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DIPLOMA BIOLOGY

HL
QUESTIONS
on
KIDNEY & EXCRETION

1.

Anti-diuretic hormone has its main effect on which part of the nephron?
A.

Proximal tubule

B.

Bowmans capsule

C.

Loop of Henle

D.

Collecting duct
(Total 1 mark)

2.

The walls of blood capillaries in the kidney are fenestrated. How does the fenestration of these
capillaries help in the production of urine?
A.

A larger volume of fluid can be filtered out of the blood per minute.

B.

Small molecules are allowed through but not large ones.

C.

Higher blood pressures can be tolerated without damage to the capillaries.

D.

Phagocytes are able to escape from the capillaries and prevent kidney infections.
(Total 1 mark)

3.

In which part of the nephron is the glucose concentration of the filtrate reduced?
A.

Distal convoluted tubule

B.

Proximal convoluted tubule

C.

Ascending limb of the loop of Henl

D.

Descending limb of the loop of Henl


(Total 1 mark)

4.

What structures are labelled I, II and III in the diagram of the kidney below?
I

III
II

II

III

A.

Cortex

Medulla

Urethra

B.

Medulla

Pelvis

Ureter

C.

Cortex

Medulla

Ureter

D.

Medulla

Pelvis

Urethra
(Total 1 mark)

5.

What substances are normally removed from the body by the kidney?
I.

Excess salts

II.

Water

III.

Glucose

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

6.
How are excretory products removed from the blood during kidney dialysis, without
removing glucose?
A.

The dialysis membrane allows excretory products to pass through, but not glucose.

B.

A potential difference across the dialysis membrane draws through excretory products
only.

C.

Excretory products dissolve in dialysis fluid but glucose does not.

D.

The dialysis fluid contains glucose but not excretory products.


(Total 1 mark)

7.

What can be changed in the kidney over a period of time in order to carry out the process of
osmoregulation?
A.

The amount of blood flowing to the kidney

B.

The amount of fluid filtered from the blood in the glomeruli

C.

The amount of solutes selectively reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule

D.

The amount of water reabsorbed in the collecting ducts


(Total 1 mark)

8.

What process do the kidney and kidney dialysis machines have in common?
A.

Endocytosis

B.

Active transport

C.

Diffusion

D.

Exocytosis
(Total 1 mark)

9.
The diagram below shows part of the glomerulus from a kidney as seen under the
electron microscope. Which part is the basement membrane?

(Total 1 mark)

10.

Where in the kidney does ultrafiltration take place?


A.

Glomerulus

B.

Loop of Henl

C.

Proximal tubule

D.

Collecting ducts
(Total 1 mark)

11.

Blood vessels carry blood to and from the kidney. Draw a labelled diagram to show the internal
structure of the kidney, including the vessels that are connected to it.
(Total 5 marks)

12.
The proximal convoluted tubule is a part of the nephron (kidney tubule). Its function is
selective reabsorption of substances useful to the body.
(a)

Outline how the liquid that flows through the proximal convoluted tubule is produced.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

(i)

Water and salts are selectively reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule. State
the name of one other substance that is selectively reabsorbed.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

State the names of the processes used to reabsorb water and salts.
water

.............................................

salts

....................................
(2)

The drawing below shows the structure of a cell from the wall of the proximal convoluted
tubule.

(c)

The actual size of the cell is shown on the diagram. Calculate the linear magnification of
the drawing. Show your working.

Answer .................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)
Explain how the structure of the proximal convoluted tubule cell, as shown in the
diagram, is adapted to carry out selective re-absorption.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)

P la s m a
A D H /
pm ol dm

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

The plasma solute concentration, plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) concentration and
feelings of thirst were tested in a group of volunteers. These graphs show the relationship
between intensity of thirst, plasma ADH concentration and plasma solute concentration.

In te n s ity o f
th irs t / a rb itra ry
u n its

13.

280
290
300
310
320
P la s m a s o lu te c o n c e n tra tio n / m O s m o l k g

20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
280
290
300
310
320
P la s m a s o lu te c o n c e n tra tio n / m O s m o l k g 1

[Source: adapted from C T Thompson, et al., (1986), Clinical Science London, 71, page 651]

(a)

Identify the plasma ADH concentration at a plasma solute concentration of 300 mOsmol
1
kg using the line of best fit.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Compare intensity of thirst and plasma ADH concentration.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
8

(c)

Outline what would happen to plasma solute concentration and ADH concentration if a
person were to drink water to satisfy his/her thirst.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

State two reasons why a persons plasma solute concentration may increase.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)