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Regulation of

glycogen metabolism:
a regulatory cascade

13.31

cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (Protein Kinase A)

13.32

Regulation of
glycogen metabolism:
a regulatory cascade

13.31

Allosteric control of glycogen phosphorylase


2ATP

T State

Phosphorylase
kinase

2ADP

(less active)

2Pi

Phosphoprotein
phosphatase
(PP1)

2H2O

AMP
ATP
G6P

Glucose
+
G6P
P

R State
(more active)

Phosphorylase b

13.35

Phosphorylase a

Allosteric control of glycogen synthase


Glycogen synthase a
(active)
ATP

Pi

PKA, GSK3,
AMPK, CKII

Phosphoprotein
phosphatase
(PP1)

ADP

P
P

H 2O

G6P

P
P

Glycogen synthase b
(inactive)

R State

T State

Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP) - an alternative route


for oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate
Reducing power
for reductive
biosyntheses
Pentose
phosphates for
nucleotide and
coenzyme
biosythesis

13.39

Oxidative Phase

13.40

Non-oxidative phase: alternative fates of pentose phosphates

13.39

Transketolase and transaldolase catalyze the transfer of 2-C or


3-C fragments from one sugar phosphate to another. These
transfers require cleavage of C-C bonds involves carbanion
intermediates that must be stabilized. Transketolase and
transaldolase use different mechanisms to do this.

p. 578

compare to pyruvate
decarboxylase reaction (13.8)

compare to aldolase
reaction (13.5)

13.41

13.42

NADP+
NADPH

13.43