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EK, INDONESIA, CIA DAN FREEPORT (Sumber Mazalah di Papua) 7 Feb 2012 Alchir telaun 1996, sebush tulisen bagus oleh Lisa Pease yang dimuat dalam mejalah Probe. Tulisen ini juga disimpan dalem National Archive di Washington DC. Juul tulisan tersebut adaleh “JFK, Indonesia, CIA and Freeport.” ‘Welau dominasi Freeport ates guaung emas di Papua dimulei sejak tahun 1967, namun kiprahanye di nnegeri ini sudah dimulei beberepa teliun sebelumnye, Dalam tulisennya, Lisa Pease mendapatken ‘temusn jike Freeport Sulphur, demikien name perusehaan itu awelnye, syatis bangkrut berkeping-keping ketike tesjadi pergantien kelcuasaan di Kube telun 1959 Seat itu Fidel Castro berhasil menghencurken rezim diktator Batiste, Oleh Castro, seluruh perusaheen asing di negeri itu dinasionalisasiken. Freeport Sulphur yang beru saja hendak melakulen pengapalan nikel produksi perdanenya terkena imbasnya, Ketegangan terjaci. Memurut Lisa Pease, berkeli-keli CEO Freeport Sulphur merencansken upaya pembunuban terhadap Castro, namun berkeli-Keli pula menemui kegegelan Ditengeh situasi yang penuh ketidakpastian, pada Agustus 1959, Forbes Wilson yang menjabat sebagai Direktur Freeport Sulphur melaluken pertemuan dengen Direktur peleksena East Borneo Company, Jen van Gruisen, Dalam pertemuan itu Gruisen bercerita jike dirinya menemuken sebuah leporan ppenelitien atas Gunung Ersberg (Gunung Tembege) di Irian Barat yang ditulis Jean Jeques Dozy di ‘alum 1936. Unileaya, laporan itu sebenamya sudah dienggep tidak bergune dan tersimpan selama bertahun-telnun begitu saja di perpustekaan Belanda, Van Gruisen tertarik dengen leporen penelitian yang sudeh berdebu itu dan membacenya. Dengen berapi- epi, Van Gruisen bercerita kepada pemimpin Freeport Sulphur itu jike selain ‘memapacken tentang keindahen alemaye, Jean Jaques Dozy juge menulis tenteng kekayaen alamnya ‘yang begitu melimpah Tidak seperti wilayeh Ininnya diseluruh dunie, make kendungen biji tembega ‘yang ada disekaujur tubuh Gunung Exsberg itu terhampar di ates permukean tenes, jack tidak ‘tersembunyi di delam tana. Mendenger hel ita, Wilson senget entusies dan segere melaleukan pperjalanen ke sian Beret untuk mengecek kebeneren cerita itu. Di dalam benaknye, jlce kisah leporan ini benar, make perusshaannya alcen bisa bengkit kembeli dan selamat dari kebangkrutan yeng sudeh i depen mata, ‘Selama beberape bulan, Forbes Wilson melekuken survey dengen sekeama atas Gunung Ersberg dan juga wilayah sekiternya, Penelitiennye ini kelek ditulisnya dalam sebush buku besjudul The Conquest of Cooper Mountain Wilson menyebut gunung tersebut sebagai hasta kerun terbeser yang untule smemperolehnye tidak perlu menyelam lagi kerena semus herta kerun itu telah terhempar di permukeen tenah Dari udara, tensh diselcjur gunung tersebut berlalauen ditimpe sinar metehari ‘Wilson juga mendapatken temuan yang nyaris membuatnya gil Kerena selain dipenubi bijih tembage, guumng tersebut temnyata juga dipenula bijih emes dan perak!! Menurut Wilson, sebarusnya gummg ‘tersebut diberi nama GOLD MOUNTAIN, bukan Gunung Tembaga, Sebagei seorang paker pertambengan, Wilson memperkiraken jike Freepost aken untung besar dalam waktu tiga telaun sudab Kembali modal. Pimpinan Freeport Sulphur ini pun bergerak dengen cepat. Pade 1 Februari 1960, Freeport Sulphur meneken kerjasama dengen East Borneo Company untuk mengeksploresi guung tersebout. ‘Nemun lagi-lagi Freeport Sulphur mengslemi kenyatean yang hampir sama dengen yang pemeh cialaminya di Kube, Perubahen eskelest politi ates tensh Irian Barat tengeh mengencem. Hubungan, Indonesia dan Belanda telah memanes dan Soekerno maleh mulai menesjunken pasukennya di Irian Barat ‘Tadinys Wilson ingin meminte bantuen kepatia Presiden AS John Fitzgerald Kennedy agar smencinginken Isian Barat, Namunironisnya, JFK meleh spertinya mendulcung Soekamno. Kennedy ‘mengencem Belenda, aken menghentiken bantuan Marshall Plan jike ngotot mempertahankan Irian Barat Belenda yang seat itu memerluken bentuan dena segar untuk membangun kembeli negesinya desi puing-puing kehencuren akibet Perang Dunia II terpaksa mengelah dan mundur dari Isien Barat Ketike itu sepertinya Belanda tidak tel ike Gunung Ersberg sesungguhnya mengandung banyele emas, buken tembaga Sebab jika saja Belanda mengetabni feta sesungguhnye, make nilei bantuan ‘Mershell Plan yang diterimanya dari AS tidak ade apa-apanya dibending nilei emas yang ada di guung tersebut Dempek dari sikep Belanda untuk mundus desi Irian Barat menyebsbken perjanjien kerjasama dengen East Borneo Company mentah kembeli, Pera pemimpin Freeport jelas marah beser. Apalagi mendengar Kennedy aken menyiapken paket bentuan ekonomi kepada Indonesia sebesar 11 jute AS dengan melibatken IMF dan Benk Dunia, Semus ini jeles herus dihentiken! ‘Segelenya berubsh seratus delapan puluh derejat ketike Presiden Kennedy tewas ditembak peda 22 November 1963. Banyak kelangan menyataken penembaken Kennedy merupaken sebuah konspirast bbesar menyangkut kepentingan keum Globalis yang hendsk mempertahenken hegemoninye ates kebijaken politik ci Amerike Presiden Johnson yang menggentiken Kennedy mengembil sikep yang bertolek belekeng dengan pendehulunye, Johnson maleh mengurangi bantuan ekonomi kepada Indonesia, kecuali kepada militemya, Selah seorang tokoh di belakeng keberhasilen Johnson, termasuk delem kempanye pemilihen presiden AS teluan 1964, adalah Augustus C Long salah seoreng anggota dewan direksi Freeport Tokoh yang satu ini memang punya kepentingen besar ates Indonesia. Selain keitannya dengen Freeport, Long juga memimpin Texaco, yang membawehi Caltex (patungen dengan Standard Oil of Californie). Sockamo pada tahun 1961 memutusken kebij aken beru kontrek perminyeken yang smengherusken 6Upersen lebanye diserehican kepada pemerintah Indonesia. Caltex sebagai selah satu dui tiga operator perminyakan di Indonesia jelas sanget texpulcul oleh kebijakan Soekasno ini Augustus C.Long amat march terhadap Soekemo dan amet berkepentingan agar oreng ini disingkiskan secepatnys. Mungkin suatu kebetulan yang ajaib. Augustus C Long juga aktif di Presbysterian, Hospital ci NY chmena che pemah dus keli menjach presidennye (1961-1962). Sudeh bukan rebasia ‘umum leg) jike tempat ini merupaken salah satu ssmpul pertemusn tokoh CLA. Lisa Pease dengen cermat menelususi sivayat kehidupan tokoh ini. Antara telaun 1964 sempai 1970, Long pensiun sementare sebagei pemimpin Texaco. Apa saja yang dilakuken oreng ini dalam masa itu vyang ci Indonesia dikenal sebagei masa yang paling krusial. Pease mendapatkan data jike pada Maret 1965, Augustus C Long terpilih sebagei Direktur Chemical Bank, selah satu perusshaan Rockefeller. Augustus 1965, Long diangkat menjack anggota dewan ‘penasehaet intelejen kepresidenan AS untuk maselah luar negeri. Badan ini memiliki pengeruh senget ‘besar untuk menentukan operasi rehesie AS oi Negare-negare tertentu. Long diyakinu salah satu tokah yang meranceng kudeta techadap Soekamo, yang dilakcukan AS dengen menggerakken sejumlah penvire Angkatan Daret yang disebutnya sebagei Our Local Army Friend, Salah satu bukti sebush telegram rehasie Cinpac 342, 21 Jamuasi 1965, pukul 21.48, yang menyetaken jike kelompok Jendral Suberto aken mendesek angkatan darat ager mengambil-elih kekuasaen tanpa smemunggu Soekerno berhalengan. Mantan pejabat CLA Ralph Mc Gehee juga pesnah bersaks:jike hal itu bener adanya, Asval November 1965, satu bulen setelah tregedi terbunuibnya sejumleh perwira loyalis Soekemo, Forbes Wilson mendapst telpon dasi Ketua Dewan Direktus Freeport, Lengbourne Williems, yang menanyaken apekeh Freeport sudeh slap mengekplorasi guaung emes di Inien Barat. Wilson jeles kkaget. Ketike stu Soekemo masih seh sebagai presiden Indonesia baiken hingge 1967, lelu darimane Williems yakin guaung emas di Irian Barat akan jatula ke tengen Freeport? Lisa Pease mendepatken jawabsnnya, Para petinggi Freeport temyete sudeh mempunyai kontek dengan tokoh penting di dalam lingkeran elit Indonesia. Mereke adalah Menteri Pertambangen dan Perminyaken Ibau Soetowo dan Julius Tehija. Orang yang terekhir ini berperan sebagei penghubung antare Ibnu Soctowo dengen Freeport Ibau Soetowo sencisi sangat berpengeruh di dalam angkatan drat karena dialah yang mennutup seluruh anggeren operasionel mereka, Sebab ituleh, ketika UU no 1/1967 tentang Penaneman Model Asing (PMA) yeng draftnya direnceng i Jenewe-Swiss yang didekteken Rockefeller, diseken telum 1967, make perusshaen asing pertama yang kontraknya ditandatengeni Suharto adelah Freeport. Inilah keli pertama kontrak pertambengen ‘yang beru dibuat. Jike di zemen Soekerno kontrek-kontrek: dengen perusshaan asing selalu ‘menguntungkan Indonesia, make sejak Suhasto berkuasa, kontrek-kontrak sepest ita meleh merugiken Indonesia. Untuk membengun konstruksi pertambengen emasuye itu, Freeport mengendeng Bechtel, perusehean AS yang benyek mempekerjeken pentolen CIA. Disektur CLA John McCone memiliki seham ck Bechtel, sedangkan mentan Direltur CIA Richards Helms bekerja sebegei Konsulten internasionel dt tela 1978. ‘Talnun 1980, Freeport menggendeng McMoren milik “Jim Bob” Moffet dan menjadi perusaheen raksasa dunia dengan laba lebih dasi 1,5 miliar dollar AS pertalnan ‘Talnun 1996, seorang eksekutif Freepart-McMoran, George A Maley, menulis sebuah buku berjudul “Grasberg” setelab 384 halaman dan memeperkan jike tambeng emas di Irian Berat itu memiliki deposit terbesar di dunia, sedangican untuk bijih tembagenya menempati urutan ketiga terbesar didunia Meley menulis, dete telun 1995 menunjuliken jike di areal ini tersimpen cadangen bij tembaga sebesar 40,3 milier doller AS dan masih acen mengunfungkan 45 telaun ke depen. Ironisnya, Meley dengan bengge juga menulis jie biaya produkel tambang emes dan tembage terbeser di dunia yang ade ci Isien Beret stu merupaken yang termurah di dunial! Istileh Kota Tembagapura itu sebenamye menyesetkan den saleh. Seharusaya EMASPURA Kerena gumng tersebut memang gumung emes, walau juga mengandung tembage. Kerena kendhungan emas dan tembaga terserak di permukeen tanah, make Freeport tinggal memungutinya den kemudian baru smenggelinya dengen sanget mudeh Freeport sama sekeli tidak mau kehilangen emasnya itu dan. membangun pipe-pipa raksasa dan kuet dari Grasberg-Tembagapure sepanjang 100 kilometer Inngsung menuju ke Laut Arafuru dimane telah menunggu kepal-Kapal besar yang aken mengengkut emas den tembaga ituke Amerike. Ini sunggub-sungguh perampoken besar yang disestui oleh pemerinteh Indonesia sampai sekerang!!! Kesaksian seorang reporter CNN yang diizinken meliput areal tembang emas Freeport deri udasa, Dengen helikopter i meliput gunung emes tersebut yang ditaluun 1990-en sudeh berubeh menjack Jembeh yang dalam. Semua emas, perak, dan tembage yang ada diguaung tersebut telah dibawe kebur ‘ke Amerike, meninggelken limbeh beracun yang mencemeri sungai-sungei dan taneh-tanah orang Pepus yang sampei detik ini masih seja hidup bagei di zaman batu Freeport merupaken ledang uang harem bagi para pejabet negeri ini, yeng desi sipil maupun milter. Sejak 1967 sempei sekerang, tembang emas terbesar ci dunia itu menjadi tambang pribedi mereka ‘untuk memperkaye disi sendisi dan keluarganya, Freeport McMoran sendisi telah menganggerken dana ‘untuk itu yang welau jumlehnya senget besar bag) kita, nemun bag mereka tesbilang kecil kerena jumleh leba dari tambang itumemang sangat dalisyet. ike Indonesia mau mandi, sektor inilah yeng hharus dibereskan terlebif dabulu. ‘Sumber artikel http /satrioarismunandar6 blogspot, com/2011/10/ifk-indonesie-cie-dan-freeport.sumber html JFK, Indonesia, CIA & Freeport Sulphur by Lisa Pease What is Pastis Prologue Inscsibed on the Netional Archives, Washington, D.C InPart One of this article (Probe, Masch-Apzil, 1996) we talked about the early years of Freeport up ‘through the Cuban takeover of their potentially lucrative mine at Moa Bay, as well as their run-in with President Kennedy over the issue of stockpiling But the biggest conflict thet Freeport Sulphur would face was over the country housing the worlds single largest gold reserve and third lesgest copper reserve: Indonesia, To understand the recent (March, 1996) siots at the Freeport plant, we need to go to the roots of this venture to show how things might have been very different had Kennedy lived to implement his plans for Indonesia Indonesia Backstory Indonesia had been discovered by the Dutch at the end of the 1500s, Dusing the early 1600s they were dominsted by the Dutch East Indies Company, a private concern, for neasly 200 years. In 1798, authority over Indonesia was transferred to the Netherlands, which retained dominion over this fifth lnsgest country in the world until 1941, st which time the Japanese moved in during the course of World Wer Il. By 1945 Japan was defeated in Indonesia and Achmed Sukemno and Mohemmad Hatta rose to become President and Vice President of the newly independent Indonesia, But within e month of the Sukamo/Hatte proclamation of independence, British amy units began lending in Jakerta to help the Dutch restore colonial rule. Four years of fighting ensued. In 1949, the Dutch officially ceded sovereignty back to Indonesia, with the exception of one key area thet of @ hotspot which is now known es Irian Jaya os, depending on who you talk to, West Papua, Authors Gerard Colby and Charlotte Dennett, in their book 7yr Will Be Done, explain the situation in what was then called Dutch New Guines ToWestemers, New Guinee was like « gifted child pulled in opposite directions by covetous guardians. ‘The Dutch chugto the western helf as the sole remnant of their once-vast East Indies empise. Their Iongime British allies, acting through Austrlie, controlled the easter half. Neighboring Indonesians on the other hand, thought thet ell New Guinea was past oftheir netional territory, even ifit wes sill colonized by Europeans DutchNew Guinea, or West Irian as the Indonesians called it, was populated by native tribes not fer removed from a stone age culture, such as the Danis end the Amungme. When Indonesia fought to claim independence from the Dutch, West Irian became a symbol for both sides thet neither wanted to selinquish. It would teke the efforts of President Kennedy to eventually pass control of this area to the newly independent Indonesians, removing the last vestiges of Dutch colonialism. Indonesia experienced vasious types of govemment. When Sukemo first rose to power in 1945, foreigners pointed out thet Sukasno's rule appeared "fascistic," since he held sole control over so much of the government. Bowing to foreign pressure to appear more democratic, Indonesia insiituted a parliamentary system of rule and opened the government to a multiparty system. Sukerno related whet followed to his biographer (now cable gossip show host) Cindy Adams: Ina nation previously denied political activities, the results were immediate. Over 40 dissimilar pasties sprang up. So tentified were we of being labeled "a Jepanese-sponsored Fascistic dictatorship" thet single individuals forming splinter orgenizetions were tolerated as "mouthpieces of democracy." Political pasties grew like weeds with shallow roots and interests top-heavy with petty selfishness and vote-catching Intemel stife grew. We faced disaster, endless conflicts, his-raising confusion. Indonesians previously pulling together now pulled apart. They were sectioned into religious and geogrephicel boxes, just what I'd sweated all my life to get them out of, ‘Sukamo related thet nearly every six months, a cabinet fell, and a new government would stast up, only to repeat the cycle. On October 17, 1952 things ceme to a head, Thousands of soldiers from the Indonesian army stormed the gates with signs saying "Dissolve Parliament." Sukemo faced the troops chsectly, firmly refusing to dissolve parliament due to military pressure, and the soldiers backed down, ‘The sesult of this was # factionelized army. There were the "pro-17 October 1952 military" and the “anti-17 October 1952 military." In 1955, elections were held and parliamentary rule was ended by vote. The Communists, who hed done the most for the people suffering the aftereffects of converting from colonial rule to independence, won many victories in 1955 and 1956. In 1955, Suikerno organized ‘the Bandung Conference at which the famous Chinese Communist Chou En Lai was e featured guest. During the 1955 elections, the CLA had given a million dollars to the Mesjumi party-an opposition party to both Sukame's Nationalist perty and the Communist party in Indonesia (celled the PKD)-in an attempt to gain political control of the country. But the Mesjumi party failed to win the hearts and minds of the people In 1957, an assassination attempt was made against Sukarno. Although the actual perpetrators were ‘unknown at the time, both Sukamo and the CLA jumped to use this for propegenda purposes. The CLA was quick to blame the PKI. Sukemo, however, blamed the Dutch, and used this as the excuse to seize all former Dutch holdings, including shipping end flying lines Sukamo vowed to drive the Dutch out of West Irien. He had already tried settling the long standing dispute over that territory through the United Nations, but the vote fell shy of the needed two-thirds majority to set up a commission to force the Dutch to sit down with the Indonesians. The assassination attempt provided e much needed excuse for action. ‘The victories of the Communists, infighting in the exmy, end the 1957 nationalization of former Dutch hholeings, led to e stuation of grave concem to Americen business interests, notably the cil end rubber industries, The CIA eagetly pitched in, helping to foment rebellion between the outer, resource sich, islands, end the central government based in Jekaste, Java Rockefeller Interests in Indonesia ‘Two prominent American-based oil companies doing business in Indonesia at this time were of the Rockefelles-controlled Standard Oil family: Stanvac (jointly held by Standard Oil of New Jersey and Socony Mobil-Socony being Standard Oil of New York), and Caltex, Gointly held by Standard Oil of Californie and Texaco) In Past of this article we showed how heevily loaded the Freepost Sulphur ‘board was with Rockefeller family and allies. Recell that Augustus C. Long was # board member of Freeport while serving as Chairmen of Texaco for many years. Long becomes more and more interesting as the story develops 1958: CLAvs. Sukarne "T think ts time we held Suierno's feet to the fire," ssid Frank Wisner, then Deputy Director of Plans for the CIA, in 1956. By 1958, having feiled to buy the government through the election process, the CIA wes fomenting « full-fledged operetion in Indonesia, Operation Hike, asit was called involved the erming and training of tens of thousends of Indonesians as well as “mexcenaries" to launch ettacks in the hope of bringing down Sukerna Joseph Buckholder Smith was # former CLA officer involved with the Indonesian operations during this period. In his book, Portrant ofa Cold Warrior, he described how the CLA took it upon themselves to make, not just to enect, policy in this eres before any direct action against Sukarne's position could be taken, we would have to have the approval of the Special Group-the small group of top National Secuwity Council officiels who approved covert action plans. Prematuce mention of such an ides might get it shot down ‘Sowe began to feed the State Depertment and Defense depertments intelligence .. When they had read enough slarming reports, we planned to spring the suggestion we should support the colonel pplen to reduce Sukamo's power. This was a method of operation which became the basis of many of the political action adventures of the 1960s end 1970s. In other words, the statement is false thet CLA, undertook to intervene in the affairs of countries like Chile only after being ordered to do so... In ‘many instances, we made the action progrems up ourselves after we had collected enough intelligence tomake them appear requited by the circumstance. Our activity in Indonesia in 1957-1958 was one suchinstence ‘When the Ambessedor to Indonesia wrote Washington of his explicit disagreements with the CLA's handling of the situation, Allen Dulles hed his brother John Foster appoint a different Ambassador to Indonesia, one more accepting of the CIA's activities. In adettion to the peramilitery activities, the CLA tiied psychological warfare ticks to dkscredit Sulemno, such as passing rumors thet he hed been seduced by a Soviet stewardess. To thet end, Sheffield Edwards, head of the C1A's Office of Security, enlisted the Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department to help with a pomo movie project the CLA was meking to use ageinst Sukemo, ostensibly showing Sukarno in the act. Others involved in these efforts were Robert Meheu, end Bing Crosby and his brother. ‘The Agency tried to keep its coup participation covert, but one "mercenary" met misfortune eatly. Shot down and captured ducing a bombing run, Allen Lawrence Pope was carrying all kinds of ID on his ‘person to indicate that he was an employee of the CLA. The U'S. Gavernment, sight up to President Eisenhower, tied to deny thet the CIA wes involved at all, but the Pope revelations made a mackery of this. Not cowed by the foment, as Arbenz hed been in Guatemala, Sukesno marshalled those forces loyal to him and crushed the CLA-eided rebellion Prior to the Bay of Pigs, this was the Agency's single largest failed operation 1959: Copper Mountain ‘At this point, Freeport Sulphur entered the Indonesian picture. In July, 1959, Charles Wight, then President of Freeport-and reported to be fomenting anti-Cestro plots and flying to Canada and/or Cuba with Clay Shew (see Past I of this article)-was busy defencing his company ageinst House Committee accusations of overcharging the Government for the nickel ore processed at the Government-owned plant in Nicero, Cuba. The Committee recommended thet the Justice Department pursue an. investigation Freeport's Moa Bay Mining Compeny had only just opened, and already the future in Cuba looked bleak In August, 1959, Freeport Director and top engineer Forbes Wilson met with Jan van Gruisen, managing director of the East Bomeo Company, a mining concem Gruisen had just stumbled upon a dusty report first made in 1936 regarding a mountain celled the "Extsberg" ("Copper Mountain") in Dutch New Guinea, by Jean Jacques Dozy. Hidden away for years in a Netherlands Library duiing Neci attacks, the report hed only recently resurfaced. Dozy reported a mountain heavy with copper ore. If true, this could justify a new Freeport diversification effort into copper. Wilson cabled Freeport's New York headquarters asking for permission and money to make a joint exploration effort with the East Borneo Company. The contract was signed February 1, 1960. With the aid of a native guide, Wilson spent the next several months amidst the near-stone age natives ashe forged through neas impassable places on his way to the Ertsberg Wilson wrote a book about this journey, called Zhe Conquest of Copper Mototain. When he finally asrived, he was excited at what he found: an unnsully high degree of mineralization... The Extsberg turned out to be 40% to 50% iron... and 3% copper .. Three percent is quite sich for a deposit of copper ... The Extsberg also contains certain ‘amounts of even more sere silver end gold. He cabled back a message in pressranged code to the soon-to-be President of Freepott, Bob Hillsin New York, thirteen acres rack above ground adltional 14 acres each 100 meter depth sampling progressive color appears dark access egress formidable all hands well advise Sextent regards “Thirteen acres" meant 13 million tons of ore above ground. “Color appears dark" meant that the grade of ore was good. "Sextant" was code for the East Borneo Company. The expedition was over in July of 1960. Freeport's board was not eager to go shead with anew end predictably costly venture on the heels of the expropriation of their mining facilities in Cuba. But the board decided to at least press ahead with the next phase of exploration: a more detailed investigation of the ore samples and commercial potential. Wilson descsibed the results of this effort [Mfining consultants confirmed ow estimates of 13 million tons of ore ebave ground end ancther 14 sillion below ground for each 100 meters of depth. Other consultants estimated that the cost of a plant to process 5,000 tons of ore a day would be eround $60 million end thet the cost of producing copper would be 16 « pound after credit for smell amounts of gold and silver essociated with the copper. At the time, copper was selling in world maskets for around 35 a pound From these deta, Freepos's financial department calculated thet the company could recover its investment in three years and then ‘begin earning an attractive profit ‘The operation proved technically difficult, involving newly invented helicopters and diamond duills. Complicating the situstion was the outbreak of a near-war bebveen the Dutch-who were still occupying West Irian-and Sukesno's forces which landed there to reclaim the land es their own. Fighting even broke out near the access road to Freepatt’s venture, By mid-1961, Freeport's engineers strongly felt that the project should be pursued But by that time, John F. Kennedy hed taken over the office of President. And he was pursuing a fer different course then the previous administration Kemmedy and Sukarne "No wonder Sttkarno doesn like us very much He has to sit down with people who tried to overthrow Jum." President Kennedy, 1961 Up until Kennedys time, the eid predominantly offered to Indonesia from this country came mostly in ‘the form of militery support. Kennedy hed other ideas. After a positive 1961 meeting with Sukamo in the United States, Kennedy appointed a teem of economists to study ways that economic aid could help Indonesia develop in constructive ways. Kennedy understood that Sukemo took aid end arms from the Soviets and the Chinese because he needed the help, not because he was eager to fell under communist rule. American aid would prevent Sukarno from becoming dependent on Communist supplies. And Sukemo had already put down communist sebellion in 1948. Even the State Department in the United States conceded thet Sukamo was more nationalist than Communist. But the pressing problem during Kennedys short term was the issue of West Irien The Dutch hed token an ever more aggressive stence, and Sukerno wes assuming e militery posture. America, es allies to both, was caught in the middle. Kennedy asked Ellsworth Bunker to attempt to mediate an agreement between the Dutch end Indonesten governments. "The role of the mediator," seid Kennedy, “isnot a happy ane; we ere prepared to have everybody madif it makes some progress" It didmake everybody mad. Butit did make progress. Ultimately, the U.S. pressured the Dutch behind the scenes to yield to Indonesia. Bobby Kennedy was enlisted in this effort, visting both Sukesno in Indonesia end the Dutch at the Hegue. Seid Roger Hilsman in Zo Move a Nation ‘Sukarno came to recognize in Robert Kennedy the same tough integrity and loyalty thet he hed seen in his brother, the President, combined with a true understanding of whet the new nationalisms were really all ebout. ‘Sowith preliminary overtures having been made to Sukamo and the Hague, Bunker took over the nitty gitty of getting each side to talk to each other. The Dutch, unvilling to concede the last vestige of ‘their once-great empire to their foe, pressed instead for West Irian to become an independent country. But Sukemno knew it was a symbol to his people of finel independence from the Dutch. And all knew ‘that the Pepuan natives there had no hope of forming any kind of functioning government, having only just secently been pushed from a primitive existence into the modem world. The United Nations voted to cede West Irian fully to Indonesia, with the provision thet, by 1969, the people of West Isien would ‘be granted an opportunity to vote whether to remain with or secede from Indonesia. Kennedy seized the moment, issuing National Security Action Memorandum (NSAM) 179, dated August 16, 1962 With the peaceful settlement of the West Isian dispute now in prospect, I wouldlike to see us capitalize on the US. sole in promoting this settlement to move toward a new and better relationship with Indonesia. I gether thet with this issue resolved the Indonesians too would like to move in this isection and will be presenting us with mmerous requests To seize this opportunity, will all agencies concerned please review their programs for Indonesia and assess what further measures might be useful, I have in mind the possibility of expanded civic action, military aid, end economic stabilization and development programs aswell as diplomatic initiatives Roger Hilsman elaborated on whet Kennedy meant by civic action: “sehebiliteting canels, draining svampland to create new tice paddies, building bridges and roads, end so on." Freeport and West Irian Kennedy/s aid in brokering Indonesian sovereignty over West Irien could only have come as @ blow to Freeport Sulphur's board. Freeport already had a positive relationship with the Dutch, who had. authorized the initial exploratory missions there, Dusing the negotiation period, Freepost approached the U.N, but the UN. ssid Freeport would have to discuss their plans with the Indonesian officials, When Freeport went to the Indonesian embassy in Washington, they received no response. Lemented Forbes Wilson: Not long after Indonesia obteined control over Western New Guinea in 1963, then-President Sukesno, who hed consolidated his executive power, made a series of moves which would have discouraged even the most eager prospective Western investor. He expropriated nearly all foreign investments in Indonesia. He ordered American agencies, including the Agency for International Development, to leave the country. He cultivated close ties with Communist China and with Indonesia's Communist erty, known es the PKI. 1962 had been a difficult yeer for Freeport. They were under attack on the stockpiling issue, Freeport ‘was still reeling from having their lucrative Facilities expropriated in Cuba, And now they set, staring at a potential fortune in Indonesia, But with Kennedy giving tacit support to Sukarno, their hopes looked bleak indeed, Reversal ef Fertunes Kennedy stepped up the aid package to Indonesia, offering $11 million In addition, he plenned a personal vit there in early 1964. While Kennedy was trying to support Sukesno, other forces were countering their efforts, Public dissent in the Senete brewed over continuing to eid Indonesia while the Communist party there remined strong Kennedy persisted He approved this perticulas eid packege onNovember 19, 1963, Three days leter, Sueno lost his best ally in the west. Shortly, he would lose the eid package too ‘Sukamo was much shaken by the news of Kennedy's death. Bobby made the trip the President had originally planned to take, in January, 1964. Cindy Adams asked Sukemo what he thought of Bobby, and got more then she asked for ‘Sukame's face lit up. "Bob is very warm. He is like his brother. I loved his brother. He understood me I designed and built a special guest house on the pelace grounds for John F. Kennedy, who promised me he'd come here and be the first American President ever to pay a state vist to this country." He fell silent. "Now helll never come." ‘Sukamo was perspising freely. He repeatedly mopped his brow end chest. Tell me, why did they Kill Kennedy™ ‘Sukamo noted with irony thet the very day Kennedy was assassinated, his Chief of Bodyguards was in ‘Washington to study how to protect a president. Looking to the future, he was not optimistic: I know Johnson ...I met him when I was with President Kennedy in Washington. But I wonder if he is aswarm as John. I wonder if he will like Sukerno as John Kennedy, my friend, did. LBJand Indonesia As others have noted, foreign policy changed repidly after Kennedy's death. Donald Gibson says in his ‘book Batting Wall Street, "In foreign policy the changes ceme quickly, end they were dramatic." Gibson outlines five short term changes and several long term changes that went into effect after Kennedys desth One of the short term changes was the instant reversal of the Indonesian sid package Kennedy hed already approved Hilsman makes this point es well: (One of the first pieces of paper to come across President Johnson's desk was the presidential determination .. by which the President hd to certify thet continuing even economic aid [to Indonesia] ‘was essential to the national interest. Since everyone dawn the line had known thet President Kennedy would have signed the determination routinely, we were all surprised when President Johnson refused. ‘Someone at Freeport was so pleased with Johnson's behavior that he supported his presidential runin 1964: Augustus C. "Gus" Long Long had been Cheisman at Texas Company (Texaco) for many years. In 1964, he end a bunch of other conservative, largely Republican business moguls, joined together to support Johnson over Goldwater. The group, calling them selves the National Independent Committee for Johnson, included such people as Thomas Lamont, Edger Keiser of Keiser Aluminum, Robert Lehman of Lehman Brothers, Thomas Cabot of Cabot Corporation of Boston, and many other luminaries of the business world Long had two toes in the Indonesian fray-one for Freeport, one for Texaco. In 1961, Caltex-jointly owned by Standard Oil of California (Socal) and Texes Company (Texaco)-was oné of the three major cil companies in Indonesia forced to operate under anew contract with Sukesno's government. Under the new terms, 60% of all profits had to be given to the Indonesian government. So he had two reasons to be concemed by Kennedy/s support of Sukemno's brand of netionslism, which threatened the interests of both companies in which he had a substantial stake. InPert , we mentioned thet Long hed done "prodigious volunteer work" for Presbyterian Hospital in New Yotk, said by e former employee oftheir PR fim, the Mullen Company, to be e "hotbed of CIA activity." Now we add that Long was elected President of Presbyterian Hospital two years running 1961 end 1962. In 1964, Long retired his ole as Chairman of Texaco, He would be seinstated ‘as Chsirman in 1970. Whet did he do in the interim? InMarch of 1965, Long was elected a director of Chemical Bank-another Rockefeller-controlled company, In August of 1965, Long was appointed to the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, where he would approve and suggest covert activities. InOctober of 1965, covert activities sealed Sulemo's fete 1965: The Year of Living Dangerously After Kennedys death, Sukarno had grown ever more belligerent towards the West. The British were ‘busy forming a new country out of Indonesie's former trading partners Malaya and Singepore, called "Malaysia." Since the area included tesitory from which the CLA hed leunched some of its 1958 activities, Sukarno was justifiably concemed by whet he felt was en ever tightening noose. On Jenuary 1, 1965, Sukemno threatened to pull Indonesie out of the United Netions if Malaysia was admitted It was and he did, meking Indonesia the first nation ever to pull out ofthe UN. Insesponse to US. pressure on Suicemo to suppost Malaysia, he cried, "to hell with your aid" He built up his troops along the borders of Malaysia. Malaysia, fearing invasion, appealed to the U.N. for support By February, Sukemno could see the writing on the wall: JAKARTA, Indonesia, Feb. 23 (UPD-President Sulemno declared today that Indonesia could:no longer afford freedom of the press. He ordered the banning of anti-Communist newspepers “Lhave secret information thet reveals thet the C IA. was using the Body for the Promotion of ‘Sukemoism to kill Sukemoism end Sukarno," he said. "That's why I bannedit " (New Iork Times, 224165) ‘The country was in disarray. Anti-American demonstrations were frequent. Indonesia quit the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. The press reposted that Suicerno wes moving closer to the Chinese and Soviets. Sukemno threatened to nationalize remaining U.S. properties, having already taken over, for example, one of the biggest American operations in Indonesia, the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company And then, in an unexpected move, Singapore seceded from Malaysia, weakening the newly formed state bordering Indonesia. With American money interests threatened, all the usual carrots of foreign aid shunted, no leverage vie the IMF or World Bank, and Freepost’s Gus Long on the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board it was only ametter of time, end not much, a thet. October 1, 1965: Coup or Counter-Coup? INDONESIA SAYS PLOT TO DEPOSE SUKARNO IS FOILED BY ARMY CHIEF, POWER FIGHT BELIEVED CONTINUING KUALALUMPUR, Meleysia. Oct 1-An attempt to overthrow President Sulkamo was foiled tonight ‘by army units loyal to Gen. Abdul Haris Nesution, the Indonesian radio ennownced In Washington, a State Depestment spokesman seid Friday the situation in Indonesia was "extremely confused." Robert J. McCloskey told a news conference the State Department was getting reposts from the American Embassy at Jakarta, but “it is not presently possible to attempt any evalustion, explanation, or comment." Late yesterday, a mysterious group celling itself the 30th of September Movement seized control of Tekst. Colonel Unting who hed announced over the Indonesian radio thet he was the leader of the ‘movement, seid the group had seized control of the Government to prevent a "counterrevolutionsry” coup by the General Council. (New Zork Times, 10/2-3/65, Internetional Edition) Ina strange, convoluted move, « group of young military leaders killed a bunch of older, centrist leaders who, they claimed, were going to-with the help of the CLA-stage a coup against Sukerno, But what happened in the aftermath of this tuned Indonesia into one of the bloodiest nightmares the world hhas ever seen. This original counter-coup was branded a coup attempt instead, and painted as brightly Red as possible. Then, in the disguise of outrage that Sukamd's authority had been imperiled, Nesution joined with General Suharto to overthrow the "rebels " What started ostensibly to protect Sukerno's ‘authority ended up stripping him of it wholly. The aftermath is too homible to describe in a few words ‘The sumbers vary, but the consensus lies in the range of 200,000 to aver 500,000 people killed in the wake of this “counter-coup." Anyone who had ever had an association with the Communist PKI wes targeted for elimination. Even Jime magazine geve one token accurate description of what was happening According to accounts brought out of Indonesia by Western diplomats and independent travelers, Communists, Red sympathizers and their families are being massacred by the thousands. Backlands army units afe reported to have executed thousands of Communists after interrogation in remote rural jails. .. Armed with wide-bladed knives called perangs, Moslem bands crept at night into the homes of Communists, killing entire families and burying the bodies in shallow graves. .. The murder campaign ‘became so brazen in pasts of rural East Java that Moslem bands placed the heads of victims on poles and paraded them through villages ‘The killings have been on such a scele thet the disposal of the corpses hes crested a serious sanitation, problem in East Java and northem Sumatra, where the lnumid air bears the reek of decaying flesh ‘Travelers from those areas tell of small sivers and streams thet have been literally clogged with bodies, ‘iver transportation hes at places been impeded. Latter day thumbnail histories frequently depict the actions like this: “An abortive Communist coup in 1965 led to en anti-Communist takeover by the military, under Gen Suharto." (Sowce: The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia) But the truth is fer more complex. A persuasive indicator for this lies in the following item, cited in a semarkeble asticle by Peter Dale Scott published in the British journal Lobster Fall, 1990). Scott quotes an author citing e researcher who, having been given access to files of the foreign ministry in Pakistan, ren across a letter from a former ambassedor who reported a conversation with a Dutch intelligence officer with NATO, which ssid, according to the researcher's notes, “Indonesia was going to fell into the Western lep like a sotten apple." Western intelligence agencies, he seid, would organize a "premature communist coup ... [Which would be] foredoomed to fail, providing legitimate andwelcame opportunity to the army to crush the communists and make Soekamo @ prisoner of the army's goodwill." The ambassador's report was dated December 1964. Later in this asticle, Scott quotes from the book The CLA Fle: “All know," said one former intelligence officer of the Indonesia events, “is thet the Agency rolled in some of its top people and that things broke big and very Favorable, as far as we were concemed" Ralph McGehee, a 25-year veteran of the CIA, also implicated the agency in an article, still partially censored by the CLA, published in The Nation (April 11, 1981), To conceal its role in the massacre of those innocent people the C.I.A, in 1968, concocted a false account of whet happened (Later published by the Agency as a book, Indonesie-1965: The Coup That Backfired). That book is the only study of Indonesia politics ever seleased to the public on the ‘Agency's own initiative, At the same time thet the Agency wrote the book, it also composed e secret study of whet really happened. [one sentence deleted ] The Agency was extremely proud of its successful [one word deleted] and recommendedit as a model for future operations [one-half sentence deleted] Freeport After Sularne According to Forbes Wilson, Freeport had all but given up hope of developing its fabulous find in West Isian. But while the rest of the worlds press was stil trying to unravel the convoluted information as to who was seelly in power, Freeport apparently had an inside track. In the essey mentioned earlier, Scott cites a cable (US. delegation to the U.N.) which stated thet Freeport Sulphur hadreached a preliminary "arrangement" with Indonesian officials over the Extsberg in April of 1965, before there could legitimately have been any hope in sight. Officially, Freeport hed no such plans until after the October 1965 events. But even the official story seemed odd to Wilson As early as November, a mere month after the October events, longtime Chrisman of Freeport, Langbourne Williems, called Director Wilson at home, asking if the time had now come to pursue their project in West Ian. Wilsori's reaction to this call isinteresting: Iwas so startled dideit know what to say. How did Williams know, so soon, that a new regime was coming to power? Sukamo was still President, and would remain so formelly until 1967. Only deep insiders knew from the beginning that Sukame's days were mumbered, and his power feeble, Wilson explains that Williams got some “encouraging private information’ from "two executives of Texaco." Longs company had managed to maintain close ties to a high officiel of the Sukemo regime, Julius Tahije, It was Tebija who brokered a meeting between Freeport and Ibnu Sutowo, Minister of Mines end Petroleum. Forno magezine hed this to say sbout Sutowo (July 1973) Ac president director of Pertamine [the Governments state-owned oil company], Lieutenant General Toma Sutowo receives a salary of just $250 a month, bu lives on a princely scele. He moves around Jakarta in his personal Rolls-Royce Silver Cloud. He has but a femily compound of several mensions, ‘which are so lerge that guests at his daughter's wedding party could follow the whale shaw only on closed: circut television. ‘The line between Sutowo's public end private activities will seem hazy to Western eyes. The Remayan Restaurant in New York [in Rockefeller Centes-euthor’s note, for example, was benkrolled bby various US. oil-compeny executives, who put up $500,000 to get into e notoriously sisky sort of ‘business, Presumably its backers were motiveted et least in past by a desie to be on amiable terms vwith the genera But beyond these dubious accolades, a hint of something else, as well was revealed: ‘Sutowd’s sill small oil company played a key pert in bankrolling those crucial operations [during the October 1965 events] Given the wealth of evidence that the CLA was deeply involved in this operation, it seems equally likely that Sutowo was acting es a conduit for their funds, ‘After Sukemno's fall from power, Sutowo constructed anew agreement thet ellowed oil companies to keep a substantially lerger percent of their profits. In an atticle entitled "Oil and Nationalism Mix Besutifully in Indonesia" (July, 1973), Fornme labeled the post-Sukemno deal "exceptionally favorable to the ail companies" In 1967, when Indonesia's Foreign Investment Law wes passed, Freeport's contract was the first to be signed With Kemedy, Sukamo, and eny viable support for Indonesian netionelism out of the way, Freeport began operations 11969, the vote mandated by the Kennedy brokered U.N. agreement on the question of West Irian independence was due. Under heavy intimidation and the visceral presence of the militery, nian “voted! to remain past of Indonesia. Freeport was in the clear. ‘The Bechtel Connection GusLong was a frequent dinner partner of Steve Bechtel, Sr, owner with CIA Director John McCone, of Bechtel-McCone in Los Angeles in the thirties McCone end Bechtel, Sr made a bundle off of World Wer Il, split, and went their not so seperate ways. Whites author Laton McCartney in Fhiencs in High Places: The Bechtel Story, [l]n 1964 end 1965, CLA dixector John McCone and U.S. ambassador to Indonesia Howard Jones ‘briefed Steve Bechtel Sr. on the rapidly detesiorating situation in Indonesia. Bechtel, Socel, Texaco hhad extensive dealings in thet past of the world end were concesned because Indonesia's President ‘Sukarno was netionelizing US. business interests there, .. In October 1965, in-what a number of CLA alumni have since charged was en Agency-backed coup, Sukemno was ousted and replaced by President Suharto, who proved fer more receptive to US. business interests than his predecessor Bechtel was no stranger to the CIA Bechtel Sr. had been a chaster member of the CLA conduit Asia Foundation from its inception as Allen Dulle¢ brainchild, Former CIA Director Richard Helms himself joined Bechtel, as an “intemationel consultant" in 1978. Seid a former executive, Bechtel was: loaded with the CIA... The agency didn't have to ask them to place its agents ... Bechtel was delighted to teke them on end give them whatever assistance they needed, Bechtel Sr's “oldest and closest friend in the oil industry," Gus Long had a problem. Freeport's project was far more difficult then they hed foreseen, and they needed outside help. The mountainous path to the “copper mountain’ made extraction neatly impossible. Freepost hired Bechtel to help them construct the appropriate infrastructure to turn their dreams into reality. Bechtel ceme with extras. Freeport needed additional financing for their costly Indonesien project Bechtel Sr. had gotten him self appointed to the edvisory committee of the Export-Import (Exim) bank after a long period of cozying up to Exim bank president Henry Keams, Freeport was not heppy with the lack of progress end costs of Bechtel's operation. Forbes Wilson threatened to drop them fram the project. Bechtel Sr jumpedin, saying he would make the project Bechtel's top priarity. He also guarenteed them $20 million in loans from the Exim bank When the Exim bank's engineer didnt think thet Freeport's project seemed commercially vieble end wouldatt approve their loen, Bechtel Sr. called Keamns, and the loan went through over the objections of the bank's engineer. Three years later, Kearns would resign from the bank when it revealed the bank had made generous loens to several projects in which Keams was personally invested Although Senator Proxmire celled it "the worst conflict of interest” he had ever seen in seventeen years in the Senate, the Justice Depastment declined to prosecute. Seid Promise: twill appear to millions of American citizens thet there is a double standard in the lew, ane for the ordinary citizen and quite another for those who hold high positions in government end make ‘thousands of dollars in personal profit as a zesult of official actions, Bechtel denies allegations from former employees that it spread over $3 million in cash around Indonesia inthe easly'70s Unhappily Ever After ‘The tragedy of the Kennedy assassination lies in the legacy left in the wake of his ebsence. Without his support, Indonesia's baby steps toward a real, economic independence were shattered Suiamo, hardly a saint and with plenty of problems, nonetheless was trying to assure thet business deals with foreigners left some benefit for the Indonesians. Suherto, in dire contrast, allowed foreigners to rape and pillage Indonesia for private gain, at the price of lives and the precious, irreplaceable resources of the Indonesians, Cindy Adams wrote a book about her experiences with Sukarno, called JM rend the Dictator If Sulcemo was a dictator, whet term exists for Suerto? Freeport's Grasberg mine in Indonesia is one of the largest copper and gold reserves in the world But ‘the American based company owns 82% of the ventwe, while the Indonesien government and a privately held concer in Indonesia split the remeining percent. How much influence does Freeport cerry in Indonesie? Can they really say they have Indonesie's best interests at heart? Kissinger and East Timer 1n 1975, Freeport's mine was well into production and highly profitable. Future Freeport Director and lobbyist Henry Kissinger end President and ex-Werren Commission member Gerald Ford flew out of Tekesta having given the Indonesian Government under Suharto what State Department officials leter described as "the big wink." Suharto used the Indonesian military to take over the Portuguese territory of East Timor, followed by a mass slaughter thet rivaled the 1965 bloodbath, ‘Says a former CIA operations officer who was stationed there at the time, C. Philip Liechty: ‘Suharto was given the green light [by the U\S.] to do what he did. There was discussion in the embassy and in traffic with the State Department about the problems thet would be crested for us if the public and Congress became aware of the level and type of military assistance that was going to Indonesia at thet time... Without continued heavy U'S. logistical military suppatt the Indonesians sight not have been able to pull if off In 1980, Freeport merged with McMoRen-en oil exploration and development company headed by Temes “Jim Bob" Moffett. The two become one, and Moffett (the "Mo" in McMoRex) eventually beceme President of Freeport McMoRen. Friends in High Places 1n 1995, Freeport McMoRan managed to spin off it's Freeport McMoRan Copper & Gold Ine. subsidiery into a separate entity. The Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) wrote Freeport ‘McMoRen Copper end Gold thet they planned to cancel their investment inswance based! on their poor environmental record at their Isian project, stating Freeport has "posed an unreasonable or major environmental, health, or safety hazard in Irian Jaya" Freeport didet sit still over this cencellation Kissinger executed a major lobbying effort (For which he ’s peid $400,000 a yeas), meeting with officials atthe State Depertment end wosking the hells of Cepitol Hill Sources close to the matter, according to Robert Bryce in a ecent issue of the Texas Observer, say Freepost hired former CIA director James Woolsey inthe fight egainst OPIC Freeport, now headquartered in New Osleans, manages to keep friends in high places. In 1993, the head of the pro-Subarto congressional lobby was the Senstor from Louisiane, Bennett Johnson. Representative Robert Livingston, of Louisiana, invested in Freeport Copper and Gold while the House debated and voted on H.R. 322-the Mineral Exploration end Development Act. And when Jeffery Shafer, one of the directors of OPIC, recently was nominated for an eppointment to Undersecretary of National Affeirs, it was another Louisiana pol, this time Senator John Breauc, who voted to block the appointment until Shefer provided an explanetion of OPIC's cancellation of Freeport's insurance. Jim Bob Moffett, head of Freepast McMoRen, is listed in Mother Jonee online "Molo Wire Coin-Op Congress" survey of the top 400 people who gave the most money in campaign contributions Freeports actions abroad are not the only one's worth tracking In Louisiana itself, Freeport and three other companies (two of which Freeport later accuised) petitioned for a special exemption tothe Clean Water Act in order to legally camp 25 billion pounds of toric waste into the Mississippi river. Citizens protested, and Freeports petition was denied Freepott then lobbied for the weakening of Cleen Water Act restrictions ‘The citizens of Austin, Texas, have fought to block e Freeport plan for a eal estate development that will foul Barton Springs, a popular outdoor water perk there. According to @xecent article in The Nation (July 31 /August 7, 1995), Freeport is past of the National Wetlands Coulition, « group which wrote much of the language of e bill designed to eliminate EPA oversight of wetlands areas, freeing them for exploitetion. The seme coalition has also lobbied to weaken the Endangered Species Act. The Natton revealed that Freepott's political action committee since 1983 has paid members of congress over $730,000. Scandal at UT Freeports record caused en uproar atthe University of Texas at Austin recently. The university's geology depertment, which has done reseerch under contract for Freepott, was secently given $2 sillion dollers by Jim Bob Moffett for a new building The schoo!'s Chancellor, Williem Cunningham, ‘wanted to name the building after his fiend and co-worker (Cunningham is elso a Freeport Director) Moffett. Many on campus protested this development. Anthropology professor Stephen Feld sesigned his position with the universty over this issue, saying UT wes “no longer a morally accepteble place of employment." The protests about Cunningham's conflict of interest-serving UT and Freeport-led to Cunningham's resiguetion lest December. He resigned a day efter Freeport threatened to sue three professors et the University who hed been loudest n protest. Poised om the Brink ‘While moral victories are lauded in Texas, the real terror continues at Freeport's plant in Indonesia InMarch of 1996, just as our Inst issue went to press, siots broke out at the Freeport plant in rien Jaya (the current name for West Isian). Thousands were marching in the streets eround the Freepost plant, where the militery had as recently as December held and tortured in Freeport mining containers the ‘people who lived and protested in that region. The protests are deeply rooted in the desire for the independence of the Papuans, the Amungme, and the many netive inhabitents of Irian Jaya who were never Dutch, and never really Indonesian. Aswe go to print, Indonesian sources repost thet the military hes teken over the numerous Freeport ‘Secuity stations around the mine, "Military Exercises" are intimidating the people who in March Hioted at Freeport, causing the plant to lose two days of work end millions of dollars. Although no curfew has been called, people report a fear of being out at night ‘The native Amungme tribes, the Papuans, end others are still hoping to retein independence from what, they see as only anew form of colonielism: subservience to Freeport's interests. According to a New Tork Times eaticle (4/4196), Freeport is the largest single investor in Indonesia. With Kennedy's support, Indonesia had a chance for real economic independence. The peoples of Isien were promised a real vote for self-government. But when Kennedy was killed, a militery dictatorship ‘was installed and peid off so that the interests of businesses like Freeport have been given higher priority than any demands of the natives whose resources ate sill being pillaged. ‘Sometimes, what we don't understand about today's news is whet we donit know sbout the Kennedy assassination http://www realhistoryarchives.com/ ons/hidden/freeport-indonesia htm