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# Assignment 4 Solution

## (Chap5: Probabilities, MF detection, Modulation, Multiplexing)

Problem 1: A binary source generates digits 1 and 0 randomly with probabilities P (1) = 0.8
and P (0) = 0.2.
1. What is the probability that two 1s and three 0s will occur in a five-digit sequence?
2. What is the probability that at least three 1s will occur in a five-digit sequence?

5
Solution: (a) Two 1s and three 0s in a sequence of 5 digits can occur in = 10 ways.
2
The probability one such sequence is
P = (0.8)2 (0.2)3 = 0.00512
since the event can occur in 10 ways, its probability is
10 0.00512 = 0.0512

5
(b) Three 1s occur with probability (0.8)3 (0.2)2 = 0.2048;
3

5
Four 1s occur with probability (0.8)4 (0.2)1 = 0.4096;
4

5
Five 1s occur with probability (0.8)5 (0.2)0 = 0.3277;
5
Hence, the probability of at least three 1s occurring is
P = 0.2048 + 0.4096 + 0.3277 = 0.9421
Problem 2: In a binary communication channel, the receiver detects binary pulses with an error
probability Pe . What is the probability that out of 100 received digits, no more than three digits
are in error?
Solution: Prob(no more than 3 error) = P(no error)+P(1 error) +P(2 error) +P(3 error),
which is

100 3
100
100 2
Pe (1 Pe )97 (1)
P = (1 Pe )100 +
Pe (1 Pe )99 +
Pe (1 Pe )98
3
1
2
= (1 100Pe ) + 100Pe (1 99Pe ) + 4950Pe2 (1 98Pe ) + 161700Pe3 (1 97Pe )
1

Problem 3: (a) the structure of the optimal receiver is a matched filter (diagram refer lecture
notes).
(b) Let T denote the pulse width of s(t). The energy of s(t) is
E=

Z T
0

|s(t)|2 dt

## Then the conditional density of the decision variable y(T ) is

yi (T ) N (m1 , 2 ) when there is a target
y2 (T ) N (m2 , 2 ) when no target
where m1 is the pulse energy E and m2 is zero because no target and 2 =
threshold, U = E/2.

N0
E.
2

Decision

## (c) Probability of false alarm is

P {false alarm} = P {target detected | no target} = P [y(T ) > U | no target]

= P [y2 (T ) > U ] = Q

E/2
=Q
= Q q

N0 E
2

E
2N0

(2)

## (d) Probability of detection is

P {detection} = P {target detected | target present}
= P [y1 (T ) > U |target] = P [y1 (T ) > U ] = 1 Q

E
2N0

(3)

Problem 4: (a) For each sampling interval, there are 24+1=25 pulses. Therefore, each pulse
occupies:
Ts
1
=
= 5s
T =
25
8000 25
Therefore, the spacing between successive pulses of the multiplexed signal is 5-1=4 s.
(b) With Nyquist sampling, each pulse occupies:
T =

Ts
1
=
= 6.25s
25
6400 25

Therefore, the spacing between successive pulses of the multiplexed signal is 6.25-1=5.25 s.

2

4.1.
111
000
000
111
000
111

## 24 samples/frame 8 bits/sample 8000 frame/s + 1 alignment bit/frame

= 193 bits/frame 8000 frames/s = 1.544 106 bits/s.
Bandwidth efficiency is

R
1.544 106
=
= 4 bits/s/Hz
W
386 103