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Carry out knitted fabric analysis calculations

Level 4

Credits 4

Purpose This unit standard is for senior technical personnel working with any types of
industrial knitting machines, and for quality control/quality assurance
personnel in any of the sectors of the knitting industry.

People credited with this unit standard are able to: measure yarns for length
and weight to calculate yarn counts; convert yarn counts between different
counting systems; relate yarn counts to machine gauge and stitch density;
calculate fabric weights and yields; and calculate percentage fibre-content of
knitted fabrics composed of different fibres.

Subfield Industrial Machine Knitting

Domain Knitting Machine Technical Servicing

Status Registered

Status date 20 January 1999

Date version published 24 August 2007

Planned review date 31 December 2008

Entry information Open.

Accreditation Evaluation of documentation and visit by NZQA and


industry.

Standard setting body (SSB) Apparel and Textile Industry Training Organisation

Accreditation and Moderation Action Plan (AMAP) reference 0030


This AMAP can be accessed at http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/framework/search/index.do.

Special notes

1 This unit standard applies to all sectors of the knitting industry.

2 This unit standard relates to the calculations carried out in a knitting plant in respect
of:
a yarn counts;
b fabric weights and/or yields;
c fibre-contents in fabrics.

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3 Technical aspects that are required to be covered in demonstrating competence in


this unit standard include:
a yarn measurement, count calculations, count conversions;
b relationships of yarn count to machine gauges and stitch densities;
c fabric measurements, fabric weights or yield calculations;
d calculations of fibre compositions of blended-fibre fabrics.

4 In this unit standard, the term ‘yarn count’ (and related variations) has been used
exclusively for simplicity of description.

This is traditional trade usage for all yarn numbering systems in which a length of
yarn and its weight (mass) are related, and covers denier and all indirect counting
systems such as metric, YSW (Yorkshire skein), cotton count, worsted count, and so
on.

The term ‘yarn count’ is also used here to cover the ISO descriptive of ‘linear density’
and yarns measured under this system in terms of ‘tex’ and ‘decitex’.

5 Formulae of counting systems in common usage include the following:

Direct counts –
Count Length unit Standard wt unit
Tex 1,000 m No. of grams weight
Decitex 10,000 m No. of grams weight
Denier 9,000 m No. of grams weight

Indirect counts –
Standard length unit
Count (No. of multiples of) Wt unit

Metric 1,000 m 1 kg
Cotton count 840 yds 1 lb
Worsted count 560 yds 1 lb
YSW 256 yds 1 lb
(1 lb – 1 Imperial pound = 453.6 grams; 1 yd = 0.9144 metres).

6 Common count conversion factors:


Tex → decitex = tex x 10
Decitex → tex = decitex ÷ 10
Decitex → denier = decitex ÷ 1.1
Denier → decitex = denier x 1.1
Tex ↔metric = 1000 ÷ yarn number
Tex ↔ cotton count = 590.5 ÷ yarn number
Tex ↔ worsted count = 885.8 ÷ yarn number
Tex ↔ YSW = 1938 ÷ yarn number.

7 In terms of fabric yield, warp-knitting may use both grey yield and finished yield.

8 ‘Fabric Weight’ is defined as weight of fabric per unit area (e.g. grams per square
metre) or running length (e.g. grams per metre). ‘Fabric Yield’ is length of fabric per
unit weight (e.g. metres per kg.).

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Elements and performance criteria


Element 1

Measure yarns for length and weight to calculate yarn count.

Performance criteria

1.1 The counting system is specified, and defined in terms of its standard units of
length or weight specific to that system.

1.2 A predetermined length of yarn is weighed, and the measured length and its
weight are extended to relate to the standard units of the specified counting
system.

1.3 The yarn count is calculated according to the formula relating to the specified
counting system.

1.4 The calculated yarn count is described in the terms applying to that counting
system.

Range the numerical descriptions of singles and folded yarns specific to


the counting system.

Element 2

Convert yarn counts between different counting systems.

Performance criteria

2.1 The counting system that the yarn count is to be converted into, is specified,
and the conversion factor identified for that calculation.

2.2 Yarn counts are converted from one counting system to another by means of
the specified conversion factor.

2.3 The converted yarn count is described in the terms applying to that counting
system.

Range numerical descriptions of singles and folded yarns specific to the


counting system.

Element 3

Relate yarn counts to machine gauge and stitch density.

Performance criteria

3.1 The range of yarn counts used on each type and gauge of machine in
production is identified and described according to company practice.

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3.2 The stitch density of fabric produced on each type and gauge of machine is
identified in terms of company practice.

3.3 The relationship of yarn count to the stitch density of fabric produced by each
type and gauge of machine in production is identified in terms of company
practice.

Element 4

Calculate fabric weights and yields.

Performance criteria

4.1 A fabric sample is measured for its dimensions and/or weighed according to
company practice.

Range a sample of predetermined size and a calibrated direct-read


balance, or a sample is measured for length and width, weighed,
and its weight scaled to specified dimensions.

4.2 The sample weight and dimensions are extended to specified parameters of
fabric weight and/or fabric yield according to company practice.

Element 5

Calculate percentage fibre-content of knitted fabrics composed of different fibres.

Performance criteria

5.1 The individual components of a sample are separated and weighed according to
company practice.

5.2 The percentage composition of each fibre component of the fabric is calculated
according to company practice.

Please note

Providers must be accredited by NZQA, or an inter-institutional body with delegated


authority for quality assurance, before they can report credits from assessment against
unit standards or deliver courses of study leading to that assessment.

Industry Training Organisations must be accredited by NZQA before they can register
credits from assessment against unit standards.

Accredited providers and Industry Training Organisations assessing against unit standards
must engage with the moderation system that applies to those standards.

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Accreditation requirements and an outline of the moderation system that applies to this
standard are outlined in the Accreditation and Moderation Action Plan (AMAP). The
AMAP also includes useful information about special requirements for organisations
wishing to develop education and training programmes, such as minimum qualifications for
tutors and assessors, and special resource requirements.

Comments on this unit standard

Please contact the Apparel and Textile Industry Training Organisation


training@atito.org.nz if you wish to suggest changes to the content of this unit standard.

© New Zealand Qualifications Authority 2007