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Reviewer in

FORENSIC MEDICINE
By
MELCON S. LAPINA,
MSCrim
Q1
The scope of forensic
medicine can be summed
in two words.
Absolute
and
complicated
Broad
and
encompassing
Definite
and
wideranging
Specific and delimiting

Q2
It is the inner framework
of the body. It gives form
and rigidity to the body,
and serves to protect
many vital organs.
Digestive system
Integumentary system
Muscular system
Skeletal system
Q3
An effect of injury that
takes place when the
stimulus
applied
is
insufficient
to
cause
injury
and
the
body
resistance is great.

Apparent
Real
Immediate
Delayed
Q4
Under the physics of
wound production, this
factor explains why an M16 will do more damage
than .38 caliber bullet.
Area of Transfer
Elasticity and plasticity
of tissue
Kinetic energy
Time
Q5

Sensation of heat or
increase in temperature.
Rubor
Calor
Dolor
Loss of function
Q6
Wound brought about by
blunt instrument could
be any of the following,
EXCEPT
Contusion
Hematoma
Laceration
Incision
Q7

X, a doctor, wanted to kill his


wife
by
poisoning.
During
dinner time, he put poison on
the food of his wife. Moments
after,
his
wife
suffered
excruciating
pain
in
the
stomach. Seeing his wife in
agony, he pitied his wife and
administered an antidote. Thus,
his wife did not die. What is the
crime committed by X?
Frustrated parricide
Attempted parricide
Serious physical injuries
Murder

Q8
Q9
Q1

The scope of forensic


medicine can be summed
in two words.
Absolute
and
complicated
Broad
and
encompassing
Definite
and
wideranging
Specific and delimiting
Legal Medicine
definition
Branch of medicine
Application of medical
knowledge to law &
admin of justice

Application of basic &


clinical,
medical
&
paramedical sciences to
elucidate legal matters
Scope of Legal Medicine
Broad & encompassing
Applies
medical
&
paramedical sciences
Wounds: surgery
Abortion: gynecology
Sudden death & effects of
trauma: pathology

Basic medical sciences:


Anatomy
Physiology
Biochemisty,
Physics
Other allied sciences

Nature of Study
Knowledge in
Pathology
Surgery
Gynecology
Toxicology
Other
branches
medicine

of

Q2
It is the inner framework
of the body. It gives form
and rigidity to the body,
and serves to protect
many vital organs.
Digestive system
Integumentary system
Muscular system

Skeletal system
Systems of Human Body
Integumentary
System
- Outer covering of body
- Function:
protection,
regulation
of
temperature, sensation
& excretion

Skeletal System
- Inner framework of body
- Gives form & rigidity to
body
- Protects vital organs

Systems of Human Body


Muscular System

- Changes energy from


food
to
mechanical
energy
- Enables parts of body to
move & perform work

Digestive System
- Changes food to soluble
form: absorbed by blood
& utilized by body

Systems of Human Body


Circulatory System
- Brings food & oxygen to
cells of body
- Removes waste materials
- Helps
maintain
even
temperature of body
- Provides
defenses
against disease

Respiratory System

- Supplies oxygen to cells:


used for production of
energy

Systems of Human Body


Excretory
System:
Anim. 1 & Anim. 2
- Collects & eliminates
metabolic wastes of body

Reproductive System:
Male & Female
- Ensures perpetuation of
species

Nervous & Endocrine


Systems
- Coordinate
all
other
systems of body
- Make
other
systems
work
together

harmoniously
efficiently

&

Q3
An effect of injury that
takes place when the
stimulus
applied
is
insufficient
to
cause
injury
and
the
body
resistance is great.
Apparent
Real
Immediate
Delayed
Concept of Physical
Injury

Effect of some forms of


stimulus on body
Effect:
Apparent:
stimulus
applied insufficient to
cause
injury
&
body
resistance great
Real : effect visible
Immediate: sharp pointed
&
sharp
edged
instrument immediate
production of stab wound
Delayed: blund object
delayed
production
of
contusion

Causes of Physical
Injuries
Physical violence

Heat or cold
Electrical energy
Chemical energy
Radiation
by
radioactive substances
Change of atmospheric
pressure (barotrauma)
Infection
Q4
Under the physics of
wound production, this
factor explains why an M16 will do more damage
than .38 caliber bullet.
Area of Transfer
Elasticity and plasticity
of tissue

Kinetic energy
Time
Effect of Physical
Violence
Production of wound
Wound:
Solution
of
natural
continuity of any tissue
of living body
Disruption of anatomic
integrity of tissue of body
Interchangeably used w/
wound
NOTE: physical violence
not always resulting to
wound but wound always
result
of
physical
violence

Physics of Wound
Production
Wound = kinetic energy
X time X area X other
factors
Kinetic Energy = MV2/2
Kinetic Energy:
Explains why M-16 bullet
(speed: 3,200 ft/sec) will
do more damage than .38
caliber bullet (heavier
but has much slower
velocity)

Time:
Shorter time of transfer
of
energy,
greater
production of damage

Physics of Wound
Production
Area of transfer
Larger area of contact,
lesser damage to body
Instrument for stabbing
greater
than
blunt
instrument

Other factors
Less elastic & plastic
tissue, greater laceration
Movement of parts of
body resulting from force
applied & local stretching
of tissue cause internal
injuries

Q5
Sensation of heat or
increase in temperature.
Rubor
Calor
Dolor
Loss of function
Vital Reaction

Sum
total
of
all
reactions of tissue or
organ to trauma
Reaction
observable
macroscopically
&
microscopically
Reactions of living to
tissue to trauma:

Rubor:
redness
or
congestion of area due to
increase of blood supply
as part of reparative
mechanism

Vital Reaction
Reactions of living to
tissue to trauma:
Calor: sensation of heat
or
increase
in
temperature
Dolor: pain on account of
involvement of sensory
nerve
Loss of function: tissue
losing ability to function
normally

Vital Reaction

Importance:
differentiates
antemortem injury vs postmortem injury
Vital
reactions
not
observable:
Physical injuries inflicted
during agonal state
Sudden death, ex: sudden
coronary occlusion

Q6
Wound brought about by
blunt instrument could
be any of the following,
EXCEPT
Contusion
Hematoma

Laceration
Incision
Classification of Wounds
As to Severity
Mortal wound: capable of
causing death
Heart & big blood vessels
Brain & upper portion of
spinal cord
Lungs
Stomach, liver, spleen &
intestine

Non-Mortal Wound: not


capable
of
producing
death

Classification of Wounds
Instrument Used

Blunt
instrument:
contusion,
hematoma,
lacerated wound
Sharp
instrument:
(1)
incised wound sharpedged instrument; (2)
punctured wound sharppointed instrument; (3)
stab wound: sharp-edged
&
sharp
pointed
instrument
Tearing force: lacerated
wound
Change of atmospheric
pressure: barotrauma

Classification of Wounds
Instrument Used
Heat/Cold:
burns or scald

frostbite,

Chemical
explosion:
gunshot/shrapnel wound
Infection

Classification of Wounds
Manner of Infliction
Hit:
bolo,
blunt
instrument, axe
Thrust/Stab:
bayonet
dagger
Gunpowder
explosion:
projectile/shrapnel
wound
Sliding/rubbing
or
abrasion

Classification of Wounds
Depth of Wound
Superficial:
only
layers of skin

Deep: inner structure


beyond layers of skin
Penetrating

no
exit: punctured, stab
& gunshot wounds
Perforating w/ exit
Classification of Wounds
Relation
of
Site
of
Application of Force &
Location of Injury
Coup Injury: injury @ site
of application of force
Contre-Coup
Injury:
injury opposite site of
application of force
Coup Contre-Coup Injury:
injury @ site & opposite

site of
force

application

of

Classification of Wounds
Relation
of
Site
of
Application of Force &
Location of Injury
Locus
Minoris
Resistencia: injury not @
site & opposite but areas
offering least resistance.
Ex: blow on forehead,
contusion @ eyeball
Extensive injury: injury
on greater area more
than site of application of
force.
Ex:
fall
from
height, run-over victim of
vehicular accident

Classification of Wounds
Special Types of Wounds
Defense wound: result
of instinct of selfprotection
Patterned wound: w/
nature & shape of
object/instrument
Self-inflicted
wound:
produced on oneself
but no intention to
end life
Classification of Wounds
Self-Inflicted
Wounds:
Motive
Pension/workmans
compensation

Escape
obligations/punishment
New
identity/destroy
existing one
Attention/sympathy
Psychotic behavior

Q7

X, a doctor, wanted to kill his


wife
by
poisoning.
During
dinner time, he put poison on
the food of his wife. Moments
after,
his
wife
suffered
excruciating
pain
in
the
stomach. Seeing his wife in
agony, he pitied his wife and
administered an antidote. Thus,
his wife did not die. What is the
crime committed by X?
Frustrated parricide
Attempted parricide

Serious physical injuries


Murder

Legal Classification
of Physical Injuries
Mutilation (Art. 262)
Elements
Penalty
Important Points to
Remembers

Serious Physical
Injuries (Art. 263)
Element & Penalty
Important Points to
Remember

Legal Classification
of Physical Injuries

Administering Injurious
Substances/Beverages
(Art. 264)
Elements
Penalty
Important
Remembers

Points

to

Less Serious Physical


Injuries (Art. 265)
Elements
Penalty
Important
Remembers

Points

to

Integumentary System
Animation
Skin: true integument
covering surface of body

Largest
organ
of
vertebrate body
15-16% of total body
weight of adult human
17.5 sq ft for ave.
woman; 20 sq ft for ave.
man
1-2 mm thick
Integumentary System
Layers
Epidermis (thinner;
30 cells thick)
Dermis (thicker)

Melanocytes

10-

Scattered
at
juncture
between deep layers of
epidermis & dermis
Cells
producing
dark
pigment melanin

Integumentary System
Melanin
Absorbs UV rays
Tanning:
increase
in
melanin production by
much exposure of UVR
Light vs Dark: Production
of melanin

Dermis
Contains:
Muscle fibers
Glands
Pigment cells
Blood vessels

Sensory nerves

15-40
times
thicker
than epidermis
Subcutaneous layer
Beneath dermis
fat-rich cells of adipose
tissue: acts as (1) shock
absorbers
&
(2)
insulation to conserve
body heat

The Skin Animation


Skeletal System
Animation
Skeleton: framework of
animal body, composed
of
Cartilage
Bone

Combination of both

2 Parts
Axial Skeleton
Appendicular

Axial Skeleton
Skull
Vertebral Column
Ribs
Sternum
Appendicular Skeleton
Upper
pectoral
appendages (arms)
&
girdle
(scapula:
shoulder
blade&
clavicle: collarbone)
Lower
pelvic
appendages (legs)
&

girdle (ilium, ischium,


&
pubis,
collectively
called as hips)
Appendicular Skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
Distribution of Bones:
(1) adult human: 206
bones; (2) Infants: over
270 bones
Muscular System
Tissues w/ ability to
contract
Myofibril: basic unit of
all
muscles;
minute,
thread-like structure
Muscle
fiber:
each
muscle cell; contains

several
myofibrils:
myofilaments of 2 types,
thick & thin.
Thick
myofilament:
several
hundred
molecules of protein
myosin
Thin
myofilament:
2
strands of protein actin
Muscular System
Animation
Human body has 3 types
of muscles:
Skeletal muscles
Smooth muscles &
Cardiac muscles

Digestive System

Chain of organs:
Mouth
Oral cavity
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine
Anus
Digestive System
Animation
Circulatory System
Animation
After
process
of
digestion, digested food
delivered to all parts of
body by blood stream

Blood
picks
up
nutrients
@
small
intestine, & transports
to approx. 17 billion
cells; transports oxygen
to cells; collects waste
materials
for
elimination
Heart: pumping station
of blood system; cone,
muscular organ size of
fist; middle of chest
cavity;
lower
end
pointed to left
Circulatory System
Animation
Heart: 4 chambers

Atria (upper 2)
Ventricles (lower 2)

Heart Beat:
Systole:
alternate
contraction
Diastole: relaxation

Circulatory System
Blood
Vessels:
circulates thru body by
means of tubes that
varyin size & function
Arteries
Veins
Capillaries
Respiratory System

Breathing
mechanism
operates
throughout
lifetime:
taking
in
oxygen & giving off
carbon dioxide
Comparative absence &
survival
W/out food for 40 days:
survives
W/out water for 5 days:
survives
W/out oxygen for only a
few minutes: death

Respiratory System
Animation
Respiratory Tract:
Nostrils
Pharynx (throat)

Glottis
Larynx (voice box)
Trachea (windpipe)
Bronchi
lungs

Respiratory System
Animation
Skull
Framework of head
Most complex of all
parts of endoskeleton
Cartilaginous
during
embryonic stage
Includes:
Cranium (primary brain
case)

3 pairs of sense capsule


for organs of smell, sight
& hearing
Visceral
skeleton
for
tongue (hyoid apparatus)
Ear (incus, malleus, &
stapes)
for
sound
conduction
Throat

Skull
Skull Animation
Vertebral Column
Backbone
Main axial support of
vertebrates
Composition:
segmentally
arranged

vertebrae from base of


skull to tip of tail
Protects spinal cord
Provides rigidity of body
Direct
or
indirect
attachment
of
appendicular skeleton
Vertebral Column
Vertebral Column
Ribs
Series
of
cartilaginous/elongated
bony
structures
attached to vertebrae
Stout, arched structures
surrounding
thoracic

cavity
&
uniting
ventrally w/ sternum
Forms thoracic cage
12 pairs of ribs 1st-7th
pairs: true ribs, directly
attached to sternum;
8th-10th pairs: false ribs,
ends unite w/ cartilages
of true ribs; 11th-12th
pairs: floating ribs, ends
terminate freely
Ribs
Sternum
Breatbone
Elongated
structure
lying in central portion
of chest

Flat & narrow


3 parts: (1) manubrium:
upper
part;
(2)
gladiolus: middle/body
&
largest
part;
(3)
xiphoid: lowest portion
Protect
heart;
holds
sternal ends of ribs &
some
abdominal
muscles
Sternum
Skeletal Muscles
Smooth Muscles
A.k.a. visceral muscles
Found
in
internal
organs
(involuntary
movement)

Involved in automatic
process w/out conscious
actions: disgestion &
blood pressure
Cardiac Muscles
3 Types of Muscles
Arteries
Veins
Capillaries
Heart: 4 Chambers
Heart Beat
Melanocytes
7 Cervical Vertebrae
12 Thoracic Vertebrae
5 Lumbar Vertebrae
Sacrum & Coccyx
Elasticity & Plasticity

Ability
of
tissue
to
return to its normal
size & shape after being
deformed by pressue
Agonal
pertaining to death or
extreme suffering.
SOURCE: agonal. (2012). Retrieved August 18, 2012, from The Free
Dictionary
by
Farlex:
http://medicaldictionary.thefreedictionary.com/agonal

Sudden Coronary
Occlusion
Coronary
refers
to
arteries carry blood
containing oxygen and
other
nutrients
essential to the normal
functioning of the heart
muscle.

Occlusion
blockage

refers

to

SOURCE: Team, T. N. (2010, January 11). What is coronary occlusion?


Retrieved
August
18,
2012,
from
netdoctor:
http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/ate/heartandblood/203287.html

Contusion
Hematoma
Lacerated Wound
Incised Wound
Punctured Wound
Stab Wound
Barotrauma
Frostbite
Scald
Gunshot Wound
Shrapnel Wound
Coup Injury
Contre-Coup Injury
Defense Wound

Self-Inflicted Wound
Elements of Mutilation
Castration
(intentional mutilation
(totally/partially)
of
organ for reproduction
Castration
Intention

Mayhem

lopping/clipping off any


part of body other than
organ for reproduction
Penalty of Mutilation
Castration RT-RP
Mayhem PM med &
Max

Mutilation:
Important Points
to Remembers
Castration:
intentional
1
degree
higher:
victim 12 yrs old
Offender
has
intention to deprive
offended party of part
of his body
Mutilation

lopping/clipping off of
some part of body
Mayhem

other
intentional mutilation

Elements & Penalty of


SPI
Becomes
insane,
imbecile, impotent or
blind by PI = PM
Loses:
(a)
use
of
speech/power
to
hear/smell, eye, hand,
foot, arm, leg, (b) use of
any
such
member;
becomes incapacitated
for work = PC med &
max
(a) becomes deformed;
(b) loses of any member
of body; (c) loses use
thereof, (d) becomes

ill/incapacitated
for
work for 90 days = PC
min & med
Becomes
ill/incapacitated
for
labor for days & not
90 days = AM max to
PC min

Mutilation:
Important Points
to Remember