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Universiti Teknologi MARA

Mobile Learning Application For Secondary Students


In Science Subject: A Prototype For Support And
Movement

Nurzawani Binti Md Yusof

Thesis submitted in fiilfiUment of the requirements for


Bachelor of Computer Science (Hons)
Faculty of Information Technology And
Quantitative Science

May 2007

DECLARATION

I certify that this thesis and the research to which it refers are the product of my own
work and that any ideas or quotation from the work of other people, published or
otherwise are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard referring practices of
the discipline

MAY 28,2007

NURZAWANIBINTIMD YUSOF
2005614833

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Abstract
This report presents worked progress of Mobile Learning Application for Secondary
Students in Science Subject: A Prototype for Support and Movement. It is implemented
because to help students in the secondary school especially student in form two in
studying the science subject. Students' faces problems during studying the science
subject where they find that it is not quite convenient to open and read the text book at
the public because of the text book is quite big and heavy and contain lots of texts.
Furthermore, even with small notes it is not interactive enough to attract the student
attention to study. The objective of this project are to develop the mobile learning
prototype in science subject at secondary school and to get the students' response and
make some evaluation of the usage of mobile learning whether the application is
accepted by the students as one of the complement method of learning. The method that
has been implemented during the development of this project are the prototyping using
the prototyping Version I. The result of the application of the mobile learning showed
that the application is accepted by the students as their supportive method in studying
the science subject. The students said that the application were attractive and giving
them an experience studying in new environment where they can study science subject
through the personal digital assistance (PDA).

Keywords
Mobile learning, M-leaming, mobile computer, conversational learning

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Approval

This final year report is accepted to be pursued under my supervision.

Pn Ismassabah Binti Ismail


Supervisor
Faculty of Information Technology and Quantitative Sciences
Universiti Teknologi MARA

30 May 2007

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Acknowledgements
This final year project report maybe not completed with a through target in Project
Formulation (CSC 633) without a full supporting, helping and contribution also cooperation from all person and parties involves even direct or indirect involved.
First of all, this acknowledgement goes to Assoc Prof Dr. Naimah Mohd Hussin, lecturer
of Faculty of Information Technology and Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Teknologi
MARA for the guidance in the subject of Project Formulation (CSC633) and her
contribution of her idea, encouragement and help during the preparation of this report.
Special thanks to my supervisor Pn Ismassabah Binti Ismail for her frill support and
supervision,

being cooperative, contribution of ideas, printed materials, notes and

spending her time to correct the content of my report during the completion of this
report. Last but not least, to all my classmates of CS230 for their contribution such as
materials, notes and for the support.
I am also not forgetting for those persons who are involved with direct or indirect ways.
I hope that this final proposal report can make satisfying to all parties and give the
exposing information for learning Project Formulation subject in the future.

Thank you very much.

Nurzawani Binti Md Yusof


28* May 2007

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Table of Contents
Abstract

iii

Keywords

iii

Approval

iv

Acknowledgements

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Introduction

1.1

Problem Description

1.2

Project Aim

1.3

Project Objectives

1.4

Project Scope

1.5

Expected Outcomes/Deliverables

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

Literature Review

2.1

Introduction

2.2

Mobile learning

2.3

Lifelong, collaborative or problem based learning

2.4

The Drawbacks and Benefits of the Mobile Learning

2.5

Mobile Platform

2.6

Mobile User Interface

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2.7

Mobile Usability

10

2.8

Instructional Design

11

2.9

Case Study of Mobile Learning Application

12

2.10 Conclusion

14

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

Research Methodology

16

3.1

Prototype Model

16

3.1.1 Prototyping Version 1

18

3.1.2 Prototyping Version II

19

3.2

Data Col lection

20

3.3

Data Analysis

20

3.4

Project Design

21

3.5

Project Mode

22

3.7

Testing and Evaluation

24

3.8

System Requirement Specification

24

3.8.1 Hardware Specification

25

3.8.2 Software Specification

26

CHAPTER FOUR: PROJECT DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Project Design and Implementation

27

4.1

27

Menu Hierarchy of Support and Movement

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4.2

Storyboard of Support and Movement

29

4.3

Software used in development system

34

4.3.1 Authoring Tools

34

4.3.2 Why Macromedia Flash MX?

34

4.3.3 Editing and Supporting Tools

35

4.4

Palmtop HP iPAQ Pocket PC h6300

35

4.5

HP iPAQ Pocket PC h6300 Specification

36

4.5.1 Front Panel Component

37

4.5.2 Back Panel Component

40

4.6

Steps of Implementation

41

4.7

Snapshot of Support and Movement

43

4.8

Testing and Evaluation

46

4.8.1 Objective

46

4.8.2 The participant

47

CHAPTER FIVE: RESULT AND ANALSIS

Result and Analysis

48

5.1

The Questionnaire

48

5.1.1 Students'Detail

48

5.1.2 Content and Organization

52

5.1.3 Navigational and Link

58

5.1.4 User Interface Design

61

5.1.5 Performance

67

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5.2

Conclusion

73

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Conclusion and Recommendation

74

6.1

74

Recommendation

References

75

Appendix

78

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Introduction
Mobile learning or m- learning is an educational environment that resulting from
the combination of wireless and mobile computing where is creating a variety of
changes in higher education learning environments. This final year project report is
to develop a mobile learning application for the students who study in the
secondary school. This application will be used to help students in learning the
science subject. With the development of this application, the students can study
the science subject through their mobile and help them to achieve a better grade.

1.1 Problem Description


Student is encouraged to study or make some revision during their free time to
persuade them to read. During the leisure time, waiting for the school bus or in the
bus it is not quite practical to open the text book to read since the text book is quite
big and heavy and contain lots of texts. Even if some of the students have the small
notes, it is not interactive enough to attract the student attention to study at the
public places such as the bus stop. Learning is not just from the text books, it can
be from any medium. Therefore the mobile learning comprises any topics such as
science subject.

1.2 Project Aim


The aim for this project is to develop a mobile learning prototype for students as a
supportive method for studying in secondary school.

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1.3 Project Objectives


There are three objectives in this project and all the objectives listed will be
achieved.
1. To develop the mobile learning prototype in science subject at secondary
school.
2. To get the students' response and make some evaluation of the usage of
mobile learning whether the application is accepted by the students as one
of the complement method of learning.
1.4 Project Scope
The project scope will focus on the notes presentation of the topic "Support and
Movement" in the science subject in the secondary school for student in form two.

1.5 Expected Outcomes/Deliverables


The expected outcomes or deliverables for this project is a mobile learning
application on palmtop. The students will accept to use the mobile leaning
application.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2 Literature Review
The literature review in this report is just to show the overview of the project being
undertaken and for basic information to understand and to be clear about the project.
It explains the introduction of the project, the problem description regarding current
situation, a little bit of information on the mobile learning and how it works and
lastly the conclusion.

2.1

Introduction

Computing technology has been applied to learning since decades. The use for
computing technology for learning has been observed in various ways. Since the
past decades, electronic learning or e-leaming had appeared and user used to it but
for the recent years, the rapid progress of mobile technologies a new term had
appeared that is mobile learning the new era of learning. Mobile learning is the next
generation of e-Leaming and based on mobile devices, M. Sharples(2002).
Mobile learning is a field that combines two areas that are mobile computing and eleaming. Mobile learning has been considered as the future of learning or as an
integral part of any other form of educational process. Mobile learning is also a
collaborative learning which according to Dillenbourg (1999) more or less any
collaborative learning activity within an educational context, such as studying
course material or sharing course assignments.

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2.2

Mobile learning

Mobile learning is an e-leaming through mobile computational device. Mobile


learning in generally is a device that is small such as PDAs or cellular phone that
enough to accompany user in every moment and can be used for some form of
learning. The device can help the user where it can allow interacting with people
through the exchange of written message. Moreover, this device can be considered
as tool for accessing content that stored in the device or reached through
interconnecting. In addition, this device can be included as accessing services that
can dynamically generated content.
According to Trifonova and Ronchetti the definition of mobile learning is mobile
device mean PDAs and digital cell phone, but more generally of any device that is
small, autonomous and unobtrusive enough to accompany user in every moment in
their every-day life and that can be used for some form of learning. The most
obvious use of the mobile devices for educational purposes is a direct application of
the e-leaming techniques on smaller devices instead on a desktop or personal
computer. A logical sequence is the development and experimentation on
transforming traditional courses in a form appropriate for mobile devices. Mobile
learning has different interface rather than other types of learning. Mobile learning
have small screen and do not have any keyboard.

2.3 Lifelong, collaborative or problem based learning


There are many researcher concerned with the different aspects of an educational
system for lifelong learning. Bentley (1998) and Fischer & Scharff (1998) are
writing about the goals that should be adapted by the educational system that favors
lifelong learning. Jones (1999) and Wilson (1999) are concerned about practical
issues of how lifelong learning should be recognized and evaluated. However
Davies (1998); Fischer (1998); Jarvis et al. (1998) and Sharpies (1999) are
discussing about the methods and models of teaching that would be most
appropriate for lifelong learning. Cunliffe (1999) are concerned with the qualities

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and fundamental skills people should possess in order to become successful lifelong
learners.
There is a project from University of Birmingham that is the HandLeR project that
tries to understand in power the process of learning in different contexts and to
investigate the lifelong learning. The main purpose is on communication and on
human-centered systems design. The main concepts of their investigation are
concept of mapping and knowledge sharing, lifelong learning, wearable learning
technologies and conversation between mobile learners. According to Smordal O et
al. (2002 PDAs and smart-phones were used for experiment in medical education of
students from the School of Medicine at University of Oslo to support the problemof based learning.
Wireless technologies such as IEEE 802.11, Bluetooth, and GPRS are used in a
project for development of informal classroom and eSchoolbag system at the
Aletheia University in Taiwan by Chang C , Sheu J (2002). The project that is
"Paperless education" is being experimental together with the acceptance from the
students. According to Chang C.and Sheu J, the traditional classroom was replaced
by the new developed electronic tools such as electronic blackboard, rubber and
color chalk. The result of the project makes the students were strongly encouraged
and eager.

2.4

The Drawbacks and Benefits of the Mobile Learning

According to Larroussi and Rouillard, the disadvantages of the mobile learning are
that mobile learning has small screen size and low resolution. Because of these
weaknesses, the growth of the mobile learning is slow. Furthermore, mobile
learning has slow processing and limited storage capabilities. The difficulty of
connecting various type of device to the same network is a limitation for the mobile
learning. In addition, the other limitation for mobile learning is not just for WAP

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limitation but also for a restriction due to the mobile network. The main weakness
of the mobile learning is that the mobile learning is quite costly.
Mobile learning has its own strength. Larroussi and Rouillard stated the benefits of
the mobile learning are that mobile learning is portable and easy to carry out to
anywhere and anytime. Present day, the mobile learning devices can run most
common interactive application without any computation delay. Since the interface
of the mobile learning has small screen and the content in the mobile learning are
simpler and easy to understand. Bates and Poole (2003) said that the mobile
learning is ease of use and dependable.

2.5

Mobile Platform

There are two platforms of handheld computing that are PalmOS and PocketPC. It
will discuss about comparizing different features of their hardware and software
features, and trying to understand concepts behind each of them and trying to decide
which platform is better suited for which kind of applications. These two platforms
currently control the market of handhelds. PalmOS passed through several stages of
development after its successftil debut in PalmPilot. It is perceived greatly by
customers and currently nine manufacturers produce PalmOS-based devices.
PocketPC is a Microsoft's response to Palm. The platform is adopted by several
computers. These systems look differently and behave sometimes differently. The
name Windows CE is sometimes used to name systems collectively, meaning
embedded Windows.
According to Meergus (2001), Palm builds the interfacefi-omthe ground up such as
screen look, interaction and widgets; where Windows CE tries to employ users'
familiarity with Windows. Palm makes additional stress on application design
where most Palm applications are designed specifically and exclusively for the
mobile use, in order to provide best fit for user needs. In contrast, Windows CE
derived Windows application base, concentrating on adaptation of existing

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applications. In other words, Palm believe that user needs special robust
applications on the palm, while Microsoft thinks the user wants its usual desktop
application resized for the handheld machine. Palm uses intensive approach trying
to keep out as much as possible from the system in order to leave only the functions
that are very important to the user; However, Microsoft tries to include as much as
possible to the device, basically employing the extensive method. Furthermore,
Palm urges simplicity as the main advantage where Microsoft proclaims power
instead.
Hansberry (2003) said that Microsoft's platform is stronger from the hardware point
of view and software features almost counterbalance the differences. Memory usage
of Windows CE or PocketPC supports from 16 to 64 Mbytes of RAM and currently
most devices come with 32MB, which is 4 times more than Palm's 8MB limit.
However, the usage of memory difference from 32MB of RAM on a Windows CE
or PocketPC device at least 16 MB must be reserved to OS for programs execution.
There is no such limitation on Palm, where running programs directly edit
documents. The space that must be kept free is approximately the size of the biggest
document one wants to edit.

Microsoft's OS uses Unicode system for storing

characters which means it uses 2 bytes per character, not including font information.
PalmOS uses one byte per character from the beginning, and in addition to that, all
the information is compressed in PalmOS. In other words, typical Palm's 8
megabytes of RAM can keep approximately the same amount of data as typical
Pocket PC's 32 MB. Observation of memory requirements of comparable
applications confirms this conclusion.
PocketPC run on higher CPU frequencies. However, PalmOS applications start
faster and perform on comparable speed faster than PocketPC's. While PalmOS is
built from the ground up, PocketPC inherits many elements of Windows
architecture, such as: registry, object model, OS APIs, networking libraries, OLE
(Object Linking and Embedding). Microsoft eases porting applications from
Windows to PocketPC to preserve many Windows' elements on a tiny device where

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PocketPC has to maintain bigger screen. Higher resolution needs more colours and
memory and it will resulted CPU resources to transfer blocks of data. Formatted
text is extremely rarely used on Palm. In most applications, Palm uses a single font
to display all the information. Only web browsers are exclusions. In PocketPC, most
applications use formatted text and they need both memory to store font information
and CPU resources to render fonts and transfer images.
In general, Palm brings a brilliant understandability of all the details of the process.
In most cases, it merely behaves exactly without any need in manual. Pushing a
clearly label button calls clearly understood the ftinction. Based on the idea of
simplicity, Palm PDA runs with the principle "only one thing happens at a time".
User is always given a clear message of what's going on now. To enhance the
functionality of business applications. Pocket PC offers a wide range of capabilities.
Multitasking is a fundamental OS capability that allows the device to perform more
than one task at a time. For example, the device can download emails with
attachments from a server while the user is using a Web-based application. The
high-resolution colour screen makes viewing maps, digital photos, schematics
blueprint, and Web-page and multimedia applications ideal.
For the development of the mobile learning, PocketPC is the ideal device to be used
since it is coloured screen and suitable for the learning for the science which
required animation. Furthermore the PocketPC have a little advantage on the
usability since the users are already familiar with the Window.
2.6

Mobile User Interface

User interface main fiinction is to act as an interface between the user and the OS. It
can be very simple such as just using icons, backgrounds, sounds and can be
adapted to an operator, or more complex. Some user interface can make the mobile
service and application independent from the mobile OS such as Flash Light from
Macromedia. User interface will allow greater level of individualization on the

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mobile devices, attracting new players to challenge OS manufacturer's positions.


According to Tognazzini (2003) mobile user interface design should attempt the
user's wants and needs. The information and tools that users need should be brought
with them during each step of a process. The interface also should provide the user
who are colour blind. The interface should be consistent with reaction form the user
behaviour and small visible structures such as objects like icon should also have a
consistent appearance. In the other words, the overall of the application should be
consistent.
The interface should also support learning ability. The interface should make sure
that users will not loose what they were working on because of an error such as user
errors and problems with Internet connectivity or other unavoidable problem. The
interface should also be readable. Tognazzini (2003) said that text should have good
contrast with the background and grey backgrounds should be avoided. The size of
the text should be large enough to be read so that older people who have trouble
distinguishing contrast can read the text. The interface should be in the same
language as the user and use vocabulary that is not system specific or jargon words.
The terms should follow real-world conventions, having them appear in a logical
and natural order. Consistency and standards are an essential part of interface
design.
There should be good error prevention designed in the interface. It is better to
design the interface in a way to prevent an error from happening than to have a good
error message. The interface should be flexible and efficient to use. This means that
there should be accelerators to increase the speed of expert users that are unseen by
novice users. This allows the system to be used by both novices and expert users.
Information given to the user should be only the information that they need as extra
information lessons the visibility of the information. The interface should help users
recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors. This means that error messages
should be expressed in plain language with no codes; it should precisely identify the
problem and a solution to fix it. Help and documentation should also be provided in

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the system. While such help and documentation may not always be needed, it
should be present in case a user needs the information.

2.7 Mobile Usability


Usability is a general term that includes everything that having to do with the ease
of use. That is how easily people can use any product's controls or displays such as
a tool, computer display, automobile, aircraft or so forth. Usability also refers to the
study of methods, measurement, and principles of a product's efficiency, style, and
usefulness. In the computer industry, usability often refers to the ease of use in
terms of the human-computer interaction. Webcredible, (2006) said that the idea
behind usability is to design products with the user in mind. Putting the user first in
the design process will results greater efficiency, learning time, and satisfaction.
This process is often referred to as an optimized user experience.
To achieve an optimized user experience requires a systematic approach to usability
in the design process. This is accomplished through expert empirical usability
testing where inexperienced users can be observed to determine what works and
what does not work. The goal of optimized usability is to make a product easy to
understand, easy to use, and easy to learn. The outcome of good usability is a
greater probability of user acceptance. User acceptance is often the difference
between a product's success or failure in the marketplace. Users can often reject a
well engineered product with great functionality if they are unable to understand or
learn or easily use that product.
In the mobile environment, the changing context of use sets a demanding challenge
for the development. In addition, the device limitations, such as input mechanisms
and display size, make application development harder than in the personal
computer. The only way to ensure good usability and user experienced is to
consider the user perspective during the whole product life-cycle. The user needs
and requirements should be considered all the way from concept creation and

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product development to after-sales analysis. The entire product concept should be


based on verified user needs and requirements. Design and implementation
decisions should be based on making sure that the application enables the user to
reach their identified goals as efficiently and smoothly as possible.
During the development work, usability and user experienced can be controlled with
expert evaluations and user testing. Early design alternatives and product prototypes
can be used for verifying the design with target users and identifying problems early
in the process. The earlier design flaws are discovered, the cheaper and easier it is to
fix them. The best way to ensure the quality of the application is to define a proper
development process that includes the user perspective.
2.8

Instructional Design

Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications


which using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It
is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of
a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes the development of instrucfional
materials and activities, tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner
activities.
The purposes of developing the instrucfional design process are:

To identify the outcomes of the instruction.


To guide the developing the instructional content.
To establish how instructional effectiveness will be evaluated.

According to Gagne et al (1992), the first stage to develop the instructional design is
to define the instructional goals. Instructional design goals to make sure the result of
the implementation will achieve it objectives that are students will accepts mobile
learning as a complement for studying.

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An instructional analysis to identify what learning steps will be involved in reaching


the goal. Through the task analysis, the task that involved was teaching the student
with assist from the voice narrator. With the assist from the voice narrator and
would help the student to remember the notes or the important points
Gagne also added that it is necessary to identify the knowledge and skill level that
the learner possesses at the outset. The instruction must be targeted as much as
possible to the level of the learners' needs and using a suitable content foe teaching.
Then selecting an instructional method is required to identify and employ teaching
strategies and techniques that most effectively achieve the performance objectives.
The technique that would implement is using the sound to help and support during
the learning process and include with some animation or effect to attract the student
attention. Current educational theory and research support the use of instructional
methods that make students active learners.
Conduct formative evaluation are formative evaluation that occurs from feedback
while the instruction is in progress, provides data for revising and improving the
instructional materials that were used and those that are up till now to be used. Test
instructional materials with one or a small group of students to determine on how
students use the materials and how much assistance they need.
Then conduct summarizes evaluation that occurs at the end of the instructional
effort such as course that provides data on the effectiveness of the instructional
effort as a whole. This is the evaluation that provides information on how the whole
instructional unit enabled the learner to achieve the objectives that were established
at the outset.
2.9

Case Study of Mobile Learning Application

In Dewsbury College, students have used web pages scaled down to fit the smaller
screen of the PDA, with hyperlinks to video and audio files, to support a variety of

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learning preferences. The use of this technology has stimulated learners' interest
having the technology in their own hands and has enabled individuals to interact
with the resources at a pace they can control, and has encouraged peer discussion.
The same resources can be accessed on the college website by learners at home or
anywhere with an internet connection, thus supporting learning beyond the taught
session.
At Thomas Danby College, PDAs have been used to provide formative assessment
tests for basic skills learners. This method of delivery offers 'drill for skill'
opportunities on demand, with immediate feedback and explanationsfi-omthe tutor.
The addition of audio files has also proved valuable in supporting the learning of
key vocabulary and linguistic skills by learners.
Learners at Bishop Burton College have used PDAs for recording, storing and
interpreting data in a vocational context. They have found that the opportunity to
take pre-prepared and relatively complex calculations into a workshop or outdoor
context has usefully combined practical and analytical skills. Furthermore, the
technology adds an element of fun to class and workplace learning. These trials
have shown that learners do not need to have prior experience of using a computer
in order to use a PDA; navigation through purpose-built resources on the PDA was
in fact found to be easier for learners unfamiliar with navigating with a mouse. In
addition, the mobility of the PDAs has helped to level the playing field for learners
in outreach centres and those on the main campuses. The application and ease of use
of the PDA has even encouraged learners to borrow the technology or attend
sessions early in order to catch up on missed content.
A butterfly-watching system was implemented and tested at an elementary school in
Taiwan. The objective was for the students to learn about natural sciences, and more
specifically about the different kinds of butterflies in the region. The project was
based on the premises of independent learning, with the assumption being that
providing appropriate mobile tools would help students to become capable, self-

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reliant, self-motivated and independent. The system was implemented using a


wireless ad-hoc networking environment, comprising of a teacher's notebook with a
WiFi wireless LAN card that acted as the local server, and student PDAs with
802.11 LAN cards and small-sized CCD cameras. A database of different butterfly
species in Taiwan was used with a content-based image retrieval system, and an
online nature journal system. The students visited a butterfly farm, where the
networking environment was set up and they could use their PDA cameras to take
photographs of the butterflies they observed. Using the photos, they could then
query the database, which would send back possible matches. The students could
then decide which match was best, and the database would verify based on image
content similarity. The students then made the final decision, which they recorded
on their journal together with their notes of the whole experience, and posted to the
teacher. The teacher in turn sent feedback to the students on their PDAs. In the
evaluations, a control group used a text-based butterfly guidebook and the
experimental group used the system described above. Multiple choice tests on the
key features of the butterfly species were administered before and after the trial. Six
field trips were conducted in total, with students encountering three new species and
three old species at each trip. In four out of the six field trips, the experimental
group was able to more correctly identify the key features than the control group.
The PDA uses a feature called ActiveSync to load files or additional software from
a laptop or desktop computer. Any files made for use on the PDA can be developed
on a computer and then transferred to the PDA via ActiveSync.

2.10 Conclusion
The characters of mobile learning devices are the small screen and poor input
capabilities results to the assumption that mobile learning cannot be replace the
standard desktop computer environment learning. However the same properties also
make the mobile learning efficient in learning domain. The mobile learning makes
the user used the small piece of waiting time or idle time for learning by reading the
small pieces of data, doing quizzes or using forums or chats. The mobile learning

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user will experience of studying with the help of small devices which is interesting
and attractive. The mobile learning will bring the ability to guide and support the
user in new learning situation.

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