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[CATINOAMERICANA DE INGENZERIA, DATE pe | DESIGN GUIDE NuMMaEN | SHEET OF IS. A. DE C. V. 9/30/75 DSG-HT-830 1-13 process RIMENT WANDROOK = 19/30/78 1G suasecT 005 SHELLSIDE RATING e0 Scope): ee ee wee 2 200 e Method) te Be et ee 2.1. Shellside Film Resistance... 6... 0 es eee 2 2.2 Shellside Pressure Drop... eee ee ee eee 8 S60. Rectle-nype|Maboilersye (ett eS Bel Method ao se ls few oe Ae eS) 3.2 Instruction Punch List... se ee ees 6 3.3. MTD and Boilingside Coefficient for Reboilers. |)... +s. 7 4.0 Thermosyphon-Type Reboilers ss. eee ee ee eee eee 8 fey Pree Nts pono ob ooe ss uuooodd 1 4.2 Pressure Drop through Thermosyphon-Type Reboilers ...... 10 4.3 Forced Circulation Vaporizer... oe ee ee ee ee 12 5.0 Reboiler Constraints .... 1... Bees 5.1 Heat Flux Limitations for Reboilers 2... 2.2 eee eee 18 5.2 Suggested Method for Dry Pipe Sizing. +... 1... ee 13 5.3 Reboiler Pressure Drop... +e esse eee eee 13 Ss A TATINOANERICANA DE INGENTERIA, DATE | arp | DESIGN GUIDE NUMBLI] SHELT OF DEC. Vv. PROCESS DEPARTMENT HANDBOOK e__ [9/30/75 JAZ] _psc-ut-830 2-13 1.0 2.0 005 SCOPE ‘This Design Guide outlines the analytical method for determining shellside film resistance and pressure drop for shell and tube heat exchangers. METHOD This covers both laminar and turbulent flow. 2.1 Shellside Film Resistance See Sunnary, DSG-HT-840, Page 15. 2.1.1 Shellside Geonetry (Q) Cross-flow area { Ag = Plb + x - b)] (2) Long-flow area ayo) H G utah vu | 2.1.2 Single-Phase Flow (Liquid or Vapor) See Figure 7, DSG-HT-850, Page 8. (2) Shell Mass Velocity (see DSG-HT-840, Pages 55-56) 7 4/2 G, = W,/25(A,A) (2) Reynolds Nunber 4,6, loos Re = -2 where the viscosity is either for a liquid or a gas at the average body temperature, (3) Shellside Film Resistance Calculation a FFato 5 Kamae TATINOANERICANA BE INGENTERTA, Date [ger | ewan coor NuwEn] owtT oF S.A. DEC. V. by PROCESS DEPARTMENT HANDBOOK <__|/so/7s [48 | __psc-ir-830 3-33 2.1.3 Two-Phase Flow 005 (1) Shell Mass Velocity (same as above) Note: Use total flow rate to calculate liquid or vapor resistance respectively. (2) Shellside Film Resistance Calculation He rf (duty fraction) + rf (duty fraction) + x, (duty fraction) ! LIQ Svap 2.2 Shellside Pressure Drop See DSG-IIT-850, Pages 9-15. 2.2.1 Single-Phase Flow (Liquid or Vapor) (1) Crossflow Fraction (see equation, DSG-lT-850, Page 12) P/D = hore oe Re fre + 077K, (: ~ tg lth y s (2) Crossflow Mass Velocity 6, = WeF,/25A, (3) Reynolds Number . Re = d,6,/Z where Z is the liquid or gas viscosity at the avera; body temperature. (4) Crossflow Pressure Loss (see equation, DSG-HT-850, Page 10) 2, 2 ne ta feo «(ERIE * 000 s(2/2,)°"4 nxP aera atte og (5) Window Flow Fraction (see equation, DSG-IT-850, Page 9) F, =F, +1200 - F(H/0) (6) Window Mass Velocity Cc 6, = (W,F,/25A,) LAT INOANERIC. Wa DE INGENTERTA, DATE [are | orsion GUIDE NUMOGR] SHEET OF IS. A. DEC. V. : “meso Ao PROCESS DEPARTMENT HANDBOOK ys0/7s JAZ _vsc-nr (7) Pressure Loss due to Flow-through Windows £635 ell ip ! Pi Tooos * Fs (8) Total Pressure Loss Ap = 4p, + AP, + AP, Where Ape is the entrance and exit losses (see DSG-HT-850, Figure 6, Page 7, and Figure 12, Page 13). 2.2.2 Two-Phase Flow Follow the procedure as described above for sisigle-phase flow except use (a) the total flow rate, (b) the liquid viscosity, and (c) the weighted average density. EATINOANERICANA DE TNGENTERIA,— DATE [pe | rsa coor nomsen] sneer or iS. A. DE C. V. 9/30/75 4 DSG-IIT-830 S- 13 PROCESS DEPARTMENT HANDBOOK 005 3.0 KETTLE-TYPE REBOILSRS This paragraph presents rating instructions for kettle-type reboilers. 3.1 Method The tubeside of kettle reboilers is calculated in the normal manner to determine the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop, and after the calculation of the surface required, the maximun flux is determined as follows: Find pl and pv at the boiling temperature. Calculate (01 - pv)/pv and find maximum flux from Page 13 below. Check against actual flux Q/A. Obtain hy from curves in DSG-HT-850, Page 14, for pure hydrocarbons, or for hydrocarbon mixtures, or for steam. Effective AT = ys/y service x LMTD When U required and U calculated are within the tolerance +8% to -3% then proceed with the design of the shell. Vapor space = Yaper flow quantity (iC) allowable #/hr vapor/ft3 from chart in DSG-HT-850, Page 15. or for steam = Y8POr flow quantity (steam) by out x steam load ft*/hr stean/ft® of disengaging space from chart in DSG-HT-850, Page 15. me = —Vapor_space x 144 Segment area = Frective tube length For double cone shells use effective tube length minus one cone length. Obtain shell ID from curve DSG-HT-850, Page 16. The following should be used in. the design as a minimum. Min number of Min clearance between liquid level Tube length out let_nozzles and 1D of shell 16" and 20" 2 12" up to 20' tube length 30" 3 aan 40" 3 2a" LATENOANERICANA DE INGENIERIA, DATE [are | DIsIGN GUIDE NUMUEN] suECT OF IS. AgDE Cc. Vv. : 9/30/75 (A |_ vsG-itt-830 6-13 PROCESS DEPARTMENT HANDBOOK 005 Calculate critical horizontal velocity = 0.333 ¥p,/o, Calculate critical vertical velocity = 0,034 (* : “1 v " | vapor flow quantity Actual horizontal velocity = 75-739 x nunber of nozzles x Segnental area ; or vapor flow quantity Actual vertical velocity = 3695-5 effective Length x p, x length of cord in fect 3.2. Instruction Punch List 3.2.1 Rating (1) Mean Temperature Difference i Determine MTD according to Page 8 below (see previous outlined method) . (2) Boiling Rate Determine h from DSG-HT-850, chart on Page 14. (3) Tubeside Rate Steam heated ht = 1,000 overall including fouling. Oil heated in DSG-HT-840, Pages 7-8. (4) Fouling Allowance Use DSG-HT-800, Page 26. 3.2.2 Shell Size @) Tube Bundle: Tube layout to be square pitch with cleanable horizontal and vertical lanes, (2) Vapor Space Determine required cubic feet from chart, DSG-HT-850, Page 15. t = Vapor Space x 144 (3) Done Segment Area = ppyPre Shee ry Sa Im. Determine shell size from chart, DSG-HT-850, Page 16, =) a © SHLET OF (eas TATINOANERICANA DE INGENIERIA, Dare | avr S.A. DE C. Vv. 9/30/75 (8% PROCESS DEPARTMENT HANDBOOK 005 (4) Overflow Conpartment beast bro" wn To? OF WEIR TIOLEVEL, 2 minute holding time capacity > Ibs/hr liquid out (shaded area) "1000 sp ge “UPC FE Liquid level variation maximum 2" per min for 1 change in rate of liquid outflow Ibs/I * 320-x 1D Liquid out ell (ins) x Spor Ft A 3.2.3 Nozzle Sizes (1) Liquid: Limit velocity to 2 ft/sec max (2) Vapor: Determine size from table and chart in DSG-HT-850, - Page 17. Use two nozzles if tube length exceeds 16! - oF, 3.3. MTD and Boilingside Cocfficient for Reboilers 3.3.1 imitations Charts applicable to RERUN, STABILIZER and DEPROPANIZER TOWER REROILERS and for similar service heating light fractions not heavier than kerosene. Chart also applicable to preheaters for similar service. Determine required heat transfer surface for heating and boiling range separately. is. A. ELC. V. [LATINOANERICANA DE INGENIERIA, pare [are PROCESS DEPARTMENT HANDBOOK DrsIGNG 9/30/75 }E4p] Ys nOENUMOLR] SATET OF 830 8-13 C65 j 3.3.2 Mean Temperature Difference Kettle ‘Thermosyphon : 20°F ty - ty > 20' 2 1 L0G MTD between | Steam T, and ty & ty Ty and ty & (a + Heat- ing Nedium | 9; ; + ; . oi Ty & 7, and ty 67) 1,67, and ty & (4 corrected if not truc counterflow 3.3.3 Oil Heating Coefficient Kettle and Thermosyphon Reboilers without Baffles & 80; = 70} cs 60} gs $2 80 ze HEATING MEDIUM | FFF. At gf a STEN o70%sr0 b2 on 0.5087) #2 10 20 eg 90 40 emp cOgeag 70 gg Ome 100 EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE F (EFF. At) 3.3.4 Oil Heating Coefficient for Forced Circulation 200 Ee 3s B 109] os gs ‘So = Use natural zs Tass EI conection cont EE og s LS iferF, at gives Be & higher rate 2 {| 5S 50 SY a |. 20 “HH 2 «6 8 10 26 706080 MASS VELOCITY = LB/(SECIISO. FT. VY Le [LATINOANERICANA DE INGENIERIA, Dare ‘ison Cowr wowaEn] SHEET OF Is. A. Dec. v. i 9/30/75 -HT-830 9. PROCESS DEPARTMENT HANDBOOK 7301" psc-ur-es ae 005 4.0 THERMOSYPHO! YPE_REBOILERS ‘This paragraph presents rating instructions for thermosyphon-type reboilers. 4.1 Instruction Punch List 4.1.1 Rating (1) Limitation The following instructions and data are not applicable if vaporization exceeds 80% of entering liquid (2) Mean Tenperature Difference | Determine MID according to Pages 6-8 above. (3) Boiling Rate Determine h from Pages 6-8 above. (4) Heating Side Rate Steam heated - h = 1000 overall including fouling O41 heated - Use DSG-IIT-840, Pages 7-8. (5) Fouling Allowance . Use DSG-HT-800, Page 26. (6) Pressure Drop Boiling Side Determine pressure drop according to Heating Side Pages 3-4 above, Page 11 below, and DSG-11-820, Pages 3-4. 4.1.2 Construction Details 1) Tube Layout Tube layout shall be square pitch with cleanable horizontal and vertical lanes. (2) She11 Nozzles When the ratio of overall tube length to shell ID exceeds 6 for arrangement shown below, additional nozzles shall be used. [CATINOS: ERICANA DE INCENIERIA, DATE | ape | orsicnGuinr NuMULN] SHECT OF Be As DLC. ¥. vans [A oses-es0 | “10 = 35 f : 4.2 Pressure Drop through Thermosyphon-type Reboilers TOWER TOWER RECIRCULATING ONCE THROUGH TYPE TPE VERTICAL OR avaiuaste —a PT] fromzowrac LIQUID HORIZONTAL rh ° HEAD OR VERTICAL L AVAILABLE LIQUID HEAD Min lb/hr circulated - 1.25 x 1b/hr vaporized to avoid vapor binding of heating surface. —— THRUPUT AVERAGE VAPOR QUANTITY - See page 11 below. Ab/hr circulated ~ ab AVERAGE NIX. DENSITY = F7¢"yapor Vol (cu ft/hr) ~ cu fe 1) Friction Pressure Drop through Reboiler Based on liquid viscosity and average mixture density. 2) Pressure Drop Caused by Acceleration of Flow Medium Mass velocity - ~ stg) ib/sa in. 6 Ib/see sq ft pr 3) Static Pressure (liquid - vapor mixture head) L in ft = Length of tube in vertical unit or shell diameter in horizontal unit. x pave EXAMS db/sq in. 4 [LATINOANERICANA DE INGENIERTA, DATE [Ape | DESIGNGUIDE NUMBER] SHEET OF S. A. DEC. V. 9/30/75 Ly DSG-HT-830 lees PROCESS DEPARTMENT HANDBOOK z 005" 4) Friction Pressure Drop - Inlet Piping ‘ Based on liquid viscosity and density. ' 5) Friction Pressure Drop - Outlet Piping Based on liquid viscosity and outlet density. 6) Minimum Required Liquid Head 144 x sum (1 through 5) density of liquid ** 1.2 HTD only concerned with pressure drop between inlet and outlet nozzle. Chemical Engineering Division may consider pressure drop in inlet and outlet piping. AVERAGE VAPOR QUANTITY IN_REBOILERS not! 1 M e PN F t K 0] | — —07 7 l), T 2 3 4 6 6 7 8 310 20 30, 40 30° won gy * Fx Qo soe [CATINOANERTCANA DE INGENTERTA, DATE | app ] DESIGNGUIDE NUMBER] SHLEY OF iB |A- BOE Ce V- : 9/30/75 1 DSG-1T-830 12 - 13 PROCESS DEPARTMENT HANDBOOK 05 5 4.3 Forced Circulation Vaporizer Refer to instructions given in DSG-IIT-810 except that shellside coefficient is obtained from Page 8 above. C IS. A. DE C. PROCESS DEPARTMENT HANDBOOK LATINOANERICANA DE INGENTERTA, DATE | ape ] besiGN GuIOL NUMBER] SHEL OF uh 9/30/75 (94 | vsc-1r-830 13 - 13 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.0 REDOILER CON! 005 RAINTS Heat Flux Limitations for Reboilers Reference is made to the dimensionless correlation of peak flux, 2) peak, shown in McAdams, Figure 14.18. For design purposes the heat flux is limited to the following values: Thermosyphon: +25 (Q/A) peak or 25,000 max. Forced Circulation: +25 (Q/A) peak or 35,000 max. Low Strength ‘Aqueous Solutions: +35 (Q/A) peak or 45,000 max. Water: +45 (Q/A) peak or 70,000 max. | NOTE: A check should be made at the inlet to the reboiler to see that the peak heat flux condition is not execeded. Suggested Method for Dry Pipe Sizing ‘The dry pipe is used to improve steam quality (dryness). It should be sized so that the total steam flow through the cross section of the pipe gives a steam velocity of 60 to 70 fect/sec. The total area of the holes in the dry pipe should be equal to four tines the pipe cross-sectional area. Minimum hole size should be 3/8-inch diameter. For higher quality steam, use demisting pads or cyclones. Reboiler Pressure Drop For thermosyphon type, Re total allowable shellside pressure drop is severely limited; all liquids at inlet are limited to 0.35 psi maximum and Liquid/vapor mixture at inlet is limited to 0.45 psi maximum. For all reboilers the pressure loss due to the tube bundle is usually taken as 0.1 psi. The pressure loss due to the inlet and outlet nozzles mist be added to this.