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TAF-94-S.4.429 Supersonic Combustion of Hydro- gen/Air in a SCRAMJET Combu- stion Chamber W. Waidmann, F. Alf, M. Bohm, U. Brummund, W. Clau8, M. Oschwald German Aerospace Research Establishment Lampoldshausen, Germany 45th CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL ASTRONAUTICAL FEDERATION October 9-14, 1994 / Jerusalem, Israel For permission to copy or republish, contact the International Astronautical Federation ‘5, Rue Mario-Niks. 75015 Pais, France ven by #6, Tests at the TeAGI hypersonic facility “has been directed to the intiuence of the chamber geomety and the location tnd mode of the fuel supply ‘The aim of the experimental investigation was to work out baseline onderstanding of the combustion process of hydrogen in supersonie ait steam. Pazallel fuel injoo- tion ina rectangular M = 2 airstream with ‘optical access was vealized with a model ‘chamber. The paper gives an overview of ‘The free fight simulation range of the test facility is limited by the total air tempe- ratute of the Hy/O, heater (witiated air heating}. Corresponding to the realizable maximum air temperature of ahout 1500 K, a free fight Mach number up to about 5.5 cond be simulated (combustion eham- ber Mack wumber Me = 2). The sta tic pressure and temperature as a function of the fight Mach wumber (les with 4 shocks) and the altitude and the fight tra- the different applied diagnostic methods withjectory (NASP, SANGER, dynamic pres examples of corresponding experimental re- sults and welarences. Sceamjot txt Facility Acchematic overview a the supersonic test chamber is shown iu fig. Land fig, 2". Preheated air is expanded through a ta val nozzle and enters the model combustor ‘vith 2 Mach number of 2. The combustor has a width of & em and a beight of 5 em at the entrance and a divergence angie of the upper chamber wal of three degree. A strut is placed jn the center ofthe chamber downstzearn of the nozale. At the base the strut height is 6 mn, the length is 32 mm. Hydrogen is injected sonically through « row of 15 holes in the strut bast, having ‘ diaswter of 1 mm and a distance bet- ween adjacent holes of 24 mm. Typical ‘mass flows in the experiments wete varied between 1.0 kg/s and 1.5 kg/s for air and between 1.5 g/s and 4.0 g/s for hydrogen Which corresponds to an equivalence 1a- tio of 0.034 (minimum) and 0.136 (maxi- ‘mur). The hydrogen is injected with am- bient temperature. Combustion Was initia: ‘ted by a preburniag of a small amount of oxygen in the hydvogen tube by a spark Alter ignition the igniter was svitched off No self ignition was observed. ‘ure = 0.75 bat) is plotted in fg. 3 ‘Schlieren photography and Plauar UV- Rayleigh Scattering without combustion Fig. 4 show & schlieren photograph and the corresponding Rayleigh image for cold hydrogen injection without combustion © The base ofthe wedge is visible onthe let ofthe schlieren photograph. The main stream is from left to eight. An expan- sion fan results at the wedge base and & recompresion shock occurs where the flow icin nee all on atin ‘The recompression shocks aut the len ree shock which oniginte atthe ip the wedge were elected throug the duct. Due to the horizontal erentation of the schlieren knife edge ans since the low feld fs symmetric to the centering, the same density change (compression or expansion, respectively) appears with opposite change fn light intensity on the upper and lower talfplate. The hydrogen rich tream could be seen where the shocks cross the cote flow and where the shock angle i increa sed. Theturbuleat mixing of hydrogen and iris not clay reached onthe shliesen Picture Fig. 3b shows © Rayleigh image for the snmoflow conditions, The pictureia com posite of two sing shot images taken fom {iferent test runs corresponding 1 a mee ged area of 80 x 40mm. The recompres sion shocks ase clealy visible due to the ‘ensity jump along the shock wave. Inthe core ofthe dvs the distribution of hydzo- {ge Is visible as a dark regen de to the fourth time smaller Rayleigh - scattering cross section im comparison to the cross section of it. Inthe ist section (e= 0-20 rm) 2 neatly owogenous hydrogen zone swith slightly convergent shape could be b= served. Further downstream the contourat the lofield becomes more and more ag: ‘gd with greater structures and large scale ‘Srentrainmert eto the mixing zone. AU = 60 mm aris transported into the core of the hydrogen zone by convection. The mic ing mechanism 8 very important forthe supersonic combustion process due to the short residence ssw ofthe gas ix the com: bustion chamber. ‘The compressibility ofthe supersonic fw became alo essential important for th mic ng proces, The convective Mach sume ber which is a sesla for the compressibility had a significant efecto Tne supersonic mixing rate. It has been experimentally observed by many authore for example 4 Ua higher compressibility result im lower growth rate ofthe shear ayers. The effect ‘an be quantified by the convective Mach number M, = (Usi~U.)/a. Us the ve locity of the airstream, Us the convective veocty ofa reference frame which conta nes large scale strictures and asthe speed of sound. For Me 2 the grow rte of the mixing layer decreases to about 20 per cent Yrom:these image ibis quite clear thatthe Rayleigh scattering technique offers a very useful optical too tonvestgatesteas layer Jnteracion and mixing processes. Shadowgraph and Spontaneous ‘OB-Enission with combustion Fig. 5 shows shadowgraphs and the cor- seapondiag OH - emission intensity of the ‘combustion 2one at the 306 nm OH -emis- sion (itexfeznce filter 310 & 10 nm) for two hydrogen mass flow rates, A stable difasion flame was established after igni- tion. The OH- emission which results from thermally or chemically exited OH radicals qualitativay map the combustion zone and therelativeextend oft. Igsition ovcurs in- side the shear layer betwoen the wake and the airstream, Because of « hydrogen rich region, combustion occurs near the center- Tine further dawnstream. As expected, the ful rick zone is muuch louger for higher by- drogen mass flow rates. ‘The combustion gone could be divided into thee regions, the induction 2ove were the (OM ~ emission js at frst visible, a zone ‘where the spontsneous OH - emission has ‘maximum with a turbulent diffusion eon- trolled combustion character and a highly ‘uurbulent region with Inge scale flow struc- tres, Large wale structures which cause mass ux entrainment originate at the bo- sunday of the OFF maximum zone and the freestream, Further downstream the large ‘eddies seems to get distorted. Detailed struetores like turbulent mixing and entrainment of ambien cold air could not be resalved from the spontaneous OF emission pictures, because of the lineof- sieht character of these images. scer-Induced-Predis us (UI) and turbulent combustion regime ‘The principles of LIF theorie are explained in detail for example in ™ In this work Iiydroxyl radicals (OH) are excited within the combustion chasnber by inducing the predissociation transition at 248 nm with 4 tunable KeP excimer laser", Fig. Gacepresenis a LIF image tthe whole OH - fiuorescence (UG-11 filter 250 - 400, sin) monitored vith a CCD ~ camera. The jmage position is taken at the transitional region from x = 67 - 100 mm where the large seale structures ogiate. ‘The data ‘are quantitatively in terms of position and time, but qualitative with respect to the actual level of OH concentration through= ‘out the fame. The pictures offers an im- pression of the highly turbulent character flow section. The interface between the airstream and the combustion zone at Doth sides of the flame rolls up to form Jaoge scale etructares, Coherent structures were not resolved. ‘The position of the dame is situated at the fool - sir interface region which bas a lo- ‘al thickness dependent upon the residence time of the vortex and luca ranepart ca- efficients and chemical kinetics ‘The chemical kinetics of the reaction inthe interface region seems to be organized as those of steady laminar diffusion flames. ‘The restructuring of these flame fronts at the interface due to the distorting effect of the vortex dynamic accelerates molecular mixing. With the help of the Borghi - dis. grain fg. 6b it i posable ta classify the turbulent flame regime of difsion flames. ‘This is very important to the decision what ind of numerical models are adequate in calculating such combustion problems (fi relet or kinetic model). With LDV data for the turbulent intensity ut, LIP data for the largest length scales ly and the laminae fame velocty tam and Same thickness lian 1 the ramjet comb tion regime is situated as expected from. ‘he LAP images at the boundary of the fa- eles regis. Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering AES) CARS is « laserspectroscopic tool to meae sire temperatures and concentrations in the gas phase. Because of the turbulent nature of the combustion 2une, irae pule CARS was employed "8, The result at a cortain measuring point is available form ‘of a probability density fanktion (pa) ‘rom the pdf the mesa temperature could be calculated. Fig. 7 shows the mean ter- perature y - profiles for three axial posit- fone st x = 11, 58, and 166 min and two sass flow rates corresponding to fig. 4 ‘The sections are situatad inside the indue- tion zone the OH maximum zone and at 1 position far dawnstzeam the wedge. For the higher mass flux the maximum tem- perature is somewhat about 2000 K. The gradient feom the core of the fame to the ‘alder air streara is very strong even at sec: tion x = 166 mm. A transverse growth rate limited high temperature combustion strand was measured. A great NOx pro- DBRS meeting, Nagoya, Jopan, 1991 (6] Barrere, M. Mestre A,Stabilization de le Flanme en Combustion Superionigue, 6 Rech, Aerosoat., No 1 198 If} Sabelaikow V. A. etal, Casdynemice of Hydrogen: Pole Seramjet Combustors, ‘AIAA/SAB/ASME/ASEE, 29 Joint Pro: pulsion Conference, Monterey, 1999. {8] Guere R,, Waidenann, W.,Laible C.,Am Experimental Investigtion of the Combe: ion ofe Hydrogen Jet Injected Parallel in «Supersonic Air Steam, AINA Aerospace Planes Conference, AIAA-S1-5102, 199 [o} W. Waidmann, R. Guerra, R. Saatgen, W. Clas, Dberchalverbvennng bet luo render Stouatailentrigben, DUR » Nach Feten, Heft 74, Februar 199). {10} U. Brammund, W. Waidmana,Fow Vi suaication Studies ina Supersonie Remit Combustor sing UV - Laser Spectroscapy, 25th International Annual Confereace of WOT, Karleuhe, i994 [ul] Bekbveh A.C, Laser Diagnosis for Combustion Temperature end Species, Ab- cis, Kes, England, 1988 {12} Wibiams, Combustion Theory, Benj 1min/ Cummings, Menlo Parl, 1984. [13] M. Oschwald, R. Guerea, W. Waid rnann, Investigation of « Seramjet Conbu- stor with parallel Ha ~ Injection through « Stra by Particle nage Displacement Vo- locinetry, Taint aternational Symposium ‘on Special Topics in Chericl Propulsion, Scheveningen, 1983 {ha} Claud W., Sontgen R Feinauer A., Guerre I, Waidmann W., CARS Tempe: ature Measurements in a Supersonic Ramjet Combustion Chamber, Third International ‘Symposium on Special Topics in Chemical Propulsion, Scheveningea, 1993. {15] Claut W., Sontgea , Waldmann W., CARS Thermometry in a Hydeogen - Air ‘Supersonic Combustion Chamber, IAA 3 submitted [16] M. Bohm, W. Waidmann,LDV Meas ements in @ Seramjet Combustor, AIAR Scuba contoured Mach 2 norle Teh Mach Number My fig. 8 Simulatioa range for supersonic con bustion tests. Combustion chamber Mach number My = 2 fig. 2SCRAMIE test facility fig. 4 Schieren photo leigh - scattering image without combustion r “ ® hs) and Ray ) of the feild fig. 68) Single shot Laser - Induced - OM Fluorescence image of the combustion zone 1b) Borghi - Diagram hedow phote sontancous OF of the nber depth, interference - filter $10 + 10 nim integrated over cha g 20 eed je 1S = x aL “0 oe oe ae ie 1e =| De = 75 We ae F iooe i: Thy, = 1.5 g/s thy, = 2.8 ¢/s fig. 7 Mean temperature y-profiles for three sections (x = 11 a), 88 b) and 166 mm c}) by Coherent - Anti- Stoler - Raman « Scattering (CARS), F = 0 is on a straight line angeled at 1.5 degrees (geometric centerline ofthe combustion chamber) aera ae fig. 10 Velocity xprofles along the combu stion zone with and without combustion by Laser - Doppler - Velocimetry (LDV) x= 6500 90 fig. 8 Single shot Rayleigh - scattering image of the Hovfild with combustion © posith vorticity 9 Vorticity of the flow fel taken from cle - Image + Displacement - Veloc y (PIV) jthout combustio