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MEMBRANE

TRANSPOR
T
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Cell membrane
acts as a barrier that
controls the transit of
molecules into and out of
the cell
permits the entry of
important molecules and
eliminate different waste

Different Kinds of
Transport
passive transport

does not require energy

movement of molecules in the

same direction as their


concentration gradient

active transport
requires

energy
Transport against a concentration
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Passive Transport
an
uncharged
solute
moves
spontaneously
down
its
concentration gradient, a charged
solute
(an
ion)
moves
spontaneously
down
its
electrochemical
gradient,
and
water moves
down its osmotic gradient. It
includes:

osmosis

diffusion of water
across a membrane
moves from high water
potential (low solute) to
low
water
potential
(high solute)

aquaporins water

Diffusion

is a passive process which means


no energy is used to make the
molecules move, they have a natural
kinetic energy
two types:

simple diffusion requires no


energy, molecules move from area
of high to low concentration
facilitated diffusion does not
require energy, it uses transport

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Active transport

an uncharged solute or an
ion is transported against its
concentration or
electrochemical gradient in a
process that requires energy
includes:

endocytosis
exocytosis

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Endocytosis
molecules are moved out of the cell
by vesicles that fuse with the
plasma membrane
this is how many hormones are
secreted and how nerve cells
communicate with one another
takes in dissolved molecules as a
vesicle
cell forms an invagination

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Exocytosis

opposite of endocytosis
large molecules that
are manufactured in the
cell are released
through the cell
membrane

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Phagocytosis
used to engulf large
particles such as food,
bacteria, into vesicles
called cell eating
capture of a yeast cell by
membrane extensions of
an immune system cell

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Pinocytosis

called cell drinking

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Tonicity
it refers to the concentration
of solutes
hypertonic solution with a
greater solute concentration
hypotonic solution with a
lower solute concentration
isotonic solution with an
equal solute concentration

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Membrane Transport
Proteins

provide passageways
across the membrane
for selected substances
divided into two types:
transporters and
channels

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Transporters
allow passage only to those
molecules or ions that fit into a
binding site on the protein, it
then transfers these molecules
across the membrane once at a
time by changing its own
conformation, acting more like a
turnstile than an open door
bind their solutes with great

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Channels

discriminate mainly on
the basis of size and
electric
charge:
if
a
channel is open, an ion or
a molecule that is small
enough and carries the
appropriate charge can
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If Cell Membrane fails

neuromuscular junction disease


is a medical condition where the
normal condition through the
nueromuscular junction fails to
function
correctly.
The
neuromuscular junction fails to
synapse between a neuron and the
muscle
it
invertebrates.
This
increase in calcium concentration
allows the acetylcholine vesicles to
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If Cell Membrane fails


necrosis

progressively failure of
essential
metabolic
and
structural cell components
usually in the cytoplasm. It is
generally involves a group of
contiguous cells or occurs at
the
tissue
level.
Such
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