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James W.

Cherry
BSEN-3310
Dr. Oladiran Fasina
September 9, 2015
Lab Report 1 Flow Behavior
Group 2
Abstract:
Experimentation of fluid flow behavior is key to understanding fluid mechanics. The Flow lab
used a Viscometer to measure the viscosity in centipoise to be converted and used for shear
calculations. The test fluid that was used was Ajax brand dish soap, which was found to be a Newtonian
fluid. Dilatant and Pseudoplastic fluids were also graphically shown to distinguish the differences. The
viscosity with respect to temperature was computed to show that fluid may change as different
conditions are applied. The use of multiple testing equipment was used to compare the accuracy of
each method used to measure flow behavior, giving insight to calculation error. Dish soap was used to
show differences between three brands, to demonstrate that viscosity is a factor in the effectiveness of
the fluids function. The concepts demonstrated in the lab below show how viscosity is apparent in the
world around us and how know the flow behavior can benefit.
Keywords: Viscometer, Shear Rate, Shear Stress, Newtonian, Dilatant, Pseudoplastic.

Introduction:
Viscosity is the resistance of a fluid to flow and a measure of resistance to deformation over
time. This resistance acts against the motion of any solid object through the fluid and also against
motion of the fluid itself past stationary obstacles. For example, the motor oil used in automobiles is
used to decrease friction within the pistons. If the oil was not there to lubricate the piston firing it
would cause a likely explosion. However, not just any fluid can be used for motor oil. The viscosity must
be high enough to maintain a lubricating film, but low enough that the oil can flow around the engine
parts under all conditions. Dish soap must also have a certain level of viscosity in order for the fluid to
adequately clean the surface it comes in contact with. If the dish soap just flows over the dirty dishes

like water they will remain dirty. The viscosity has to be at a level that have enough shear to grab and
remove particles attached to the surfaces. In the lab we observe and record data that helps show the
viscosity of dish soap along with other types of liquids in order to obtain better understanding of fluids.

Objectives:
To determine the flow behavior of fluid products, and to become familiar with flow behavior
measurement systems.

Materials and Methods


The viscosity of a liquid was determined using a Brookfield digital (LVDV-E) viscometer with the
cylindrical spindle set. Viscosity is when two solid bodies in contact move relative to each other, a
friction force develops at the contact surface in the direction opposite to motion. In the lab the spindle
is the friction force acting on the fluid. The chosen fluid for determination was a dish soap brand called
Ajax. The soap was held by a 500mL beaker for the viscosity test. The viscometer was used with spindle
#1 to determine ten different readings at five separate revolutions per minute. The increments for the
test rpm was 4, 5, 6, 10, and 12; the use of any higher rpm yielded an error reading from the viscometer.
Once the spindle was submerged in the fluid it had to be level with a mark on the spindle to generate
the results accurately. Each test required the test fluid to return to its original state so that the reading
would not be disrupted by any voids made in the fluid from the spindle.
The Brookfield viscometer gave us 10 readings in centipoise (cP) that had to be converted to
Pascal-second (Pas). The rates for shear were given in Table 1 which was then used to convert the
varying rpm readings to shear rate. Next, the shear rate and apparent viscosity were multiplied to give
the shear stress to be used in the graphs to follow. The two graphs derived from the data collected in
the lab contained apparent viscosity versus shear rate in Figure 1 and shear stress versus shear rate in
Figure 2.

Results and Discussion


The Apparent Viscosity versus Shear Rate graph in Figure 1 shows a gap in the data between the
shear rates due to the increase in rpm from 6 to 10, which when used to find shear stress using the
values from Table 1. This prevents the graph from having a more gradual increase in rpms. Some of the
points in Figure 1 overlap due to getting two exact readings from the viscometer. The readings that do
not repeat have a small variation due to the fluctuation of the viscometer readings. The trendline for the
figure still has an increasing slope with a R value of 0.9378.
The shear stress versus shear rate graph shown in Figure 2 shows us the dish soap fluid tested is
Newtonian with a R=0.9999. This conclusion tells us the fluid rate of deformation is proportional to the
shear stress. When the fluid is Newtonian we know that it can be mixed and agitated with no increase
to thickness or viscosity over time.
The next part of the lab called for an analysis of data from Bohlin rheometer from data provided
for the lab. Using data given we were to plot shear stress versus shear rate curves for canola oil at 25C,
starch-water mixture, and mayonnaise. The plot in Figure 3 of the Canola Oil shows a Newtonian fluid
with a R value of 0.9999, which tells us the n is equal to 1 from the power law equation shown below.
The results tell us that the canola oil at 25C has a shear stress is directly proportional to the shear rate.
Starch-Water mixture shown in Figure 4 has a R value of 0.9618 with the values increasing in an upward
fashion. This information tells us that the Starch-Water mixture is a Dilatant with an n value greater
than 1. The Mayonnaise shear stress versus shear rate graph shown in Figure 5 has a rapid increase in
value before it slows which describes a Pseudoplastic with an n value less than 1. The R value from the
Pseudoplastic mayonnaise is 0.9188.

The Bohlin data also contained Canola Oil at various temperature to demonstrate that viscosity
is dependent on other factors. The canola oil was given in five temperatures shown in Figure 6. When
the oil is at 10C it shows a similar profile to a Newtonian fluid. However, when the temperature of the
oil is increased the viscosity shows a decrease most likely due to the oil becoming thicker. The viscosity
value from each trendline was then graphed against the temperature in Figure7.
The Bohlin data was then graph comparatively to the Brookfield data we collected during class
in a shear stress versus shear rate. The values of each test for Ajax hand soap are shown in Figure 8.

The data shows an agreement of the fluid being Newtonian, however the accuracy of each test is in
question. The Bohlin Data has more data points than the Brookfield which may account for more error
which is shown in the viscosity found from each test. The Bohlin viscosity is 0.4151 Pas which is lower
than the Brookfield viscosity that is 0.4402 Pas. The Bohlin data can be considered to be accurate due
to more data and higher quality of testing equipment.
The comparison of three dishwashing soaps are compared shown in Figure 9 between Gain,
Ajax, and PriceFirst brands the shows the shear stress versus shear rate using the trendline to determine
the viscosity of each fluid. PriceFirst had the lowest viscosity of only 0.2199 with Ajax brand nearly twice
the amount at 0.4151 Pas. The viscosity of Gain was 0.6724 Pas which is the highest of the three soaps.
This data found shows that a dish soap with a high viscosity will be more effective.

Tables and Graphs:

Spindle Size
Shear rat
(s)

#1

#2

#3

#4

#5

Table 1: Factors needed to estimate apparent


viscosity and shear stress for cylindrical
spindles.

0.220N 0.212N 0.210N 0.209N 0.209N

0.434

Apparent Viscosity (Pas)

0.432
R = 0.9378

0.43
0.428
0.426
0.424
0.422
0.42
0.418
0.416
0.414
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Shear Rate (s)


Figure 1: Apparent Viscosity vs. Shear Rate Brookfield Data

1.2
R = 0.9999

Shear Stress (Pa)

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

0.5

1.5

Shear Rate (s)

2.5

Figure 2: Shear Stress vs. Shear Rate Brookfield Data


7
R = 0.9999

Shear Stess (Pa)

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Shear Rate (s)


Figure 3: Canola Oil Newtonian
250.00

Shear Stress (Pa)

200.00
150.00
R = 0.9618

100.00
50.00
0.00
0.00

50.00

100.00

150.00

Shear Rate (s)


Figure 4: Starch-Water Mixture Dilatant

200.00

250.00

250
R = 0.9188

Shear Stress (Pa)

200
150
100
50
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Shear Rate (s)


Figure 5: Mayonnaise Pseudoplastic

14
12

Shear Stress (Pa)

10
8
6

y = 0.1156x - 0.0094

10C

y = 0.0651x - 0.0056

25C

y = 0.0389x - 0.0158

40C

y = 0.0263x - 0.0148

55C

y = 0.0199x - 0.0297

70C

y = 0.0162x - 0.0366

85C

4
2
0
0
-2

20

40

60

80

Shear Rate (s)


Figure 6: Canola Oil at Various Temperatures

100

120

0.14
0.12

Viscosity (Pas)

0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Temperature (C)
Figure 7: Viscosity as a Function of Temperature

70

80

90

45
40

Bohlin Data

30

y = 0.4151x + 0.2212
R = 0.9988

25
20

Brookfield
Data

15

y = 0.4402x - 0.0232
R = 0.9999

10
5
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Shear Rate (s)


Figure 8: Bohlin and Brookfield Shear Stress vs. Shear Rate Comparison
80
Gain
70

y = 0.6724x + 0.1773

Ajax

60

Shear Stress (Pa)

Shear Stress (Pa)

35

y = 0.4151x + 0.2212

PriceFirst

y = 0.2199x - 0.0114

50
40
30
20
10
0
0

20

40

60

80

Shear Rate (s)


Figure 9: Bohlin Dishwashing Fluid Viscosity Comparison

100

120

Conclusion:
The lab introduced us to instruments used in the determination of viscosity, such as, Brookfield
viscometer, and also how viscosity is the reaction of two surfaces against each other and the amount of
friction involved. The results of dish soap used in the lab show a Newtonian fluid that does not thin or
thicken over time or use. As seen in Canola Oil this does not stay true when a fluid temperature is raised
or lowered. The use of other fluids like mayonnaise and a starch-water mix give the group other
examples of how viscosity can be Dilatant and Pseudoplastic. The comparison of two data sets on the
same dish soap gave an understanding in the accuracy and error possibilities during experimentation.
All in all, the lab sufficiently demonstrated the key concepts of viscosity with comparisons and
similarities to determine flow behavior.

References:
Cengel, Yunis A., and John M. Cimbala. (2014). Fluid Mechanics. 3rd ed. New Your, NY. McGraw Hill
Tostenson, K., Wiesenborn, K.H., Hofman, V., McKay, K., Jenks, B., Halley, S. (2007). Oil and Biodiesel
from Canola Having a High Content of Green Seed. Paper number RRV07110, ASABE/CSBE North
Central Intersectional Meeting. (doi: 10.13031/2013.24171) @2007