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Submitted to:

Submitted by:

Mr. Raj Kumar

Sonu Kumar Pandey


+2 Science
Roll No.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I take this opportunity to express my gratitude


to Mr. Raj Kumar, Chemistry lecturer for
suggesting this project & his constant advice.
I also thank my parents for helping me from
time to time. It was really impossible for me to
complete this project without their co-operation.
Last but not the least I would like to thank Mrs.
Usha Sharma

principal. S.N.A.S. Sen. Sec.

School, for giving me all the facilities without


which my project would not have been possible

CERTIFICATE OF MERIT

This is to certify that Sonu Kumar Pandey of


class +2 Science during session 2009-2010 at
Mandi Gobindgarh: has submitted satisfactory
project on Preparation of Alum from Scrap
Aluminum. The project report entirely satisfies
the practical study of the certificate of Senior
School of P.S.E.B.

Principal

Guide Teacher

Mrs. Usha Sharma

Mr. Raj Kumar

CONTENTS
1. Introduction
2.

Experiment 1

3. Experiment 2
4. Experiment 3
5. Bibliography

INTRODUCTION
Alumimium because of its low density, high tensil strength
and resistance to corrosion is widely used for the
manufacture of airplanes, automobiles lawn furniture as well
as for aluminium cans. Being good conductor of electricity it
is also used for transmission of electricity. Aluminium foil is
used for wrapping cigarettes, confectionery etc. Aluminium is
also used for making utensils. The recycling of aluminium
cans and other aluminium is melted and recast into other
aluminium metal products or used in the production of
various aluminium compounds, the most common of which
are the alums. Alums are double sulphates having general
formulas X2SO4 . M2(SO4)3 . 24H2O
Where, X = monovalent cation such as Na+, K+, NH4+ etc.
M = trivalent cation such as Al+3, Cr+3, Fe+3 etc.

Some important alums and their names are given below:

Potash Alum

K2SO4 . Al2(SO4)3 . 24H2O

Soda Alum

Na2SO4 . Al2(SO4)3 . 24H2O

Chrome Alum

K2SO4 . Cr2(SO4)3 . 24H2O

Ferric Alum

(NH4)2SO4 . Fe2(SO4)3 . 24H2O

Alums are isomorphous crystalline solids which are soluble


in water.

Potash alums is used in papermaking, in fire extinguishers in


food stuffs and in purification of water soda alum is used in
baking powders and chrome alum is used in tannin leather
and water proofing fabrics.

EXPERIMENT 1

To prepare potash alum from scrap aluminium.

REQUIREMENTS
250 ml conical flask, funnel, beaker, scrap aluminium piece,
KOH, 6 M H2SO4.

THEORY
Aluminium metal is treated with with hot aqueous KOH
solution. Aluminium dissolves as potassium aluminate,
KAL(OH)4, salt.

2Al(s) + 2KOH(aq) + 6H2O(l) 2 KAl (OH)4 (aq) + 3H2(g)

Pottassium aluminate solution on treatment with dil.


Sulphuric acid first gives ppt. of AL(OH)3, which dissolve on
addition of small excess of H2SO4 and heating.

2KAl(OH)4 (AQ) 2Al (OH)3(s) + K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)


2Al(OH)3(s) + 3H2SO4(aq) Al2(SO4)(aq) + 6H2O(l)
The resulting solution is concentrated to near saturation and
cooled. On cooling crystals of potash alum crystallize out.
K2SO4(aq) + Al 2(SO4)3(aq) + 24H2O(l) K2SO4 . Al 2(SO4)3 . 24H2O(s)

PROCEDURE
1. Clean a small piece of scrap aluminum with steel wool and
cut it into very small pieces. Aluminum foil may be taken
instead of scrap aluminium.
2. Put the small pieces of scrap aluminium or aluminum foil
(about 1.00 g) into a conical flask may be heated gently in
order to facilitate dissolution. Since during this step hydrogen
gas is evolved this step must be done in a well-ventilated
area. Continue heating until all of the aluminium reacts. Filter
the solution to remove any insoluble impurities and reduce
the volume to about 25 ml by heating.
3. Allow the filtrate to cool. Now add slowly 6 M H 2SO4 until
insoluble Al(OH)3 just forms in the solution.
4. Gently heat the mixture until the Al(OH)3 ppt. dissolves.
Cool the resulting solution in the ice-bath for about 30
minutes

BIBLIOGRAPHY
The information and knowledge of this project
was gathered from-

Chemistry textbook for class +2, NCERT


Comprehensive Practise Chemistry, +2