Anda di halaman 1dari 3

Chapter8AnIntroductiontoMetabolismHomework

1.Discusswhatisthedifferencebetweenanopensystemversusaclosed
systemandwhichonebestreflectslivingthings.

Opensystemiswherematterandenergycanbetransferedbetweenthesystemandits
surroundings.Ontheotherhand,aclosedsystem(anisolatedsystem?!)canttransferenergyin
suchamanner.Theformerbetterreflectslivingthingsthanthelatter,aseverythingintheworld
interactswithoneanotheracharacteristicofalllivingthingsisthattheyinteractwiththeir
environment.

2.Makeacharttocontrastasystemwithhighfreeenergyversusasystem
withlowfreeenergyforthefollowingfactors:workcapacity,equilibrium(at
equilibriumorfarawayfromequilibrium),spontaneity,andstability.

HighFreeEnergy

LowFreeEnergy

Work

Greaterworkcapacity

Lessworkcapacity

Equillibrium Asreactiongetsfartherfrom
equilibrium,higherfreeenergy

Asreactiongetsclosertoequilibrium,
lowerfreeenergy.

Spontaneity

Forpositive
G,processesarenot
spontaneous.

Fornegative
G,processesareableto
bespontaneous

Stability

Lessstable

Morestable

3.Contrastandcompareexergonicreactionsversusendergonicreactions.
Whichreactiontypematcheswithanabolicreactions?Whichmatcheswith
catabolicreactions?

Exergoniciswhenenergyisreleased.Incontrast,endergonicrequiresenergyitabsorbs
freeenergy.Magnitudeof
Gforanexergonicreactionrepresentsthemaxamountofworka
reactioncanperform.Cataboliciswhenenergyisreleasedandanaboliciswhenenergyis
consumedtobuildcomplicatedmolecules.Logically,exergonicwouldmatchwithcatabolic
becausebothiswhenenergyisreleased.Inthattrainofthought,endergonicwouldmatchwith
anabolic,asenergyisconsumed/required.


4.Whenacellbecomesmoreordered,oneofthecharacteristicsoflife,what
musthappenintherestoftheuniverse?WhichLawofThermodynamics
doesthisreflect?

Whenacellbecomesmoreordered,therateofenergytransferortransformation
decreases,andsomusttherateatwhichentropyoftheuniverseincreasestheuniversewill
becomemoreordered.ThisreflectsthesecondLawofThermodynamicsalthoughitclaimsthat
entropyoftheuniversecannotdecrease,therateatwhichentropyclimbsshouldslowdownasa
cellbecomesmoreordered,meaninglessenergytransferortransformation.

5.DiscusswhyATPcanstoresomuchenergy.

ItisnotthatphosphatebondsofATPareextremelystrongrather,itisthefactthatthe
reactants(ATPandH20)haverelativelyhigherenergycomparedtotheproductsoftheequation:
ADPandphosphates.

6.Explainhowenzymesspeedupchemicalreactions.

Toputitsimply,enzymesspeedupmetabolicreactionsbyloweringenergybarriers.
Theyarecatalysts,chemicalbeings,thatarenotconsumedyetspeedupreactions,butstill
provideenergy.Inaddition,weshouldtakenotethatproteins,DNA,andothermoleculeshave
lotsoffreeenergyandtheirbreakdownisveryhighinpotential.

7.Contrastandcomparecofactorsversuscoenzymes.

Cofactorsareadjunctenzymesthatrequirenonproteinhelpersforcatalyticactivity.
Anorganicmoleculethatisacofactorwouldbeacoenzyme.Cofactorsareoftenrequiredin
catalysis.Thecofactorsofsomeenzymes,however,areinorganic.

8.Contrastandcomparecompetitiveinhibitorswithnoncompetitive
inhibitors.Whichcanbeovercomebytheadditionofmoresubstrate?

Competitiveinhibitorsreducetheproductivityofenzymesbyblockingsubstratesfrom
enteringactivesites.Thisinhibitioniswhatcanbeovercomebytheadditionofmoresubstrate.
Noncompetitiveinhibitors,unlikecompetitiveones,dontdirectlycompetewithsubstrateto
bindtotheenzymeattheactivesite.Soactivesitewillbecomelessandlesseffectiveathelping
convertsubstratetoproduct.

9.Inthemetabolicpathway,ABCDE,discusswhateffectmoleculeEwould
likelyhaveonregulatingtheenzymethatcatalyzesthereactionofAtoB?

Eistheproduct.IfthereisenoughofmoleculeEtocompleteachemicalprocess,for
example,themolecules(reactants)ABCDEwillnotbeneeded,andthereforeanexcessofE
meanslessofABCDEproduced.

10.Akeyprocessinmetabolismisthetransportofhydrogenions(H+)across
amembranetocreateaconcentrationgradient.Explainwhicharrangement
ofhydrogenions(unequalconcentrationorequalconcentration)allowswork
tobedone.

Itisclearthatanunequalconcentration,notanequalone,wouldbetheonlypossibility
thatworkwillbedonetheunequalconcentrationofhydrogenionswouldallowthemtoflow
acrossthemembraneandincreasenotonlyentropybutalsowork.

11.Aresearcherwishestostopanenzymereactioninacellbecausethe
productscanbecometoxic.Speculateonanapproachthattheresearcher
mightusetostopthereaction.Besuretodescribehowthisapproachwould
workandanyprosorconsitmighthavetotheorganism.

Anapproachthattheresearchercouldtakeistoincreaseordecreasethetemperatureof
thecellbecauseeveryenzymehasanoptimumtemperature,ifthetemperaturechanges,the
enzymewilldenatureandnotwork.Abadconsequencemaybethatthesignificantchangein
temperaturemaykilltheorganism.Apositiveconsequencewouldbethattheorganismnolonger
hastoworryaboutthetoxicproducts.
However,themostdirectandeffectiveapproachtheresearchercouldtaketostopthis
enzymereactioninacellwouldbetocutoffthepatchcontainingtheaforementionedcellof
thesurfaceoftheorganism(beitplantoranimal).Itwouldpreventtheenzymefromspreading
toothercells.However,apossibledownsideisthatthismethodwouldcauseacertainamountof
paintotheorganism.Apositiveconsequencewouldbethattheorganismwouldnolongerhave
tofearthetoxicproduct.