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Ch44:AnimalExcretorySystemsHomework

Ch44:AnimalExcretorySystemsHomework
Due:11:59pmonMonday,November30,2015
Youwillreceivenocreditforitemsyoucompleteaftertheassignmentisdue.GradingPolicy

Chapter44Question33

PartA
Whyaretherenalarteryandveincriticaltotheprocessofosmoregulationinvertebrates?
ANSWER:
Therenalarteryandveinarethemainpathwaysregulatinghowmuchisproducedbythekidneys.
Thekidneysrequirehigherthannormallevelsofhormones.
Thekidneysrequireconstantandabnormallyhighoxygensupplytofunction.
Therenalarterydeliversbloodwithnitrogenouswastetothekidneyandtherenalveinbringsbloodwithlessnitrogenouswastesawayfromthe
kidneys.

Correct

Chapter44Question17

PartA
Whichofthefollowinganimalsgenerallyhasthelowestvolumeofurineproduction?
ANSWER:
avampirebat
asalmoninfreshwater
asharkinhabitingtheMississippiRiver
amarinebonyfish

Correct

Chapter44Question56

PartA
Increasedantidiuretichormone(ADH)secretionislikelyafter_____.
ANSWER:
drinkinglotsofpurewater
sweatinginduceddehydrationincreasesplasmaosmolarity
eatingasmallsugarysnack
bloodpressurebecomesabnormallyhigh

Correct

Chapter44Question14

PartA
Ahumanwhohasnoaccesstofreshwaterbutisforcedtodrinkseawaterinsteadwill_____.

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ANSWER:
thriveundersuchconditions,aslongashehaslivedattheoceanmostofhislife
excretemorewatermoleculesthantakenin,becauseofthehighloadofioningestion
developstructuralchangesinthekidneystoaccommodatethesaltoverload
riskbecomingoverhydratedwithintwelvehours

Correct

Chapter44Question36

PartA
Materialsarereturnedtothebloodfromthefiltratebywhichofthefollowingprocesses?
ANSWER:
filtration
excretion
selectivereabsorption
secretion

Correct

Chapter44Question23

PartA
Excessiveformationofuricacidcrystalsinhumansleadsto_____.
ANSWER:
gout,apainfulinflammatorydiseasethatprimarilyaffectsthejoints
aconditioncalleddiabetes,whereexcessiveurineformationoccurs
osteoarthritis,aninevitableconsequenceofaging
aconditionofinsatiablethirstandexcessiveurineformation

Correct

Chapter44Question46

PartA
Whatisthefunctionoftheosmoticgradientfoundinthekidney?Theosmoticgradientallowsfor_____.
ANSWER:
theloopofHenletodeliverwatertotherenalvein
thefiltrationoflargecellsattheglomerulus
theprecisecontroloftheretentionofwaterandelectrolytes
electrolytestomovefromlowtohighconcentrationsintheabsenceofATP

Correct

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Chapter44Question57

PartA
Afterbloodflowisartificiallyreducedatonekidney,youwouldexpectthatkidneytosecretemoreofthehormoneknownas_____.
ANSWER:
angiotensinogen
antidiuretichormone
atrialnatriureticpeptide
renin

Correct

Chapter44Question19

PartA
Ureaisproducedinthe_____.
ANSWER:
bladderfromuricacidandwater
liverfromNH3andcarbondioxide
liverfromglycogen
kidneysfromglycerolandfattyacids

Correct

Chapter44Question52

PartA
Inhumans,thetransportepithelialcellsintheascendingloopofHenle_____.
ANSWER:
arenotaffectedbyhighlevelsofnitrogenouswastes
arethelargestepithelialcellsinthebody
arenotincontactwithinterstitialfluid
haveplasmamembranesoflowpermeabilitytowater

Correct

Chapter44Question11

PartA
Thebodyfluidsofanosmoconformerwouldbe_____withits_____environment
ANSWER:

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isoosmoticsaltwater
hyperosmoticsaltwater
hypoosmoticsaltwater
isoosmoticfreshwater

Correct

Chapter44Question59

PartA
Osmoregulatoryadjustmentviathereninangiotensinaldosteronesystemcanbetriggeredby_____.
ANSWER:
eatingapizzawitholivesandpepperoni
severesweatingonahotday
drinkingseveralglassesofwater
sleepingforonehour

Correct

Chapter44Question25

PartA
Theadvantageofexcretingnitrogenouswastesasurearatherthanasammoniaisthat_____.
ANSWER:
ureaislesstoxicthanammonia
ureacanbeexchangedforNa+
ureadoesnotaffecttheosmolargradient
lessnitrogenisremovedfromthebody

Correct

Chapter44Question49

PartA
IfATPproductioninahumankidneywassuddenlyhalted,urineproductionwould_____.
ANSWER:
decrease,andtheurinewouldbeisoosmoticcomparedtoplasma
decrease,andtheurinewouldbehypoosmoticcomparedtoplasma
increase,andtheurinewouldbeisoosmoticcomparedtoplasma
increase,andtheurinewouldbehyperosmoticcomparedtoplasma

Correct

Chapter44Question44
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PartA
Aprimaryreasonthatthekidneyshaveoneofthehighestmetabolicratesofallbodyorgansisthat_____.
ANSWER:
theyarethebody'sonlymeansofsheddingexcessnutrients
theyhavemembranesofvaryingpermeabilitytowater
theyoperateanextensivesetofactivetransportionpumps
theyhaveanabundanceofmyogenicsmoothmuscle

Correct

MakeConnections:KidneyFunctionandPassiveandActiveTransport
ThehumankidneyproduceshighlyconcentratedurinethroughthepassiveandactivetransportofNaCl,urea,andwater.Clickonthefigureatlefttoreview
passiveandactivetransport.Clickonthefigureatrighttoreviewhowurineconcentrationoccursinthenephron.Theconcentrationofurineinthekidneyisan
importantadaptationtoaterrestrialexistence.

PartAReviewingpassiveandactivetransport
Bothpassiveandactivetransportareusedtomovemoleculesintoandoutofcells,asshowninthefigure.Identifythekeydifferencesbetweenpassive
andactivetransport,andprovideanexampleofeach.

Dragthelabelstotheirappropriatelocationsinthetablebelow.Useonlypinklabelsforpinktargets,bluelabelsforbluetargets,andwhite
labelsforwhitetargets.
ANSWER:

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Correct
Theproductionofconcentratedurinebythekidneysrequiresbothpassiveandactivetransport.
Passivetransportisusedtomovemoleculesdownaconcentrationgradientfromwheretheyaremoreconcentratedtowheretheyare
lessconcentrated.Passivetransportdoesnotrequireenergyfromcells.
Activetransportisusedtomovemoleculesagainstaconcentrationgradientfromwheretheyarelessconcentratedtowheretheyare
moreconcentrated.Activetransportrequiresenergyfromcells.

PartBUrineconcentrationinthekidney
Thefigureshowshowurineconcentrationoccursinthenephron,thefunctionalunitofthevertebratekidney.

Dragthetermsonthelefttotheappropriateblanksontherighttocompletethesentences.Notalltermswillbeused.
ANSWER:

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Correct
Thekidneysconcentrateurinebyestablishinganosmolaritygradientbetweenthecortexandthemedulla.Passiveandactivetransportbothplaya
roleinthisprocess.
Throughactiveandpassivetransport,NaClhelpsestablishandmaintaintheosmolaritygradient.
Throughpassivetransportonly,ureaalsohelpsestablishandmaintaintheosmolaritygradient.
Throughosmosis,aformofpassivetransport,waterrespondstotheosmolaritygradientbyleavingthefiltrate.

PartCHowarepassiveandactivetransportusedinthekidney?
Theregionsofthenephronthroughwhichfiltrateflowsarelabeledinthefigurebelow.

DrageachstatementtotheappropriatebindependingonwhetheritappliestothedescendinglimboftheloopofHenle,theascendinglimbof
theloopofHenle,orthecollectingduct.
ANSWER:

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Correct
ThepassiveandactivetransportofNaClandthepassivetransportofureacreateanosmolaritygradientbetweenthecortexandmedullaofthe
kidney.Asthefiltratemovesthroughthenephron,waterleavesthefiltratebyosmosis.Thelossofwaterresultsinurinethatishighlyconcentrated.
Antidiuretichormone(ADH)alsohelpstoregulateurineconcentrationbycontrollingNaCltransportandwaterpermeabilityinthecollectingduct.
TheactivetransportofNaClintheloopofHenleandcollectingductrequiresasignificantamountofenergy.Thistransport,alongwithotheractive
transportsystemsinthekidney,explainswhythekidneyhasoneofthehighestmetabolicratesofanyorganinthebody.

Chapter44Question53

PartA
ThehighosmolarityoftherenalmedullaismaintainedbyallofthefollowingEXCEPT_____.
ANSWER:
activetransportofsaltfromtheupperregionoftheascendinglimb
thespatialarrangementofjuxtamedullarynephrons
diffusionofureafromthecollectingduct
diffusionofsaltfromthedescendinglimboftheloopofHenle

Correct

Chapter44Question18

PartA
Oneofthewasteproductsthataccumulatesduringcellularfunctionsiscarbondioxide.Itisremovedviatherespiratorysystem.Whatisanotherwaste
productthataccumulatesduringnormalphysiologicalfunctionsinvertebrates?
I)ammonia
II)uricacid
III)urea
ANSWER:

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onlyIIandIII
onlyIandII
I,II,andIII
onlyIandIII

Correct

Chapter44Question2

PartA
Tomaintainhomeostasisfreshwaterfishmust_____.
ANSWER:
excretelargequantitiesofwater
takeinelectrolytesthroughsimplediffusion
excretelargequantitiesofelectrolytes
consumelargequantitiesofwater

Correct

Chapter44Question60

PartA
Antidiuretichormone(ADH)andthereninangiotensinaldosteronesystem(theRAAS)worktogetherinmaintainingosmoregulatoryhomeostasisthrough
whichofthefollowingways?
ANSWER:
ADHregulatestheosmolarityofthebloodbyalteringrenalreabsorptionofwater,andtheRAASmaintainstheosmolarityofthebloodby
stimulatingNa+andwaterreabsorption.
ADHandtheRAAScombineatthereceptorsitesofproximaltubulecells,wherereabsorptionofessentialnutrientstakesplace.
Bothstimulatetheadrenalglandtosecretealdosterone,whichincreasesbothbloodvolumeandpressureviaitsreceptorsintheurinarybladder.
ADHandtheRAASworkantagonisticallyADHstimulateswaterreabsorptionduringdehydrationandtheRAAScausesincreasedexcretionof
waterwhenitisinexcessinbodyfluids.

Correct

Chapter44Question12

PartA
Comparedtotheseawateraroundthem,mostmarineinvertebratesare_____.
ANSWER:
isoosmotic
hyperosmotic
hypoosmotic
hyperosmoticandisoosmotic

Correct

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Ch44:AnimalExcretorySystemsHomework

KidneyStructureandFunction
Theexcretorysystemofmammalsreliesonapairofkidneysthatmaintainwaterandelectrolytebalanceinthebody.Hormonessuchasantidiuretichormone
(ADH),aldosterone,andatrialnatriureticpeptide(ANP)regulatekidneyfunction.

PartAIdentifyingthestructuresofthekidney
Labelthediagramofthekidneyandnephronbelow.
Dragthelabelstotheirappropriatelocationsonthediagrambelow.Labelscanbeusedonce,morethanonce,ornotatall.

Hint1.Whatarethestructuresofthekidney?
Dragthetermsonthelefttotheappropriateblanksontherighttocompletethesentences.
ANSWER:

Hint2.Howdoesfiltrateflowinthenephron?
Describethepaththatfiltratefollowsthroughthenephronbeforereachingtheurinarybladder.
Dragthephrasesontotheflowchartintheorderinwhichfiltrateflowsthroughthenephron.
ANSWER:

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ANSWER:

Correct
Thenephronisthefunctionalunitofthekidney,meaningthatfiltrateisprocessedinthenephrons.Nephronsarepositionedintherenalcortexand
canextendintotherenalmedulla.AnephronconsistsofaglomerulusandalongtubulethatincludesBowman'scapsule,theproximaltubule,the
loopofHenle,andthedistaltubule.FiltrationoccursattheglomerulusBowmanscapsuleinterface,sometimescalledtherenalcorpuscle.Thefiltrate
thentravelsthroughtherestofthenephronanddrainsintothecollectingduct.Thefiltrate,nowcalledurine,exitsthekidneythroughaureterthat
drainsintotheurinarybladder.Finally,theurineisexpelledfromthebodythroughtheurethra.

PartBWaterconservationbythekidney
Thekidneysofterrestrialmammalsconservewaterinthebodybyconcentratingurine.Theosmolarityofhumanbloodis300mOsm/L,buthumanurineis
generallyabout1200mOsm/L.TheloopofHenleandthecollectingductareinstrumentalinmaintainingosmoticgradientsthatmaketheconcentrationof
urinepossible.
Completethediagrambelowusingthefollowingsteps:
1. Placethepinklabels,whichindicateinterstitialfluidosmolarityinmOsm/L,ontothecorrectpinktargets.(Notethatthenumbersinsidethe
nephronandcollectingductindicatetheosmolarityofthefiltrateatthosedifferentpoints.)
2. Placearedarrowtoindicateactivetransportorapurplearrowtoindicatepassivetransportontotheremainingtargets.DoH2O,NaCl,and
ureaexperienceactivetransport,passivetransport,orboth?Keepinmindthatthenephron'sepitheliumexhibitsvaryingpermeabilityto
waterandsolutesalongitslength.
Labelscanbeusedonce,morethanonce,ornotatall.

Hint1.Activetransportandpassivetransport
ActivetransportsystemsrequireenergysuchasATPtotransportsubstancesacrossamembrane,suchaswhenasoluteistransportedagainst
itsconcentrationgradient.Passivetransportsystems,suchasdiffusionandosmosis,donotrequireenergy.Waterandsolutesdiffusedowntheir
concentrationgradients.

Hint2.Definitionofosmolarity
Osmosisisatypeofdiffusioninwhichwatermovesacrossaselectivelypermeablemembrane.Osmosisoccurswhentwosolutionsseparatedby
amembranedifferinosmoticpressure,orosmolarity.Osmolarityisameasureoftotalsoluteconcentrationinasolutionandisexpressedas
milliOsmolesperliter(mOsm/L).Watermovestowardthesolutionofgreaterosmolarity.
Threetermsdescribedifferencesinosmolarity:
isoosmoticsolutionshavethesameosmolarity
ahypoosmoticsolutionhasalowerconcentrationofsolutes,orlowerosmolarity,thanasecondsolution
ahyperosmoticsolutionhasagreaterconcentrationofsolutes,orgreaterosmolarity,thanasecondsolution
Differencesinosmolaritybetweenthefiltrateinthenephronandtheinterstitialfluiddrivethereabsorptionandconservationofwaterinthekidneys.

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Hint3.Whichwaywillwaterflow?
Assumethataselectivelypermeablemembraneseparatestwosolutions.Giventhefollowingsituations,determinewhetherwaterwillflowfrom
solution2tosolution1,fromsolution1tosolution2,orifthereisnonetmovementofwater.
Drageachphrasetotheappropriatebin.
ANSWER:

Hint4.HowsolutesmoveoutoftheloopofHenleandthecollectingduct
ThemovementofsolutesoutoftheloopofHenleandthecollectingductiscriticaltomaintainingtheosmoticgradientintheinterstitialfluidofthe
kidney.ThefactthattheascendinglimboftheloopofHenleisimpermeabletowaterensuresthattheosmoticgradientisnotdiluted.
NaCldiffusesoutofthethinascendinglimb.
NaClisactivelytransportedoutofthethickascendinglimb.
Ureadiffusesoutofthelowercollectingduct.
Becausetheosmolarityoftheinterstitialfluidincreasesfromthecortextothemedulla,thefiltratebecomesconcentratedasitflowsdeeperinto
themedullaandwaterdiffusesintotheinterstitialfluid.Thiswaterdoesnotdilutetheosmoticgradientbecauseitisreabsorbedintothe
bloodstream.

ANSWER:

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Correct
Waterisreabsorbedinthekidneybecauseoftheosmoticgradientestablishedintheinterstitialfluid.Theosmolarityoftheinterstitialfluidincreases
deeperintothemedulla.Asaresult,waterdiffusesoutofthedescendinglimboftheloopofHenleandoutofthecollectingduct,flowingfromareas
oflowerosmolarityinthefiltratetoareasofhigherosmolarityintheinterstitialfluid.Thiswaterdiffusesintobloodvesselssurroundingthenephron,
calledthevasarecta,returningtothebloodstreamandthereforenotdilutingtheosmoticgradient.
TheosmoticgradientintheinterstitialfluidismaintainedmostlybyNaClandurea.InthethinportionoftheascendinglimboftheloopofHenle,NaCl
diffusesoutofthenephron.Inthethickupperportionoftheascendinglimb,NaClisactivelytransportedoutofthenephron.(Theascendinglimbis
impermeabletowater,whichhelpsmaintainhighosmolarityintheinterstitialfluid.)Ureadiffusesoutofthelowerportionofthecollectingductandis
responsibleforthehighosmolarityintheinnermedulla.
Aftertravelingthroughthenephronandthecollectingduct,urineismoreconcentratedthanotherbodyfluidsandexcretesureaandotherwasteswith
aminimallossofwater.Theabilityofmammaliankidneystoconservewaterinthiswayisakeyterrestrialadaptation.

PartCHormonalregulationbyADHandaldosterone
Youhaveprobablynoticedthaturineisnotalwaysthesame.Thebodyiscapableofadjustingthevolumeandtheosmolarityofitsurineoutputdepending
onanumberoffactors.
Thekidneysareregulatedbyhormonessuchasantidiuretichormone(ADH)andaldosterone.Thesehormonesaresecretedinresponsetochangesinthe
animal'sinternalwaterandsaltbalance.Forexample,sweatingorbloodlosscandisruptwaterand/orsaltbalanceinthebody,leadingtoahormonal
responsethatreturnsthesystemtohomeostasis.Mechanismsforadjustingbloodvolumeorosmolarityincludeincreasingwaterand/orsodium
reabsorptioninthenephronsandcollectingducts.
Howdothefollowingstimuliaffectwaterandsodium(Na+)reabsorptioninthekidneys?
Drageachitemtotheappropriatebin.

Hint1.EffectsofADHandaldosterone
Antidiuretichormone(ADH)secretionincreasesinresponsetoanincreaseinbloodosmolarityabovethesetpointof300mOsm/L.ADHactson
distaltubulesandcollectingducts,makingthemmorepermeabletowaterandincreasingreabsorptionofwaterintothebody.Thisreabsorptionof
waterconcentratesurine,reducesthevolumeofurineproduced,andactswithdrinkingtodecreasebloodosmolarity.
Aldosteroneisreleasedinresponsetoloweredbloodpressureorbloodvolume.Aldosteroneactsonthedistaltubules,makingthemabsorbmore
Na+andwater,therebyincreasingbloodvolumeandbloodpressure.

Hint2.Diabetesinsipidus
DiabetesinsipidusisadisorderinwhichthekidneysproducelargevolumesofdiluteurineduetoalackofADHproductionoraninabilityto
respondadequatelytoADH.Diabetesinsipiduscanhavemanycauses.

Hint3.WhichstimuliresultinthereleaseofADH?
ADHissecretedinresponsetoanincreaseinbloodosmolarityaboveasetpoint.WhichofthefollowingstimuliresultinthereleaseofADH?
Selectthethreethatapply.
ANSWER:

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bloodloss
eatingsaltyfood
severediarrhea
dehydration
sweating

Hint4.Whichstimuliresultinthereleaseofaldosterone?
Aldosteroneissecretedinresponsetoloweredbloodpressureorbloodvolume.Whichofthefollowingstimuliresultinthereleaseofaldosterone?
Selectthetwothatapply.
ANSWER:
dehydration
eatingsaltyfood
sweating
bloodloss
severediarrhea

ANSWER:

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Correct
Antidiuretichormone(ADH)andaldosteronearetwoofthehormonesthathelptoregulatebloodosmolarity,bloodpressure,andbloodvolumeby
actingonthekidney.
ADHisreleasedfromtheposteriorpituitaryglandinresponsetoincreasedbloodosmolarity.Dehydration,sweating,andeatingsaltyfoodscanall
causebloodosmolaritytorise.Tocounteractthatchange,ADHactsonthedistaltubulesandcollectingducts,causingthemtobecomemore
permeabletowater.Asaresult,waterisreabsorbed,loweringbloodosmolarity,concentratingtheurine,andreducingurinevolume.

Aldosteroneisreleasedfromtheadrenalglandsinresponsetoadropinbloodpressureorbloodvolume.Bloodlossandseverediarrheacanboth
causebloodpressureandbloodvolumetodrop.Tocounteractthosechanges,aldosteroneactsonthedistaltubules,causingthemtoreabsorbmore
Na+andwater.Thereabsorptionofbothsodiumandwaterresultsinanincreaseinbloodvolumeandbloodpressurewithoutchangingblood
osmolarity.

Chapter44Question58

PartA
Afterdrinkingalcoholicbeverages,increasedurineexcretionistheresultof_____.
ANSWER:
inhibitedsecretionofantidiuretichormone(ADH)
increasedreabsorptionofwaterintheproximaltubule
increasedaldosteroneproduction
increasedbloodpressure

Correct

Chapter44Question24

PartA
Ammonia_____.
ANSWER:

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haslowtoxicityrelativetourea
issolubleinwater
ismetabolicallymoreexpensivetosynthesizethanurea
isthemajornitrogenouswasteexcretedbyinsects

Correct

Chapter44Question34

PartA

Thefigureaboveshowsanephron.Filtrationtakesplaceinthestructurelabeled_____.
ANSWER:
a
b
c
d

Correct

Chapter44Question1

PartA
Theforcedrivingsimplediffusionis_____,whiletheenergysourceforactivetransportis_____.
ANSWER:

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theconcentrationgradientATP
theconcentrationgradientADP
transmembranepumpselectrontransport
phosphorylatedproteincarriersATP

Correct
ScoreSummary:
Yourscoreonthisassignmentis100%.
Youreceived26.07outofapossibletotalof26points.

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