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Capsicum Cultivation

Capsicum
Manual

KFBioplants Pvt. Ltd.


S. No.: 178, Kirtane Baug, Mundhwa Road,
Magarpatta, Hadapsar, Pune - 411 036.
Tel.: 91-20-2689 0422, Fax: 91-20-2689 0681
E-mail: info@kfbioplants.com
Internet: http://www.kfbioplants.com

This is for information only. We do not take responsibility of the performance of


the product on issue of this growing manual.
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Pune

KF Bioplants Pvt. Ltd.,

Capsicum Cultivation
A. INTRODUCTION:
Capsicum (Capsicum annum) is an important commercial vegetable crop
grown throughout the world in a wide range of climatic conditions. Capsicum
belongs to the family Solanaceae. Capsicum is also known as Sweet Pepper,
bell pepper or Shimla Mirch is one of the popular vegetable grown throughout
India. It is rich in vitamin A, Vitamin C, and minerals like Calcium (13.4mg),
Magnesium (14.9mg) Phosphorus (28.3mg) Potassium (263.7mg) PER 100 g fresh
weight.
Capsicum is cool season crop, but it can be grown round the year using
protected structures where temperatures and Relative humidity (RH) can be
manipulated.

B. SOIL STRUCTURE:
To be successful in Capsicum growing, soil selection is very important. The main
factors to considered are as under:
1]

Soil pH should be in between 6.0 to 6.5 or it should be maintained at this


level to get maximum efficiency in absorption of nutrients.

2]

The salinity level of soil should not be more than 1 mS/cm. Therefore, as
soon as you select the site, get the soil analyzed to decide its further
reclamation.

3]

The soil should be highly porous and well drained to have better root
growth and better penetration of roots.

C. GENERAL DISINFECTION OF SOIL:


Before plantation of Capsicum, disinfections of soil are absolutely necessary. In
particular, the fungus Phytophthora, Pythium and root knot nematode is a menace
to Capsicum. The various methods of sterilization are:
1. Steam: Not feasible for Indian conditions.
2. Solarization: Cover the soil with plastic for 6 - 8 weeks. Sunrays will heat
up the soil, which will kill most fungi.
3. Chemical:
A. Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) with Silver.
Procedure:

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Wet the beds with irrigation water of neutral pH & EC less than 0.5
mS/cm.
In irrigation water; mix hydrogen peroxide with silver at the rate of 35 ml
per liter of water (3.5% solution). Since this product is highly reactive and
has an oxidizing agent; do not mix any other chemical with this.
Apply this solution uniformly over moist beds using the spout. Use 1 liter
water for 1 m2 area.
No need to cover the soil. Just leave the soil as it is and after 4 to 6 hours
the crop can be planted.
Advantages of hydrogen peroxide with silver:
1. Very easy and safe to use without any hazardous effect on human health.
2. Economical.
3. Eco friendly and does not produce any phyto toxic effects on plants.
4. Plantation can be carried out 4 to 6 hours after fumigation.
5. Destroys almost any fungal, bacterial and viral presence as well as larva
and eggs of the insects in soil.
6. Stable in wide range of temperature and pH.

B. Formalin @ 7.5 - 10 lit/100 m2. This pure chemical should be diluted 10


times in water and then sprayed/drenched on beds and then cover with plastic
for 7 days. Then flush the soil approximately with 100 lit. of water per m 2 to
drain the traces. After sterilizing and subsequent washing out of the soil it is
advised to wait for 2 weeks before plantation for vapsa (field capacity)
condition.
C.
Methyl Bromide
:
(25 30 gm/ m2)
D. Basamid (Dazomet)
:
(30 40 gm/ m2)

D. BED PREPARATION:
In general, Capsicums are grown on raised beds to assist in easier movement and
better drainage. The dimensions of the bed should be as follows:

45cm

60cm

30cm

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60cm

Pathway

30cm

KF Bioplants Pvt.

Capsicum Cultivation
90cm

60cm

90cm

Bed height

: 1ft. (30 cm)

Width of bed

: 3 ft. (90 cm)

Pathways between beds

: 2 ft. (60 cm)

If soil is black cotton gravels or murum (6 layer) can be added at the bottom for
better drainage. Recommended quantity of soil and sand is added along with
organic manures. Organic manure is recommended to improve soil texture and to
provide nutrition gradually.
At the time of bed preparation (After fumigation) neemcake (@ 1 kg/m 2) is added
as prevention against nematode. All material should be mixed thoroughly for
optimum results.
The composition of bed material should be such that it should be highly porous,
well drained and provide proper aeration to the root system.
Bed Material Composition:
Material

Clay soil

Silty loam soil

Red soil

55 %

60 %

Sand

15 %

10 %

FYM

30 %

30 %

Rice husk

4 kg/m2

2.5 kg/m2

Basal fertilizer dose for 4000 sqmt. (After bed preparation):


Sr. No.

Chemical

Quantity

1.

Ammonium sulphate

50kg

2.

Single Super Phosphate

150 kg

Sulphate of Potash

50 kg

4.

Magnesium Sulphate

50 gm

5.

Neem Cake

750 kg

6.

Sterameal

250 kg

7.

Zinc sulphate, boron and

Manganese sulphate

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10 kg each

KF Bioplants Pvt.

Capsicum Cultivation
Mix it well in upper 6 soil layer, apply water and at Vapsa condition (Field
capacity level) check EC and pH of soil before plantation.
** DO NOT WALK ON THE BEDS AS IT DESTROYS SOIL TEXTURE.

E. GREENHOUSE FOR COMMERCIAL CULTIVATION:


1. Criteria for site selection
a. The land should be leveled.
b. No wind breaks or multi storied structures present upto 30 meters.
c. Good connectivity to nearest market.
d. Electricity at the site and no high tension electricity wire upto 5
meters
e. Availability of good quality of water
2. Specification:
a. Height: 5 to 6.5 m.
b. Length: North South.
c. Gutter direction: North South.
d. Polythene thickness: 200 microns.
e. Vent opening: Along the wind direction.
f. Distance between two adjoining poly houses should be minimum 4
m.
3. Sufficient ventilation space is required on top and sides.
4. To protect the plants from the rains, without affecting the air circulation,
side curtains should be kept open in slanting position.
5. To control light intensity and solar radiation, white shade net (50%) is used.
Approximately 70,000 lux light intensity is required on the plant level.
6. Greenhouse operation:
a. Open side curtains from 7 am to 6 pm in summer and rainy seasons,
whereas open from 9 am to 5 pm in winter, to facilitate maximum air
circulation.
b. Top shade net opening and closing:

During cloudy climate keep open, otherwise close from 10 am to 4


pm.

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During cold nights close the shade net.

In summer close from 9.30 am to 5 pm.

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c. Wash top of plastic with clean water monthly.
d. Always maintain hygiene and sanitation inside as well as outside
polyhouse.
e. Test water and soil sample for EC and pH periodically.
7. This crop requires day temperature of 25-30 0C and night temperature of
18-20 0C with relative humidity of 50-60%. If temperature exceeds 35 0C or
falls below 120C, fruit setting is affected.
O

12 C
Bud initiation will stop

35 C
Frequency of flowers will be
very low and abortion of buds
will take place

8. The optimum humidity inside the greenhouse should be 50 60 %, which


will maintain the health of the plants.
9. Apply white wash to east, west and north sides of green house to protect
plants from bright light intensity during summer season.

F. TRANSPLANTING:
During transplanting bed moisture level should be at field capacity. Care should
be taken to see that no damage is occurred to roots, while taking out the
seedlings from individual cells of portrays. Crown portion should not be covered
with soil.

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Capsicum Cultivation

100 per cent under the soil

Plant the seedlings without disturbing the root ball. Generally two rows should be
planted on one bed at 60 cm distance between the rows and 45cm distance
between the plants in one row i.e.
Row - Row

60 cm

= 2

Plant Plant

45 cm

= 1.5

After plantation, maintain the humidity at 80 90 % for 2 - 3 weeks to avoid


desiccation of plants.
AVOID EXCESSIVE WATERING TO CAPSICUM.

G. IRRIGATION:
1. Water quality should be as follows:
a. pH-

6.5 - 7.2

b. EC-

< 0.7 mS/cm.

c. T. D. S. < 450 ppm


d. Hardness < 200 ppm
To lower the pH of water, add acids in the water tank which should be
rinsed properly and then use the water for irrigation and spraying.
2. Immediately after plantation, irrigate the plant with overhead irrigation for
three weeks to enable uniform root development. Thereafter gradually
change to drip irrigation. Drip irrigation is mainly for correct doses of
fertilizers.
3. Generally one drip per plant is required. Drip irrigation is given to provide
2-4 liters of water per square meter per day depending on the season. In hot
summer, foggers can be used to maintain the humidity of the air.
4. Before irrigation observe the soil column and visually check the soil
moisture content. Then decide on the quantity of irrigation required.

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Capsicum Cultivation
5. During summer season, apply water to the edges of the beds frequently by
using shower to minimize the evaporation losses and to maintain micro
climate. For this purpose provision for water outlets (1 diameter pipe)
should be made inside the poly house. Number of outlets depends on size of
the poly house.
6. Always water the plants before 12 noon.
7. The relative humidity of air should not exceed 90 - 92 per cent, as it will
lead to deformity of fruits.
8. As a thumb rule, the soil should be moderately moist, however never having
excessive water. Low moisture in soil during blossom development and
fruit formation causes the bud, deblossom and fruit drops.
9. Always use fresh water for irrigation i. e. do not store water for more than 4
to 5 days.

H. FERTIGATION:
1. After three weeks of plantation apply N:P:K 1:1:1 (e.g. 19:19:19) @ 0.4
gm/plant every alternate day with EC 1.5 mS/cm for first 45-60 days
during the vegetative phase to have better foliage.
2. Once flowering commences, apply N:P:K 2:1:4 (e.g. N:P:K 15:8:35) @ 0.4
gm/plant every alternate day with EC 2.2 mS/cm for more flowers and
better fruit quality.
3. Irrigate and fertilize frequently in small quantities for optimum results.
However, always take care to fulfill the crop requirement.
4. Micronutrients (e.g. Fertilon Combi II, Microsole B, Rexolin, Sequel and
Mahabrexil @ 40 gm per 1000 lit of water) should be given daily or weekly
as per the deficiency symptoms.
5. Add organic manures with EC less than 2 mS/cm at every 3 months
interval to maintain proper C:N Ratio.
6. Always do the detail soil analysis every 2 - 3 months to decide specific
nutrient schedule.
7. As a layman, whenever you enter the greenhouse the plants should look
very healthy and glossy.
NEVER LEAVE THE PLANTS IN STRESS CONDITION.

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Capsicum Cultivation
METHOD OF GIVING FERTIGATION:
Fertigation should be given early in the morning at 6-8 am for better utilization by
the plants. Take recommended quantity of fertilizers and dissolve them in
sufficient quantity of water. If pH of plain water to be used is on higher side then
lower it to 6 to 6.5 by using acid. It should be added to the water atleast 12 hours
before use. It is necessary to give fertilizers with recommended quantity of water
to maintain E.C. of soil. Hence, operate drip system for recommended period of
time. After every fertigation, open flush valve to drain off water from laterals and
sub mains. Periodically clean the fertigation system to avoid any type of
malfunctioning.

I. INTERCULTURAL OPERATIONS:
I. Pruning:
Step 1:
Select two strongest side shoots at the
first split, and remove the rest
Remove first or crown flower

Leaves - no side shoots

Cotyledons

Step 2:

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S e le c t s tr o n g e s t s id e s h o o ts a t e a c h
s p l it t o c o n t i n u e a s l e a d e r s
R e m o v e w e a k e s t s id e s h o o ts
re m o v e f lo w e rs

R e m o v e w e a k e s t s id e s h o o ts
re m o v e f lo w e rs

3rd
R e m o v e w e a k e s t s id e s h o o ts
re m o v e f lo w e rs

2nd
1st

R e m o v e w e a k e s t s id e s h o o ts
re m o v e f lo w e rs

Step 3:
REPRODUCTIVE STAGE
YOUNGEST SPLIT
FLOWER BUD

OPEN FLOWER
5TH SPLIT ONWARDS - CONTINUE AS FOR 4TH
SPLIT
4TH SPLIT - LEAVE FLOWER / FRUIT,
SELECT STRONGEST SHOOT TO CONTINUE LEADER,
STOP WEAKER SHOOT AFTER 1 LEAF - (NO FLOWER)
3RD SPLIT - NO FLOWER,
WEAKER SHOOT REMOVED

YOUNGER GREEN FRUIT

GREEN FRUIT

OLDEST FRUIT

2ND SPLIT - NO FLOWER,


WEAKER SHOOT REMOVED
1ST SPLIT INTO 2 BASAL
BRANCHES - NO FLOWER

PROCEDURE IS REPEATED ON SECOND STEM.


THERE WILL ALSO BE LEAVES ON THE LEADER SHOOTS (NOT DRAWN FOR CLARITY)

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Capsicum Cultivation

Capsicum Pruning

Capsicum plants are pruned to retain two stems. The tip of the plant
splits into two at 4th or 5th node and are left to grow. These two branches again
split into two giving rise to four branches. At every node they splits into two
giving rise to one strong branch and one weak branch, remove the weak one.
The pruning is done after 30 days of transplanting at an interval of 8 to 10
days, resulting in bigger fruits and better quality and high productivity. The
flower developing at the fork should be removed, with the first flower set and
resulting fruit set targeted for the second node above the fork. After this flower
sets, the flower at the third node is removed and the fourth node is left to develop.
The flowers that follow at the fifth node and upwards are allowed to set freely.
Care has to be taken when pruning to ensure that the main stem is not
"blinded", that the growing point of the main stem is not pruned out. If this
occurs the main stem will not develop any further. The main approach to avoid
blinding the main stem is to allow the lateral to develop 1.5 to 2.0 centimeters
(0.5 to 1.0 inches) before pinching it out. This allows the lateral to be clearly
identified an makes it easier to be very clear on what is being removed to ensure
that the main stem growing point is left intact.
Pruning is done using the fingers or small scissor cutters to ensure precise
removal of the laterals and avoiding any damage to the main stem or main stem
growing point. While pruning the plants dip hands in skimmed milk solution , the

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Capsicum Cultivation
protein in the milk works to inactivate viruses that could potentially spread from
plant to plant.

II. Training:

The main stem of the plant is tied with two plastic twine to train along
and tied to GI wire grid provided on the top of the plants. This is practiced after
four weeks of transplanting. The new branches and plants are trained along the
plastic twines.

III. Abortion:

Abortion of flowers or young fruits takes place when:


Quality of the pollen is not good
The plant is overloaded with fruits and does not have enough energy
for additional fruitset.
There are 2 reasons for this lack of energy:
When the light intensity is not enough, plant cant get energy for new
fruit set.
Due to Excess nitrogen level in growing media, vegetative growth is
more and plant is unable to produce flowers as well as fruits.

IV. HARVESTING OF CAPSICUM:


Early morning hours are best suited for capsicum harvest. Green capsicum
can be harvested at 55 to 60 days after transplanting, yellow capsicum at 70-75
days whereas red capsicum at 80-90 days. Fruits can be harvested once in 3 to 4
days. Yellow and red fruits can be harvested when they have gained 50-80 percent
of the colour development.

J. Physiological Disorders (Problems not caused by Diseases


or Insects):
1. Blossom-End Rot:
Blossom-end rot is related to weak cells at the tip of fruit caused due to lack of
Calcium. But it is seldom caused by a shortage of Ca in the soil / medium.
Calcium can only be transported to the fruits at night when there is root
pressure. If this root pressure is not enough due a weak root system or not

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Capsicum Cultivation
enough water or too high EC, the young fruits will develop weak cells. If you see
BER you should think what went wrong several weeks before, when the fruits
were starting to grow.
2. Fruit Cracking:
The development of large cracks on the fruit is a direct response to high root
pressure. Factors responsible for fruit cracking are:
Irregular supply of water (i.e. Water stress conditions)
Too long irrgation intervals.
Cracking more often occurs when fruits are left on the plant for too long
period.
Maitain the wapsa condition on bed. Avoid watering at night.
3.Micro & Star cracking
The development of these cracks are associated with sudden changes in the
growth rate of the individual fruit. The appearance of fruit cracks can follow
periods of high relative humidity (over 85%), changes from hot sunny weather to
cool cloudy weather or vise versa. Mature fruits also are less flexible and hence
are more sensitive to cracking. Maintaining a consistent, optimized growing
environment is the best way to prevent the development of fruit cracks. Ensure
the fruits are not wet during the night and early morning also, day/night
temperature difference can contribute to this problem.

K. DISEASES/PESTS:

Aphids:

Nymph and adult suck sap from the leaf veins and younger leaves resulting in
reduced plant growth and decrease in yield.

Thrips:

Thrips cause upward curling of leaves, suck sap and reduce leaf growth, plant
growth, yield and market value of produce. It also reduces leaf area and hinders
absorption of nutrients and water by the plants.

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Leaf Miner:

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White specks on leaves caused by flies. White serpentine tunnels in leaves caused
by larvae, which hibernates in soil.

Mites:

Young larvae and adults feed on leaves, bud and fruits, suck sap from plant parts
which in turn cause downward curling of leaves. The size of leaf, fruit and plants
get reduced, fruit and flower drop affecting the market value of the produce.

White fly (B. tabaci):

Cause a lot of sucking damage (plant juices) and transmit many viruses (e.g. Chilli Leaf
Curl Virus).

Fruit borer:

Fruit borers are very active during night. The adults lay eggs on fruits, flowers
and leaves in large number and the nymphs that come out of eggs, feed on fruits
and leaves causing heavy destruction of crops and severely affects the quality of
produce.

Root knot Nematode:

Yellowing of leaves, stunted growth of the plant with reduced leaves size, knots on
roots. Water logged condition in the green house and muddy water during rainy
season are favourable conditions for nematode growth.

Diseases:

Damping off:

Infection takes place at the base of the young seedlings just above the ground
level which leads to wilting and later death of seedlings. Any damage caused to
seedlings while transplanting can also lead to damping off or seedling wilt.

Powdery mildew:

The disease initially appears as tiny yellow spots on surface of leaf and powder
like material on the lower surface leading to a powdery growth covering the entire
lower surface of leaf which leads to drying and dropping of leaves at later stages.
The disease reduces growth of leaves and fruits leading to low quality and
quantity of the produce.

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Cercospora leaf spot:

Cercospora appears initially as tiny yellow spot on leaf surface leading to


increased dark grey spots which spreads on entire leaf resulting in dropping of
leaf.

Phytophthora:

This disease appears during fruiting and flowering stage resulting in tiny oil like
spot on leaf surface resulting in rottening and blackening of plants. Later plant
weakens and dies in 2-3 days.

Viral diseases:

Viral disease are transmitted through aphids and thrips leading to upward and
downward curling of leaves with yellow spot in the middle of leaf and
sometimes on fruit also. Heavy infestation leads to dropping up of leaves,
stunted plant growth and reduced quality and quantity of fruits.

Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV):


Transmission through various aphid species
Damage: plant and fruit (loss of production, low quality product)
Control: keep out aphids by netting the greenhouses, conduct frequent
chemical treatments against aphids, keeping edges and/or hedges clear of
weeds as they often are hosts for different viruses.
Potato Y Virus (PVY)
Transmission through various aphid species
Damage: plant and fruit (loss of production, low quality product)
Control: use resistant varieties, keep out aphids by netting the greenhouses,
conduct frequent chemical treatments against aphids, keeping edges and/or
hedges clear of weeds as they often are hosts for different viruses.

Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV)


Transmission through thrips (F. occidentalis)
Damage: plant and fruit (loss of production, low quality product)

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Control: use resistant varieties, keep out thrips by netting the greenhouses,
conduct frequent chemical treatments against thrips, keeping edges and/or
hedges clear of weeds as they often are hosts for different viruses.
Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)
Mechanically transmitted virus (tools hands, clothes, water, soil etc)
Damage: plant and fruit (loss of production, low quality product)
Control: use resistant varieties, clean pruning tools with a 10% solution of
trisodium phosphate for two hour, use a 10% solution of skimmed milk to dip
hands in during crop handling, use clean clothes/shoes.

PEST CONTROL IN CAPSICUM:


Pests
Whitefly

Leaf Miner

Thrips

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Suggested Chemicals

Concentration per
lit.

Astra, Lanate (Methomyl)

1.5 gm

Rogor (Dimethoate)

2 ml

Neemazol

2 ml

Malathion

2 ml

Confidor (Imidacloprid)

0.5 ml

Pride (Acetamiprid)

0.4 gm

Dantop (Clothianidin)

1 gm

Actra (Thimethoxan)

0.5 gm

Pegasus (Diafenthiuron)

1.25 gm

Calnova + Calpaste

0.5 ml + 2 gm

Padan (Cartephydrochloride)

1 gm

Chlorpyriphos

1 ml

Nuvan (Dichlorovos)

1 ml

Vertimec (Abamectin)

0.4 ml

Acephate (Acephate)

1.5 gm

Metacid (Methyl Parathion)

1 ml

Cal MB

2 ml

Cypermethrin

0.5 ml

Padan (Cartephydrochloride)

1 gm

Regent (Fipronil)

1.5 ml

Confidor (Imidacloprid)

0.5 ml

Nuvan (Dichlorvos) +
Nuvacvon (Monocrotophos)

1.5 ml +
2 ml

Rogor (Dimethoate)

2 ml

Pride (Acetamiprid)

0.4 gm

KF Bioplants Pvt.

Capsicum Cultivation

Red Mites

Cyclamen Mites

Catterpiller

Nematode

Vertimec (Abamectin)

0.4 ml

Calnova + Calpaste

0.5 ml + 2 gm

Actra (Thimethoxan)

0.5 gm

Pure Water Spray

------

Wettable Sulphur

1.5 gm

Kelthane (Dicofol)

1.5 ml

Vertimec (Abamectin)

0.4 ml

Magister (Fenazaquin)

1 ml

Omite (Propergite)

1ml

Milbeknock (Milbemectin)

0.5 ml

Derisom

2 ml

Wettable Sulphur

1.5 gm

Karathane (Dinocap)

0.4 ml

Vertimec (Abamectin)

0.4 ml

Milbeknock (Milbemectin)

0.5 ml

Derisom

2 ml

Proclaim (Amemectin benzoate)

0.2 ml

Lanate (Methomyl)

1.5 gm

Thimet (Phorate) (S)

2 gm/plant

Decis (Deltamethrin)

0.5 ml

Avaunt (Indoxacarb)

0.5 ml

Larvin (Thiodicarb)

0.4 gm

Neem cake

30 to 50 gm/plant

Metacid (Methyl parathion)

2 ml

Benlate (Benomyl)

3 gm

Hydrogen peroxide with Silver (D)

3 ml

Carbofuron granules

10 gm/m2.

Nematogaurd (Pcealomyces)

5 gm

(D) : Drench @ 50 100 ml/plant


(S) : Soil application around plant
Note: As a preventive measure use of yellow sticky traps and blue sticky traps

are effective against white flies, leaf minors and thrips respectively.

DISEASE CONTROL IN CAPSICUM:


DISEASES

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Suggested Control

Concentration
per lit.

KF Bioplants Pvt.

Capsicum Cultivation

Root rot

Crown rot

Fusarium
Alternaria Leaf Spot

Powdery Mildew

Bacterial blight

Aliette (Fosetyl Alluminium) (SP)

1 gm

Topsin-M (Thiophanate- Methyl) (D)

2 gm

Benlate (Benomyl) (D)

3 gm

Bavistin (Carbendazim) (D)

2 gm

Captaf (Captan) (D)

2 gm

Aliette (Fosetyl Alluminium) (SP)

1 gm

Topsin-M (Thiophanate- Methyl) (D)

2 gm

Blitox (Copper oxychloride) (D)

1.5 gm

Kocide (Copper hydroxide) (D)

2 gm

Topsin-M (Thiophanate- Methyl) (D)

2 gm

Kocide (Copper hydroxide) (D)

2 gm

Dithane M-45 (Mancozeb) (SP)

1.5 gm

Wettable Sulphur (SP)

1.5 gm

Karathane (Dinocap) (SP)

0.4 ml

Quintol (Iprodion + Carbendazim) (SP)

0.5 gm

Index (Myclobutanil) (SP)

0.5 gm

Rubigan (Fenremol) (SP)

1ml

Hydrogen peroxide (SP)

2 ml

Streptocyclin (SP)

0.2 ml

Kasu B (Kasugamycin) (SP)

1.25 ml

Emison (Ethoxy methyl


mercury chloride) (SP)

0.2 gm

Blitox (Copper oxychloride) (D)

1.5 gm

Kocide (Copper hydroxide) (D)

2 gm

Note:
(D) : Drench @ 50 100 ml/plant
(SP) : Spraying
Note: In biological fungicides Trichoderma viridae and Trichoderma herzenium are
effective against all fungal diseases. Chemical fungicides should not be used atleast
21days after or 10 days before its application.

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Care to be taken while spraying of pesticides, fungicides and fertilizers for


better results.

1) pH of the solution should be between 6 to 6.5. It is maintained by acid


treatment to water 12 hours before spray.
2) Use solution immediately after preparation.
3) Do not store mixture for more than 2 hours after preparation.
4) Smaller droplet size helps to cover maximum leaf surface area.
5) It is recommended to add spray adjuvant like Apsa 80 @ 5 ml/15 lit. of
water to enhance the performance of pesticides & fertilizers and also help
the solution to penetrate deeper.
6) Test water and soil sample for EC & pH periodically.
7) Operation of greenhouse is very important to maintain suitable
conditions inside the polyhouse.

L. DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS:
1.

Nitrogen:
General yellowing starts on older leaves and then moves gradually upward
because nitrogen is translocated out of older leaves to the new growth
under deficiency.

2.

Phosphorus:
Brownish discoloration along the vein on underside of old leaves.

3.

Potassium:
Marginal necrosis of old leaves.

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Capsicum Cultivation
4.

Calcium:
Extreme yellowing of young leaves.

5.

Magnesium:
Interveinal chlorosis on older leaves, leaves get thick and crispy.

6.

Iron:
Interveinal chlorosis on young leaves. Serious deficiency results in a
yellowish-white coloring.

7.

Zinc:
Chlorosis, one half of leaf blade ceases to expand and develop while other
half is normal i.e. C shaped leaf structure.

8.

Manganese:
Leaves turn yellowish, starting with younger ones; veins remain green,
heavy chlorosis.

9.

Copper:
Chlorosis in younger leaves; flower develops bad.

10. Molybdenum:
Chlorosis on the edges of leaves.
11. Boron:
Bases of younger leaves are black colored.

Control measure:
Chelated sources (like Microsole, Tracel, Micnelf) of these microelements as a
foliar spray.

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Capsicum Cultivation

Nutrient Deficiency Identification


Chart:

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Capsicum Cultivation

M. WATER AND SOIL SAMPLE COLLECTION


1. WATER SAMPLE:

For tube well or open well, pump out some water and then collect sample in
clean and chemical free plastic or glass bottle.

For river of lake, collect sample at a distance from the bed so that the
sediment particles do not enter in the sample.

Ensure that the sample should reach the analysis laboratory within 2 days
from collection.

2. SOIL SAMPLE:
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Capsicum Cultivation

For existing plot, it is necessary to take samples from 3 to 8 spots


depending on the area.

Stop fertigation for 2 days.

Remove upper 5 cm layer of soil from these spots.

Make a V shaped hole (as shown in figure) of 6 depth in between


drippers.

Point of sample
collection

Drippers

Soil surface
5 cm below soil surface
Sample

6 Depth

Scrap soil from slope of hole and this will be a sample from that spot.
Similarly take samples from all spots and mix together.

Then air dry this sample under shade and then take some sample as a
representative sample of the plot. Ensure that the sample should reach the
analysis laboratory within 2 days from collection.

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Capsicum Cultivation

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