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Mineralogi
Mineralogi merupakan ilmu bumi
yang berfokus pada sifat kimia,
struktur kristal, dan fisika
(termasuk optik) dari mineral.
Studi ini juga mencakup proses
pembentukan dan perubahan
mineral.
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barit

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Pada awalnya, mineralogi lebih


menitikberatkan pada sistem klasifikasi
mineral pembentuk batuan.
International Mineralogical Association
merupakan suatu organisasi yang
beranggotakan organisasi-organisasi yang
mewakili para ahli mineralogi dari masingmasing negara.
Aktifitasnya mencakup mengelolaan
penamaan mineral (melalui Komisi
Mineral Baru dan Nama Mineral), lokasi
mineral yang telah diketahui, dsb.
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Sampai dengan 2004 telah terdapat


lebih dari 4000 spesies mineral yang
diakui oleh IMA.
Dari kesemua itu, 150 dapat
digolongkan umum, 50 lainnya
terkadang, dan sisanya jarang
sampai sangat jarang

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perkembangan teknik
eksperimental (seperti
defraksi neutron) dan
kemampuan komputasi yang
ada, telah memungkinkan
simulasi prilaku kristal berskala
atom dengan sangat akurat,

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Mineralogi
Merupakan cabang ilmu geologi yang
mempelajari mengenai mineral, antara
lain sifat-sifat fisik, sifat kimia,
keterdapatannya, cara terjadinya dan
keguanaannya.

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DEFINISI MINERAL
Menurut L.G. Berry & B. Mason 1959
Mineral = Benda padat homogen terdapat
di alam terbetun secara anorganik,
mempunyai komposisi kimia tertentu &
mempunyai susunan atom yg teratur.

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Menurut D.G.A. Whitten & J.R.V. Brooks
1972
Mineral = Bahan padat dgn struktur
homogen mempunyai kompisisi kimia
tertentu, dibentuk oleh proses alam yg
anorganik.
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Menurut A.W.R. Potter & H. Robinson
1977
Mineral = zat atau bahan yg homogen
mempunyai komposisi kimia tertentu dan
mempunyai sifat-sifat tetap, dibentuk di
alam dan bukan hasil suatu kehidupan.
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flourite

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BATASAN-BATASAN MINERAL

Suatu Bahan Alam


Bahan terbentuk secara alamiah bukan
dibuat oleh manusia.
Mempunyai sifat fisik & kimia tetap
Sifat fisik : warna, kekerasan, belahan,
perwakan, pecahan
Sifat kimia : nyata api terhadap api
oksidasi/api reduksi, pengarangan
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Berupa unsur tunggal atau


persenyawaan yg tetap
Unsur tunggal : Diamond (c), Native silver
(Ag) dll
Unsur senyawa : Barit (BaSO4), Magnetite
(Fe3O4), Zircon(ZrSiO4)
Unsur senyawa kimia komplek :
- Epistolite (NaCa) (CbTiMgFeMn)
SiO4(OH)
- Polymignyte (CaFeYZrTh) (CbTiTa) O4
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Anorganik
Mineral bukan hasil dari suatu kehidupan.
ada beberapa mineral hasil kehidupan =
mineral organik Contoh : Coal, Asphal
Homogen
Mineral tidak dapat diuraikan menjadi
senyawa lain yang lebih sederhana oleh
proses
fisika.
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Berupa padat, cair dan gas.


Zat Padat : Kwarsa SiO2, Barite BaSO4
Zat Cair : Air raksa HgS, Air H2O
Gas : H2S, CO2, CH4

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ilmu ini telah berkembang luas


hingga mencakup permasalahan
yang lebih umum dalam bidang
kimia anorganik dan fisika padat.
Meskipun demikan, bidang ini tetap
berfokus pada struktur kristal yang
umumnya dijumpai pada mineral
pembentuk batuan.

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Secara khusus, bidang ini telah


mencapai kemajuan mengenai
hubungan struktur mineral dan
kegunaannya; di alam.
contoh yang menonjol berupa akurasi
perhitungan dan perkiraan sifat elastic mineral,
yang telah membuka pengetahuan yang
mendalam mengenai prilaku seismik batuan dan
ketidakselarasan yang berhubungan dengan
kedalaman pada seismiogram dari mantel bumi

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ilmu mineral (seperti yang


umumnya diketahui saat
ini) kemungkinan lebih
berhubungan dengan ilmu
material daripada ilmu
lainnya.

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mineral kuarsa

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Sifat fisik suatu mineral ini sangat


diperlukan di dalam mendeterminasi atau
mengenal mineral secara megaskopis
atau tanpa menggunakan mikroskop.
Dengan cara ini seseorang dapat
mendeterminasi mineral lebih cepat dan
biasanya langsung dilapangan tempat
dimana sampel mineral ditemukan. Sifat
fisik tersebut yaitu :
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Warna (color)
Kilap (Luster)
Kekerasan (hardness)
Cerat (Streak)
Belahan (Cleavage)
Pecahan (Fracture)
Berat Jenis (Specific Gravity)
Sifat Dalam (Tenacity)
Bentuk dan struktur (Perawakan)

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Macam-Macam Sistem Kristal


dan Kelasnya
pembagian macam-macam sistem kristal dan
kelasnya (mineralogi)
a. Sistem isometrik (Cubic = Tesseral =
Tessuler)
- Tritetrahedral
- Didodecahedral
- Hexatetrahedral
- Trioctahedral
- Hexoctahedral
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b. Sistem Tetragonal (Quadratic)


- Tetragonal pyramidal
- Tetragonal trapezohedral
- Tetragonal bipyramidal
- Ditetragonal pyramidal
- Ditetragonal bipyramidal
- Tetragonal tetrahedral
- Tetragonal Scalenohedral

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c. Sistem Hexagonal
- Trigonal bipyramidal
- Ditrigonal bipyramidal
- Hexagonal pyramidal
- Hexagonal trapezohedral
- Hexagonal bipyramidal
- Dihexagonal pyramidal
- Dihexagonal bipyramidal

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d. Sistem Trigonal (Rhombohedral)


- Trigonal pyramidal
- Trigonal trapezohedral
- Ditrigonal pyramidal
- Rhombohedral
- Ditrigonal scalenohedral

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e. Sistem Orthorombic (Rhombic =


Prismatic = Trimetric)
- Rhombic tetraheral
- Rhombic pyramidal
- Rhombic bipyramidal

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f. Sistem Monoklin (Oblique =


Monosymetric = Clinorhombic =
Hemiprismatik)
- Sphenoidal
- Domatic
- Prismatic

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g. Sistem Triklin (Anorthic = Asymetric


= Clinorhombohedral)
- Pedial
- Pinacoidal

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Mineralogi dan unsur kimia

Mineral yang terdapat dialam ada yang


merupakan unsur bebas, ada pula yang
merupakan gabungan dari beberapa unsur yaitu
berupa senyawa:
Mineral sebagai unsur kimia bebas (native
element), misalnya yaitu :
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Mineral sebagai unsur kimia bebas (native


element), misalnya yaitu :
Cu = Cuprum = Copper = tembaga
Au = Aurum = Gold = emas
Pt = Platinum = Platina
S = Sulphur = Sulfur = belerang
C = Carbon = Diamont = intan
C = Carbon = Graphite = grafit
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Mineral sebagai senyawa dapat digolongkan


menjadi beberapa macam, yaitu

1. Sulfida
Cu2S = Chalcocite = Kalkosite
Fe S2 = Pyrite = Pirit
Cu FeS2 = Chalcophyrite = kalkopirit
Cu Co2S4 = Carrolite = karolit
Ag2 S = Argentite
Pb S = Galena
Zn S = Sphalerite = sfalerite
= Zincblende
Hg S = Sinabar

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2. Halida :
Na Cl = Halite = Halit
KCl = Silvite = Silfit
KCl Mg Cl2 6H2O = Carnalite = Karnalite
Na3AlF6 = Kryollite = Kriolit
Ag CL = Serargirit
Ca F2 = Flourite = Flourit

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3. Oksida
Si O2 = Quartz = Kuarts
Si O2 = Chalcedony = Kalsedon
Si O2 ( H2O) x = Opal
Al2 O3 = Corundum = korundum
Al2 O3 2 H2O = Bauxite = Bauksite
Sn O2 = Cssiterite = Kasiterit
Fe2 O3 = Hematite = Hematit

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4. Hidroksida
Mg ( OH)2 = Bruchite = brukit
MnO (OH) = Manganite = mangan
AlO (OH) = Diaspore
FeO ( OH) = Geothite = Geotit
FeO (OH) nH2O = Limonite

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5. Karbonat
CaCO3 = Calsite = kalsit
Ca CO3 = Aragonite = aragonit
Ca CO3 Mg CO3 = Ca Mg (CO3)2 =
dolomite

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6. Nitrat
Na NO3 = Soda Nitrat = Natrium Nitrat
KNO3 = Kalium Nitrat = Potasium Nitrat

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7. Pospat
Ca5 (P.Cl.OH) (PO4)3 = Apatite = Apatit
Ca3 (PO4)3 = Phosphorite = Fosforite
Fe3 (PO4)3 5 H2O = Vivianite = vivianit
Li Al F PO4 = Ambligonite = Ambligonit

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8. Sulfat
Ba5 SO4 = Barite = Barit
Ca SO4 = Anhidrite = Anhidrit
Ca5 SO42H2O = Gypsum = Gipsum
K Al3 (OH)3 (SO4)2 = Alunite = Alunit

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9. Silikat :
Non Ferromagnesian silicate
a). Calc.Alkali Feldsfar ( Ca/Na Feldspar) = Plagioclase
=plagioklas
a. Ca (Al 2 Si 2 O8 = Anorthite = An 10- Ab1An9
b. Ca, Na (Al 2 Si 2 O8 ) = Bytownite = Ab 1 An9 - Ab3
An7
c. Ca, Na (Al 2 Si 2 O8 ) = Labradorite = Ab3 An7 - Ab5
An5
d. Ca, Na (Al 2 Si 2 O8 ) = Andesin = Ab5 An9 - Ab7 An3
e. Ca, Na (Al 2 Si 2 O8 ) = Oligoclase = Ab7 An3 - Ab9
An1
f. Na Al 2 Si 3 O8 = Albite = Ab10 - Ab3 An1
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b. Alkali Feldspar ( K. Na Feldspar)


a. K Al Si 3 O8 = Orthoclase = Artoklas
( K, Na) Al Si 3 O8)
b. ( K, Na) Al Si 3 O8 = Sanidine = Sanidin
c. K Al Si 3 O8 = Microline = mikrolin
d. ( Na, K) Al Si 3 O8 = Anorthoclase =
Anortoklas
c). Mika Putih
K Al3 Si 3 O10 ( OHF)2 = Muscovite = Muskovit
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Ferromagnesian silicate
(Mg. Fe )2 Si O4 = Olivin
Ca( Mg.Fe) (Si O3)2 [ ( Al, Fe )2O3 ]x =
pyroxene = piroksen
Ca( Mg.Fe Al)5 ( OH)2 (Si. Al )4 O11I2
=Hornblende
K2( Mg.Fe)2 ( OH)2 (Al Si 3 O10) =
Biotote =Biotit = Mika Hitam
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The Mohs Scale of Relative


Mineral Hardness

The Mohs scale was devised by


Friedrich Mohs in 1812 and has
been a valuable aid to identifying
minerals ever since.
Here are the ten standard minerals
in the Mohs scale.
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SKALA KEKERASAN
1. Talc
2. Gypsum
3. Calcite
4. Fluorite
5. Apatite
6. Feldspar
7. Quartz
8. Topaz
9. Corundum
10. Diamond
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Untuk menngetahui kekerasan mineral bisa


dipakai dengn membandingkan dengan
kekerasan yang sudah diketahui

You use the Mohs scale by testing your


unknown mineral against one of these
standard minerals.
Whichever one scratches the other is
harder, and if both scratch each other
they are both the same hardness.
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The Mohs scale is strictly a relative


scale, but that's all that anyone
needs. In terms of absolute
hardness, diamond (hardness 10)
actually is 4 times harder than
corundum (hardness 9) and 6
times harder than topaz (hardness
8).
Because it isn't made for that kind
of precision, the Mohs scale uses
half-numbers for in-between
hardnesses..
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Dolomite, which scratches calcite but not


fluorite, has a Mohs hardness of 3 or 3.5

There are a few handy objects that also fit


in the Mohs scale. A fingernail is 2, a
penny is just under 3, a knife blade is 5,
glass is 5, and a good steel file is 6.

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Hardness on the Mohs scale is just


one aspect of identifying minerals.
Along with hardness, you need to
consider luster, cleavage, crystalline
form, color, and rock type to zero in
on an exact identification. Find a list
of mineral identification

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Gallery of Mineral Lusters


Luster is a simple word for a complex
thing: the way light interacts with the
surface of a mineral.
This gallery shows the major types of
luster, which range from metallic to dull

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I might call luster the combination of


reflectance (shininess), penetration
(clarity) and absorption (cloudiness).
In that scheme, here is how the
common lusters would come out,
allowing some variation:

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Metallic: very high reflectance, no penetration, no


absorption
Submetallic: medium reflectance, no penetration, no
absorption
Adamantine: very high reflectance, high penetration, low
absorption
Glassy: high reflectance, high penetration, low absorption
Resinous: medium reflectance, medium penetration,
medium absorption
Waxy: medium reflectance, low penetration, medium
absorption
Pearly: low reflectance, low penetration, high absorption
Dull: no reflectance, no penetration, high absorption
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carbonat

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CHALKING OF WATER SYSTEMS

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ALTERMARL TALC MINE

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OLIVINE

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THE APLOICATIOOMN OF
TIOTANIOUM

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NEPHELINE

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QUARTZ AND QUARTZIOTE

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ORE

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Metallic Luster - Galena

Metallic Luster - Gold

Metallic Luster - Magnetite

Metallic Luster - Chalcopyrite

Metallic Luster - Pyrite

Submetallic Luster - Hematite

Adamantine Luster - Diamond

Adamantine Luster - Ruby

Adamantine Luster - Zircon

Adamantine Luster - Andradite


Garnet

Adamantine Luster - Cinnabar

Glassy or Vitreous Luster - Quartz

Glassy or Vitreous Luster - Olivine

Glassy or Vitreous Luster Aragonite

Glassy or Vitreous Luster - Calcite

Glassy or Vitreous Luster - Topaz

Glassy or Vitreous Luster - Selenite

Glassy or Vitreous Luster Tourmaline

Glassy or Vitreous Luster Actinolite

Resinous Luster - Amber

Resinous Luster - Spessartine


Garnet

Waxy Luster - Chalcedony

Waxy Luster - Variscite

Pearly Luster - Talc

Pearly Luster - Muscovite

Dull or Earthy Luster - Psilomelane

Dull or Earthy Luster - Chrysocolla

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Pumice is a gas-charged igneous


rock

Basalt from the crust of an old lava


flow

Granite from Pikes Peak, Colorado

The subduction factory.


Descending slab has sediment (yellow)
and altered basaltic rocks (green) on top.
As these are carried downward they yield
fluids,
which enter the upper slab (pink) and
underlying asthenosphere (white).
Black dots are earthquake locations.

They are mined from kimberlite


and lamproite volcanic pipes,
which can bring diamond crystals,
originating from deep within the
Earth where high pressures and
temperatures enable them to
form, to the surface.

A diamond is a transparent crystal of


tetrahedrally bonded carbon atoms and
crystallizes into the face centered cubic
diamond lattice structure.
Diamonds have been adapted for many uses
because of the material's exceptional
physical characteristics. Most notable are its
extreme hardness, its high dispersion index,
and extremely high thermal conductivity
(900 2320 W/m K), with a melting point of
3820 K (3547 C / 6420 F) and a boiling
point of 5100 K (4827 C / 8720 F).[5]
Naturally occurring diamonds have a density
ranging from 3.15 to 3.53 g/cm, with very
pure diamond typically extremely close to
3.52 g/cm.

The conditions for diamond formation to


happen in the lithospheric mantle occur
at considerable depth corresponding to
the aforementioned requirements of
temperature and pressure.
These depths are estimated to be in
between 140190 kilometers (90120
miles) though occasionally diamonds
have crystallized at depths of 300-400
km (180-250 miles)