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SarahChamberlain

SkeletalLabReport

I.

BoneHistory
Although there are 216 bones in the human body, this lab reportwillbefocusingmainly
on the structure of the long bone. Before we look at that, however, we will be taking a closer
look at the history of three specific bones: the rib, thesacrum,andtheradius.The firstterm,the
rib, is a shortening of the word ribbe, which is a Middle English term. This term originally
came from the AngloSaxon word ribb, which meant beam orstrip.Therefore,thetermribbhas
come to mean the strips of the chest. The next term, sacrum, means sacredorholyinlatin.This
bone is the last to decay after death, so it was thought that thebodywouldresemblearoundthis
bone on resurrection day. It meant great, glorious, illustrious or mightyinGreek.Sincethiswas
the largest and most important bone in the body, it was suggested that Galen used the phrase
often. It was suggested by Monro, in1732,thatthisbonereceiveditsnamebecauseofitssizein
relation to the other vertebrae. The last term, radius, is Latin, meaning ray. This term is also
related to the Greek term meaning rod or a spoke from a wheel. Named from its shape, the
radius is a rodlike bone from the forearm. Its shape was thought to resemble a spoke from a
wheel,thusthenamefromtheGreekorigin.ThistermwasoriginallyintroducedbyCelsus.

Figure1:Aribcage.

Figure2:Asacrum

Figure3:Aradius

II.

BoneHistology

Figure4:TrabecularBoneSketch

Figure5:PeriosteumSketch


Figure6:Microscopicviewofabone

III. BoneMatrix
In normal bone matrix homeostasis,boneis absorbedbytheosteoclasts.Followinginthe
trails of theosteoclasts,theosteoblastsreform thebone.Theosteoblastssoonmineralizeinorder
to form the new layer ofbone.ThisprocessisalsocalledBoneRemodeling.Boneremodelingis
controlled by osteocytes, and occurs when there is a problem with the bone, of when the bone
needs to change in order to meet the bodys new needs (i.e. when you start exercising after
excess bed rest). This homeostasis, however, can be interrupted. Normal bones are pinkish in
color from the tissues it is made up of. Bones are notcompletelyhard,yettheyarealsonotable
to bend easily. Sometimes, bones can become flexible, almost malleable, shrunken, and see
through. This happens when there is a calcium deficiency. There is an excess amount of
collagen, and little mineral salts. A lack of calcium causes a disruption in the way osteoblasts
function, slowing down the process for bone formation.Bonescanalsoswaytotheothersideof
the spectrum, however. Bones become hard, and white. This happens when there is a surge in
mineral salts, and a lossincollagen.Inthis scenario,osteoblastsworkfasterthantheosteoclasts.
Theosteoclastscannotabsorbtheboneatthesamepacethatosteoblastscanformit.

Table1:Datachartfrombonematrixexperiment.Anormal,healthychickenbonewascompared
to a cooked chicken bone and a chicken bone that had been soaked in vinegar for an extended
periodoftime.

IV.
BoneResearchProteinCellularInterfaces
The goal ofthisresearchwasto tryandunderstandhowdifferentprotein structuresaffect
the wayacellregenerates.Designingbiomimeticmaterialsthat closelyresemblethestructuresis
importantfordevelopingregenerativemedicines.Therehavebeenmanyattemptsmadetomimic
these microenvironments by using ECM, extracted extracellular matrix, or by using synthetic
ECMmimic materials to bend the ECMs biological, chemical and/or mechanical properties to
their will. Even though the structures that were made using this process was successful andhad
promise, controlling, manipulating and identifying the cues of the structure was still quite a
challenge. Recently, a novel phagebased biomimetic nanofiber matrix was developed that
allowed identifying the cues and controlling the structures much easier. By using this matrix
system, investigations in various proteins and cells resulted in the discovery of DGEA, a
biochemicalcue.Through astudy,itwasverifiedthatDGEApeptidescouldstimulatebonestem
cellstooutgrow.

V.
ForensicCaseStudyTheBodyintheBasement
As weve alreadyestablishedin thislabreport,youcantellalotfrombones.Youcantell
their sex, their age, how they died, etc. You can also tell their place of birth. In 1991, a small
17thcentury farm, Leavy Neck, was discovered in Anne Arundel County, Maryland by
archeologists from the Anne Arundel Countys Lost Towns Project. The body, a male who was
thought to have been an unnamed servant for the household, was discovered in the basementof
thefarmhouse.Theskeletonwasinashallowgrave,underneathathicklayerof householdtrash,
and was thought to have been buried between 1665 and 1670. The lack of respect for the body
shows that this boy was an unnamedservant,andlackedconnectiontothehousehold.Thegrave
was to short for the body, as shown by its awkward bends at the knees andhips.Thegravewas
also dug unevenly. A milk pan was also found with the body. Since this boy wasaservant,this
milk pan was thought to have been used to shovethebodyintothegrave.Anotherindicatorthat
this was boy was a servant, was the boys origins. The chemical composition of bones reflect a
persons diet. Scientists test the carbon isotope ratio in bones to figure out their diet while they
were alive. Someone who was born in England would have amorewheatandbarleybaseddiet.
Someone born in the Americas, as a colonist, at the time would have a more corn baseddiet.A
person who was born in England, but then went to the Americas, and lived as a colonist for
several years, would have a mixtureofboth.Theisotopevaluesoftheboyindicatethathe wasa
recent immigrant, adding to the suspicions that he was nothing more than a forgotten servant
boy.

Sources:

Image1:
http://www.fastbleep.com/medicalnotes/heartlungsblood/1/90/574
Image2:
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/252131279112943227/
Image3:
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/559290847449700524/