digunakan dan u/ meningkatkan kualitas ramalan.

2. Karakteristik Permintaan dan Penawaran Jasa


Dalam setiap momen ttt, jasa yg berkapasitas tetap akan menghadapi salah satu dari kondisi berikut:
excess demand, permintaan jauh melebihi kapasitas maksimum. Akibatnya sebagian pelanggan tdk dpt dilayani, dan perusahaan kehilangan pelanggan tersebut
demand exceed optimum capacity, semua pelanggan dilayani meskipun melampaui kapasitas optimum. Akibatnya, pelanggan akan mempersepsi adanya penurunan kualitas pelayanan.
demand and supply are well balanced, konsumen dilayani sesuai
dg kapasitas yg dimiliki, mereka menerima jasa sesuai yg diharapkan.
excess capacity, permintaan berada dibawah tk kapasitas optimum.
Akibatnya terdapat resources yg menganggur.
113

Volume demanded

Demand exceeds capacity (business is lost)


Demand exceeds
Optimum capacity

Maximum available
capacity

(servqual decline)

Optimum capacity
Utilization (balanCed demand and
Supply)

Excess cap
(wasted resources)

Low utilization
(many send bad
Signals)

Time Cycle 1

Time Cycle 2

Figure: Implication of Variations in Demand Relative to


Capacity
114

3 Mengukur dan Mengelola Kapasitas


Kapasitas produktif ?
Dalam konteks jasa, kapasitas produktif dapat terjadi at least five
potential forms:
Physical facilities designed to contain customers and used for
delivering people-processing service or mental-processing service,
exp: medical clinics, hotels, passenger aircraft, buses, restaurants,
swimming pools, theaters, concert hall, and college classrooms).
Physical facilities designed for storing or processing goods that

either belong to customers or are being offered to them for sale.


Exp: supermarket shelves, pipelines, warehouses, parking lots, freight
containers, or railroad cars

Physical equipment used to process people, possessions, or


information
Exp: telephones, hair dryers, computers, diagnostic equipment, bank
ATMs, etc.

Labour, a key element of productive capacity in all high contact


services and many low-contact ones, may be used for both
physical and menta work.
Infrastrucure, many organization are dependent on access to
sufficient capacity in public or private infrastructure to be able
to deliver service quality to their own customers,
Exp: telephone circuit, electrical power, air traffic, major roads, etc. 115

Measuring Capacity
Mencakup the number of hours (atau persentase total waktu yg
tersedia) dimana fasilitas, tenaga kerja, dan peralatan secara
produktif digunakan didalam revenue operation, dan persentase ruang yg tersedia (spt: seats, cubic freight capacity, or telecommucations bandwidth) yg secara aktual digunakan didalam
revenue operation.
Stretching and Shrinking the Level of Capacity
Stretching capacity (memperlonggar kapasitas),
biasanya dilakukan pada saat-saat permintaan tinggi (spt pada
jam-jam/periode sibuk).
Stretching capacity dapat diterapkan didalam bisnis jasa yang
mempunyai kapasitas elastis (mampu menyerap extra demand
seperti kereta api), maupun tetap (angkutan udara)
Ch: angkutan bus pada jam normal, penumpang sesuai dg jumlah tempat duduk, ttp pada jam sibuk allow standing floor
space untuk penumpang.
Shrinking capacity,
biasanya dilakukan untuk meminimalkan slack time
Ch: menawarkan menu yang lebih sederhana (jumlah menu
yang ditawarkan dikurangi) pada periode sibuk.
116

Chasing Demand
Melakukan penyesuaian kapasitas untuk menyeimbangkan variasi
permintaan. Cara yg mungkin to adjust capacity:
Shcedule downtime during periods of low demand.
Untuk menjamin bahwa 100% kapasitas tersedia selama periode sibuk,
perbaikan dan renovasi perlu dilakukan ketika permintaan diperikirakan rendah, dan karyawan diberi kesempatan untuk cuti.

Use part-time employees,


mempekerjakan karyawan paruh waktu selama periode sibuk.

Rent or share extra facilities and equipment


untuk menghemat investasi didalam fixed assets, perusahaan dapat
menyewa extra space or machine pada waktu-waktu sibuk.

Cross-train employees,
perusahaan perlu memiliki karyawan yg terlatih dalam banyak hal, agar
dapat menghandel pekerjaan diluar bidangnya sewaktu-waktu diperlukan, sehingga dapat meningkatkan total system capacity.

117

4. Memahami Pola dan Determinan Permintaan


Untuk mengendalikan variasi permintaan thd jasa tertentu, manajer perlu menentukan berbagai faktor penentu permintaan tersebut, untuk itu perlu dijawab beberapa pertanyaan berikut:
1. Apakah tingkat permintaan mengikuti siklus yang dapat diperkirakan:
- one day (varies by hour)
- one week (varies by day)
- one month (varies by day or by week)
- one year (varies by month or by season or reflects annually
occuring public holidays)
- some other period
Sering siklus yang berkali-kali berjalan secara simultan.
Ch: demand for passenger transport may vary by time of day, day of
week, and season.

2. Apa penyebab yang mendasari variasi siklus tersebut?


- employment timetables
- billing and tax payment/refund cycles
- wage and salary payment dates
- school hours and holidays
- seasonal changes in climate
- occurance of public or religious holidays
- natural cycles, such as coastal tides

118

3. Apakah tingkat permintaan terlihat berubah secara random?


jika ya, apa penyebabnya?
- day-to-day changes in the weather (consider how rain dan
cold affect the use of indoor and outdoor recreational or entertainment services)
- health events whose occurrrence cannot be pinpointed exactly (heart attacks and births affect the demand for hospital services)
- accidents, natural disasters (such as earthquakes), and certain criminal activities.
4. Dapatkah permintaan terhadap jasa tertentu di-disagregasi
oleh segmen pasar untuk merefleksikan komponen seperti:
- use patterns by a particular type of customer or for a particular purpose?
- variations in the net profitability of each completed transaction?

119

5. Strategi Mengelola Permintaan


Disaggregating demand by market segment,
- total demand can be broken down into smaller components depend on
the nature of the records kept by management
- consider promoting use of firms facilities for other purpose (such as,
hotel manager promotes conferences or pleasure travel at weekend)
- marketing effort should be directed to employers to persuade them to
adopt flextime

Managing demand under different conditions,


Pendekatan yang digunakan:
- taking no action and leaving demand to find its own levels
- reduce demand in peak periods
- increase demand when there is excess capacity
- storing demand until capacity becomes available, or
- creating formalized queuing system (or by combination of the two)

Using marketing strategies to shape demand pattern


- price and other user costs ( increase price in peak periods)
- changing product elements
- modifying the place and time of delivery (no change, varying the
times when the service is available to reflect changes incustomer
preference, offering the service to customers at a new location)
- promotion and education
- storing demand through queuing (by asking customers to wait in line)
and reservations (by offering them the opportunity of reserving space
in advance)
120

Tabel: Alternative Demand Management Strategies for Different


Capacity Situation
Approach to
Managed
Demand

Insufficient Capacity
(Excess Demand)

Take No Action Unoranized queuing


results. (May irritate
customers and discourage future use)

Sufficient Capacity
Excess Capacity
(Satisfactory Demand) (Insufficient Capacity)
Capacity is fully
utilized. (But is this
the most profitable
mix of business

Capacity is wasted
(Customers may ha-ve
a dissappointing
experience for services like theatre)

Reduce
Demand

Pricing higher will


Take no action
increase profits.
(but see above)
Communication can be
employed to encourage
usage in other time slots.
(Can this effort be
focused on less profitable/desirable
segments?)

Take no action
(but see above)

Increase
demand

Take no action unless


opportunities exist to
stimulate (and give
priority to) more profitable segments.

Price lower selectively (try to avoid


cannibalizing exis-ting
business, ensu-re all
relevant costs are
covered), use
communications and
variation in products
/distribution (but recognize extra costs, if
any, and make .

Take no action
unless opportuni-ties
exist to stimula-te
(and give priority to)
more profitable
segments.

121

Sure appropriate
trade-offs are
made between
profitabi-lity and
usage levels)

Inventory
demand by
reservation
system

Consider priority Try to ensure


system for most
most profitable
desi-rable
mix of business
segments. Make
other customers
shift (a). to outside
peak period or (b).
To future peak

Clarify that
space is
available and
that no
reservation are
needed

Inventory
demand by
formalized
queuing

Consider override Try to avoid


Not applicable
for most desirable bottleneck delays
segments. Seek to
keep waiting
customers
occupied and
comfortable. Try to
predict wait period
accurately
122

1. Pengantar
TQM

vs

Prinsip-prinsip manaj kualitas yg bersifat universal,


dpt diadopsi oleh bisnis
apapun (manufaktur or jasa)

TQS
Prinsip-prinsip manajemen
kualitas yg diterapkan pada
bisnis jasa, merupakan
derivasi dari TQM

Total quality service ?

Suatu sistem manajemen strategis dan integratif,


Yg melibatkan semua manajer dan karyawan serta
menggunakan metode-metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif
untuk memperbaiki secara kontinyu berbagai
proses, agar dpt memenuhi kebutuhan, keinginan
dan harapan pelanggan.
123

2. Fokus TQS

Fokus pada kebutuhan pelanggan


- identifikasi pelanggan (internal, eksternal)
- identifikasi kebutuhan, keinginan dan harapan pelanggan
- rancang sistem yg dpt memberikan jasa ttt yg memenuhi
tuntutan tsb.
- jalin relationship dg key suppliers atas dasar win-win
solution
Keterlibatan total (komitmen total)
- manajemen: tunjukkan kepemimpinan yg berkualitas
(inspiratif, partisipasi aktif)
- berikan peluang perbaikan kpd karyawan, berdayakan
karyawan
- ciptakan iklim kerja yg kondusif (bentuk tim kerja
multidisipliner, lintas fungsional) agar dapat berperan aktif
dalam merancang dan memperbaiki jasa, proses sistem dan
lingkungan perusahaan.
Standar pengukuran kinerja
susun standar ukuran kinerja dasar, baik internal maupun
eksternal organisasi bagi pelanggan.
(see : siklus pengukuran Jasa berkualitas)
124

Figure: Siklus Pengukuran Jasa Berkualitas


Merencanakan apa yg
harus dilakukan

Menganalisis bgmana
Menyempurnakan rencana

Mengukur apa yg
sedang dilaksanakan

Menyusun ukuran proses hasil


Mengidentifikasi output dari proses-proses kerja kritis dan
mengukur kesesuaiannya dg tuntutan pelanggan
Mengoreksi penyimpangan dan meningkatkan kinerja

125

Dukungan sistematis
manajemen bertanggung jawab dalam mengelola proses
pelayanan yg berkualitas melelui:
- membangun infrastruktur kualitas yg dikaitkan dg
struktur manajemen internal
- menghubungkan kualitas dg sistem manajemen yg
ada, spt: manajemen strategis, pengakuan,
penghargaan dan promosi karyawan, serta komunikasi.
Perbaikan berkesinambungan
- memandang semua pekerjaan sbg suatu proses
- mengantisipasi perubahan kebutuhan,keinginan dan
harapan pelanggan,
- melakukan perbaikan incremental
- mengurangi waktu siklus
- mendorong dan dg senang hati menerima umpan balik
tanpa rasa takut atau khawatir

126

3. Ensuring Quality
CEOs, managers, and all levels of employees must
concentrate on maintaining and monitoring qualitu
every day in every transaction, proposal, or plan

This total concept of quality involvement is


called quality assurance
Murdick

Steps in the systematic development of QA:

Identify customer expectation


Design the service to meet customer expectations of quality
Develop and implement a quality appraisal program
Design and implement a quality training program
Design and implement a quality control program

127

4. Manfaat TQS
Meningkatkan indeksn kepuasan kualitas
pelayanan
Meningkatkan produktivitas dan efisiensi
perusahaan
Meningkatkan laba
Meningkatkan pangsa pasar
Meningkatkan moral dan semangat keryawan
Meningkatkan loyalitas pelanggan

128

5. Model Penyempurnaan
Berkesinambungan
Dikenal sebagai pendekatan enam langkah

Mengidentifikasi pelayanan bernilai tambah yg


diberikan kepada pelanggan
Menidentifikasi dan menentukan harapan pelanggan
dg cermat
Mengidentifikasi kebutuhan kritis organisasi yg
memung-kinkan dapat memuaskan pelanggan
Menentukan proses pekerjaan
Mencermati kekeliruan proses dan mengeliminasi
kegiatan yg tak perlu
Menjamin perbaikan berkesinambungan dg jalan
mendukung umpan balik secara terus menerus

129

Kriteria Nilai Pelanggan


memenuhi
memenuhi kebutuhan
kebutuhan

pelanggan
pelanggan
cocok
cocok untuk
untuk digunakan
digunakan
Memproses
Memproses integritas
integritas
variants
variants minimum
minimum
peniadaan
peniadaan pemborosan
pemborosan
penyempurnaan
penyempurnaan yg
yg kontinu
kontinu

dukungan
dukungan pelanggan
pelanggan

Layanan
Layanan produk
produk
dukungan
dukungan produk
produk
flesibilitas
flesibilitas unt.memenuhi
unt.memenuhi perpermintaan
mintaan pelanggan
pelanggan
fleksibilitas
fleksibilitas untuk
untuk menggapi
menggapi
perubahan
perubahan pasar
pasar

Kualitas

Layanan

Biaya

Waktu

Kualitas =
desain
desain dan
dan rekayasa
rekayasa
konversi
konversi
jaminan
jaminan
distribusi
distribusi
administrasi
administrasi
persediaan
persediaan
material
material

waktu
waktu unt.
unt. Memasarkan
Memasarkan
reaksi
reaksi thd
thd kekuatan
kekuatan pasar
pasar
waktu
waktu tenggang
tenggang
material
material
persediaan
persediaan
130

FAKULTAS EKONOMI
UNIVERSITAS JAMBI
2008

MANAJEMEN
USAHA JASA DAN
PARIWISATA
Dra. Erida, M.Si
Ekstensi Kelas Jauh
FE UNJA
2007

132

Ekstensi Kelas Jauh


FAKULTAS EKONOMI
UNIVERSITAS JAMBI

2007

133