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Patrisha Carter

Sarah Sintich

Advanced Placement Biology


9 November 2015

Functions:
Peripheral proteins: Protein loosely attached to the inner or outer surface of the membrane
Integral proteins: Protein spanning the depth of the membrane that can act as a channel/
transport proteins or carrier proteins

Glycolipids and glycoproteins: Carbohydrates that attach to the outside surface of the plasma
membrane and are used in cell signaling and recognition
Phospholipids: Makes double bilayer which protects the inside of the cell from its outside
environment
Hydrophobic Tails: Repels water
Hydrophilic Head: Attracted to water
Cytoskeleton Filaments: Provides rigidity surface to the plasma membrane for cells
Cholesterol: Keeps the membrane flexible and fluid
Extracellular Matrix: Nonliving fibers outside the cell that gives it support and provides a medium
for transporting material

Abiotic and biotic factors can have pretty huge effects on a cell . Take density-dependent
inhibition for example. A normal cell will continue to divide until there is no room left. A signal
would then be sent to tell cells to stop dividing, so that no further growth would occur. Abnormal
cells, such as cancer cells, continue grow far past the restraints of its environment. This will
eventually lead to an animal's (or other host organism's) death. Likewise, a biofilm is a collection
of micro organisms stuck to one another on an external surface. The biofilm aides in cellular
communication by acting as the medium that signals pass through between cells. Because of its
role, biofilm can significantly affect a cell and its behavior. To add to this, temperature affects the
cell. An increase or decrease in the temperature can affect the amount of cellular respiration that
occurs in the cell (A decrease in temperature results in a decrease in cellular respiration. An

increase in temperature results in an increase in cellular respiration.) Also, water availability has
an impact in the cell as well. There are three types of cells: hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic.
If a cell is hypotonic, it will swell and eventually burst. If a cell is hypertonic, it will shrivel up due
to the solute concentration being greater than the overall water concentration. Isotonic is when
the water concentration and solute concentration of a cell are balanced.

There are two domains for prokaryotic cells: Archaea and Bacteria. Prokaryotic cells that
fall under the Domain Archaea normally live in extreme environments, such as the bottom of the
ocean. The Domain Bacteria consists of bacteria that we see more commonly today. An
example of such bacteria would be E. Coli, which can be found in the intestines of animals. The
Domain Eukarya includes both plants and animals that have eukaryotic cells.