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mcRNC Architecture

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Nokia Solutions and Networks Academy


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Objectives
After this module the student should be able to:
Describe the hardware architecture and functional units of mcRNC
Explain mcRNC Configuration
List mcRNC Hardware Items
Explain mcRNC Data Flow

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Contents

Introduction to mcRNC and Differences with IPA2800 RNC


mcRNC Architecture and Functional Units
mcRNC Configuration and Hardware
Hardware Items
mcRNC Data Flow

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Introduction to mcRNC
and Differences with IPA2800 RNC

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mcRNC Benefits

Full WCDMA feature set support


High data and voice capacity
High reliability and availability
Easy installation and maintenance
Saving rollout cost and easy capacity upgrades
Lowest RNC power consumption
Future proof product to Single RAN

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The new WCDMA Radio Network Controller is called the Multicontroller RNC
(mcRNC) and is optimized for the whole IP network environment and provides the
most optimal total cost of ownership to the operator. In addition to the mcRNC the
Multicontroller platform provides the common platform also to the mcBSC and mcTC
in GSM networks and a smooth upgrade path from GSM to WCDMA.
The mcRNC configurations are based on easily installable, standard-sized, compact
hardware modules. The modular and compact design results in high flexibility and
scalabilityand efficient utilization of the available site space. Multicontroller modules
are extremely easy to install, operate and maintain.
The minimum mcRNC configuration consists of two multicontroller RNC hardware
modules. Additional capacity is delivered through capacity licenses or, if the capacity
limit of the existing hardware configuration is exceeded, by adding more hardware
modules to the network element configuration. Configurations with two, four, six or
eight hardware modules will be supported.

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RNC IPA2800 VS mcRNC


RNC2600
ATM and/or IP connectivity

mcRNC
IP connectivity only

Same capacity and


service availability
(except ATM)

4U (U=44,45mm) high boxes,


that can be installed in standard
19ETSI rack or on a desk top
Two 2,10 m high
60cm*60 cm cabinets
9

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RNC IPA2800 VS mcRNC, cont.


The next generation RNC program (hereby mcRNC) defines cost
efficient Radio Network Controller (RNC) based on a new platform for
future business needs. The new product replaces IPA2800 based
RNC in the long term. The requirement of next generation RNC is to
provide higher capacities on smaller footprint with reduced product
costs.

10

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Differences with IPA2800 RNC

11

There is no support for ATM interfaces planned in mcRNC


Due to this, there is no support for dual Iub and the related features like
transport fallback to ATM
Integrated OMS is not supported; stand alone OMS is expected for the
operation of mcRNC
The interface between the OMS and mcRNC is changed to BTSOM instead
of EMT that is used in IPA2800 RNC before RU30
The site solution for mcRNC may be different from that of IPA2800 RNC
The redundancy solution in mcRNC is more fine-grained than that of
IPA2800 RNC
The database solution is different in mcRNC. The Database solution in
mcRNC shall make use of a SQL based database engine while the IPA2800
RNC uses a proprietary database engine using object collections
The resource management principles used in mcRNC is different from the
IPA2800 RNC
No dedicated plug-in unit HW for a specific functional unit as in classic RNC

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mcRNC Comparison with RNC2600

Small size
Low HW price
Easy installation (75% shorter commissioning time)
Improved product architecture enabling easy fault diagnostics and bug
fixing as well as shorter release lead times

Low power consumption


Flexible network building and topology
IP interfaces inbuilt only

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mcRNC Interfaces

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mcRNC Interface

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The mcRNC provides logical interfaces for the mobile services switching
center (MSC), the multimedia gateway (MGW), other RNCs, NetAct, base
transceiver stations (BTSs), the serving GPRS support node (SGSN) and the
cell broadcast center (CBC).
Interface Description

Iu-CS Logical interface between the radio network controller (RNC) and
circuit switched core network

Iu-PS Logical interface between the RNC and the packet core network
Iur Logical interface for the interconnection of two neighboring RNCs
Iub Logical interface between the RNC and the WBTS
Iu-BC Logical interface between the RNC and the cell broadcast
center(CBC)

Iu-PC Logical interface between the RNC and the Stand-alone SMLC (SAS)
O&M Proprietary management interface between network management
system (NMS) and RNC
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mcRNC management interfaces

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Network management interface (RNC-NetAct)


The mcRNC has management interface to Nokia Solutions and Networks
management system, i.e. NetAct, via a standalone Operation & Management Server
(OMS). A proprietary BTSO&M protocol is utilized between the mcRNC and OMS and
NWI3 is used between OMS and NetAct. The Data Communications network (DCN)
architecture provides connections for the implementation of O&M functions from
mcRNC to the operation support system (NetAct). A common transport protocol is
provided for the DCN network and IP is used as a flexible solution for network
management.
Following network internal management interfaces are used:

CORBA and SOAP/HTTP based NWI3 interface for interconnection of NetAct and
OMS

BTS O&M interface for OMS RNC, and OMS BTS interconnection
The O&M traffic is secured by IPSec protocol between OMS/RNC and NetAct and by
https between RNC and BTS.

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mcRNC Configuration
and Hardware

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Configuration and Dimensioning

BCN-A1
Configurations

Step S1-A1

19

BCN-B2
Configurations

Step S5-A1

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Step S1-B2

Step S3-B2

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Configuration and Dimensioning, cont.


BCN-A1 modules (as available since Multicontroller RNC 2.0)
Octeon+ processor
1 Gigabit Ethernet network connectivity
BCN-B2 modules (introduced with Multicontroller RNC 3.0)
Octeon II processor
1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet network connectivity

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General about Multicontroller RNC configurations


The Multicontroller RNC can be flexibly configured to meet the capacity
requirements of individual customers because of its modular structure.
When the capacity needs to be increased, the system can be easily
expanded by adding new modules to the existing configuration. The
capacity of the network element depends on the number of controller
modules in the system.
Two reference capacity steps are used in Multicontroller RNC. They differ
in the number of Multicontroller RNC modules used: the Multicontroller
RNC capacity step 1 employs 2 Multicontroller RNC modules, capacity
step 5 uses 6 Multicontroller RNC modules. Possible controller modules
are either type mc01 or mc02. The difference between mc01 and mc02 is,
that mc01 has hard Disk AMC and mc02 does not have HD AMC.
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mcRNC HW Release1 Support


mcRNC capacity targets with BCN-A1 HW in RU40 (mcRNC HW Rel1)
Configuration ID

S1-A1

NE level performance
Number of subscribers per RNC coverage area
AMR Busy Hour Call Attempts
PS BHCA (HSPA)
NAS Busy hour call attempts on top of maximum call
capacity
AMR Erlangs
AMR Erlangs (including soft handover)
NE level capacity
Iub max total UP throughput (CS+PS, FP, UL+DL)/ Mbps
Iub max total HSDPA UP throughput (CS+PS, FP, DL)
Iub max total HSDPA UP throughput (CS+PS, FP, UL)
Connectivity
Max number of cells
Max number of BTS sites
Max number of RRC connected UE's

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S5-A1

340000
340000
485000

1380000
1380000
1940000

1290000

5250000

8500
11900

34500
48300

1290
910
380

5190
3660
1530

1410
470
195000

3110
1020
780000

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mcRNC HW Release2 Support


mcRNC capacity targets with BCN-B2 HW in RU40 (mcRNC HW Rel2)
Configuration ID

S1-B2

NE level performance
Number of subscribers per RNC coverage area
AMR Busy Hour Call Attempts
PS BHCA (HSPA)
NAS Busy hour call attempts on top of maximum call
capacity
AMR Erlangs
AMR Erlangs (including soft handover)
NE level capacity
Iub max total UP throughput (CS+PS, FP, UL+DL)/ Mbps
Iub max total HSDPA UP throughput (CS+PS, FP, DL)
Iub max total HSDPA UP throughput (CS+PS, FP, UL)
Connectivity
Max number of cells
Max number of BTS sites
Max number of RRC connected UE's

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S3-B2

760000
760000
1400000

2140000
2140000
3500000

3050000
19000
26600

7680000
53500
74900

2640
1850
790

7520
5260
2260

2600
520
352000

6600
1320
1000000

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BCN-A module (HW release 1)

24

Dimensions (H x W x D)

178 mm (4U) x 444 mm x 450 mm

Weight

Fully equipped:
Approx. 25-30 kg (depends on the
configuration)
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BCN-B module (HW release 2)

25

Dimensions (H x W x D)

178 mm (4U) x 444 mm x 450 mm

Weight

Fully equipped:
Approx. 25-30 kg (depends on the
configuration)
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Control Module Functional Part

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The main processing power of the controller module comes from the cutting-edge
processor technology used. From the HW point of view processor environments
are identical, so SW can allocate any kind of processing type to any of these
processors. The processor uses hardware acceleration for various tasks. With
these features, the same hardware can be used for processing of user, control,
transport and management plane functions.
PCI Express (PCIe) interconnecting
Communication between the add-in cards, LMP, hard disk controller and AMC
modules takes place through a PCIe switch.
Local management processor (LMP)
The LMP is a central component on the motherboard that is mainly responsible for
the following functions:
Hardware management of the controller module (in cooperation with the virtual
carrier management controller (VCMC)
Ethernet switch and interface management
Offers services for USB mass storage devices
Performs the function of a console server and provides direct access to the
serial consoles of processors

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BCN-A Front View

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BCN = Box Controller Node


= mcRNC Module

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BCN-B Front View

BCN = Box Controller Node


= mcRNC Module

2 x AMC bay

USB 2.0 (Type B, target)


SAS cross-connect

Network interfaces /

Network interfaces

Inter-module interfaces

2 x 10 GE (SFP+)

7 x 1 GE/10 GE (SFP+)
1 x 1 GE (SFP)

10 x 1 GE (SFP)

Indicator LEDs
Synchronization interface
2 x in/out (RJ45)

NE management interface

LMP serial port


(RS-232)

2 x 1GE (SFP)
Module management interface
1 x 10/100M/1GE (RJ45)

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Reset

Alarm input interface


8 x voltage input (RJ45)
eSW/FW update interface
2 x USB 2.0 (Type A, host)

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BCN Rear View


FAN 1
FAN 2

FAN 3
FAN 4

FAN 5
FAN 6

PSU 2

PSU 1

AC or DC version

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mcRNC Field Replaceable Units from service point of view


FRU name
mcRNC module
Processor add-in card
Power unit (AC/DC)
AMC HDD
SFP transceivers
Main fan
Aux fan
Air filter
AMC filler
Power cords
Cables

31

Access point Hot swappable


No
No
Rear
Yes
Front
Yes
Front
Yes
Rear
Yes
Rear
Yes
Front
Yes
Front
Yes
Rear
Yes *
Yes

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mcRNC Hardware Architecture


The mcRNC consists of maximum eight 4U rack mount boxes,
interconnected by 10Gbps XAUI cables

Each BCN (Box Controller Node) contains a motherboard with a


management processor and 8 separate add-on cards containing Octeon
processors that are connected to the motherboard through PCI-e
connectors.

There are two releases of mcRNC hardware:


BCN-A (HW release 1) containing Octeon+ add-on cards
BCN-B (HW release 2) containing Octeon II add-on cards
There are 3 physical switches in every box
One for external network communication.
One for internal network communication.
One for local management.
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The major architectural change with the mcRNC is the move from multisubrack blade system to a few identical rack mount modules. Depending on
the capacity needs, one mcRNC can consist of two up to several modules. A
multicontroller module is tightly integrated and has only a few fieldreplaceable parts. The key enablers of this approach are IP/Ethernet
technology and advanced CPU technology. They simplify network element
architecture especially when IP proliferates in mobile networks.
The new hardware and software platform allows new, optimized placement of
the RNC functionalities in the system. A key principle in the design of the
mcRNC is to simplify the processing and implement the services that are
required by customers. Simplicity contributes to the performance as well by
eliminating the unnecessary complexity involved in data processing.

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Overview of the hardware architecture


Octeon processor comparison:
Cavium Octeon+ CN5650
64 bit
12 cores
800MHz
4 x 2MB DDR DIMS

VS

Cavium Octeon II CN6680


64 bit
32 cores
48GHz
4 x 8MB DDR DIMS

The same Octeon hardware can be used for processing of user,


control, transport and management plane functions.

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Motherboard and Processor Add-in Cards


Dual Fan Module
Processor Add-in Card

Power Supply

~40mm

AMC Slot
35

Motherboard
(BCN-A)
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Front panel LEDs

P0
NS
A1
A2

36

P1

P5

P2

P6

P3

P7

P4

P8

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Front panel Ethernet interface LEDs


Link/Activity for all Ethernet ports
Green:
Green blink:

Ethernet link is detected


Port receives or sends
frame

Link speed
AMC Bay

SFP+ ports
Amber:
10GE
No light:
1GE
SFP10 Speed
SFP10 Link/Activity

SFP+2

SFP+4

SFP+6

SFP8

SFP10

SFP6

SFP+1

SFP+3

SFP+5

SFP7

SFP9

SFP5

SFP, Trace, LAN1/LAN2 and MGT ports


Amber:
1GE
No light:
100Base-T

SFP9 Speed
SFP9 Link/Activity
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Box Controller Node Ethernet interfaces (BCN-A)


Provided interfaces and supported standards

1x RJ-45

Five of these ports


required for connecting
the BCN modules

6x SFP+
(BCN interconnect)

38

(HW maintenance)

16x SFP
(UTRAN interfaces)

SFP
(EM,
DCN)

Provided network interfaces for UTRAN traffic (i.e. Iu, Iur, Iub interfaces)
6x 10 GE: 10GBASE-SR/LR, SFP+ (LC-type connector), four of these ports reserved for internal connections
16x 1 GE: 1000BASE-SX/LX/TX, SFP (LC-type or RJ-45)
Provided network interfaces for NetAct/Element Manager connectivity
1x 1 GE: 1000BASE-SX/LX/TX, SFP (LC-type or RJ-45)
2nd SFP reservered for future use
Provided network interfaces for local HW maintenance & service terminal
1x 1 GE: 1000BASE-TX, RJ-45
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Box Controller Node Ethernet interfaces (BCN-B)


Provided interfaces and supported standards

2x USB
1x RJ-45

Software download

Hardware maintenance

Debugging
interfaces

1x SFP
Tracing

9x SFP+
7x BCN interconnect,
2x UTRAN interfaces

10x SFP
UTRAN interfaces

SFP

SFP13 SFP22

EM,
DCN

4x RJ-45
Alarm and sync interfaces,
not used by mcRNC

10GE external ports


SFP+ 11, SFP+ 12

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BCN-A Interfaces

Interface
type

Number
of
interfaces

Printed
label

Backplane
ports
(Internal
10GE)

SFP1
SFP6

External
1GE
External
10GE

16

SFP7
SFP22

External 1GE network connectivity is implemented


based on the following standards:

1000Base-TX, electrical transmission via SFP


with RJ-45 connector

1000Base-SX/LX, optical transmission via SFP


with LC-type connector

External 10GE network connectivity is implemented


based on the following standards:

10GBASE-SR acc. IEEE 802.3-2008 Clause 49


Trace port

and 52.5

10GBASE-LR acc. IEEE 802.3-2008 Clause 49


and 52.6

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BCN-B Interfaces
Interface
type

Number
of
interfaces

Printed
label

Backplane
ports
(Internal
10GE)

SFP0
SFP6

External
1GE

10

SFP13
SFP22

External 1GE network connectivity is implemented


based on the following standards:

1000Base-TX, electrical transmission via SFP


with RJ-45 connector

1000Base-SX/LX, optical transmission via SFP


External
10GE

Trace port

SFP+ 11
SFP+ 12

with LC-type connector


External 10GE network connectivity is implemented
based on the following standards:

10GBASE-SR acc. IEEE 802.3-2008 Clause 49


and 52.5

10GBASE-LR acc. IEEE 802.3-2008 Clause 49


and 52.6

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Hardware management controller module level

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At the controller module level, the central hardware


management entity is called node manager. The node manager
consists of virtual carrier management controller (VCMC) and
specific management software running on the local management
processor (LMP).
Each add-in card, as well as AMC contains a module
management controller (MMC) which is connected to the VCMC
through the local intelligent platform management bus (IPMB-L).
Under the control of the VCMC, the MMCs perform hardware
management operations on the processor add-in cards and
AMCs. The MMCs are connected to the add-in card processors
or the AMC processors through a universal asynchronous
receiver/transmitter (UART) serial interface.

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Hardware management network element level

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At the network element level, the central hardware management entity is


called system management software (SMS).
The network element, consisting of one or more controller modules,
contains of one active and one standby SMS entity, which provides
system manager functionality for the network element. In multimodule
configurations, system manager entities are located in different controller
modules.
The system manager in one controller module can access a node
manager located in another controller module through external intermodule Ethernet cabling.The active system manager is able to control
any controller module within one network element. The control is
performed by the node manager.

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Power distribution principles

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There are two power supply units (PSU) per BCN module and two power distribution
units (PDU) per cabinet. The PDUs in the cabinet are optional. Either DC or AC PDUs
and PSUs can be used, but both PSUs in any one BCN module must be of the same
type. The supported options for the input voltages are 230 VAC for the mains power
and -48 VDC / -60 VDC for battery feed. The DC PSU in BCN is BDFE-B, and the AC
PSU is BAFE-B. The PDUs are called BDPDU-A for DC power feed, and BAPDU-A
for AC power feed, respectively.
In cabinet installations, the power feed input can be connected from the site power
feed directly to the PSUs, or from the site power feed to the PDUs and from the PDU
to the PSUs. The outputs of the DC PDU and the AC PDU are protected by circuit
breakers. Each PDU has 8 output channels, and each 4 output group is independent
and can be the redundancy to the other.
Each PSU has one input, and the PSU provides protection against surges and
transients in the power feed cables.
To ensure 2N redundancy for the power distribution lines, the two PSUs in a BCN
module provide two mutually redundant input feeds (PSU A and PSU B). Each input is
capable of supplying the entire BCN modules power feed. For further details about
the BCN power supply, refer to Installation Site Requirements document.
The power distribution principle is illustrated in the following figure.
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Power Distribution Units


DC PDU

AC PDU

International power cable


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Mechanics and electromechanics


NSN CAB216SET-B 19-inch cabinet is recommended to be used
as rack mount enclosure for BCN modules
fulfils requirements concerning earthquake, mechanical and electric
shock, electromagnetic radiation and safety

Temperature control using three dual Fans with rotation speed


control
Two dual fans for the temperature control of all elements on the mother
board
One dual fan for the temperature control AMC modules

A removable air filter is used on the front side for filtering inlet air
Normal dual in-line memory modules (DIMMs) can be used because
of the space between modules
Contains two mid-size AMC bays
Field-replaceable AMCs offer the possibility of expanding the BCN
functionality
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Hardware items

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Processor add-in card (BOC-A) Octeon+

Memory module for BOC-A processor


add-in card (BDM2G-A)

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Processor add-in card (BMPP2-B) Octeon 2


variant B

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Add-in filler card (BFC-A)

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Dummy module
with no electrical
components
Placed on empty
card slots to ensure
proper cooling of
BCN module

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Hard disk drive carrier AMC (HDSAM-A)


AMC (HDSAM-A) is a mid-size
(single-width, 4 HP) AMC
module
Provides serial attached SCSI
(SAS) storage in the system
HDSAM-A is equipped with a
2.5-inch small form factor serial
attached SCSI (SAS) hard disk
drive
Hard disk drive needs to be
acquired separately

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BCN AMC filler (BAMF-A)


AMC filler is a dummy module with
no electrical components
Empty AMC bays must always be
equipped with AMC fillers
To ensure proper cooling of the BCN
module

AMC filler acts also as an EMC


shield

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AC power distribution unit (BAPDU-A)


485 mm

230 mm

90 mm

Used in 19-inch cabinet installation


Take the input power from the site power supply (180-264V)
Eight circuit breakers installed in the front panel
One PDU provides eight outputs
Can provide power up to eight BCN if the two PSU in each module take
power from two PDUs
Can provide power up to four BCN if the two PSUs in each module take
power from the same PDUs

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DC power distribution unit (BDPDU-A)

Used in 19-inch cabinet installation


Take the input power from the site power supply
Eight circuit breakers installed in the front panel
One PDU provides eight outputs
Can provide power up to eight BCN if the two PSU in each module

take power from two PDUs


Can provide power up to four BCN if the two PSUs in each module
take power from the same PDUs
A 30 A circuit breaker on the negative wire at the input to protect the
PDU from over-current
HW Dimensions: 90 mm (2U) x 485 mm x 230 mm

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AC power supply unit, variant B (BAFE-B)

58

1200-watt redundant AC power supply


units
Located on the rear of the BCN
module
Hot swappable and has an IEC 320
C20 type input which operates on 230
VAC
Two outputs to BCN module
Main output with 12V for all BCN
electronics including HW
management
Standby output with 3.3V for
BCN HW management

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DC power supply unit, variant B (BDFE-B)

59

1200-watt redundant DC power


supply units
Located on the rear of the BCN
module
Hot swappable and takes -48/60 VDC input.
Two outputs to BCN module
Main output with 12V for all
BCN electronics including HW
management
Standby output with 3.3V for
BCN HW management

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Main fan (BMFU-A)


For cooling the BCN
Contains two dual-fans
(BMFU-A)
Located on the rear of the
BCN module
Fan speed is controlled by the
hardware management system
Regulate the temperature
within the BCN

Dimensions (H x W x D) - 142
mm x 140 mm x 75 mm

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Fan for the AMCs (BAFU-A)


For cooling the AMCs that are
installed in BCN
Located on the rear of the
BCN module
Fan speed is controlled by the
hardware management system
Regulate the temperature
within the BCN

Dimensions (H x W x D) - 95
mm x 75 mm x 105 mm

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Air filter (BAFI-A)

Located at the front of the BCN module in the cooling air inlet
Prevent dust from accumulating inside the equipment
Meets the NEBS GR 63 CORE and GR 78 CORE requirements

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Overview of cabling in BCN


Consists of two types of cabling
Internal cables
External cables
Internal cables
Cables inside the network element or the cabinet
Example: cables between BCN modules or PDU and BCN module
Internal cables between BCN modules come with attached pluggable
transceivers

External cables
cables leaving the network element and the cabinet, such as cables to
external networks
External cables to external networks need pluggable transceivers (SFP
and SFP+) to connect to the 1GE interfaces of BCN modules.

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Internal BCN cabling

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External BCN cabling

LAN/Ethernet cables for connection to external networks


External synchronization cables
External alarm cable
Power cables between site AC/DC power supply and BCN module
in standalone installations (without PDU and cabinet)
EU plug model AC power cord between site AC power supply and BCN
module is a part of equipment delivery of mcRNC

Power cables between site AC/DC power supply and PDU


when cabinet and PDU are in use

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SFP and SFP+ transceivers

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BCN installation kit for 19-inch cabinet (BIK19-A)


Installation kit for installing BCN module in a 19-inch cabinet
Used when cabinet is 600 mm deep where the distance between the
front and rear poles is in the range of 448-462 mm

The installation kit includes


1.
2.
3.
4.

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2 x sliding rails
1 x cable tray
2 x ear plates for 19-inch rack
2 x handles

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mcRNC installation
Installation
kit for IR206
cabinet (old)
Brackets

Sliding Rails

Installation kit for


CAB216 cabinet (new)
One mcRNC Module weights less than 25 kg
without Power Supply Modules
In principle it requires only one person to install
modules. In practice it might require two.
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mcRNC installation

PDU
Power
Distribution
Unit

Cabinet
Any 19 rack
cabinet
which fulfils
mcRNC
cabinet
requirements

2 to 8
mcRNC
Modules

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mcRNC Software Architecture

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mcRNC SW Architecture

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mcRNC SW Architecture, cont.


All control plane and O&M software runs on Linux in the mcRNC
compared to DMX in the IPA2800 RNC. In the mcRNC the user plane
software runs without an actual operating system, on top of a
hardware abstraction layer called simple executive. A set of services
provided by the user plane middleware create a pseudo-OS interface
to the user plane applications to ensure that the programming of user
plane applications is kept simple.
Linux distribution is provided by WindRiver and it is provided as part of
the FlexiPlatform in mcRNC.
In the mcRNC all SW runs on MIPS64-based Cavium Octeon,
replacing the dedicated processing architectures used in the past:
x86, TI DSP, PowerQuicc and APP network processors. The Octeon
processor is big-endian, which is different compared to x86 hardware
and that has some minor impact on the current control plane SW.
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mcRNC SW Architecture

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mcRNC SW Architecture, cont.


Control plane
The mcRNC has a completely new and different platform compared to IPA2800 RNC and
to minimize the impact on the currently already available control plane SW an IPA Light
layer will be implemented between the Flexi Platform and the control plane SW. This has
the benefit that no, or almost no, changes are needed to the current control plane SW as
the IPA Light layer will provide the API needed by the control plane SW and IPA light will
then use the Flexi Platform API and in that way hide the changes from the control plane
SW.
The SW architecture of the user plane is pretty much similar to the SW architecture in the
IPA2800 RNC to the outside world, e.g. control plane. Internally the SW architecture is
quite different. To the outside world the biggest difference in the user plane application is
that it is running in the same processor as the control plane counter part.
User plane
The simple executive does not share memory or cores with the control plane that is
running on Linux so even if the RNC application and the user plane application is running
on the same processor they still need to interact like they would be located in different
processors, i.e. by using messages. Some Libgen functionality will be implemented also in
SE to make it possible for SW running in SE to communicate with the control plane.
The user plane of mcRNC consists of 4 significant layers the Octeon hardware, the Cavium
Simple Executive for Octeon, the middleware for the user plane applications and the user
plane applications themselves.
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Flexi Platform Architecture and Services

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Flexi Platform Architecture and Services, cont.


FlexiPlatform is the strategic choice for Linux middleware within NSN
and for radio access gateway kind of products. FlexiPlatform
architecture is not part of mcRNC specifications but here is described
a really basic overview of it.
FlexiPlatform consists of several parts that can be individually
selected, except for Base Platform, which is part of all FlexiPlatform
configurations.

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mcRNC Architecture
and Functional Units

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Terminology
Functional unit
A unit of execution and deployment that relates to a node in the cluster.
Belongs to one of Control, User, Transport or Management planes.
Equivalent to a computer in the traditional sense.
In a Linux based node, the Functional unit has one-to-one mapping to the concept of Recovery Unit.
In a SE based node, the Functional unit has one-to-one mapping to the SE based node itself.

Processing Unit
A unit of deployment that spans one multi-core processor containing one or more
functional units.
The functional units contained may belong to any of the planes but are grouped together to
ease processing and communication.

Interface card / Transport card


An add-in card containing one or more processing units (one in mcRNC2.0) used to
process network interface related functions and transport layer services.

Service card
An add-in card containing one or more processing units (one in mcRNC2.0) that are used
for radio layer services.

BCN module
1 Box Controller Node hardware containing 8 add-in cards. Also referred to as the box.

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Four main mcRNC Functional Units

CFPU
CSPU
USPU
EIPU
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Centralized Functions Processing Unit


Cell-Specific Processing Unit
UE-Specific Processing Unit
External Interface Processing Unit
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Conceptually, mcRNC functionality is comprised of 4 planes Control Plane, User


Plane, Transport Plane and Management Plane. Thanks to the unique type of
computing processing used in mcRNC hardware, a large degree of freedom is
available in design of RNC functional architecture
The mcRNC architecture consists of consists of the following high level functions:

network interface functions


switching functions
control plane processing
user plane processing
carrier connectivity functions
O&M functions
The functions are distributed in the entities of mcRNC hardware and software, and the
logical functions can freely be allocated inside mcRNC physical units.
To simplify mcRNC architecture, the number of different types of physical units as well
as the number of functional units is highly minimized. Four main functional units are
utilized in mcRNC functional architecture design. They are CFPU, CSPU, USPU and
EIPU

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mcRNC Processing Units


CFPU
Operation and Management Unit (OMU)
and Centralized Functions for Control
Plane (CFCP)
CSPU
Cell-specific control and user plane
processing
USPU
All services for UE-specific control and
user plane processing
EIPU
Hosts the networking and transport
stacks needed for processing signalling
and user plane data
Ethernet Switches (no redundancy)

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The distributed processing architecture of the mcRNC is implemented by


a multiprocessor system, where the data processing capacity is divided
among several processors. Based on the application need several
general purpose processing units with appropriate redundancy principle
can be assigned to different tasks. In general, processing capacity can
even be increased later on by distributing the functionality of the network
element to multiple modules, and by upgrading processors with more
powerful variants. As the mcRNC has only one type of processing
hardware, it allows a large degree of freedom in the design of functional
software architecture.
The Centralized Functions Processing Unit (CFPU) consists of
Operation and Management Unit (OMU) and Centralized Functions for
Control Plane (CFCP). OMU performs the basic system maintenance
functions such as hardware configuration, alarm system, configuration of
signaling transport and centralized recovery functions. It also contains
cellular network related functions such as radio network configuration
management, radio network recovery and RNW database.

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The CFPU is the only processing unit that uses 2N redundancy type. All
the functions that require 2N redundancy are located in CFPU, as well as
all the location services related functions requiring this kind of redundancy
type or centralized processing. For example, accounting of simultaneous
on-going location related procedures in the whole network element are
located in the CFPU.
The communication between OMU in CFPU and OMS/NetAct happens
through dedicated Ethernet interface.
The Cell-Specific Processing Unit (CSPU) processing unit implements all
cell-specific control and user plane processing. All control and user plane
resources for a single BTS are allocated from the same CSPU unit.
Therefore CSPU units are completely independent of each others and
different CSPUs might not have mutual communication at all. Allocation of
BTSs under control of specific CSPUs is controlled by OMU. The same
functionality in OMU allows also graceful reallocation of BTSs one-by-one
from one CSPU under control of different CSPUs. This feature provides
quite seamless shutdown and replacement of one mcRNC hardware unit.
The CSPU unit uses N+M (M greater or equal to 1) redundancy type.

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The UE-Specific Processing Unit (USPU) This processing unit


implements all services for UE-specific control and user plane processing.
Further, all dedicated control and user plane resources for a single UE are
allocated from the same USPU unit. Therefore USPU units are completely
independent of each others and different USPUs might not have mutual
communication at all. It makes implementation of SN+ redundancy
features like moving UE specific processing from processor to another
simpler.
The External Interface Processing Unit (EIPU) hosts the networking
and transport stacks needed for processing both signaling and user plane
data.
The mcRNC provides Ethernet switching functionality both for the internal
communication between the various processing units (USPUs, CSPUs
and CFPUs) as well as for flexible connecting the external network
interfaces to the processing units. The internal communication and
external network switching parts are kept totally separated.

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Functional Architecture of mcRNC

Each processing unit physically corresponds to an add-in card


The add-in cards are identical from the hardware point of view but can be
differentiated by loading different software to different add-in cards

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The mcRNC functional architecture consists of four types of processing units:


USPU, CSPU, CFPU, and EIPU. Each processing unit physically
corresponds to an add-in card in the hardware architecture. The add-in cards
are identical from the hardware point of view but can be differentiated by
loading different software to different add-in cards - in this way implementing
the processing units shown in the figure.
Only CFPU and EIPU processing units are involved in IP-layer and transportlayer protocol processing.
The CFPU processing unit is in charge of handling Operations and
Maintenance (O&M) functions and thus provides a Small Form-factor
Pluggable (SFP) port for connecting towards the data communications
network via the site switches.
EIPU processing units provide several SFP ports towards the network. There
are two EIPU units in each hardware module. For redundancy reasons the
connectivity towards the site switches should be arranged as shown in the
figure.

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mcRNC Redundancy Schemes

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The RNC applies a number of protection schemes in various levels to support its
redundancy. The redundancy schemes are:
Duplication (2N)
Duplication redundancy scheme, abbreviated "2N", uses a dedicated spare unit designated
for one active unit only. The spare unit is hot standby state, and all of data in a spare unit is
always synchronized with the active unit. The spare unit will be taken into use immediately
if the active unit fails.
Replacement (N+M)
Replacement redundancy scheme, named as N+M2, takes M spare units and tries to
allocate the M spare units to N active units. The spare units are kept in cold standby states.
The synchronization of a spare unit is performed during the switchover procedure between
a spare unit and an active unit. A higher level Fault Management System monitors the
health of the N active units, and selects one of spare units from the M units to replace an
active unit if it fails..
Load sharing (SN+)
Load sharing, called SN+, employs resource pool concept. A group of units form a resource
pool. The number of used units in the pool is defined, so that there is a certain amount of
extra capacity left in the pool. Faulty units will be disabled in the resource pool. The whole
group of units can still perform its designated functions if a few units in the pool are
disabled because of faults, A higher level module performs the load distribution. It also
maintains the health status of the hardware units. If one of the load sharing module fails,
the higher level module starts distributing the load among the rest of the units. There is
graceful degradation of performance with hardware failure.
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mcRNC Functional units

Control Plane and User Plane


CSCP Cell Specific functions and services in Control Plane
USCP UE Specific functions and services in Control Plane
CFCP Centralized Functions and services in Control Plane
CSUP Cell Specific functions and services in User Plane
USUP - UE Specific functions and services in User Plane. This includes the dedicated and
shared channel services since they are relevant for a UE.
Transport Plane
SITP Signaling Transport Plane
EITP External Interface functions in Transport Plane.
Management Plane
OMU Operation and Maintenance Unit for Management Plane
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USPU: UE Specific Processing Unit

Contains USCP and USUP


Co-located user and control planes for UE specific services
Redundancy: SN+ (load shared)
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This processing unit implements all UE-specific control and user plane processing.
Further, all dedicated control- and user plane resources for a single UE are
allocated from the same USPU unit, as long as the resource management policies
permit. Overload handling and shared channel processing optimization require
some communication between the USPUs but this is minimal and is mostly limited
to control message exchange only. Otherwise, the USPU units are mostly
independent of one another. This design narrows the scope of UE-related software
bugs and protects cell processing from them. Additionally, it makes implementation
of SN+ redundancy features like moving UE specific processing from processor to
another simpler.
SCTP optional
IP used only by Flexi PF, not by RNC applications
USUP
Handles DCH, HS-DSCH and E-DCH channels
Hosts RTP, RTCP
USCP
Handles connection oriented protocols
Localized User plane resource manager

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CFPU: Centralized Functions Processing Unit

Contains OMU and CFCP


USSR terminates IP for management plane
Hosts critical services
Redundancy : 2N
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The Centralized Functions Processing Unit (CFPU) consists of OMU and CFCP. Operation
and Management Unit (OMU) performs the basic system maintenance functions such as
hardware configuration, alarm system, configuration of signaling transport and centralized
recovery functions. It also contains cellular network related functions such as radio network
configuration management, radio network recovery and RNW database.
All the functions that requires 2N type of redundancy are located in CFPU as it is the only
2N (hot standby) redundant processing unit. In addition to existing functionality from earlier
releases all the location services related functions requiring 2N redundancy or centralized
processing, like accounting of simultaneous on-going location related procedures in the
whole network element are located in the CFCP part of CFPU.
The USSR (User Specific SE for RNC O&M) in CFPU terminates the external Ethernet
interface needed for management plane operations. Management connections (ssh) and
connection to OMS goes through this interface. It runs in Simple Executive (SE) domain.
OMU
Basic system maintenance functions
CM, FM, PM, HW and SW management
Hosts RNW Database
Plan management
CFCP
LCS services, Iu-PC, SABP
Centralized information maintenance
Connectionless protocols including paging

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CSPU: Cell Specific Processing Unit

Contains CSCP and CSUP


Co-located user and control planes for cell specific services
Redundancy: N+M
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This processing unit implements all cell-specific control and user plane processing. Further, all
control- and user plane resources for a single BTS are allocated from the same CSPU unit.
Therefore CSPU units can function are completely independent of each others one another.
and different CSPUs might not have mutual communication at all The communication between
CSCPs in different CSPUs shall be limited to exchange of information on own state rather than
to delegate processing of Radio Layer functionality.
The unit uses N+M (M >= 1) redundancy. Allocation of BTSs under control of specific CSPUs
is controlled by OMU. The same functionality in OMU allows also graceful reallocation of BTSs
one-by-one from one CSPU under control of different CSPUs. Although each cell in turn is
brought down for a moment during the operation, the feature provides quite seamless
shutdown and replacement of one mcRNC hardware unit.
CSUP
Handles common channels and BTSs
Resources for a BTS allocated from the same unit.
CSCP
Handles NBAP, RRC-c and RRC-s
Admission control, load control and packet scheduler
IP is used only by Flexi PF, not by RNC applications
SCTP is optional

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EIPU: External Interface Processing Unit

Transport Network Layer unit


Handles incoming packets
Contains SITP and EITP
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The External Interface Processing Unit (EIPU) hosts the networking and
transport stacks needed for processing both signaling and user plane data. It
also handles the load balancing and distribution to other units. It consists of
two functional units - the Signalling Transport Plane (SITP) and External
Interface Transport Plane (EITP).

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mcRNC Example Configuration


Physical units are identical
Functional units are SW definable with the following principles

CFPU

CSPU

USPU

EIPU

CSPU

USPU

USPU

EIPU

CFPU

CSPU

USPU

EIPU

CSPU

USPU

USPU

EIPU

Centralized functions processing: Mandatory


for centralized functions, one card in each of
module 1 and 2 (2N)

HDU

External interface processing: Two


per module for transport
processing, (1+1)

HDU

Cell specific services processing:


Number depends on the
coverage/connectivity, (N+M)

User specific services processing: The rest


of the processors (violet color) are shared
between user specific UP and CP by SW,
(SN+)
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mcRNC Example Configuration, cont.


Two bays for standard AMC cards are provided in each module. Typically the
controller module hot swappable hard disk is installed in an AMC slot. In the future
it is possible to use other kind of AMC devices, expanding the controller module
functionality. The CFPU and hard disk (HDU) are present only in the first two
modules. It is possible to connect hard disks from different controller modules,
using SAS connectors dedicated for this purpose. This solution enables
processors in one controller module to access hard disk located in another
controller module.

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mcRNC Data Flows

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Scenario: Selecting a CSPU for a BTS


A BTS object is added to the RNW DB
The BTS handler chooses the next available CSCP by round robin
The eligible list is maintained based on existing load
A unit in overload mode can ask to be made ineligible
The CSCP uses its own CSUP in same processor for user plane
resources
All resources needed for a BTS provided from the same processing unit
The Transport Resource Manager selects an EIPU
Configures it with the address and port information for the newly added
BTS and the address of the selected CSCP
The distribution table in EIPU is updated.

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Scenario: Selecting a USPU for a call


A new RRC Connection Request comes to the CSPU
The USCP to handle the call is chosen by round robin with USPU
load information to ensure sufficient resource for both CP and UP.
The co-located USUP handles user plane resources

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IuCS User Plane data flow

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Figure shows the path of AMR and CS data traffic through the system:
Downlink data processing
When a packet arrives, the EITP in the EIPU terminates the network and transport layer
protocols IP, IPsec (if configured) and UDP.
Application layerTNL protocols RTP and RTCP (if used) are terminated in USUP. These
protocols are used to take care of real time transport issues and the control of call QoS.
IuUP is used to decouple the service related user data characteristics from the underlying
transport protocols and is used in the support mode. It is also terminated in the USUP since it
belongs to the Radio Network Layer, serves to adapt the transport layers and needs to
interact closely with the User Plane.
After the processing and adaptation needed for the air interface, the data frames are sent to
the EITP of the EIPU that serves the BTS, where the transport and network layer functions
are located.
The centralized scheduling of data is enforced to ensure that the transport functions can
evolve independently and are localized to the transport plane unit only.
If the UE is in a SHO mode, the data is copied to multiple links by the FP layer
Uplink data processing
When a packet arrives, the EITP in the EIPU terminates the network and transport layer
protocols IP, IPsec (if configured) and UDP. The frames are forwarded to the respective
USPU unit using the internal transport and MDC is performed in the USUP. The data is
forwarded to the Iu interface after required RNL processing through the EITP.

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IuPS NRT DCH and HS-DSCh data flow

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Figure shows the path of HSPA traffic through the RNC.


Downlink
The data processing is similar to PS over DCH and the protocols
used are identical. The only difference is that the SHO mode of the
UE is not applicable for HSDPA traffic and the data is sent through
one carrier only.
Uplink
The Uplink processing is similar to the PS over DCH scenario for
both E-DCH and DCH uplink channels. The MDC is performed in
the USUP.

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IuPS NRT traffic over CCH data flow

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Figure shows the path for PS data sent over common channels.
Downlink
The data path for the transfer over FACH follows the same principles
as discussed for PS data. The only difference is in the MAC
scheduling. The MAC-c scheduler and the associated FP are involved
after the MAC-d processing is completed.
Uplink
The data path for the transfer over RACH involves the MAC-c in
CSUP and then the MAC-d in USUP. The other parts are similar to
that of the PS data transfer over DCH.

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CS Data flow comparison with IPA2800 RNC

NIU - NPS1(P)

ATM Iub

ICSU
MXU

NIU - NPGE(P)

DMCU

SFU
RSMU

ICSU
MXU

SWU

OMU

OMS

MXU
DMCU
TBU
EHU

HDD
Standalone or Integrated
109

WDU

PDU

The picture shows CS user data flow


involving ATM based Iub and IP based IuRN33821EN40GLA0
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reserved.
CS. DCH is used2014
and
AAL2
switching

IP Iu-CS

Control Plane comparison


DCH
NPS1

SFU

MXU

Eth Switch

DMCU
DSP

MXU

Int Switch

EIPU

SFU

MXU

ICSU

USPU

CCH
NPS1

SFU

MXU

Eth Switch

DMCU
DSP

EIPU

MXU

Int Switch

SFU

MXU

ICSU

CSPU

IPA
mcRNC

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Data Plane comparison


AMR
NPS1

Eth Switch

SFU

MXU

Int Switch

EIPU

DMCU
DSP

MXU

Int Switch

USPU

SFU

EIPU

NPS1

Eth Switch

NRT (DCH)
SFU

NPS1

Eth Switch

EIPU

MXU

Int Switch

DMCU
DSP

USPU

MXU

Int Switch

SFU

EIPU

NPS1

Eth Switch

IPA

mcRNC

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Data Plane comparison

NRT (CCH)
NPS1

Eth Switch

SFU

EIPU

MXU

DMCU
DSP

Int Switch

SFU

MXU

CSPU

Int Switch

MXU

USPU

DMCU
DSP

MXU

Int Switch

SFU

EIPU

NPS1

Eth Switch

IPA

mcRNC

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mcRNC Basic Site Solutions and Backplane


Connections

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Basic mcRNC site solution

BCN-A example for SFP port numbering.

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Reference configurations are based on the following network


elements:
Multicontroller RNC 2.0 (capacity step 1) - feature RAN2440: Fast IP
Rerouting is required
OMS (RNC OMS 1.0 6.10)
NetAct (OSS5.4 CD Set1)
Symmetricom TP5000 IEEE1588 master clock
Single IOC module
2x 100/1000Base-T SFPs
Suitable synchronization source (e.g. GPS receiver)

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mcRNC Capacity Step 1


Step S1-A1 - 2box configuration

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Multicontroller RNC capacity step 1 is the basic configuration and it consists of two Multicontroller
RNC modules.
Site Solution includes in addition to BCN Modules two Cisco 7600 series Routers. Each
controller module is connected to one router with two protected link aggregated link pairs. DCN
connection goes also through these site routers. In this document Multicontroller RNC Network
element is everything inside the yellow box.
The Multicontroller RNC Capacity Step 1 configuration consists of the following items:
Two module Multicontroller RNC Network Element with DC power includes following items:
2 * Multicontroller RNC basic module
4 * DC power module
2 *AMC HDD module
2 * SFP+ Direct Attach cable
2 * BAMF-A
Two module Multicontroller RNC Network Element with AC power includes following items:
2 * Multicontroller RNC basic module
4 * AC power module
2 *AMC HDD module
2 * SFP+ Direct Attach cable
2 * BAMF-A

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mcRNC Capacity Step5


Step S5-A1 - 6box configuration

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Multicontroller RNC capacity step 5 consists of the basic NE configuration plus 4


additional type mc02 modules.
The Multicontroller RNC Capacity Step 5 configuration consists of the following items:
Six module Multicontroller RNC Network Element with DC power includes following
items:
6 * Multicontroller RNC basic module
12 * DC power module
2 *AMC HDD module
15 * SFP+ Direct Attach cable
10 * BAMF-A
Six module Multicontroller RNC Network Element with AC power includes following
items:
6 * Multicontroller RNC basic module
12 * AC power module
2 *AMC HDD module
15 * SFP+ Direct Attach cable
10 * BAMF-A
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mcRNC Capacity Step1


Step S1-B2 - 2box configuration

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The Multicontroller RNC Capacity Step 1 configuration consists of the following items:
Two module Multicontroller RNC Network Element with DC power includes following
items:
2 * Multicontroller RNC basic module
4 * DC power module
2 *AMC HDD module
2 * SFP+ Direct Attach cable
2 * BAMF-A
Two module Multicontroller RNC Network Element with AC power includes following
items:
2 * Multicontroller RNC basic module
4 * AC power module
2 *AMC HDD module
2 * SFP+ Direct Attach cable
2 * BAMF-A

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mcRNC Capacity Step3


Step S3-B2 - 4box configuration

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The Multicontroller RNC Capacity Step 3 configuration consists of the following items:
Four module Multicontroller RNC Network Element with DC power includes following
items:
4 * Multicontroller RNC basic module
8 * DC power module
2 *AMC HDD module
6 * SFP+ Direct Attach cable
6 * BAMF-A
Four module Multicontroller RNC Network Element with AC power includes following
items:
4 * Multicontroller RNC basic module
8 * AC power module
2 *AMC HDD module
6 * SFP+ Direct Attach cable
6 * BAMF-A

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