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Aspen HYSYS Petroleum Refining

Unit Operations Guide

Version Number: V7.3


March 2011
Copyright (c) 1981-2011 by Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
Aspen HYSYS, Aspen HYSYS Refining, Aspen RefSYS, Aspen Flare System Analyzer, Aspen Energy
Analyzer, Aspen HYSYS Refining CatCracker, Aspen HYSYS Pipeline Hydraulics, and the aspen leaf logo
are trademarks or registered trademarks of Aspen Technology, Inc., Burlington, MA.
This manual is intended as a guide to using AspenTechs software. This documentation contains
AspenTech proprietary and confidential information and may not be disclosed, used, or copied without
the prior consent of AspenTech or as set forth in the applicable license agreement. Users are solely
responsible for the proper use of the software and the application of the results obtained.
Although AspenTech has tested the software and reviewed the documentation, the sole warranty for the
software may be found in the applicable license agreement between AspenTech and the user.
ASPENTECH MAKES NO WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED,
WITH RESPECT TO THIS DOCUMENTATION, ITS QUALITY, PERFORMANCE,
MERCHANTABILITY, OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Aspen Technology, Inc.
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Phone: (781) 221-6400
Website http://www.aspentech.com

Aspen HYSYS Refining Overview

1-1

1 Aspen HYSYS
Refining Overview
1.1 Introduction to Aspen HYSYS Refining........................................... 2
1.2 Common Property Views ................................................................ 5
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4

Aspen HYSYS Refining Object Palette .......................................... 6


Worksheet Tab ......................................................................... 6
Notes Page/Tab ........................................................................ 7
User Variables Page/Tab .......................................................... 11

1-1

1-2

Introduction to Aspen HYSYS Refining

1.1 Introduction to Aspen


HYSYS Refining

Aspen HYSYS Refining (formerly known as RefSYS) is based on


the flowsheet capabilities of HYSYS (use of partial information,
bi-directional of information, and so forth). Existing HYSYS
simulation cases can be leveraged in Aspen HYSYS Refining
adding petroleum assays information and specific refinery unit
operations.
In order to run Aspen HYSYS Refining features, you have to
install both Aspen HYSYS Refining and Aspen Properties, and
have the Aspen HYSYS Refining license.
For more information on
the petroleum assays,
refer to Chapter 2.1 Introduction.

The key concept of Aspen HYSYS Refining is the petroleum


assay. A petroleum assay is a vector that stores physical
properties and assay properties for a specific component list.
Physical properties include all properties used in a typical HYSYS
simulation case. Assay properties comprise refinery related
properties as cloud point, octane numbers, flash point, freeze
point, sulphur content, PONA distribution, GC data and etc. A
component list typically consists of library components (for
instance, methane to n-pentane) and pseudo-components
(hypothetical components).
Aspen HYSYS Refining is based on a flexible structure so that no
pre-defined list of pseudo-components is required. Moreover,
existing lists of pseudo-components created by the HYSYS Oil
Environment can be used in Aspen HYSYS Refining. Each
component stores a value of a physical and assay property. The
assay properties are usually imported from an assay
management system, as for instance, CrudeManager from Spiral
Software Ltd.
At the Simulation Environment, each stream may have its own
petroleum assay, that is, the physical and assay properties of
components on one stream may differ from other streams. Bulk
values for assay properties are calculated using specific lumping
rules. When process streams are mixed together on any HYSYS
1-2

Aspen HYSYS Refining Overview

1-3

or Aspen HYSYS Refining operation, a new petroleum assay is


created and special blending rules are employed to re-calculate
the physical and assay properties. This unique architecture
allows the simulation of refinery-wide flowsheets using one
single component list - resulting in optimal speed performance
on calculations. Moreover, the propagation of those properties
allows the integration of reactor models, since the required
properties are available at the feed stream to the reactor unit.
The various components that comprise HYSYS/ HYSYS Refining
provide an extremely powerful approach to refinery simulation
modeling. At a fundamental level, the comprehensive selection
of operations and property methods allows you to model a wide
range of processes with confidence. Perhaps even more
important is how the HYSYS/ HYSYS Refining approach to
modeling maximizes your return on simulation time through
increased process understanding. The key to this is the Event
Driven operation. By using a degrees of freedom approach,
calculations in HYSYS/ HYSYS Refining are performed
automatically. Aspen HYSYS Refining performs calculations as
soon as unit operations and property packages have enough
required information.
Any results, including passing partial information when a
complete calculation cannot be performed, is propagated bidirectionally throughout the flowsheet. What this means is that
you can start your simulation in any location using the available
information to its greatest advantage. Since results are available
immediately - as calculations are performed - you gain the
greatest understanding of each individual aspect of your
process.
The multi-flowsheet architecture of HYSYS/ HYSYS Refining is
vital to this overall modelling approach. Although HYSYS/ HYSYS
Refining has been designed to allow the use of multiple property
packages and the creation of pre-built templates, the greatest
advantage of using multiple flowsheets is that they provide an
extremely effective way to organize large processes. By
breaking flowsheets into smaller components, you can easily
isolate any aspect for detailed analysis. Each of these subprocesses is part of the overall simulation, automatically
calculating like any other operation.
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1-4

Introduction to Aspen HYSYS Refining

The design of the HYSYS/Aspen HYSYS Refining interface is


consistent, if not integral, with this approach to modelling.
Access to information is the most important aspect of successful
modelling, with accuracy and capabilities accepted as
fundamental requirements. Not only can you access whatever
information you need when you need it, but the same
information can be displayed simultaneously in a variety of
locations. Just as there is no standardized way to build a model,
there is no unique way to look at results. HYSYS/Aspen HYSYS
Refining uses a variety of methods to display process
information - individual property views, the PFD, Workbook,
Databook, graphical Performance Profiles, and Tabular
Summaries. Not only are all of these display types
simultaneously available, but through the object-oriented
design, every piece of displayed information is automatically
updated whenever conditions change.
The inherent flexibility of HYSYS/Aspen HYSYS Refining allows
for the use of third party design options and custom-built unit
operations. These can be linked to Aspen HYSYS Refining
through OLE Extensibility.
Aspen HYSYS Refining also offers an assortment of utilities
which can be attached to process streams and unit operations.
These tools interact with the process and provide additional
information.
All standard HYSYS unit operations are explained in the HYSYS
Operations Guide and Aspen HYSYS Refining unit operations
are explained in this guide. The unit operations can be used to
assemble flowsheets. By connecting the proper unit operations
and streams, you can model a wide variety of refinery
processes.
Included in the available operations are those which are
governed by thermodynamics and mass/energy balances, such
as Heat Exchangers, Separators, and Compressors, and the
logical operations like the Adjust, Set, and Recycle. A number of
operations are also included specifically for dynamic modelling,
such as the Controller, Transfer Function Block, and Selector.
The Spreadsheet is a powerful tool, which provides a link to
nearly any flowsheet variable, allowing you to model special
1-4

Aspen HYSYS Refining Overview

1-5

effects not otherwise available in HYSYS/Aspen HYSYS Refining.


In modelling operations, HYSYS/Aspen HYSYS Refining uses a
Degrees of Freedom approach, which increases the flexibility
with which solutions are obtained. For most operations, you are
not constrained to provide information in a specific order, or
even to provide a specific set of information. As you provide
information to the operation, HYSYS/Aspen HYSYS Refining
calculates any unknowns that can be determined based on what
you have entered.
For instance, consider the Pump operation. If you provide a
fully-defined inlet stream to the pump, HYSYS/Aspen HYSYS
Refining immediately passes the composition and flow to the
outlet. If you then provide a percent efficiency and pressure
rise, the outlet and energy streams is fully defined. If, on the
other hand, the flowrate of the inlet stream is undefined,
HYSYS/Aspen HYSYS Refining cannot calculate any outlet
conditions until you provide three parameters, such as the
efficiency, pressure rise, and work. In the case of the Pump
operation, there are three degrees of freedom, thus, three
parameters are required to fully define the outlet stream.
All information concerning a unit operation can be found on the
tabs and pages of its property view. Each tab in the property
view contains pages which pertain to a certain aspect of the
operation, such as its stream connections or physical
parameters (for example, pressure drop and energy input).

1.2 Common Property


Views
Each operation in HYSYS contains some common information
and options. These information and options are grouped into
common tabs and pages. The following sections describe the
common tabs and pages in HYSYS operation property view.

1-5

1-6

Common Property Views

1.2.1 Aspen HYSYS Refining


Object Palette
The Aspen HYSYS Refining object palette enables you to add
Aspen HYSYS Refining operations to the main PFD. The Aspen
HYSYS Refining operations are:

Refer to FCC Operation


Guide for more
information on FCC
Reactor.
For information on the
HBED reactor, see the
Aspen HYSYS online help.

Assay Manipulator
Catalytic Reformer
FCC Reactor
Hydrocracker
Petroleum Column
Petroleum Feeder
Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor
Product Blender
Isomerization Unit Operation
HBED Reactor

To access the Aspen HYSYS Refining object palette do one of the


following:

In the main case (Simulation) environment, press F6.


In the main case (Simulation) environment, select
Flowsheet | RefSYS Operations command from the
menu bar.

1.2.2 Worksheet Tab


Refining object palette

The Worksheet tab contains a summary of the information


contained in the stream property view for all the streams
attached to the air cooler. The Conditions and Composition
pages contain selected information from the corresponding
pages of the Worksheet tab for the stream property view.
The Properties page displays the property correlations of the
inlet and outlet streams of the unit operations. The following is a
list of the property correlations:
Vapour / Phase Fraction

Vap. Frac. (molar basis)

Temperature

Vap. Frac. (mass basis)

1-6

Aspen HYSYS Refining Overview

Pressure

1-7

Vap. Frac. (volume basis)

Actual Vol. Flow

Molar Volume

Mass Enthalpy

Act. Gas Flow

Mass Entropy

Act. Liq. Flow

Molecular Weight

Std. Liq. Flow

Molar Density

Std. Gas Flow

Mass Density

Watson K

Std. Ideal Liquid Mass Density

Kinematic Viscosity

Liquid Mass Density

Cp/Cv

Molar Heat Capacity

Lower Heating Value

Mass Heat Capacity

Mass Lower Heating Value

Thermal Conductivity

Liquid Fraction

Viscosity

Partial Pressure of CO2

Surface Tension

Avg. Liq. Density

Specific Heat

Heat of Vap.

Z Factor

Mass Heat of Vap.

The Heat of Vapourisation for a stream in HYSYS is defined


as the heat required to go from saturated liquid to saturated
vapour.

The PF Specs page contains a summary of the stream property


view Dynamics tab.
The PF Specs page is relevant to dynamics cases only.

1.2.3 Notes Page/Tab


The Notes page/tab provides a text editor where you can record
any comments or information regarding the specific unit

1-7

1-8

Common Property Views

operation or the simulation case in general.


Figure 1.1

Adding Notes
To add a comment or information in the Notes page/tab:
1. Go to the Notes page/tab.
2. Use the options in the text editor toolbar to manipulate the
appearance of the notes.
The following table lists and describes the options available
in the text editor toolbar.
Object

Icon

Description

Font Type

Use the drop-down list to select the text type for


the note.

Font Size

Use the drop-down list to select the text size for


the note.

Font Colour

Click this icon to select the text colour for the


note.

Bold

Click this icon to bold the text for the note.

Italics

Click this icon to italize the text for the note.

Underline

Click this icon to underline the text for the note.

Align Left

Click this icon to left justify the text for the note.

Centre

Click this icon to center justify the text for the


note.

Align Right

Click this icon to right justify the text for the note.

1-8

Aspen HYSYS Refining Overview

Object

Icon

1-9

Description

Bullets

Click this icon to apply bullets to the text for the


note.

Insert Object

Click this icon to insert an object (for example an


image) in the note.

3. Click in the large text field and type your comments.


The date and time when you last modified the information in
the text field will appear below your comments.
The information you enter in the Notes tab or page of any
operations can also be viewed from the Notes Manager
property view.

Notes Manager
The Notes Manager lets you search for and manage notes for a
case.
To access the Notes Manager do one of the following:

Select Notes Manager command from the Flowsheet


menu.

1-9

1-10

Common Property Views

Press the CTRL G hot key.

Figure 1.2
Click the Plus
icon to expand
the tree
browser.

View/Add/Edit Notes
To view, add, or edit notes for an object, select the object in the
List of Objects group. Existing object notes appear in the Note
group.

To add a note, type the text in the Note group. A time


and date stamp appears automatically.
To format note text, use the text tools in the Note group
toolbar. You can also insert graphics and other objects.
Click the Clear button to delete the entire note for the
selected object.
Click the View button to open the property view for the
selected object.

Search Notes
The Notes Manager allows you to search notes in three ways:

1-10

Aspen HYSYS Refining Overview 1-11

Select the View Objects with Notes Only checkbox (in


the List of Objects group) to filter the list to show only
objects that have notes.
Select the Search notes containing the string
checkbox, then type a search string. Only objects with
notes containing that string appear in the object list.
You can change the search option to be case sensitive by
selecting the Search is Case Sensitive checkbox.
The case sensitive search option is only available if you
are searching by string.
Select the Search notes modified since checkbox,
then type a date.Only objects with notes modified after
this date will appear in the object list.

1.2.4 User Variables Page/Tab


The User Variables page or tab enables you to create and
implement variables in the HYSYS simulation case.
Figure 1.3

1-11

1-12

Common Property Views

The following table outlines options in the user variables


toolbar:
Object

Icon

Function

Current Variable
Filter drop-down list

Enables you to filter the list of variables in


the table based on the following types:
All
Real
Enumeration
Text
Code Only
Message

Create a New User


Variable icon

Enables you to create a new user variable


and access the Create a New User
Variable property view.

Edit the Selected


User Variable icon

Enables you to edit the configuration of


an existing user variable in the table.
You can also open the edit property view
of a user variable by double-clicking on
its name in the table.

Delete the Selected


User Variable icon

Enables you to delete the select user


variable in the table.
HYSYS requires confirmation before
proceeding with the deletion. If a
password has been assigned to the User
Variable, the password is requested
before proceeding with the deletion.

Sort Alphabetically
icon

Enables you to sort the user variable list


in ascending alphabetical order.

Sort by Execution
Order icon

Enables you to sort the user variable list


according to the order by which they are
executed by HYSYS.
Sorting by execution order is important if
your user variables have order
dependencies in their macro code.
Normally, you should try and avoid these
types of dependencies.

Move Selected
Variable Up In
Execution Order icon

Enables you to move the selected user


variable up in execution order.

Move Selected
Variable Down In
Execution Order icon

Enables you to move the selected user


variable down in the execution order.

Show/Hide Variable
Enabling Checkbox
icon

Enables you to toggle between displaying


or hiding the Variable Enabling
checkboxes associated with each user
variable.
By default, the checkboxes are not
displayed.

1-12

Aspen HYSYS Refining Overview 1-13

Add a User Variable


To add a user variable:
1. Access the User Variables page or tab in the object
property view.
2. Click the Create a New User Variable icon. The Create
New User Variable property view appears.
Create a New User
Variable icon

3. In the Name field, type in the user variable name.


4. Fill in the rest of the user variable parameters as indicated
by the figure below.
Figure 1.4
Select the data
type, dimension,
and unit type
using these dropdown list.
These tabs
contain more
options for
configuring the
user variable.
Code field
Allows you to add
password
security to the
user variable.

You can define your own filters on the Filters tab of the user
variable editing property view.

1-13

1-14

Common Property Views

1-14

The Petroleum Assay

2-1

2 The Petroleum Assay

2.1 Introduction................................................................................... 2
2.1.1 The Centroid Point.................................................................... 4
2.2 The Petroleum Assay Manager Tab ................................................ 6
2.2.1 Adding and Editing Petroleum Assays .......................................... 7
2.2.2 About Importing Petroleum Assays ............................................. 8
2.2.3 Importing a PIMS Assay ............................................................ 8
2.2.4 Importing a CrudeManager Assay ............................................. 11
2.2.5 Importing an Assay in CSV format ............................................ 12
2.2.6 Converting an Assay from HySYS Oil Format .............................. 13
2.2.7 Characterizing an Assay Using a Macro-Cut Table........................ 14
2.2.8 Exporting Petroleum Assays..................................................... 20
2.2.9 Creating User-Defined Blending Rules ....................................... 21
2.2.10 Miscellaneous SimDist Distillation Types................................... 22
2.2.12 Improving D86 5% and D86 95% Point Prediction..................... 25
2.3 The Petroleum Assay Window ...................................................... 27
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.3.5

Setup Tab.............................................................................. 27
The Assay Data Tab ................................................................ 28
Analysis Tab .......................................................................... 38
Estimation Tab ....................................................................... 38
Notes Tab.............................................................................. 39

2-1

2-2

Introduction

2.1 Introduction
In a refinery, a typical crude oil stream consists of the following
characteristics:

A mixture of many naturally occurring hydrocarbons with


boiling points ranging from -160C (Methane) to more
than 1500C.

Heavy fractions that are not mixtures of discretely


identifiable components. These heavy fractions are often
lumped together and identified as the plus-fraction
starting from C7+ to C12+.

Each crude oil has unique molecular and chemical characteristics


and no crude oil types are identical. Assay data helps refiners to
determine whether a crude oil feedstock is compatible for use in
a particular petroleum refinery or if the crude oil could cause
yield, quality, production, environmental or other problems.
A proper description of the physical properties of the plusfractions is essential for reliable phase behavior calculations and
compositional modelling studies. Assay data helps refiners to
determine whether a crude oil feedstock is compatible for use in
a particular petroleum refinery or if the crude oil could cause
yield, quality, production, environmental or other problems.
Aspen HYSYS Refining contains a database, the petroleum
assay, that you can use to store and calculate the physical and
petroleum properties of the crude oil stream.
The petroleum assay is a vector that stores physical properties
and assay properties for a specific component list. Physical
properties include all properties used in a typical HYSYS
simulation case. Assay properties comprise refinery related
properties as cloud point, octane numbers, flash point, freeze
point, sulphur content, PONA distribution, GC data and etc.

2-2

The Petroleum Assay

2-3

A component list typically consists of library components (for


instance, methane to n-pentane) and pseudo-components
(hypothetical components). Aspen HYSYS Refining is based on a
flexible structure so that no pre-defined list of pseudocomponents is required. Moreover, existing lists of pseudocomponents created by the HYSYS Oil Environment can be used
in Aspen HYSYS Refining. Each component stores a value of a
physical and assay property.
The assay properties are usually imported from an assay
management system, as for instance, CrudeManager(TM)-Aspen
HYSYS Refining Link from Spiral Software Ltd. At the Simulation
Environment, each stream may have its own petroleum assay,
that is, the physical and assay properties of components on one
stream may differ from other streams. Bulk values for assay
properties are calculated using specific lumping rules. When
process streams are mixed together on any HYSYS or Aspen
HYSYS Refining operation, a new petroleum assay is created and
special blending rules are employed to re-calculate the physical
and assay properties.
If you do not have the Aspen HYSYS Refining license, you
cannot create or import a petroleum assay using the options
in the Petroleum Assay Manager window.

HYSYS Refining is based upon a flexible structure that allows a


user to characterize this petroleum assay using the least
available data and using rigorous laboratory data. The user does
not need to have data in the RefSYS format mentioned above,
RefSYS can take data in different formats and transmute it into
an internal petroleum assay format. Following are the major
ways to characterize and generate a petroleum assay.

2-3

2-4

Introduction

You can create a petroleum assay using the options in the


Petroleum Assay Manager window or in the Oil Manager tab. The
differences between the petroleum assays created in Petroleum
Assay Manager and Oil Manager are listed in the following table:
Oil Manager

Petroleum Assay Manager

Each installed blend has its own


component list.

One component list is shared among


multiple assays.

Property values are not calculated


based on blending rules, because
each assay has its own component
list.

Contains blending rule equations for


more accurate calculation.

Lets you modify a few petroleum


properties.

Lets you modify more petroleum


properties.

Simplified options to characterize a


petroleum assay.

Advanced options to characterize a


petroleum assay.

The normal boiling point of hypo


components is the centroid
(average) boiling point.

The normal boiling point of hypo


components is the final boiling point.

2.1.1 The Centroid Point


In Aspen HYSYS Refining, the centroid boiling point of the cuts,
represented by hypocomponents initial boiling points (IBPs) and
final boiling points (FBPs), and their yields are calculated by
plotting the boiling point curves of the cuts in the crude oil
stream versus their yields.
Each cut is identified by an initial and final boiling point
temperature. The centroid point is the boiling point temperature
associated with the mid percent-yield of the corresponding cut.
The mid percent-yield is the half-way % volume point between
the % volume of the initial and final boiling point.

2-4

The Petroleum Assay

2-5

Refer to the figure below:

Temperature

Figure 2.1

FBPn
Centroidn
IBPn
Vol 1

Vol 2

Vol 1 = Vol 2
% Volume

The final boiling point temperature is assigned as the


hypocomponents boiling point temperature. The centroid
boiling point is used to estimate the physical properties of
the component.

1. Steps #2 and #3 are repeated to generate the boiling point


temperatures for all of the hypocomponents.
2. For library components, the centroid boiling temperature is
set to their normal boiling point.

2-5

2-6

The Petroleum Assay Manager Tab

2.2 The Petroleum Assay Manager Tab


If you do not have the Aspen HYSYS Refining license, the
simulation case will not access petroleum assays.

The Petroleum Assay Manager tab lets you create, manipulate,


import, and export petroleum assays in several formats.
Figure 2.2

To access the Petroleum Assay Manager tab:


1. In the menu bar, select Basis | Basis Manager to open the
Simulation Basis Manager window.
2. Click the RefSYS Assay Manager tab.
To create a petroleum assay, you must first specify a list of
components and configure a fluid package for the case.
If you are importing a petroleum assay from a file, you do
not have to specify components or a fluid package.

2-6

The Petroleum Assay

2-7

The following table lists and describes the objects in the


Petroleum Assay Manager tab:
Object

Description

Petroleum Assays
field

Displays the petroleum assays available in the


simulation case.

View/Export

Opens the Petroleum Assay window of an existing


petroleum assay. Accesses the export functions for
supported third party and .csv formats.

Add/Import

Creates a blank petroleum assay, where you can


enter your own petroleum assay properties or
import other supported assay file formats.

Delete

Deletes the selected petroleum assay from the


simulation case.

Copy

Creates a copy of the selected petroleum assay.

Import PIMS

Imports a petroleum assay or assays in PIMS


format. (PIMS files allow the presence of several
assays in one file, so you may import multiple
assays directly into the Assay Manager. For other
import formats, you first add a new assay, then
use the Properties view for that assay to import
the individual assay data.)

Export PIMS

Exports the selected petroleum assay or assays to


a PIMS file.

Property Blending
Methods table

Lets you change the equations used to calculate


the petroleum properties.

Petroleum radio
button

Filters the information in the Property Blending


Methods table to display only HYSYS default
petroleum properties.

User radio button

Filters the information in the Property Blending


Methods table to display only HYSYS non-default/
user created petroleum properties.

Settings

Lets you set the assay initial and final boiling


points, and D2887 Options.

2.2.1 Adding and Editing Petroleum Assays


To add a new petroleum assay:
1. Click Basis > Basis Manager to open the Simulation Basis
Manager window.
2. Click the RefSYS Assay Manager tab.
3. In the Petroleum Assay Manager window click Add/Import.
Use tabs of the Petroleum Assay window to enter information
for a new assay.

2-7

2-8

The Petroleum Assay Manager Tab

To edit an existing petroleum assay:


1. Click Basis > Basis Manager to open the Simulation Basis
Manager window.
2. Click the RefSYS Assay Manager tab.
3. In the Petroleum Assay Manager window, select the assay
you want to edit and click View. Use the tabs of the
Petroleum Assay window to edit the existing assay.

2.2.2 About Importing Petroleum Assays


You may import a petroleum assay in legacy HYSYS Oil format,
Aspen PIMS format, Spiral Ltd. CrudeManager format, macrocut table format, or from a text-based .CSV file.
You can also import an H/CAMS CAL-II assay by editing the CALII output file as described in the section: Appendix Converting an H/CAMS assay to PIMS format and importing
the data as a PIMS assay.

2.2.3 Importing a PIMS Assay


Aspen PIMS is an enterprise-wide planning application which
provides optimized feedstock evaluation, product slate
optimization, plant design, and operational execution. Aspen
PIMS has its own format of petroleum assay data. Each
component and property has tags and values associated with it.
Generally this data is in macro-cut form (components with large
boiling point ranges).
Note: PIMS format allows the presence of several assys in one
file, so you may import multiple assays directly into the Assay
Manager. For other import formats, use Add/Import.

2-8

The Petroleum Assay

2-9

To Import a PIMS Assay


There are two ways to import a PIMS assay file. You can import
while maintaining the component granularity available in the
PIMS format, or import using the predefined granularity in
HYSYS Refining.
General Comments:

The Bulk property value in the PIMS assay file is not


imported (HYSYS Refining has a manipulator unit
operation to shift the bulk properties)

Index-based properties are imported as user-properties.

When a PIMS file with multiple assays is imported


through the Petroleum Assay form, the first assay stored
in the PIMS assay CSV file is imported.

Standard liquid density, boiling point and composition


should be available for all the components in the PIMS
csv file, if not, HYSYS Refining will fail to import it.

If some properties are not monotonous (e.g. Standard


liquid density vs NBP curve) HYSYS Refining will fail to
import the CSV file.

To import a PIMS assay maintaining the PIMS format


component granularity
1. In the Simulation Basis Manager, click the RefSYS Assay
Manager tab..
2. In the Refsys: Petroleum Assay Manager window click
Import PIMS.
3. In the PIMS Assay Import window, uncheck "Use Existing
Fluid Package." Click Import.
4. Use the file browser to select the input file.
5. In the Select Assay to Import window, select the
individual assays to be imported from the PIMS assay file
and optionally input a name to be used in HYSYS Refining.
Click OK.
6. Depending on the component name tag in the PIMS assay,
HYSYS Refining determines whether a given component is a
hypothetical or pure component. Use the Import PIMS

2-9

2-10

The Petroleum Assay Manager Tab

Assay: Components window to review and confirm import


information and name the hypothetical components. Click
Next to finish.
7. Use the Import PIMS Assay: Property Mapping window
to Map PIMS properties with HYSYS Refining properties.
8. Input the units of PIMS properties to be imported.
9. Review the User Property status of the imported properties
(If the PIMS property is not available in HYSYS Refining then
the property will be imported as a User Property).
10. Check whether the property should be imported or not.
11. Click Done to finish. You are prompted to create an Aspen
Properties components list. If Yes, the wizard creates an
Aspen Properties component list and assigns properties to it.
If No, a HYSYS list is created. The PIMS assay is imported.
To Import a PIMS assay using predefined component
granularity in HYSYS Refining:
1. In the Simulation Basis Manager, click the RefSYS Assay
Manager tab.
2. In the Petroleum Assay Manager window click Import
PIMS.
3. In the PIMS Assay Import window, check "Use Existing
Fluid Package." Select a package from the drop-down list.
Click Import.
4. Use the file browser to select the input file.
5. In the Select Assay to Import window, select the individual
assays to be imported from the PIMS assay file and
optionally input a name to be used in HYSYS Refining. Click
OK.
6. Depending on the component name tag in the PIMS assay,
HYSYS Refining determines whether a given component is a
hypothetical or pure component. Use the Import PIMS
Assay: Components window to review and confirm import
information and name the hypothetical components. (Notice
that the hypothetical name can't be changed because PIMS
Hypothetical components are mapped to the existing fluid
package's Hypothetical components.) Click Next to finish.

2-10

The Petroleum Assay

2-11

7. Use the Import PIMS Assay: Property Mapping window


to Map PIMS properties with HYSYS Refining properties
8. Input the units of PIMS properties to be imported
9. Review the User Property status of the imported property (If
the PIMS property is not available in HYSYS Refining then
the property will be imported as User Property.)
10. Determine whether the property should be imported or not.
11. Click Done to finish. You are prompted to create an Aspen
Properties components list. If Yes, the wizard creates an
Aspen Properties component list and assigns properties to it.
If No, a HYSYS list is created. The PIMS assay is imported.
A matrix of component names and properties is created. The
Spline extrapolation method is used to generate HYSYS Refining
properties for the existing fluid package. The following data is
used:

"PIMS component NBP (known) vs. Property value


(known)

"HYSYS Refining component NBP (known) vs. Property


(un-known).

Various issues are considered for this curve-fitting - such as


whether a property is monotonous or not, if minimum and
maximum value of property should be obeyed (0 and 100 for
percentage type properties). This happens for important
properties and not for all the properties.
Note: When importing PIMS assays into HYSYS Refining, it is not
possible to meet bulk properties such as Kvalue, Reid VP, or True
VP because these properties are difficult to manipulate and are
derived from physical properties.

2.2.4 Importing a CrudeManager Assay


CrudeManager is a third-party database from Spiral Software
Ltd. that provides a central source of up-to-date crude oil
information. It uses advanced statistical methods to update
existing assays and predict missing data.

2-11

2-12

The Petroleum Assay Manager Tab

Note: Most refiners rely on a CrudeManager type of database.


Because CrudeManager has a large property database and
advanced method of property calculations this is a preferred
way.

To Import an Assay from CrudeManager


When you have set up a property package and a fluid package in
the Simulation Manager:
1. In the Simulation Basis Manager, click Extended
Simulation Basis Manager.
2. In the Refsys: Petroleum Assay Manager window click Add/
Import.
3. In the Petroleum Assay window, Click Crude Manager.
4. In the CrudeManager application, select the assay to import,
and click the Transfer to Refsys icon in the toolbar. The
CrudeManager information is imported into the new assay.

2.2.5 Importing an Assay in CSV format


The CSV file (.csv) is a comma separated value format file which
can be edited using standard text or spreadsheet editors. This
file consists of a matrix of component names (pure and
hypothetical) and property values.

To Import an Assay in CSV format


Prepare the CSV file, entering hypothetical component names
and their properties in HYSYS Refining units (for example, the
boiling point should be entered in Kelvin).
The minimum requirements are:

Normalized composition

boiling temperature (Kelvin)

standard liquid density (kg/m3).

2-12

The Petroleum Assay

2-13

1. In the Simulation Basis Manager, click the RefSYS Assay


Manager tab.
2. In the Refsys: Petroleum Assay Manager window click Add/
Import.
3. In the Petroleum Assay window, click CSV Format.
4. Use the file browser to select the input file.
HYSYS Refining imports the CSV file and generates a petroleum
assay. A new fluid package and component slate is created.
If an imported component name exists in the HYSYS Refining
pure component database, HYSYS will create a pure component,
otherwise a hypothetical component will be created.
Hypothetical component properties will be imported. There is no
crude-cutting occurring in this option.
Notes:
This file determines the granularity of the HYSYS Refining
component slate, so if you want granular data and you do not
have a crude-cutting tool this is not the best option.
If you have an external crude-cutting tool which can populate
the matrix in this CSV file then this option is suitable. In fact,
crude manager assay import mechanism is similar.

2.2.6 Converting an Assay from HySYS Oil


Format
HySYS Oil Manager is a legacy tool in HYSYS Refining that lets
you input assay data and characterize the assay in a proprietary
HYSYS format.
If you have such assays as part of a HYSYS case, as of V7.3 you
can easily convert them to the updated HYSYS Refining format,
and use them in HYSYS Refining cases.

2-13

2-14

The Petroleum Assay Manager Tab

To convert HYSYS Oil Manager assays,


1. Click the Oil Manager tab on the Simulation Basis Manager
View.
2. Click Convert to RefSYS Assays.
3. Use the Export Oil Manager Information view to define
names for the new assays and check whether to install them
in the case.
4. Make further choices on the Components list, Blend Options
and User Property to Petroleum Property Map views.
5. Click Convert.
The conversion is run and the selected assays are installed in
the case.
Note: In some instances you may be prompted to use the
Macro-Cut functionality to import the assay. In this case,
1. Go to the Simulation Basis Manager > Refsys Assay Manager
tab and click Add/Import
2. In the Petroleum Assay view select an Associated Fluid
Package and click Macro-cut table.
3. In the macro-cut data view, click Import From.
4. Click Available Oil Manager Assays and select an assay
from the drop down list.
The assay will be converted and you may use the Macro-cut
table to further define it if you wish.

2.2.7 Characterizing an Assay Using a


Macro-Cut Table
HYSYS Refining lets you enter assay data in the Petroleum Assay
environment, and a stream's composition ply in a matrix format.
This matrix is accessible in the Aspen Simulation Workbook
environment or through OLE, so you can generate an assay
through an Excel workbook. (Note: The matrix must be attached
to a stream.)

2-14

The Petroleum Assay

2-15

You can enter various extrapolation options, for example, if you


want to extrapolate a property beyond the data range given or
not, you can specify whether the property is monotonous or not.
You may also enter a bulk property value.
Unlike the PIMS assay format and CSV format which let you
enter the data in TBP distillation form only, this option lets you
enter D86, D2887 and D1160 distillation curves.

Assay Characterization Using the Macro Cut Procedure


It is assumed that

the light ends and distillation curves are in the same


basis.

The distillation curve includes light end information.

Light end composition will be assigned to pure components as


is. The distillation curve in any basis will be converted to TBP
basis using API correlations.
The Hypo Component normal boiling point is assumed as its final
boiling point. Firstly, the hypo components composition will be
determined by performing a curve-fitting exercise: TBP
temperature (X) vs. Yield (Y) and Hypo NBP temperature
(Xcalc) vs. Hypo composition (Ycalc - ?). This curve fitting is
performed on cumulative level.
Since it is assumed that distillation data includes light ends
information, the first hypo component (the lightest one) will
have a summation of hypo component composition and all the
lighter pure component composition. Hence, all the lighter pure
components composition will be subtracted from the first hypo
composition and will be assigned to the corresponding pure
components.
If there is any pure component which boils at a temperature
higher than the lightest hypo boiling temperature, this situation
is called "overlap between pure component and hypo
component." In Aspen HYSYS Petroleum Refining, this situation
is generally avoided. Instead, GC properties are used. For
example, there are two ways to model Benzene composition in
assay stream:

2-15

2-16

The Petroleum Assay Manager Tab

1. [Not Recommended] Create Benzene as a pure component.


(Boiling Temperature = 80.09 C). In this case there will be
an overlap between Benzene as a pure component and a
hypo component that boils between 80 C and 90 C.
2. [Recommended] Use GC Property - A C6 Benzene Vol Pct / A
C6 Benzene Wt Pct. This property will be non-zero for any
hypo component that boils between 80 C and 90 C.
To model case - 1, using macrocut (which assumes the
distillation contains pure component data), after performing a
curve fitting exercise, you need to remove the supplied Benzene
composition from hypo composition 80-90*. This procedure
sometimes creates the problem because a curve-fitted
composition for hypo 80-90* is an approximate composition,
and when you subtract the Benzene composition from this, the
resultant number may turn out to be negative. Hence the
accuracy of the macro cut assay is compromised - this way of
modeling a pure component is not recommended.
To model case - 2, you should further characterize a macro-cut
formulated assay in the petroleum assay environment, where
there is an option to characterize GC property data. For more
information see the Section - Characterization of GC data
The following process is used to assign properties to
components:
1. Pure components petroleum properties are read from the
purecomponentpetroleumprops.csv file which is available in
your installation folder.
2. It is assumed that a cut - property for a given fraction is an
average property between initial boiling point and final
boiling point of the fraction.
3. The middle temperature of a fraction is determined first as
(Initial Boiling Temperature + Final Boiling Temperature) /
2.0.
4. Curve fitting is performed as Middle temperature (given) vs.
Cut Property (given) and Hypo Centroid Temperature
(given) vs. Hypo Property ( calculated ??)
5. When the bulk values are supplied, the hypo component
property curve will be shifted up and down to match the bulk
values supplied.

2-16

The Petroleum Assay

2-17

There are several options available for property manipulations


using the macro-cut form. This option form appears when you
double-click on a macro-cut.

To Characterize an Assay Using a Macro-Cut Table


1. In the Simulation Basis Manager, click the RefSYS Assay
Manager tab.
2. In the Petroleum Assay Manager window click Add/Import.
3. In the Petroleum Assay window, click Macro-cut Table.
4. In the MacroCut Data Window, select the Distillation type,
Distillation base and number of data point records to add,
and click "Add". The base matrix is created.
5. Specify the distillation temperature vs. yield information.
(Data is a cumulative percentage. The first data point
includes the light ends.)
6. Click Light Ends to specify light end yields and click Accept.
(Light Ends should be until C5. Anything heavier than C5 will
be accounted in Hypothetical composition. For accuracy
purposes, user should not input composition for pure
components heavier than C5.)
7. To add a new property to the matrix, select a property from
the Property drop-down and click Add Property. (HYSYS
Refining requires full information for "Liquid Density". Any
other properties it is not necessary to have complete
information for all the cuts.)
8. Once the necessary properties are inserted, double click a
property column to enter advanced options such as whether
this property is monotonous or not, whether to extrapolate
this property or not and the bulk value of the property.
9. Click Generate Assay to generate a Petroleum Assay.
Any other distillation basis (D86, D2887 or D1160) information
is converted to TBP basis. TBP vs. property values are curve
fitted to HYSYS Refining fluid package's NBP vs. property values.
Bulk property values are shifted to given value.

2-17

2-18

The Petroleum Assay Manager Tab

Macro Cut User Property Table Options


When you add properties to the Macro Cut table, you can set
certain options to control calculations applied to them. Double
click the column header for for each column to show the options
view.
Function

Description

Extrapolate

When checked, property is extrapolated beyond


available cut range. On by default, but if extrapolation
generates an unreasonable number you can uncheck
the box

Monotonous

When checked, extrapolation ensures the property


curve remains monotonic while curve fitting.

BulkSpec

If the bulk property is specified or not.

Multiplier Shift

When checked, property curve will be shifted up and


down by a common multiplication factor. If not, there
will be a common addition factor applied to the property
curve to match the given bulk value. The multiplication
option is recommended.

Characterizing an Assay using ASW


To characterize an assay using ASW:
1. Define a fluid package with suitable component list in basis
environment.
2. Create a stream in the PFD
3. Click RefSYS Assay Library on the stream properties
Worksheet > composition tab.
4. In the Stream window, select From MacroCut and click
MacroCut Data.
5. In the Macro-Cut Data form, initialize all the data (un-check
Live Update when inputting data).
6. Export the Macro-Cut data to the HYSYS spreadsheet unit
operation.
7. Start ASW and add a variable using the browser.
8. Defines the units in the variable browser.
9. If you export these variables to an excel workbook, and
modify the values and HYSYS Refining stream assay,
composition and properties will be changed.

2-18

The Petroleum Assay

2-19

Note: This is the best way to specify an unknown assay into


HYSYS Refining automatically.

Converting an H/CAMS assay to PIMS format


There is no direct import for H/CAMS data. However, you can
use CAL/LINK or PIMS to generate a PIMS assay file, and then
import the PIMS file into Aspen HYSYS Refining. If you do not
license either program, you can develop a PIMS or .csv format
file in a text editor.
You must make some minor edits to the PIMS file output from
Cal-II, and create an .sdb mapping file for the PIMS to Aspen
HYSYS Refining import. Here is the workflow for creating and
converting the Cal-II output file:
In Cal-II
1. Create slate of components.
2. Identify properties of interest.
3. Generate the PIMS file from Cal-II
In a text editor:
Open the Cal-II PIMS file. Using an SPG line as an example, the
Cal-II line format looks like this:
SPGR01;Specific Gravity;0,7405
1. Remove any lines with the property value of na.
2. Use search and replace to change all of the commas ( , ) to
dots, and all of the semicolons (;) to commas:
SPGR01,Specific Gravity,0.7405
3. Make sure each property name begins with the correct PIMS
tag. If there is no PIMS tag, add a PIMS tag. If there is a
PIMS tag, but it is different from that recognized by Aspen
HYSYS Refining, then replace the PIMS tag with an Aspen
HYSYS Refining PIMS tag.
Current valid PIMS tags are listed in the file
[install dir]\paks\PIMSAssay.sdb.

2-19

2-20

The Petroleum Assay Manager Tab

Usually the valid PIMS tag is the existing string with a


leading I added, for example:
ISPGR01;Specific Gravity;0,7405
Notable exceptions are CutTemperature with a PIMS tag of
IFVTR, Mass Fraction with a PIMS tag of WBAL and
Volume Fraction with a PIMS tag of VBAL.
4. Save the file with a .csv extension, and close.
You can now import the .csv file as a PIMS assay in the normal
way. See Section 2.2.5 - Importing an Assay in CSV
format.

2.2.8 Exporting Petroleum Assays


You can export assays in PIMS, CrudeManager and basic CSV
formats.

To export a petroleum assay:


1. Select Basis | Basis Manager from the main menu to open
the Simulation Basis Manager view.
2. Click the RefSYS Assay Manager tab.
3. In the Petroleum Assay Manager view, Select the petroleum
assay you want to export from the list in the Petroleum
Assays group.
4. Click View.
5. In the Petroleum Assay view, select the file type for the
exported assay by clicking on the appropriate radio button.

CrudeManager exports the assay as a Spiral file. The


Spiral file contains the name of the petroleum assay,
description, created date, last modified date, a list of
components available, and the molecular weight, normal
boiling point, specific gravity, and petroleum properties
of each component.

2-20

The Petroleum Assay

2-21

Comma Separated Value File exports the assay as a


CSV file. The CSV file is a simple structured data file. The
file contains a table of components, and the components
molecular weight, normal boiling point, specific gravity,
and petroleum properties.

PIMS Assay Format exports the selected assay as an


Aspen PIMS file.

2.2.9 Creating User-Defined Blending Rules


Aspen HYSYS Refining lets you create your own calculation
blending method for the petroleum properties. The new blending
rule method is created in the Macro Language Editor window.
To create a new blending rule method for a petroleum property:
1. Enter the Simulation Basis Environment.
2. Open the Simulation Basis Manager window.
3. Click the RefSYS Assay Manager tab. The Petroleum Assay
Manager window appears.
4. In the Property Blending Methods group, select the
Petroleum radio button.
5. In the Petroleum Property table, scroll to find the petroleum
property you want to manipulate.
6. Under the Blending Rule column, select the cell beside the
petroleum property.
7. Click the down arrow
select User Macro.

to access the drop-down list, and

8. Click the View Macro button that appears above the list.
9. In the Blending Macros window double click the selected
property to custom define a blending rule.

2-21

2-22

The Petroleum Assay Manager Tab

10. In the Editing Existing Code Of window, click the Show/


Hide Variable Details arrow to access more options in the
view.
Figure 2.3

Use the options in the Edit Existing Code of window to


configure the new petroleum property blending rule.
11. Click the OK button to accept the new petroleum assay
blending rule.
For more information, refer to the Macro Language Editor
Section in the HYSYS User Guide.

2.2.10 Miscellaneous SimDist Distillation


Types
ASTM Distillation
Type

Description

AspenTech recommendation
Aspen HYSYS

Aspen HYSYS
Petroleum Refining

2-22

The Petroleum Assay

ASTM Distillation
Type

Description

2-23

AspenTech recommendation

ASTM D2887

Boiling range
distributions obtained
by this test method are
essentially equivalent
to those obtained by
true boiling point (TBP)
distillation.

Input the data as TBP


Mass Basis (See more
details in Section 1).

In Petroleum assay
manager, settings
button select D2887
option as "Use TBP
Mass % Curve". (See
More details in Section
1)

ASTM D3710

This test method covers


the determination of
the boiling range
distribution of gasoline
and gasoline
components. This test
method is applicable to
petroleum products and
fractions with a final
boiling point of 500F
(260C) or lowers as
measured by this test
method.

Input the data as TBP


Mass Basis.

Input the data as TBP


Mass Basis.

ASTM D7096-05

This test method covers


the determination of
the boiling range
distribution of gasoline
and liquid gasoline
blending components.
The distillation data
produced by this test
method are similar to
that which would be
obtained from a
cryogenic, true boiling
point (15 theoretical
plates) distillation.

Input the data as TBP


(with same composition
basis as ASTM D7096
composition basis)

Input the data as TBP


(with same composition
basis as ASTM D7096
composition basis)

ASTM D7169

This test method


extends the
applicability of
simulated distillation to
samples that do not
elute completely from
the chromatographic
system. This test
method is used to
determine the boiling
point distribution
through a temperature
of 720C. This
temperature
corresponds to the
elution of n-C100.

Input data as TBP Mass


basis

Input data as TBP Mass


basis

2-23

2-24

The Petroleum Assay Manager Tab

2.2.11 1.ASTM D2887 (SimDist) to TBP


conversion
There are two methods to convert SimDist (SD) to TBP:
1. Treat SimDist data as TBP mass basis distillation data
The assumption that D2887 data is equivalent to TBP distillation
may not apply to high-boiling aromatic petroleum fraction.
ASTM Method D2887 includes information showing that high
boiling aromatic compounds elute early in the D2887
chromatograph relative to normal paraffins used for calibration.
2. API methods
There are two sets of API method to calculate the TBP curve
from SimDist (SD) data.
API 1994 Indirect (Ref. 1)
This method converts SimDist (SD) to ASTM D86 data first and
then the ASTM D86 data is converted to TBP data using the API
3A1.1 (Ref. 3) method.
API 1994 Direct (Ref. 2)
This method converts SimDist (SD) to TBP directly using the API
3A3.1 method.
These API methods are applicable only to a certain range of
temperature differences for SimDist (SD) and ASTM D86 data.
Also it should be mentioned that:

the estimation of TBP in the initial and final sections is


more error prone.

these API methods predict the TBP data for a few key
points - 0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, 90% and 100%.
The rest of the distillation curve needs to be estimated
using curve fitting techniques.

2-24

The Petroleum Assay

2-25

Since the API methods are applicable to a narrow boiling range


it is not suitable for a wide range of petroleum fractions. Also,
when API methods are applied for the right boiling range, the
average absolute error is still as big as the error generated by
the assumption that SD is equivalent to TBP Mass basis data. We
recommend treating the SD data as TBP data in mass basis.
In the Aspen HYSYS Petroleum Refining petroleum assay
manager, when you can click the Settings button,and view a
form containing the petroleum assay settings.
In the Aspen HYSYS Oil Manager, if you input the distillation
curve for oil, you should manually select the TBP curve in Mass
basis when you have laboratory data in (ASTM D2887) SD
format.

2.2.12 Improving D86 5% and D86 95%


Point Prediction
The API method only predicts a few distillation data points - 0%,
10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, 90% and 100%. In many cases, the
laboratory has data available for the 5% and 95% cut
measurements and you would like the simulator to predict these
values. Or, you may want to use the 5% and 95% points in your
distillation characterization input in order to generate a hypocomponent composition.
Unfortunately you have no control over non-API yield points
such as 5% and 95% because these points are the direct
outcome of the interpolation technique used. It should also be
noted that there is a large uncertainty in the values for 0% and
100% of the TBP temperature. This error propagates to the
initial region (0-10%) and final region (90-100%) of the D86
curve.
In Aspen HYSYS Petroleum Refining however, you can input the
yield values for which IBP and FBP can be determined. This
impacts the D86 IBP and D86 FBP temperatures, which in turn
impacts the initial and final regions of the D86 curve.

2-25

2-26

The Petroleum Assay Manager Tab

Aspentech uses the LaGrange interpolation method to generate


a complete D86 distillation curve from 7 obtained D86
temperatures. Since this method is non-linear it can sometimes
fail to provide a consistently good approximation for the
interpolated points. This creates a problem with having non-key
points (such as 5%, 95%, 75%, etc) used in some sorts of
convergence loops (such as column specifications or in an
Adjust operation).
In this case, we recommend using a linear interpolation
technique to generate the complete distillation curve. This
option can be selected in the Petroleum Assay Manager settings.
References
1. Procedure 3A3.2, Chapter 3, API Technical Data Book, Sixth
Edition (1994).
2. Procedure 3A3.1, Chapter 3, API Technical Data Book, Sixth
Edition (1994).
3. Procedure 3A1.1, Chapter 3, API Technical Data Book, Sixth
Edition (1994).

2-26

The Petroleum Assay

2-27

2.3 The Petroleum Assay Window


The Petroleum Assay window lets you add to, edit or export the
properties of an assay selected in the Petroleum Assay Manager.
Figure 2.4

The window contains:

The Setup tab lets you import and/or create a new


petroleum assay.

The Assay Data tab - lets you manipulate the GC data of


the petroleum assay.

The Analysis tab - lets you view the types of calculation


errors that occur in the petroleum assay.

The Estimation tab - lets you import certain petroleum


assay property values based on assumptions and
equations.

The Notes tab - lets you specify information regarding


the simulation case.

2.3.1 Setup Tab


The Setup tab lets you specify the name, associated fluid
package, description, properties, and composition of the
petroleum assay. You can import information from one of
several supported formats.

2-27

2-28

The Petroleum Assay Window

The following table lists and describes the objects available in


the Information tab:
Object

Description

Name field

Lets you specify the name of the petroleum assay.

Associated Fluid Pkg

Lets you select the associated fluid package.

Import From

Lets you import data from other assay formats.

Export To

Lets you export data to other assay formats.

Reactor Type column

Displays the Aspen HYSYS Refining reactor: FCC.


(If reactor is present in the flowsheet)
The FCC reactor handles petroleum assay
differently than the standard HYSYS reactors.
For more information on FCC, refer to FCC
Operation Guide.

Is Ready? column

Displays whether the petroleum assay has been


configured to handle the associate reactors.
Yes means the petroleum assay can be use
for material streams flowing through the
reactor.
No means the petroleum assay cannot be
use for material streams flowing through the
reactor.

Make Ready? column

Lets you configure/prepare the petroleum assay to


handle the associate reactor, before entering the
simulation environment.
Select the appropriate checkbox to prepare the
petroleum assay.

2.3.2 The Assay Data Tab


The Assay Data tab lets you edit the assay composition,
component and boiling point properties, calculate bulk
properties, set up Gas Chromatography (GC) properties, and
examine properties in plot form.

2-28

The Petroleum Assay

2-29

Assay Data Composition Page


The Assay Data tab Petroleum Assay Composition window lets
you modify the mole fraction of the components in the
petroleum assay.
Figure 2.5

Click Edit Composition to edit the assay composition. The


following table lists and describes the objects in the Petroleum
Assay Composition window:
Object

Description

Component table

Lets you specify the mole fraction of the


components in the petroleum assay.

Normalize button

Lets you normalize the total composition value to


1.

Cancel button

Exits the Petroleum Assay Composition window


without saving any of the changes.

Accept button

Exits the Petroleum Assay Composition window


and save the changes.

The Assay Data Properties Page


The Assay Data tab properties page lets you edit component
properties, boiling point properties, and calculate bulk
properties.

2-29

2-30

The Petroleum Assay Window

The Editing Properties Window


Click Edit Component Properties on the Assay Data tab
Properties page. The Editing Properties Window lets you
modify the property values of the petroleum assay.
The Sort By group in the left pane lets you filter the list of
properties, in the tree browser below the group, based on the
selected radio button:

Property Name. Displays


all the properties
available (in Aspen HYSYS
Refining) in alphabetical
order.

Group. Sorts and


categorizes the properties
based on their
characteristic (for
example,
Thermodynamic, Property
Package, Physical, User
specified, Petroleum, and
so forth).

2-30

The Petroleum Assay

Type. Sorts the properties


based on the value type
they provide (for
example, single point
value or multiple curve/
plot values).

Modify Status. Splits the


properties between those
that have been already
modified by you, and
those that still have their
default values.

2-31

Assay Data GC Properties Page


The GC (gas chromatography) Data page lets you manipulate
the GC data values of the petroleum assay.
There are two types of GC data:

Wide cut GC data is the value based on a lump/group of


components within the cut. You can only specify wide cut
GC data values in the GC Data Page.

Narrow cut GC data is the value based on individual


components within the cut. HYSYS calculates the narrow
cut GC data. You cannot specify values for narrow cut
data.

2-31

2-32

The Petroleum Assay Window

The following table lists and describes the objects in the GC


Data tab:
Object

Description

GC Data
Characterization
group

Contains the PONA tree that list the wide cut GC data
available (in Aspen HYSYS Refining) for manipulation.
To select a GC data for manipulation:
1. In the GC Data Characterization group, expand the
PONA tree browser by clicking the Plus icon.
2. Expand the branches until you find the GC data you
want to manipulate.
3. Select the checkbox beside the GC data you want to
manipulate.

GC Data
Characterization
table

Lets you enter the new values for the selected wide cut
data at the specified cut point.
The specified cut point is the wide cut datas true
boiling point (TBP) or final boiling point
temperature.
The first row only contains the ICP (Initial Cut
Point) data, you must leave the rest of the cells in
the first row <empty> or have a value of 0.
The percentage values are based on the entire
crude and not on the cut.
When defining GC component data, if you supply
values at a component group level, you cannot define
any information in the sub level of the group, and vice
versa.

Even Distribution
radio button

Distributes the specified values evenly for the narrow


cuts within the wide cut GC data.
In this option, the calculation is faster and the mass
balance is fulfilled. However, the generated values are
less realistic.

Normal
Distribution
radio button

Distributes the specified values in a normal distribution


format for the narrow cuts within the wide cut GC data.

Characterize
button

Applies the new GC data values to the petroleum


assay.

GC Data radio
button

Lets you view and enter individual GC data values in


the GC Data Characterization table.

In this option, the generated values are more realistic.


However, the calculation is slower and the mass
balance is not fulfilled automatically. You need to
manually achieve the mass balance by adjusting the
settings in the Edit Property Distribution
Parameters Window.

2-32

The Petroleum Assay

2-33

Object

Description

Mat Balance
radio button

Lets you view the sums up all the specified by-wt and
by-vol GC data values (Wt Pct Entered and Vol Pct
Entered) in the GC Data Characterization table. The
sum values indicate the amount available for the Crude
by Wt and by Vol (Total Crude Wt Pct and Total Crude
Vol Pct).
For example, if you over specified by entering more
than is available, you can click the Normalize button
to change the specified amount to the available
amount and have all the GC data changed accordingly.

Advance Settings
button

Opens the Edit Property Distribution Parameters


Window.

View Results
button

Opens the Characterized GC Data Results Window,


which displays the calculated GC data values based on
the modification.

The sum of the percentage values in each wide cut GC data


column cannot surpass 100.
An error message appears if your GC components are not in
MW order, but this error does not stop the calculation.

PONA Tree Diagram


When defining GC component data, there are several different
levels which you can supply the values. There is the group
component level, where you supply a general value applicable to
a group of components, for example Aromatics for C8. There
is the sub group component level, where you supply a specific
value for each component in the group component, for example
Aromatics for C8 m-Xylene.
The general number of component groups and sub groups are
shown in the PONA tree diagram (see Figure 2.6).
If you supply values at a component group level, you cannot
define any information in the sub group level, and vice versa.
For example, if you define N C6, you cannot define N C6 cycC5 or N C6 cyc-C6. If you define a component data at sub level
you cannot define N C6.

2-33

2-34

The Petroleum Assay Window

Abbreviations of the Wide Cut GC Data


The following table lists the abbreviations and full name of the
wide cut GC data in the GC Data tab:
Abbreviations

Full Name

Abbreviations

Full Name

Aromatics

On

Normal Olefins

Naphthenes

ON

Naphthenic Olefins

Olefins

Pi

Iso Paraffins

Paraffins

Pn

Normal Paraffins

Oi

Iso Olefins

2-34

The Petroleum Assay

2-35

Figure 2.6

2-35

2-36

The Petroleum Assay Window

Edit Property Distribution Parameters Window


Click Advanced Settings on the Assay Data tab GC Properties
page. Use the Edit Property Distribution Parameters window to
manipulate the maximum boiling point temperature and
standard deviation of the selected GC data property.
Properties such as A C6 Benzene, which represents pure
components, will have a very small standard deviation of the
order of 0.5 or lower.
Properties such as Pi C8, which has a wider boiling point
distribution will have a higher standard deviation.

Characterization of GC data
1. Enter the initial and final boiling point.
2. Select the GC components from the GC tree. (Please follow
the rules mentioned above)
3. Enter the TBP values in first column.
The first row is the Initial Cut Point. Leave the data in first
row as <empty> or zero value.
The next rows are the Final Cut Point. The summation of
GC data for all other rows should be 100.0 %.
Click the Characterize button. HYSYS will calculate the GC
property value of hypothetical components.
Note: Summation of particular GC data allocated to all the hypo
components should add up to the summation of GC data for all
the distillation ranges. (i.e. Aspen HYSYS Petroleum Refining
ensures mass/volume balance of GC data).
When GC data is imported from a third party tool such as Spiral
Crude Manger - Aspen HYSYS Petroleum Refining first populates
the GC data table as mentioned above and the Characterize
command is issued.

2-36

The Petroleum Assay

2-37

Characterized GC Data Results Window


Click View Results on the Assay Data tab GC Properties page.
This window displays the calculated narrow cut GC data values
based on the modifications made on the GC Properties page.
The Viewing Options group contains the following options that
manipulate the information displayed in the table:

By Weight radio button displays the GC data


information associated to the component's weight.

By Volume radio button displays the GC data


information associated to the component's volume.

User Selected Props radio button displays just the GC


data that you have manipulated.

All Props radio button displays all the GC data.

Assay Data Plots Page


The Plots tab displays the petroleum property values in graph
format.
Figure 2.7

2-37

2-38

The Petroleum Assay Window

2.3.3 Analysis Tab


The Analysis tab displays errors encountered when constructing
the petroleum assay.
Object

Description

Warning Level
column

Displays the error level that indicates the


seriousness of the associate errors:
Low indicates the error will only affect the
associate property under the Warning
Source column.
High indicates the error will affect the
associate property under the Warning
Source column and reactors that require the
property value to perform calculation.
Critical indicates the error will affect the
associate property under the Warning
Source column and reactors that require the
property value to perform calculation.

Warning Source
column

Displays which petroleum assay property or


parameter is affected or caused the error.

Warning column

Displays the cause of the error and what


operations will be affected by the error.

Resolve PONA button

Lets you normalize the GC data values, so that the


sum of the GC data values equal 100%.

Analyze button

Lets you activate the analysis option in the


Analysis tab and view any errors in the active
petroleum assay.

2.3.4 Estimation Tab


The Estimation tab lets you import some petroleum assay
property values based on assumptions and equations. The
options in this tab is particularly useful if you do not have the
raw data and want to generate some estimate values.
A pre-selected estimation method is used for each property,
although various known estimation methods might exist.

The Assay Properties Estimation list displays the list of


properties for which estimation is currently implemented.

The Estimation Methods button lets you access the


Estimation Methods window.

In the Estimation Methods window, you can select


different estimation method (using the appropriate dropdown list) for the properties in the Assay Properties
Estimation list.
The first column in the Assay Properties Estimation table
displays the list of components in the petroleum assay.

2-38

The Petroleum Assay

2-39

The Values column displays the current component


values of the selected petroleum property. These values
are specified by you in the Information tab or imported
from the petroleum assay properties files (*.csv, *.pet,
*.xml, and Spiral).

The Estimated column displays the component values of


the selected petroleum property if they were to be
estimated.
The Aniline Point, MON (Clear), Refractive Index, and Sulfur
Content are estimated using methods from the following
documents:
1"Use

of the Refractive Index in the Estimation of Thermophysical


Properties of Hydrocarbons and Petroleum Mixtures", Mohammad
R. Riazi and Yousef A. Roomi, Chemical Engineering Department,
Kuwait University, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2001, Vol. 40, No.8.

2Estimation

of Sulfur Content of Petroleum Products and Crude Oils,


Mohammad R. Riazi, Nasrin Nasimi, and Yousef A. Roomi, Chemical
Engineering Department, Kuwait University, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
1999, Vol 38, No.11.

The Accept button lets you discard the current


component values and replace them with the estimated
values.

If the estimated value is <empty>, HYSYS was unable to


calculate an estimate value. If you tried to accept the
estimated value one of two events occur:

If the current value is also <empty>, HYSYS leaves


the selected petroleum property value as unknown.

If the current value is not <empty>, HYSYS leaves


the selected petroleum property value as the current
value.

2.3.5 Notes Tab


The Notes tab provides a text editor where you can record any
comments or information regarding the specific unit operation or
the simulation case in general.

2-39

2-40

Aspen HYSYS Refining Unit Tags

2.4 Aspen HYSYS Refining Unit Tags


Tags are case sensitive. You must use the correct name for
Aspen HYSYS Refining to recognize the unit tags in the PIMS
assay file.

In a PIMS assay file, there are commands to designate units to


the variable values. In the command, you must use the correct
unit tag name recognized by Aspen HYSYS Refining.
The following table is the Aspen HYSYS Refining unit tag along
with the description of what units the tag represent:
Tag Name = Unit

Tag Name = Unit

Tag Name = Unit

kPa = kilo pascals

psia = pounds per


square inch absolute

bar = bar

MPa = mega pascals


psi = pound per square
inch

N/m2 = newton per


square meter

lbf/ft2 = pounds-force
per square foot

kg/cm2 = kilogram per


square centimeter

torr = millimeter of
mercury

atm = technical
atmosphere

mmHg = millimeter of
mercury

at = physical
atmosphere

cmH2O(4C) =
centimeter of water at
4 degrees Celsius

inHg(32F) = inch of
mercury at 32 degrees
Fahrenheit

MJ/h = mega joule per


hour

inH2O(60F) = inch of
water at 60 degrees
Fahrenheit

inHg(60F) = inch of
mercury at 60 degrees
Fahrenheit

kW = kilo watt

kcal/h = kilo calories


per hour

Btu/h = british thermal


unit per hour

cal/h = calories per


hour

MMBtu/hr = millions of
british thermal unit per
hour

hp = horse power

Mkcal/h = mega kilo


calories per hour

kgmole/m3 = kilogram
mole per cubic meter

C = Celsius

gmole/L = gram mole


per litre

lbmole/ft3 = pound
mole per cubic foot

K = Kelvin

g/cm3 = gram per


cubic centimeter

lb/ft3 = pound per


cubic foot

F = Fahrenheit

API = american
petroleum institute

SG_60/60api =
standard gravity

cP = centipoise

dyne/cm = dyne per


centimeter

MW = mega watt

R = Rankine

mP = millipoise

cSt = centistokes

mbar = millibar

kJ/min = kilo joule per


minute
kJ/s = kilo joule per
second

microP = micropoise

dyn/cm = dyne per


centimeter

Pa-s = pascal second

lbf/ft = pound force per


foot

2-40

The Petroleum Assay

2-41

Tag Name = Unit

Tag Name = Unit

Tag Name = Unit

kgmole/min = kilogram
mole per minute

lbmole/hr = pound
mole per hour

gmole/h = gram mole


per hour

lbmole/h = pound mole


per hour

MMSCFH = million
standard cubic feet per
minute

g/s = gram per second

tonne/d = metric tonne


per day

kg/d = kilogram per


day

tonne/h = metric tonne


per hour

MMSCFD = million
standard cubic feet per
day
lb/hr = pound per hour
klb/day = kilo pound
per day

tn(short)/h = short ton


per hour

m3/h = cubic meter per


hour

L/d = litre per day

barrel/day = barrel per


day

kbpd = thousand
barrels per day

USGPM = US gallons
per minute

ft3/day = cubic fee per


day

in = inch

miles = mile

m = meter

ft = feet

km/h = kilometer per


hour

ft/s = feet per second

MPH = miles per hour

seconds = second

weeks = week

months = month

years = year

days = day

hours = hour

minutes = minute

2-41

2-42

Aspen HYSYS Refining Unit Tags

2-42

Assay Manipulator

3-1

3 Assay Manipulator

3.1 Introduction................................................................................... 2
3.2 Assay Manipulator Property View .................................................. 3
3.2.1 Design Tab .............................................................................. 4
3.2.2 Assay Tab................................................................................ 6
3.2.3 Worksheet Tab ....................................................................... 11

3-1

3-2

Introduction

3.1 Introduction
The Assay Manipulator allows you to change the petroleum
assay properties of a material stream, without the need to
supply any theoretical equations or calculations to obtain the
property values.
The common reasons to change the petroleum assay property
values are:

HYSYS does not have an operation that simulates a piece


of equipment, in the actual plant, which changes the
petroleum assay properties.
There are no petroleum assay data that mimic the actual
petroleum assay curves.
The output petroleum properties of a HYSYS operation
does not imitate the output petroleum properties from an
actual plant operation.
There is a need to conduct a sensitivity analysis on the
simulation plant to see if a slight change in petroleum
properties will affect the quality of the products.

Assay Manipulator supplies two ways to modify the petroleum


assay properties:

Change properties. In this option, you can modify values


of an individual petroleum property (for example, sulfur
content of a hypothetical component).
Shift properties. In this option, you can specify a target
bulk value of a petroleum property in the stream (for
example, the RON of a stream), and the assay
manipulator automatically adjusts the values of all the
individual petroleum properties to meet the new bulk
value.

3-2

Assay Manipulator

3-3

3.2 Assay Manipulator


Property View
There are two methods to add an Assay Manipulator to your
simulation:
1. From the Flowsheet menu, select Add Operation [or press
F12]. The UnitOps property view appears.
2. Click the Aspen HYSYS Refining Ops radio button.
3. From the list of available unit operations, select
Manipulator.
4. Click the Add button.
OR
1. Press F6 to access the Aspen HYSYS Refining object palette.
2. Double-click the Assay Manipulator icon.
Assay Manipulator icon

The Assay Manipulator property view appears.


Figure 3.1

3-3

3-4

Assay Manipulator Property View

There are three common objects at the bottom of the


Manipulator property view, the following table describes these
objects:
Object

Description

Delete button

Allows you to delete the operation.

Status bar

Displays the current status of the operation (for


example, missing information or errors
encountered during calculation).

Ignored checkbox

Allows you to ignore the operation during


calculations.
When the checkbox is selected, HYSYS completely
disregards the operation (and cannot calculate the
outlet stream) until you clear the checkbox.

3.2.1 Design Tab


The Design tab contains four pages:

Connections
Parameters
User Variables
Notes

Connections Page
On the Connections page, you can specify the feed and product
streams attached to the Assay Manipulator. You can change the
name of the operation in the Name field.
Figure 3.2

3-4

Assay Manipulator

3-5

Parameters Page
On the Parameters page, the following field appears. Select
Mass, Volume or Molar for transfer.
Figure 3.3

User Variables Page


For more information on
implementing the User
Variables, refer to
Section 1.2.4 - User
Variables Page/Tab.

The User Variables page allows you to create and implement


variables in the HYSYS simulation case.

For more information


refer to Section 1.2.3 Notes Page/Tab.

The Notes page provides a text editor where you can record any
comments or information regarding the specific unit operation or
the simulation case in general.

Notes Page

3.2.2 Assay Tab


The Assay tab allows you to specify the changes in petroleum
properties. The options available in this tab are grouped into the
following pages:

Options
Change Props
Shift Props
Composition

3-5

3-6

Assay Manipulator Property View

Options Page
In the Options page, you can select the petroleum property you
want to modify and select the type of modification method using
the drop-down lists in the table.
Figure 3.4

The table in the Properties/Options group contains the following:


Column

Description

Property

You can select the petroleum property you want to


manipulate using the drop-down list in the cells under this
column.

Options

You can select the method of modification using the dropdown list in the cells under this column. There are two
methods to choose from: Change Props and Shift Props.

You can only apply one type of modification method for each
petroleum property.

3-6

Assay Manipulator

3-7

Change Props Page


The Change Props page allows you to specify the exact value
changes to the selected petroleum property.
Figure 3.5

The following table lists and describes the objects available on


this page:
Object

Description

Drop-down list

You can activate the selected the petroleum property


for modification.

Table

Allows you to type the modified values for the selected


petroleum property in the drop-down list.
The table also displays the selected petroleum property
values from the feed stream.

Plot

Displays both the original and manipulated petroleum


property values.

The drop-down list will be blank if you had not selected


Change Props method for any of the petroleum properties in
the Options page.

3-7

3-8

Assay Manipulator Property View

Shift Props Page


The Shift Props page allows you to specify shift value of the
selected petroleum property.
Figure 3.6

The following table lists and describes the objects available on


this page:
Object

Description

Drop-down list

You can activate the selected the petroleum property


for modification.

Reference Assay
table

You can choose the base/reference point(s) for the


selected petroleum property to be shifted by doing one
of the following:
Select the Use Feed checkbox to use the feed
streams property values as the base point(s).
Use the drop-down list in the Use Assay cell to
select the assay you want to use as the base
point(s).
You cannot select a different assay as the base point(s)
if you have selected the Use Feed checkbox.

Targets table

You can type in the amount of shift for the selected


petroleum property by doing one of the following:
Type the amount of shift for the product stream in
the Product cell.
Type the difference amount between the product
stream and the feed stream in the Prod - Feed
cell.

Calculated
Values table

Displays the calculated values based on the


information entered in the Reference and Targets
tables.

Plot

Displays both the original and manipulated petroleum


property values.

3-8

Assay Manipulator

3-9

The drop-down list will be blank if you had not selected Shift
Props method for any of the petroleum properties in the
Options page.

Composition Page
The Composition page enables you to manipulate the product
composition. Using this feature, you can change the distillation
curve (TBP, D86, D1160, and D2887) of a process stream in
your flowsheet.
Figure 3.7

To activate and access the options in the Composition page,


select the Manipulate Product Composition checkbox.

3-9

3-10

Assay Manipulator Property View

The following tables lists and describes the options available in


the Composition page:
Object

Description

Manipulate Product
Composition
checkbox

Enables you to toggle between activating or


ignoring the modified variable for the product
stream composition.

Keep Feed LE
checkbox

If checked, feed stream light ends will be assigned


to product stream light ends as is.

Distillation radio
button

Enables you to toggle between accessing or hiding


the options to manipulate the temperature vs.
percent yield data.

Light Ends radio


button

Enables you to toggle between accessing or hiding


the options to manipulate the mass or volume
fraction of the light ends composition.

Mass/Volume dropdown list

Enables you to select mass or volume for the


percent yield or composition fraction.

Right drop-down list

Enables you to select between four different


temperature data that affects the percent yield.
The four options are: TBP, ASTM D86, D2887, and
D1160.
This drop-down list is only available for the Plus
Fraction option.

Yield column

Enables you to specify the mass or volume percent


yield associated to the specified temperature.
This column is only available for the Plus Fraction
option.

Right column

Enables you to specify the temperature of the


selected option from the Left drop-down list.
This column is only available for the Plus Fraction
option.

Fraction column

Enables you to specify the mass or volume fraction


of the light ends composition.
This column is only available for the Light Ends
option.

Plot

Displays the composition vs. NBP data of both feed


and product streams.

Determining Product Stream Composition


The following procedure is used to determine product stream
composition:
1.

Light ends and Distillation data should be in one basis.

2. Distillation curve is assumed to include light end information


3. All other distillation will be converted in to TBP distillation

3-10

Assay Manipulator

3-11

4. TBP vs. Composition will be curve-fitted against Hypo NBP


vs. Composition
5. Very light light-end information ( C5 and lighter) will be
stored to the lightest hypo. Other pure components
composition is stored in hypo components with a similar
boiling range.
6. Light end information will be assigned to pure components
as mentioned in the Light Ends page. It will be subtracted
from the corresponding hypo component.

Notes:
If you enter light end information which is not consistent with
distillation data, it is possible to have a negative composition for
some hypothetical components.
It is not recommended to have heavier pure components (C5
onwards), instead it is recommended to use GC properties.
It is recommended that a component list be ordered by boiling
point in ascending order. Use the Sort List button in the
Components List View to move an out-of-order component to
the proper position.

3.2.3 Worksheet Tab


Refer to Section 1.2.2 Worksheet Tab for more
information.

The Worksheet tab contains a summary of the information


contained in the stream property view for all the streams
attached to the Assay Manipulator.

3-11

3-12

Assay Manipulator Property View

3-12

Catalytic Reformer

4-1

4 Catalytic Reformer

4.1 Introduction................................................................................... 3
4.1.1 Theory.................................................................................... 6
4.2 Overall Operation Structure/Environment ................................... 16
4.2.1 Main Environment .................................................................. 17
4.2.2 Catalytic Reformer Environment ............................................... 21
4.2.3 Calibration Environment .......................................................... 23
4.3 Reformer Configuration Wizard.................................................... 24
4.3.1 Configuration Page ................................................................. 26
4.3.2 Geometry Page ...................................................................... 27
4.3.3 Calibration Factors Page .......................................................... 28
4.4 Catalytic Reformer Property View ................................................ 29
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4

Design Tab ............................................................................ 30


Reactor Section Tab ................................................................ 33
Stabilizer Tower Tab................................................................ 44
Results Tab............................................................................ 47

4.5 Feed Type Library Property View ................................................. 56


4.6 Reactor Section Property View..................................................... 58
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4

Design Tab ............................................................................ 59


Feed Data Tab........................................................................ 61
Operation Tab ........................................................................ 64
Results Tab............................................................................ 73

4.7 Feed Type Property View ............................................................. 80


4.8 Calibration Set Library Property View .......................................... 81
4.8.1 Factor Set Property View ......................................................... 82
4-1

4-2

Catalytic Reformer

4.9 Calibration Property View .............................................................86


4.9.1
4.9.2
4.9.3
4.9.4
4.9.5
4.9.6

Design Tab .............................................................................91


Feed Data Tab ........................................................................94
Operation Tab.........................................................................95
Measurement Tab..................................................................103
Calibration Control Tab...........................................................107
Analysis Tab .........................................................................109

4-2

Catalytic Reformer

4-3

4.1 Introduction
The Reformer model in Aspen HYSYS Refining is a state-of-theart Catalytic Naphtha Reformer Unit simulation system that can
be used for modeling a CCR or Semi-regenerative reformer unit
as a standalone unit operation or as part of a refinery-wide
flowsheet.
The Catalytic Reformer operation includes feed characterization
system, reactor section, stabilizer and product mapper. The
reactor section includes reactors, heaters, compressor,
separator, and recontactor. The reactor model is based on
rigorous kinetics. The feed characterization system and product
mapper are designed to work together with the Aspen HYSYS
Refining assay system so the Reformer model can be simulated
in a refinery-wide flowsheet.
Figure 4.1

4-3

4-4

Introduction

Feed Characterization System


The Reformer within Aspen HYSYS Refining has its own set of
library and hypothetical components. The table below list the
components for the Catalytic Reformer environment:
Hydrogen

Cyclopentane

24-Mpentane

O8*

6N9*

Methane

22-Mbutane

2-Mhexane

n-Octane

IP10*

A12*

Ethane

23-Mbutane

3-Mhexane

5N8*

n-Decane

P13*

Ethylene

2-Mpentane

3-Epentane

E-Benzene

5N10*

N13*

Propane

3-Mpentane

n-Heptane

o-Xylene

A10*

A13*

Propene

n-Hexane

O7*

m-Xylene

6N10*

P14*

i-Butane

O6*

11Mcycpentan

p-Xylene

IP11*

N14*
A14*

n-Butane

Mcyclopentan

Ecyclopentan

6N8*

n-C11

1-Butene

Benzene

Toluene

IP9*

5N11*

i-Pentane

Cyclohexane

Mcyclohexane

n-Nonane

A11*

n-Pentane

22-Mpentane

MBP8*

5N9*

6N11*

O5*

23-Mpentane

SBP8*

A9*

P12*

N12*

The hypothetical component names can be interpreted by


identifying the prefix with the component type and the suffix
with the carbon number. The prefix component types are:

O: Olefin
MBP: Multi-branch paraffin
SBP: Single-branch paraffin
6N: 6-Carbon Ring Naphthenic
IP: Isoparaffin (no distinction on number of branches)
5N: 5-Carbon Ring Naphthenic
A: Aromatic
P: Paraffinic (no distinction on isomer type)
N: Naphthenic (no distinction on number of carbons in
ring)

These components are either used directly in the kinetic reactor


model or they are easily mapped into the components used
within the kinetic reactor model.
The transition between the Main Environment and the
Catalytic Reformer Environment will handle the calculation
of the composition of the Reformer components. In order to do
this, however, you must specify the feed type. The feed type will
specify the ratios of various isomers within the feed to the
4-4

Catalytic Reformer

4-5

Reformer. These ratios, along with the distillation and PONA data
from the attached inlet stream will be used to calculate the
Reformer component compositions.
Feed Component Ratios
nP5 /Total C5 Ratio

N7 N5/[N5+N6 Ring] Ratio

Normal P6 / Total P6 Ratio

Normal P8 / Total P8 Ratio

MB P6 / Total P6 Ratio

MB P8 / Total P8 Ratio

MCP / [MCP+CH] Ratio

N8 N5/[N5+N6 Ring] Ratio

Normal P7 / Total P7 Ratio

iP9 / Total P9 Ratio

MB P7 / Total P7 Ratio

N9 N5/[N5+N6 Ring] Ratio

iP5 /Total C5 Ratio

iP10 / Total P10 Ratio

N10 N5/[N5+N6 Ring] Ratio

N11 N5/[N5+N6 Ring] Ratio

iP11 / Total P11 Ratio

In the Catalytic Reformer Environment, you have more


options for calculating the composition of the feed. The you can
calculate the composition based on a boiling range of an assay,
based on the specified bulk properties, or based on the specified
the kinetic lumps.

For the assay option, you select an assay to associate


with the feed. The feed type is specified along with the
initial and final boiling point to generate a composition of
the feed.
For the bulk properties option, you specify the feed type
along with distillation data and total naphthenics and
aromatics in the feed.
For the kinetic lumps option, you specify the feed type
along with the composition of the components that is
desired. You may optionally input a value for N+2A or
N+3A to adjust the composition. If no value is entered
for either N+2A or N+3A, the composition entered will be
used directly.

4-5

4-6

Introduction

4.1.1 Theory
Reaction Kinetics - Components
The components used for the reaction pathways in the Reformer
model are either present in the Reformer component list, or can
be easily calculated by summing the appropriate components.
Below is a list of the components used in the reaction network:
H2

NP6

O8

P1

5N6

5N8

IP11
NP11

P2

A6

A8

5N11

O2

6N6

6N8

A11

P3

MBP7

IP9

6N11

O3

SBP7

NP9

P12

P4

NP7

5N9

N12

O4

O7

A9

A12

P5

5N7

6N9

P13

O5

A7

IP10

N13

5N5

6N7

NP10

A13

MBP6

MBP8

5N10

P14

SBP6

SBP8

A10

N14

O6

NP8

6N10

A14

The component names can be interpreted by identifying the


prefix with the component type and the suffix with the carbon
number. The prefix component types are:

P: Paraffinic (no distinction on isomer type)


O: Olefin
5N: 5-Carbon Ring Naphthenic
MBP: Multi-branch paraffin
SBP: Single-branch paraffin
NP: Normal paraffin
6N: 6-Carbon Ring Naphthenic
IP: Isoparaffin (no distinction on number of branches)
A: Aromatic
N: Naphthenic (no distinction on number of carbons in
ring)

4-6

Catalytic Reformer

4-7

The components P4, P5, and A8 are further delumped after the
reaction network. P4 and P5 are mapped into their
corresponding normal and isoparaffin components. A8 is
mapped into ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene, and p-xylene.

Reaction Kinetic - Paths


Nine fundamental reaction types are used in reformer kinetics:
Reaction Type
Isomerization
Ring Close/Open
Ring Expansion
Dehydrogenation
Hydrogenolysis
Hydrocracking
Hydrodealkylation
Polymerization

Example

NP6 SBP6
NP6 5N6
5N6 6N6
6N6 A6 + 3H2
6N7 + H2 6N6 + P1
P5 + H2 P2 + P3
A7 + H2 A6 + P1
A7 + P5 A12 + H2

Condensation

4-7

4-8

Introduction

The reaction paths used for C6 through C8 are shown in the


diagram below:
Figure 4.2

where:
x: carbon number from 6 to 8
nP: normal paraffins
SP: single-branch paraffins
MP: multi-branch paraffins
5N: 5-carbon ring naphthenics
6N: 6-carbon ring naphthenics
A: aromatics
As the carbon number increases beyond 8, the complexity of
the paths is reduced.

4-8

Catalytic Reformer

4-9

Reaction Kinetic - Expressions


The reaction kinetic expressions for the Reformer are power law
rate expressions based on concentrations. Here the
dehydrogenation reaction is used as an example to illustrate the
reaction kinetic expressions used to model these reactions.
CycloHexane Benzene + 3 H2
3

Rate = Activity k f ( [ 6N6 ] [ A6 ] [ H2 ] K eq ) PF

(4.1)

where:
Activity = product of catalyst activity, metal site activity, and
dehydrogenation specific activity
kf = Arrhenius form of the forward reaction rate multiplier
[6N6], [A6], [H2] = concentration of cyclohexane, benzene,
and hydrogen
Keq = Arrhenius form of the rate equilibrium factor
PFx = pressure factor, default x=0.02 for dehydrogenation

Deactivation of Reformer Catalyst


Reformer catalyst is a bifunctional catalyst, and the catalyst
activity definition used in modeling must include separate terms
for the metals and acid functions. The activity of the catalyst in
a reformer is a function of several factors, a few of these are:
1. Coke laydown on the catalyst
2. Water/Chloride environment
3. Temporary poisons such as sulfur
4. Permanent poisons such as lead, zinc, and copper
5. Catalyst surface area
6. Platinum crystal size
7. Sintering
8. Shift from gamma alumina to alpha alumina
9. Catalyst breakage

4-9

4-10

Introduction

Items #5 through #9 are basically mechanical changes in the


catalyst and occur primarily during catalyst regeneration. These
mechanical changes in the catalyst, which effect activity, can
only be accounted for through direct analysis of the catalyst or
indirectly from measurement of plant operation. Fortunately, to
predict reformer operation on an on-going basis, these changes
can be lumped together in the deactivation model and thus do
not create a problem in the reaction modeling.
Permanent catalyst poisons such as those listed in item #4 are
normally very gradual and can be handled with routine activity
model updates, using the same lump mechanism used for items
#5 through #9.
When a significant quantity of permanent poison is deposited
on the catalyst over a short period of time, the deactivation
model will need to be updated from plant operating data.
This is true provided the unit will remain in service. In most
cases where a significant quantity of a permanent poison is
deposited on the catalyst, the reformer is taken off line and
the catalyst replaced.
The changes in catalyst performance due to the factors listed in
items #4 through #9 require that the Reformer model be
updated after each catalyst regeneration of semi-regenerative
units, and every 6 to 12 months for cyclic and continuous
catalyst circulation units.
Temporary sulfur poisoning will need to be addressed in the
Reformer deactivation model. The difficult aspect of this will be
determining how much of a change in catalyst activity is due to
the temporary poison and how much is due to another
mechanism. Once the quantity of sulfur is known, the prediction
of activity recovery will be very straightforward.
The effect of coke laydown on activity creates two areas of
major concern. The first is the actual prediction of coke laydown,
and the second is estimating the impact of coke deposition on
catalyst activity. The following sections describe how these are
handled in the Aspen HYSYS Refining Reformer model.

4-10

Catalytic Reformer

4-11

Coke Make Model


There are several theories on coke laydown, one or more of
them may be correct. The general concept with the greatest
acceptance is that coke is formed from the condensation of
polycyclic hydrocarbons. A second generally accepted concept is
that polycyclics are formed from an intermediate olefin created
primarily during the cyclization (and to some degree during
isomerization) of naphthenes from paraffins, and from
aromatics. The diagram below is a schematic of the coke make
mechanism.
Figure 4.3

Because the reaction rate of C6 ringed naphthenes to aromatics


is extremely high, it can be safely assumed that very little coke
is made from C6 ringed naphthenes. Also, the extremely low
concentrations of naphthenes (both C5 ringed and C6 ringed) in
the second and subsequent reactors, make it nearly impossible
to generate accurate rate data from experimental data.
Correlations of laboratory measurements of coke make and
paraffin of C5 ringed naphthene concentration are further
confused by the fact that the paraffins and naphthenes are
existing in equilibrium, and the concentrations of both species
decrease dramatically through the reactor systems. This is
particularly true of the C9 and heavier material where:

the vast majority of the coke originates

4-11

4-12

Introduction

both species approach zero concentration in the last


reactor where the majority of the coke is formed.

Literature reports give the reaction rates of the paraffin/


naphthene intermediate olefin in terms of the paraffin (or
paraffin and naphthene) concentration. For commercial catalytic
reformer modeling purposes, it can be assumed that the coke
make is a function primarily of the C5 ring naphthenes and
aromatics.
Coke make in the Reformer is modeled via the reaction of
paraffins, C5 ringed naphthenes, and aromatics to coke via a
first order reaction mechanism. All C5 ringed naphthenes share
a common activation energy as do the aromatics and paraffins.
The frequency factors vary by carbon number and species. Each
reactor has a coke make activity, as well as a total coke make
activity for all reactors. The reaction rate is in the general form:

k P = A S A RXI F Pi e
k N = A S A RXI F Ni e
k A = A S A RXI F Ai e

EP
-----------RT
EN
-----------RT

(4.2)

EA
-----------RT

where:
kP = rate factor of paraffins, carbon number i to coke
kN = rate factor of C5 ringed naphthenes, carbon number i to
coke
kA = rate factor of Aromatic, carbon number i to coke
AS = Coke Activity of the Reactor System
ARXI = Coke Activity of the individual Reactor
FNi, FAi = Frequency Factors for C5 ringed naphthenes and
aromatics, carbon number i
EN, EA = C5 ringed naphthenes and Aromatics activation
energies

4-12

Catalytic Reformer

4-13

The rate factors are then used in the reaction equations in the
following general format:
dC
------- = ( k P [ TotalP ] + k N [ Total5N ] + k A [ TotalA ] ) PF H2HCF
dt

(4.3)

where:
dC
------- = coke/time
dt
kP = Paraffin to coke rate factor
[TOTALP] = concentration of total paraffins
kN = C5 ringed naphthene to coke rate factor
[TOTAL5N] = concentration of total C5 ringed naphthenes
kA = Aromatics to coke rate factor
[TOTALA] = concentration of total aromatics
PF = factor to adjust for changes in pressure
H2HCF = factor to adjust for changes in H2/HC ratio

Each feed has an associated coke make multiplier. Default


values are 1.0. This allows you to put a linear weighting on
feeds with higher or lower coking tendencies than the base feed
stock. This term is a simple multiplier on the coke rate
expressions.

Catalyst Activity Model


Catalyst activity is divided into a metals activity and an acid
activity. These activities affect the reaction mechanisms as
shown in the following table:
Reaction Type

Acid

Isomerization

Ring Closure/Open

Ring Expansion

Metal

Pressure Multiplier
X

Dehydrogenation

Hydrogenolysis - Para

4-13

4-14

Introduction

Reaction Type

Acid

Hydrogenolysis - Naph

Metal
X

Hydrocracking

Hydrodealkylation

Polymerization

Pressure Multiplier
X
X

Also shown in the table above are the reaction mechanisms that
are affected by pressure changes.
The acid and metals activities are independent functions of
carbon on catalyst (COC) expressed as percent of catalyst. The
general form for both the acid and metals activity functions is:
2

Activity = Intercept + Poly1 COC + Poly2 COC +


3
4
Poly3 COC + Poly4 COC

(4.4)

System Pressure Control


The pressure points through the system are all based upon a
single specified pressure. For the Catalytic Reformer in Aspen
HYSYS Refining this is the product separator pressure. The
Catalytic Reformer uses a modified Bernoulli equation to
calculate the following pressure drops based upon the base case
pressure drops and flowing conditions and the specified flowing
conditions:

Product Separator to last Reactor Outlet


Last Reactor Outlet to Last Reactor Inlet
Last Reactor Inlet Pressure to Reactor(i) Inlet Pressure
Reactor(i) Inlet Pressure to Reactor(i+1) Inlet Pressure
First Reactor Inlet Pressure to Compressor Discharge

4-14

Catalytic Reformer

4-15

Reactor Temperature Control


The reactor inlet temperatures are calculated based upon the
delta inlet temperature entered for each reactor. In this model a
base temperature is used as a reference temperature for biasing
the individual reactor inlet temperatures.
Reactor(i) Inlet Temperature = Base Temperature
+ Reactor(i) Temperature Bias

(4.5)

This allows any one of the following to be a constant and the


severity target:

Base Temperature
WAIT
WABT
RON for C5+ or C6+
Aromatics Production

Stabilizer Configuration
The stabilizer is a conventional rigorous tower simulation using
the HYSYS Petroleum Tower model. A vapor and liquid draw are
taken off the overhead receiver, and the reformate off the
reboiler.

4-15

4-16

Overall Operation Structure/

4.2 Overall Operation


Structure/Environment
In the HYSYS, the Catalytic Reformer operation appears as an
object icon in the Main environment PFD.
Figure 4.4

The Catalytic Reformer operation is actually a subflowsheet


containing the required reactor and stabilizer tower (if
applicable) that make up a catalytic reformer.
Figure 4.5

4-16

Catalytic Reformer

4-17

In the Catalytic Reformer subflowsheet environment, you can


access another sublevel environment called Calibration
Environment.
Figure 4.6

4.2.1 Main Environment


In the Simulation/Main environment, the following features are
available for the Catalytic Reformer:

create a catalytic reformer template


create or add a catalytic reformer
access Catalytic Reformer property view
access Catalytic Reformer environment/subflowsheet
delete existing catalytic reformer

4-17

4-18

Overall Operation Structure/

Create Catalytic Reformer Template


HYSYS enables you to create templates of catalytic reformers,
so you can import them in existing HYSYS process flowsheet
diagram (PFD).
To create a catalytic reformer template:
1. Select File | New | Catalytic Reformer Template in the
menu bar.
The Reformer Configuration Wizard property view appears.
HYSYS automatically creates a catalytic reformer fluid
package with predetermined component list for the Catalytic
Reformer template.

2. In the first page of the Reformer Configuration Wizard


property view, you can configure the reactor part of the
Catalytic Reformer.
3. Click Next.
4. In the second page of the Reformer Configuration Wizard
property view, you can specify the reactor and heater
parameters.
5. Click Next.
6. In the third and final page of the Reformer Configuration
Wizard property view, you can select or specify a set of
calibration factors.
7. Click Done.
Aspen HYSYS Refining completes the Catalytic Reformer
subflowsheet, based on the specified information from the
Reformer Configuration Wizard, and opens the Catalytic
Reformer subflowsheet environment.
8. In the Catalytic Reformer environment, you can:

Access and modify the reactor by double-clicking the


reactor object icon in the Catalytic Reformer PFD.
Access and modify the stabilizer tower by double-clicking
on the stabilizer tower object icon in the Catalytic
Reformer PFD.
Access the Calibration environment and calibrate the
Reformer model.

4-18

Catalytic Reformer

4-19

9. In the menu bar, select File | Save As or File | Save


command to save the Catalytic Reformer template as a *.ref
file.

Create/Add Catalytic Reformer


To add a catalytic reformer into a PFD:
1. Open the appropriate simulation case.
2. Open the UnitOps property view.
3. In the Categories group, select the Refinery Ops radio
button.
4. In the Available Unit Operations group, select Catalytic
Reformer and click Add.
The Reformer Template Option property view appears
5. In the Reformer Template Option property view, do one of
the following:

Click Read an Existing CAT Template to add a


Catalytic Reformer operation based on an existing
template.
The Catalytic Reformer operation appears on the PFD.
Click Configure a New Reformer Unit to add a
Catalytic Reformer operation and configure it from
scratch.
The Reformer Configuration Wizard property view
appears, and you have to configure the basic structure of
the Catalytic Reformer operation using the features
available in the Reformer Configuration Wizard. After you
have specified the minimum information required, the
Catalytic Reformer operation appears on the PFD.
6. Open the Catalytic Reformer property view and make the
necessary changes/specifications/connections for the
simulation case.

4-19

4-20

Overall Operation Structure/

Access Catalytic Reformer Property


View
To open the Catalytic Reformer property view, do one of the
following:

On the PFD property view, right-click the Catalytic


Reformer operation icon and select View Properties
command from the Object Inspect menu.
On the Workbook property view, click the Unit Ops tab,
select the Catalytic Reformer under the Name column,
and click the View UnitOp button.
On the Object Navigator property view, select UnitOps
radio button in the Filter group, select the applicable
flowsheet in the Flowsheet group, select the Catalytic
Reformer operation in the Unit Operations group, and
click the View button.

Access Catalytic Reformer


Environment
To access the Catalytic Reformer subflowsheet environment:
1. In the Main PFD, open the Catalytic Reformer property view.
2. In the Catalytic Reformer property view, click the Reformer
Environment button.

Delete Catalytic Reformer Operation


To delete an existing Catalytic Reformer operation, do one of the
following:

On the PFD property view, select the Catalytic Reformer


operation icon and press DELETE.
On the PFD property view, right-click the Catalytic
Reformer operation icon and select Delete command
from the Object Inspect menu.
On the Catalytic Reformer property view, click the
Delete button.
On the Workbook property view, click the Unit Ops tab,
select the Catalytic Reformer under the Name column,
and click the Delete UnitOp button.

4-20

Catalytic Reformer

4-21

4.2.2 Catalytic Reformer


Environment
In the Catalytic Reformer environment, the following features
are available for the Catalytic Reformer:

access the individual operation property views that make


up the Catalytic Reformer operation
access Reformer Configuration Wizard
select calibration factor set
access the Calibration Environment
access Results property view

Access Operation Property View


1. In the Catalytic Reformer environment, open the PFD
property view.
2. On the PFD, do one of the following:

Double-click on the operations icon.


Right-click on the operations icon, and select View
Properties command in the object inspect menu.

Access Reformer Configuration


Wizard
To access the Reformer Configuration Wizard, do one of the
following:

In the Catalytic Reformer environment, select Reformer


| Configuration Wizard command in the menu bar.
Open the Reformer Reactor Section property view, click
the Design tab, select the Configuration page, and
click the Configuration Wizard button.

4-21

4-22

Overall Operation Structure/

Select Calibration Factor Set


To select the Calibration Factor Set for the Catalytic Reformer
operation:
1. Select Reformer | Calibration Factor command from the
menu bar.
The Calibration Factor Set property view appears.
Figure 4.7

2. Open the Select a calibration factor set to use for


simulation drop-down list and select a calibration factor
set.
You can click the Library button to open the Calibration
Set Library Property View to create, clone, and modify a
calibration factor set.

Access Calibration Environment


To access the Calibration environment:
1. In the Main environment, open the Catalytic Reformer
property view.
2. Click the Reformer Environment button to access the
Catalytic Reformer environment.
3. Select Reformer | Calibration command in the menu bar.

4-22

Catalytic Reformer

4-23

4.2.3 Calibration Environment


In the Calibration environment, you can calibrate the Catalytic
Reformer operation without affecting the actual operation in the
simulation environment.
After calibrating the operation to the desired performance, you
can export the new parameter/variable values to the Catalytic
Reformer operation in the simulation environment and view the
new results.
The following features are available in the Calibration
environment:

Calibrate the Catalytic Reformer

Calibrate the Catalytic Reformer


To calibrate the Catalytic Reformer:
1. In the Calibration environment, select Calibration |
Calibration Workbook command from the menu bar to
open the Calibration property view.
2. Open the Data Set drop-down list and select a data set to
be used on the calibration run.
The default data set is based on the current Catalytic
Reformer configuration.
The features/options available in the first three tabs are
available for you to make modifications to the existing
Catalytic Reformer, if you want/need to:

In the Design tab, you can make any modifications to


the configuration and geometry parameters of the
reactor.
In the Feed Data tab, you can make any modifications
to the feed stream.
In the Operation tab, you can make any modifications
to the overall operation performance of the Catalytic
Reformer.

You can make changes to the Catalytic Reformer


configuration and save the modifications as a separate data
set.

4-23

4-24

Reformer Configuration Wizard

3. In the Operation tab, specify values for the variables that


affect the reactor performance/results.
4. In the Measurement tab, specify the reactor, compressor,
and product stream parameters.
5. In the Calibration Control tab, select and specify the
parameter and objective function values that will be used in
the calibration calculation/run.
6. Click the Run Calibration button.

If you only have one data set, the Validation Wizard


Property View appears. Validate the data set and click
the OK button to continue with the calibration run.
If you have more than one data set, the Select Data
Sets for Calibration Property View appears. On the
Select Data Sets for Calibration property view, select and
validate the data set you want, and click the Run
Calibration button to continue with the calibration run.
7. After the calibration run has finish, click the Analysis tab to
view the calibration calculation results.

4.3 Reformer
Configuration Wizard
The Reformer Configuration Wizard enables you to quickly set
up the Catalytic Reformer operation.
The Reformer Configuration Wizard is made up of three
sequential pages. You enter information in a page, then move on
to the next page in order.
The following table list the common buttons available at the
bottom of the Reformer Configuration Wizard property view:
Button

Description

Next>

Enables you to move forward to the next page.

<Prev

Enables you to move backward to the previous page.

Cancel

Enables you to exit the Reformer Configuration Wizard without


saving any changes or creating a catalytic reformer operation.

4-24

Catalytic Reformer

4-25

Button

Description

Close

Enables you to exit the Reformer Configuration Wizard and keep


any specifications or changes made to the catalytic reformer
operation.

Done

Enables you to exit the Reformer Configuration Wizard and


finish configuring the catalytic reformer operation.

To access the Reformer Configuration Wizard:


1. In the HYSYS desktop menu bar, select FILE | New |
Reformer command.
HYSYS automatically completes the Simulation Basis
environment specifications and then enters the Simulation
environment.
The Reformer Configuration Wizard property view appears.
or
1. In the Main Environment, press the F12 to open the
UnitOps property view.
2. In the Available Unit Operations group, select Catalytic
Reformer and click Add.
The Reformer Template Option property view appears.
3. Click the Configure a New Reformer Unit button.
The Reformer Configuration Wizard property view appears.
or
1. In the Catalytic Reformer Environment, select Reformer
| Configuration Wizard command from the menu bar.
The Reformer Configuration Wizard property view appears.
or
1. In the Reactor Section Property View, click the Design
tab and select the Configuration page.
2. Click the Configuration Wizard button.
The Reformer Configuration Wizard property view appears.
or
1. In the Calibration Environment, select Calibration |
Calibration Workbook to open the Calibration property
view.
2. Click the Design tab and select the Configuration page.

4-25

4-26

Reformer Configuration Wizard

3. Click the Configuration Wizard button.


The Reformer Configuration Wizard property view appears.

4.3.1 Configuration Page


The Configuration page 1 of the Reformer Configuration Wizard
property view, enables you to specify the basic configuration of
the Catalytic Reformer.
Figure 4.8

Object

Description

Catalyst Type group

Contains two radio buttons that enables you to


select the catalyst in the reactor:
CCR
Semi-Regen

Reaction Section
group

Contains two radio buttons that enables you to


select how many beds in the reactor:
3 Beds
4 Beds

Include Hydrogen
Recontactor
checkbox

Enables you to toggle between including or


excluding a recontactor in the catalytic reformer.

Include Stabilizer
Tower checkbox

Enables you to toggle between including or


excluding a stabilizer tower in the catalytic
reformer.

4-26

Catalytic Reformer

4-27

4.3.2 Geometry Page


The Geometry page 2 of the Reformer Configuration Wizard
property view, enables you to specify the geometry information
for the reactors.
Figure 4.9

Object

Description

Length row

Enables you to specify the length of each reactor


bed.

Cat. Wt. row

Enables you to specify the catalyst weight of each


reactor bed.

Void Fraction field

Enables you to specify the void fraction of the


catalyst.

Catalyst Density field

Enables you to specify the density of the catalyst.

4-27

4-28

Reformer Configuration Wizard

4.3.3 Calibration Factors Page


The Calibration Factors page 3 of the Reformer Configuration
Wizard property view, enables you to select or specify a
calibration factor.
Figure 4.10

Object

Description

Use an existing set of


calibration factors
drop-down list

Enables you to select an existing calibration factor


set. The default selection is the default calibration
factor set provided by HYSYS.

Library button

Enables you to access the Calibration Set


Library Property View.

4-28

Catalytic Reformer

4-29

4.4 Catalytic Reformer


Property View
The Catalytic Reformer property view contains features used to
manipulate the overall Catalytic Reformer operation and enable
you to enter the Catalytic Reformer environment.
To access the Catalytic Reformer property view:
1. In the Main environment, open the PFD property view.
2. In the PFD property view, double-click on the Catalytic
Reformer object icon.
Figure 4.11

The following table lists and describes the common features in


the Catalytic Reformer property view:
Object

Description

Delete button

Enables you to delete the Catalytic Reformer


operation.

Reformer
Environment button

Enables you to enter the Catalytic Reformer


Environment.

4-29

4-30

Catalytic Reformer Property View

Object

Description

Status bar

Displays the status of the reactor section of the


catalytic reformer operation.

Ignore checkbox

Enables HYSYS to ignore the Catalytic Reformer


operation during the process flowsheet calculation.

4.4.1 Design Tab


The Design tab contains features used to configure the overall
structure of the Catalytic Reformer operation.
The features are grouped into the following pages:

Connections
Calibration Factors
Notes

Connections Page
The Connections page enables you to rename the operation, and
connect/disconnect streams flowing into and out of the Catalytic
Reformer.
Figure 4.12

4-30

Catalytic Reformer

4-31

Depending on the configuration of the Catalytic Reformer,


the image of the operation will vary.

Object

Description

Name field

Enables you to specify a name for the Catalytic


Reformer operation.

Reformer Feeds table

Enables you to connect feed streams to the


Catalytic Reformer, specify the internal feed
stream names, and select the type for the feed
streams.

Products table(s)

Enables you to connect product streams to the


Catalytic Reformer and specify the internal feed
stream name.

Feed Type Library


button

Enables you to access the Feed Type Library


Property View and modify the feed stream type
and data.

Calibration Factors Page


The Calibration Factors page enables you to create, edit, view,
and apply a calibration factor set to the Catalytic Reformer.
Figure 4.13

4-31

4-32

Catalytic Reformer Property View

Object

Description

Calibration Factor
Set drop-down list

Enables you to select and apply a calibration factor


set to the Catalytic Reformer.
Initially, Aspen HYSYS Refining provides a default
calibration factor set. The calibration factors in the
default set are read only.
If you want to manipulate the factor values, you
have to create your own calibration factor set.

Calibration Factors
Library button

Enables you to access the Calibration Set


Library Property View.
The Calibration Set Library property view enables
you to create, import, clone, edit, export, and
delete a calibration factor set.

Calibration Factors
table

Displays the following calibration factors:


Isomerization Tuning Factors
Olefin Distribution Factor
Equilibrium Constant Tuning Factors
Light Ends Tuning Factors
Kinetic Pathways Tuning Factors
Dehydrogenation Tuning Factors
Ring Closure Tuning Factors
Cracking Tuning Factors
Paraffin Isomerization Tuning Factors
Ring Expansion Tuning Factors
General Coke Activities
DP Factors
Base Heat Flux
Pinning Coefficients
RON Activity Factors

Notes Page
For more information
refer to Section 1.2.3 Notes Page/Tab.

The Notes page provides a text editor where you can record any
comments or information regarding the specific unit operation or
the simulation case in general.

4-32

Catalytic Reformer

4-33

4.4.2 Reactor Section Tab


The Reactor Section tab contains features used to configure the
reactor in the Catalytic Reformer operation.
The features are grouped into the following pages:

Feeds
Reactor Control
Catalyst
Recontactor
Product Heater
Solver Options
Solver Console
Advanced

Feeds Page
The Feeds page enables you to modify the properties of the feed
streams entering and exiting the Catalytic Reformer.
Figure 4.14

4-33

4-34

Catalytic Reformer Property View

Object

Description

Feed
Conditions
table

Enables you to modify the following properties of the feed


stream(s) entering the Catalytic Reformer:
volume flow rate
mass flow rate
standard volume flow rate
temperature

Combined
row

Displays the total value for each of the following columns:


Volume Flow
Mass Flow
Std Vol Flow

Reactor Control Page


The Reactor Control page enables you to modify the variables
that control the reactor in the Catalytic Reformer.
Figure 4.15

4-34

Catalytic Reformer

4-35

Object

Description

Reactor Temperature
Specification table

Enables you to specify the following variables that


control the reactor temperature:
WAIT (weight average inlet temperature)
WABT (weight average bed temperature)
Reactor Inlet Reference Temperature
Rx 1 Temperature Bias
Rx 1 Inlet Temperature
Rx 2 Temperature Bias
Rx 2 Inlet Temperature
Rx 3 Temperature Bias
Rx 3 Inlet Temperature
Rx 4 Temperature Bias
Rx 4 Inlet Temperature
C5+ RON
C6+ RON
Sum of Aromatics, Wt.% of Feed

Hydrogen Recycle
table

Enables you to configure the Hydrogen recycle


performance:
Recycle Compressor Flow
H2HC Ratio (mol/mol)

Product Separator
table

Enables you to configure the product separator:


Product Separator Temperature
Product Separator Pressure

Copy Data

Changing specifications results in clearing and


recalculating all previously calculated values from
the Temperature matrix.
Copy Data serves as a notepad to copy the current
data from the Reactor Temperature Specification
section. This lets you change specifications (e.g.
delete WAIT and input a WABT instead) and retain
previously known values in order to compare or
restore the original values.

Recycle Gas Location


Options

Opens an input View which lets you assign a


fractional value and a flow rate formula for each of
the reactors for recycle gas.

4-35

4-36

Catalytic Reformer Property View

Catalyst Page
The Catalyst page enables you to specify catalyst parameters for
the reactor beds.
The features available in the Catalyst page varies depending on
which type of reactor you selected for the Catalytic Reformer:

For the CCR reactor, you can specify the regenerator


condition, and either specify the catalyst circulation rate
or the coke on catalyst weight %.

Figure 4.16

Object

Description

CatCircRate field

Enables you to specify the catalyst circulation rate.

Coke on Catalyst
(wt%) rows

Enables you to specify the Coke on Catalyst weight


percentage for each reactor beds.

Coke Laydown Rate


(kg/h) rows

Enables you to specify the Coke Laydown rate for


each reactor beds.

Percent Pinning (%)


rows

Enables you to specify the Pinning percent for


each reactor beds.

4-36

Catalytic Reformer

4-37

For the Semi-regen reactor, you can specify the start and
end time for the reaction, the initial coke on catalyst, and
the coke on catalyst equilibrium distribution factor.

Figure 4.17

Object

Description

Simulation End/Start
Times table

Enables you to specify the start and end time for


the simulation reaction.

COC at Start of
Simulation table

Enables you to specify the initial coke on catalyst


value for all the reactor beds.

Equilibrium
Distribution Factors
table

Enables you to specify the equilibrium distribution


factor of the coke on catalyst for all the reactor
beds.

Average COC table

Enables you to specify the average coke on


catalyst value for all the reactor beds.

Rate of Coke
Production table

Enables you to specify the coke laydown rate for


all the reactor beds.

4-37

4-38

Catalytic Reformer Property View

Recontactor Page
The Recontactor page enables you to configure the booster
compressors and recontactor drums.
If the Catalytic Reformer does not have a recontactor, the
Recontactor page appears blank.
Figure 4.18

Object

Description

Outlet Pressure
row

Enables you to specify the outlet pressure of the


booster compressor for the following:
low pressure
high pressure

Inlet Stream DP
row

Enables you to specify the inlet stream pressure


difference of the recontactor drum for the following:
low pressure
high pressure

Product
Temperature row

Enables you to specify the product stream temperature


of the recontactor drum for the following:
low pressure
high pressure

Murphree
Efficiency row

Enables you to specify the Murphree efficiency of the


recontactor drum for the following:
low pressure
high pressure

4-38

Catalytic Reformer

4-39

Product Heater Page


The Product Heater Page enables you to specify the temperature
or heat duty of the heater, and the outlet stream pressure or
pressure difference of the heater.
Figure 4.19

4-39

4-40

Catalytic Reformer Property View

Solver Options Page


The Solver Options page enables you to modify the calculation
variables used to determine the reaction results of the reactor.
Figure 4.20

Object

Description

Convergence
Tolerance group

Contains the Residual field that enables you to specify the maximum
residual value allowed for the convergence calculation.

Iteration Limits
group

Contains two fields that enable you to control the iteration range for the
OOMF Solver performance:
Maximum Iterations field enables you to specify the maximum
number of iterations.
Minimum Iterations field enables you to specify the minimum number
of iterations.

Creep Step
Parameters
group

Contains three fields that enable you to configure the creep function of the
OOMF Solver:
On/Off Switch drop-down list. Enables you to select On (enable) or
Off (disable) option for the creep feature.
Iterations field. Enables you to specify the number of iterations per
creep step.
Step Size field. Enables you to specify the size of each creep step.

Completeness
Checking group

Contains the Override Spec Group Completeness checkbox that enables


you to toggle between:
HYSYS overriding its normal behaviour of requiring that spec groups be
complete before solving.
HYSYS retaining its normal behaviour of requiring that spec groups be
complete before solving.

4-40

Catalytic Reformer

4-41

Object

Description

SQP Hessian
Parameters
group

Contains features used to manipulate the SQP Hessian parameters:


Initialization drop-down list. Enables you to select one of four options
to initialize the Hessian value:
Normal (default). Hessian initialized with identity matrix. This setting
balances efficiency and robustness. It is well suited for general purpose
optimization problems. Typical applications are offline optimization and
online problems that start very far from a solution.
Aggressive. Hessian initialized with small values. This setting moves
the problem to bounds faster than the Normal mode. This setting is
preferred for highly constrained optimization problems with few Degrees
of Freedom at solution. Ideal applications are well-posed online realtime optimization problems.
Scaled. A combination of the Aggressive and Advanced modes.
Recommended for highly constrained optimization problems with few
Degrees of Freedom at solution and a nonlinear objective function.
Advanced. Hessian initialized with 2nd order information.
Recommended for problems with many Degrees of Freedom at solution
and/or quadratic objective function. Ideal for data reconciliation
problems, both online and offline.
Scaling factor field. Enables you to specify the scaling factor.
Updates stored field. Enables you to specify the number of updates
stored during calculation (default value is 10).

Line Search
Parameters
group

Contains features used to configure the line search parameters:


Algorithm drop-down list. Enables you to select one of four methods
for the line search algorithm:
Normal (default). A proprietary line search designed to balance
robustness with efficiency.
Exact. A well-known exact penalty line search. It is too conservative for
most practical problems.
Residual. A proprietary line search designed to initially favour the
convergence of residuals over the objective function improvement.
Square. A line search designed to attempt to enforce bounds on cases
with no Degrees of Freedom. It should be used only in cases where
there are multiple solutions to a problem, and the desired solution lies
within the bounds.
Step Control drop-down list. Enables you to select one of three options
for the step size:
Normal (default). The original method.
Aggressive. A modified method that tends to take larger steps.
Conservative. A modified method that tends to take smaller steps.
Step Control Iterations field. Enables you to specify the number of
step iterations.

Variable Scaling
Parameter group

Contains the On/Off Switch drop-down list that enables you to select one of
the following options:
On. Activates the variable scaling parameter.
Off. Deactivates the variable scaling parameter.

Failure Recovery
Action dropdown list

Enables you to select one of the following action in case of failure:


Do nothing.
Revert to the previous results before the solve (this is the default
option).
Revert to the default input and results.

4-41

4-42

Catalytic Reformer Property View

Solver Console Page


The Solver Console page enables you to view the solver
message generated by the reactor and run script commands.
Figure 4.21

Object

Description

Simulation Engine
Message and Script
Commands field

Displays the messages and commands from the


solver of the FCC reactor.

Enter Script
Command field

Enables you to enter the text code for a command


for the solver.

Clear Message
button

Enables you to clear the messages in the


Simulation Engine Message and Script Commands
field.

Get Prev. Command


button

Enables you to retrieve a previous command from


the command history and place the text code in
the Enter Script Command field.

Get Next Command


button

Enables you to retrieve the next command from


the command history and place the text code in
the Enter Script Command field.

Run Command
button

Enables you to run the command code in the Enter


Script Command field.

Clear Command
button

Enables you to clear the command history.

4-42

Catalytic Reformer

4-43

Advanced Page
The Advanced page displays in detail the parameters that affect
the performance of the Catalytic Reformer.
The features in the Advanced page are intended for expert
users who have detailed knowledge on the Catalytic
Reformer.
Figure 4.22

The following table lists and describes the variables available in


the Advanced page:
Parameter

Description

FOE Densities

The Fuel Oil Equivalent (FOE) density of the


following components: H2, Methane, Ethane, and
Ethylene.

Heater Efficiencies

The Heater efficiency variables enable you to


specify the heat transfer efficiencies of the heater
in each reactor.

4-43

4-44

Catalytic Reformer Property View

Parameter

Description

General Kinetic
Calibration Factors

The General Kinetic calibration factors enable you


to adjust the activities for a specific reaction type
(using the activity for the reaction type) or to
adjust the reactions rates of all reactions
simultaneously (using the Global Activity).

Activity Profile
Constants

The Activity Profile Constants enable you to adjust


the activity profile through a reactor.
The only real valid reason for adjusting the Activity
Distribution is to match measured internal reactor
temperatures. Great care must be taken in this
effort to insure that the exact locations of internal
thermocouples are known.
It is not recommended to tune to internal
temperatures unless duplicate thermocouples are
located in the beds at the same levels but in
different quadrants of the reactor.

4.4.3 Stabilizer Tower Tab


The Stabilizer Tower tab contains features used to manipulate
the tower in the Catalytic Reformer. The features are grouped
into the following pages:

Zone Pressures
Specs

If the Catalytic Reformer does not contain a stabilizer tower,


the above pages are blanked.

4-44

Catalytic Reformer

4-45

Zone Pressures Page


The Zone Pressures page enables you to specify the top
pressure values for the fractionator zones and the bottom
pressure of the fractionator.
Figure 4.23

Specs Page
Refer to Specs Page
section from Chapter 6 Petroleum Column for
more information.

The Specs page enables you to specify the values of the product
output streams of the fractionator. These are the values that the
Column algorithm tries to meet.
There are two specs options to choose from: TBP Cut Point or
Product Flow Fraction. Depending on which option you select in
the Spec Option group, the features available in the Specs page
varies.

4-45

4-46

Catalytic Reformer Property View

TBP Cut Point option

Figure 4.24

Product Flow Fraction option

Figure 4.25

4-46

Catalytic Reformer

4-47

4.4.4 Results Tab


The Results tab displays the calculated simulation results of the
Catalytic Reformer.
The information are grouped in the following pages:

Summary
Feed Blend
Product Yields
Product Properties
Reactors
Heaters
Recontactor
Product Streams

Summary Page
The Summary page displays the calculated results of the
Catalytic Reformer.
Figure 4.26

4-47

4-48

Catalytic Reformer Property View

Feed Blend Page


The Feed Blend page displays the detailed characterization of
each individual feed and blended feed streams entering the
Catalytic Reformer.
Figure 4.27

Properties

mass flowrate
volume flowrate
standard volume flowrate
moles flowrate
molecular weight
specific gravity
API gravity

components
paraffins
naphthenics
aromatics
D86 Initial point
D86 cut points
TBP Initial point
TBP cut points

4-48

Catalytic Reformer

4-49

Product Yields Page


The Product Yields page displays the Net Reactor yields from the
simulation.
Figure 4.28

The Grouped Yield, Detailed Yield, and Fractionated radio


buttons enables you to select how the information is displayed in
the Product Yields page.

Grouped Yields option displays the following


properties:

Table

Properties

Grouped
Yields

Displays the weight% and volume% values for the following properties:

sum
sum
sum
sum
sum
sum
sum
sum
sum

of normal paraffins
single-branched paraffins
of multi-branch paraffins
of all paraffins
of Olefins
of 5 ring Naphtha
of 6 ring Naphtha
of all Naphtha
of all aromatics

sum
sum
sum
sum
sum
sum
sum
sum
sum
sum

of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of

C4+
C5+
C6+
C8 aromatics
C5 paraffins
C6 paraffins
C7 paraffins
C8 paraffins
C9 paraffins
C10 paraffins

4-49

4-50

Catalytic Reformer Property View

Table

Properties

Isomer
Weight
Ratios

Displays the isomer to normal weight ratios for the following components:

C6+
C6+ single-branch to multibranch
A8 para-xylene %
A8 meta-xylene %
A8 ortho-xylene %
A8 ethyl-benzene %

C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9

Detailed Yields option displays the following properties:

Table

Properties

Detailed
Yields

Displays the weight% and volume% values for the


following properties:

H2
P1
P2
OL2
P3
O3
IP4
NP4
O4
IP5
NP5
O5
5N5
MBP6
SBP6
NP6
O6
5N6
A6
6N6

MBP7
SBP7
NP7
O7
5N7
A7
6N7
MBP8
SBP8
NP8
O8
5N8
ETHYLBENZENE
O-XYLENE
M-XYLENE
P-XYLENE
6N8
IP9
NP9
5N9

A9
6N9
IP10
NP10
5N10
A10
6N10
IP11
NP11
5N11
A11
6N11
P12
N12
A12
P13
N13
A13
P14
N14
A14

4-50

Catalytic Reformer

4-51

Fractionated option displays the following properties:

Table

Properties

Vapor
Streams

Displays the weight% and mole% (of net H2, Stab O/H
vapor, and vent H2) for the following properties:

Liquid
Streams

MASS
VOLUME
H2
P1
P2
OL2
P3
O3
IP4
NP4
O4
IP5
NP5
O5
5N5
MBP6
SBP6
NP6
O6
5N6
A6

6N6
MBP7
SBP7
NP7
O7
5N7
A7
6N7
MBP8
SBP8
NP8
O8
5N8
ETHYLBEN
O-XYLENE
M-XYLENE
P-XYLENE
6N8
IP9
NP9
5N9

A9
6N9
IP10
NP10
5N10
A10
6N10
IP11
NP11
5N11
A11
6N11
P12
N12
A12
P13
N13
A13
P14
N14
A14

Displays the mass, volume, and mole basis (of Stab O/H
liquid and Stab btms) for the following properties:

Flow Rate
H2
P1
P2
OL2
P3
O3
IP4
NP4
O4
IP5
NP5
O5
5N5
MBP6
SBP6
NP6
O6
5N6
A6
6N6

MBP7
SBP7
NP7
O7
5N7
A7
6N7
MBP8
SBP8
NP8
O8
5N8
ETHYLBEN
O-XYLENE
M-XYLENE
P-XYLENE
6N8
IP9
NP9
5N9
A9

6N9
IP10
NP10
5N10
A10
6N10
IP11
NP11
5N11
A11
6N11
P12
N12
A12
P13
N13
A13
P14
N14
A14

4-51

4-52

Catalytic Reformer Property View

If the Catalytic Reformer does not contain a stabilizer tower,


the Fractionated option displays a blank page.

Product Properties Page


The Product Properties page displays the properties of the net
reactor yield from the simulation and the fractionated cuts if a
fractionator is included.
Figure 4.29

The Net Yield Properties group a table that displays the following
properties:

C5+ RON
C6+ RON
sum of aromatics, weight% of feed

4-52

Catalytic Reformer

4-53

If a stabilizer tower is attached, the following tables appear:


Table

Properties

Stabilizer
Overhead Liquid

molecular weight
API gravity

specific gravity

Stabilizer
Bottoms

RON
MON
RVP
specific gravity
API gravity
molecular weight
Single-Branched Paraffins wt%
Multi-Branched Paraffins wt%

Normal Paraffins wt%


Total Paraffins wt%
Total Olefins wt%
5C-Ring Naphthenics wt%
6C-Ring Naphthenics wt%
Total Naphthenics wt%
Total Aromatics wt%

Reactors Page
The Reactors page displays the key simulation results of the
reactors.
Figure 4.30

The following calculated variable results are displayed for each


reactor:

Inlet Temperature
Outlet Temperature
Delta T. Temperature difference between the inlet stream
and outlet stream.
4-53

4-54

Catalytic Reformer Property View

Inlet Pressure
Outlet Pressure
Delta P. Pressure difference between the inlet stream and
outlet stream.
Inlet Moles. Inlet stream flow rate in moles.
Outlet Moles. Outlet stream flow rate in moles.
Residence Time. The length of time the fluid stream
remains within the reactor.

Heaters Page
The Heaters page displays the calculated results of the heater
properties after the reaction.
Figure 4.31

Recontactor Page
The Recontactor page displays calculated results of the
recontactor.
If the Catalytic Reformer does not contain a recontactor,
then the Recontactor page appears blank.

4-54

Catalytic Reformer

4-55

Figure 4.32

The following properties are displayed for the Booster


Compressor and Recontactors at low and high pressures:

For Booster Compressor: inlet stream moles flow rate,


inlet stream temperature, inlet stream pressure, outlet
stream temperature, outlet stream pressure, and gas
power.
For Recontactors: inlet vapour temperature, inlet vapour
temperature, inlet vapour delta pressure, inlet liquid
moles flow rate, inlet liquid temperature, inlet liquid
pressure, inlet liquid delta pressure, heat loss, product
temperature, product vapour fraction, Murphree
efficiency, vapor mass, vapor moles, liquid temperature,
liquid pressure, and liquid H2.

The following properties are displayed for the H2 Vent at low


pressure: H2 to vent splitter, H2 to HP recontactor drum,
fraction of H2 to HP recontactor drum, H2 Vent stream, and
fraction of H2 to Vent H2.

4-55

4-56

Feed Type Library Property View

Product Streams Page


The Product Streams page displays the properties of the product
stream exiting the Catalytic Reformer.
Figure 4.33

4.5 Feed Type Library


Property View
The Feed Type Library property view enables you to import,
export, delete, and configure the feed type data.
You cannot delete the default feed type provided by Aspen
HYSYS Refining.

To access the Feed Type Library property view:


1. Open the Catalytic Reformer Property View.
2. Click the Design tab and select the Connections page.
3. Click the Feed Type Library button.

4-56

Catalytic Reformer

4-57

The Feed Type Library property view appears.


Figure 4.34

The following table lists and describes the options available in


the Feed Type Library property view.
Object

Description

Feed Types list

Displays the names of the feed type available in


the Catalytic Reformer

Import button

Enables you to import feed types (from *.csv files)


into the Catalytic Reformer.

Export button

Enables you to export a selected feed type, in the


Feed Types list, to a *.csv file.

Delete button

Enables you to delete a selected feed type, in the


Feed Types list, from the Catalytic Reformer.

Properties of
Selected Feed Type
table

Enables you to modify the property information of


a selected feed type in the Feed Types list.

4-57

4-58

Reactor Section Property View

4.6 Reactor Section


Property View
The Reactor Section property view enables you to configure and
modify the reactor part of the catalytic reformer operation.
To access the Reactor Section property view:
1. Enter the Catalytic Reformer subflowsheet environment.
2. Access the PFD by clicking the PFD icon.
PFD icon

3. On the PFD property view, right-click the Reactor Section


object icon.
4. Select View Properties command from the object inspect
menu.
The Reformer Reactor Section property view appears.
Figure 4.35

4-58

Catalytic Reformer

4-59

The following table lists and describes the common features in


the Reactor Section property view:
Object

Description

Delete button

Enables you to delete the reactor section.

Status bar

Displays the status of the reactor section of the


catalytic reformer operation.

Ignore checkbox

Enables HYSYS to ignore the reactor section


during the process flowsheet calculation.

4.6.1 Design Tab


The Design tab contains the features used to configure the
reactor section of the Catalytic Reformer operation.
These features are grouped into the following pages:

Configuration
Geometry
Notes

Configuration Page
The Configuration page enables you to specify the reactor name,
and displays the reactor type, number of reactor beds, and
whether the reactor contains a recontactor.
To modify the configuration, click the Configuration Wizard
button to access the Reformer Configuration Wizard property
view.

4-59

4-60

Reactor Section Property View

Figure 4.36

Geometry Page
The Geometry page enables you to specify detailed information/
structure of the reactor beds and heaters.
Figure 4.37

4-60

Catalytic Reformer

4-61

Object

Description

Length

Enables you to specify the length of the reactor bed.

Cat. Wt.

Enables you to specify the weight of the catalyst in the


reactor bed.

Void Fraction

Enables you to specify the ratio/fraction between


empty space in the reactor vs. space taken by the
tubes.

Catalyst Density

Enables you to specify the density of the catalyst in the


reactor beds.

Notes Page
For more information
refer to Section 1.2.3 Notes Page/Tab.

The Notes page provides a text editor where you can record any
comments or information regarding the specific unit operation or
the simulation case in general.

4.6.2 Feed Data Tab


The Feed Data tab contains features used to configure and
modify the feed stream properties entering the Reformer
Reactor Section.
The features are grouped into the following pages:

Library
Properties

You can also access the features in the Feed Data tab by
clicking the Feed Type Library button in the Connections
page of the Catalytic Reformer property view.

4-61

4-62

Reactor Section Property View

Library Page
The Library page enables you to create, copy, modify, import,
export, and delete feed data types entering the reactor
operation.
Figure 4.38

Object

Description

Feed Types
group

Displays the list of feed data types available for the


reactor.

Import button

Enables you to import a feed data from a file. The feed


data are saved in *.csv type files.

Export button

Enables you to export the selected feed data (from the


Available Feed Types group) into a *.csv file. The
exported feed data can be imported into a different
applicable operation.

Delete button

Enables you to delete the selected feed data in the


Available Feed Types group.

Properties of
Selected Feed
Type table

Enables you to modify the property information of a


selected feed type in the Feed Types list.

4-62

Catalytic Reformer

4-63

Properties Page
The Properties page enables you to specify properties for virtual
feeds. The virtual feeds are feeds not represented by internal or
external streams in the subflowsheet and flowsheet respectively.
Figure 4.39

Object

Description

Feeds group

Displays both real and virtual feed streams connected


to the Catalytic Reformer.

Add button

Enables you to create a virtual feed stream.


Aspen HYSYS Refining automatically assigns a default
name to the virtual feed stream and treats the virtual
stream as an internal stream.

Delete button

Enables you to delete the selected feed stream from


the Feeds group.
If the selected feed stream is a real stream, then both
the internal and external streams will be deleted.

Assay radio
button

Enables you to specify assay properties of the selected


feed type in the Feed Type list.

Bulk Properties
radio button

Enables you to specify bulk properties of the selected


feed type in the Feed Type list.

Kinetic Lumps
radio button

Enables you to specify kinetic lumps properties of the


selected feed type in the Feed Type list.

4-63

4-64

Reactor Section Property View

Object

Description

Use GC Data
checkbox

Enables you to use the GC data (from the selected feed


stream) to derived the composition.
This checkbox is only available if you select the Assay
radio button and if the selected feed stream contains
GC data.

Assay drop-down
list

Enables you to select the assay associated to the


selected feed type in the Feed Type list.
This drop-down list is only available if you select the
Assay radio button.

Feed Properties
group

Contains a table that displays the list of properties


available for you to view or modify of the selected feed
stream.
The variables available in this table varies depending
on which radio button you select in the Selected Feed
group.

4.6.3 Operation Tab


The Operation tab contains features used to manipulate the
operation parameters of the Catalytic Reformer operation.
The features are grouped into the following pages:

Feeds
Reactor Control
Catalyst
Recontactor
Product Heater
Solver Options
Solver Console
Advanced

4-64

Catalytic Reformer

4-65

Feeds Page
Refer to Feeds Page
section for more
information.

The Feeds page enables you to modify the physical properties of


the feed streams entering and exiting the reactor section of the
Catalytic Reformer operation.
Figure 4.40

4-65

4-66

Reactor Section Property View

Reactor Control Page


Refer to Reactor Control
Page section for more
information.

The Reactor Control page enables you to modify the variables


that control the reactor.
Figure 4.41

4-66

Catalytic Reformer

4-67

Catalyst Page
Refer to Catalyst Page
section for more
information.

The Catalyst page enables you to modify the catalyst properties


in the reactor.
The options in the Catalyst page varies depending on which
Catalytic Reformer configuration you selected.
Figure 4.42

4-67

4-68

Reactor Section Property View

Recontactor Page
Refer to Recontactor
Page section for more
information.

The Recontactor page enables you to configure the recontactor


in the reactor.
If the Catalytic Reformer does not contain a recontactor, the
Recontactor page will appear blank.
Figure 4.43

4-68

Catalytic Reformer

4-69

Product Heater Page


The Product Heater page enables you to specify the outlet
pressure, pressure difference, outlet temperature, and/or heater
duty.
Figure 4.44

4-69

4-70

Reactor Section Property View

Solver Options Page


Refer to Solver Options
Page section for more
information.

The Solver Options page enables you to modify the calculation


variables used to determine the reaction results of the reactor.
Figure 4.45

4-70

Catalytic Reformer

4-71

Solver Console Page


Refer to Solver Console
Page section for more
information.

The Solver Console page enables you to view the solver


message generated by the reactor and run script commands.
Figure 4.46

4-71

4-72

Reactor Section Property View

Advanced Page
Refer to Advanced Page
section for more
information.

The Advanced page enables you to view in detail the parameters


that affect the performance of the Catalytic Reformer.
The features in the Advanced page are intended for expert
users who have detailed knowledge on the Catalytic
Reformer.
Figure 4.47

4-72

Catalytic Reformer

4-73

4.6.4 Results Tab


The Results tab enables you to view the calculated variable
results of the Catalytic Reformer.
The information are grouped into the following pages:

Summary
Feed Blend
Product Yields
Product Properties
Reactor Section
Heaters
Recontactor
Product Streams

Summary Page
The Summary page displays the calculated results of the
Catalytic Reformer.
Figure 4.48

4-73

4-74

Reactor Section Property View

Feed Blend Page


The Feed Blend page displays the calculated physical properties
of the feed stream entering the reactor.
Figure 4.49

4-74

Catalytic Reformer

4-75

Product Yields Page


The Product Yields page displays the calculated yield results of
the product stream exiting the reactor.
Figure 4.50

4-75

4-76

Reactor Section Property View

Product Properties Page


The Product Properties page displays the calculated physical
properties of the product stream exiting the reactor.
Figure 4.51

4-76

Catalytic Reformer

4-77

Reactors Page
For more information,
refer to Reactors Page
section.

The Reactors page displays the key simulation results of the


riser and reactor.
Figure 4.52

4-77

4-78

Reactor Section Property View

Heaters Page
The Heaters page displays the calculated results of the heater
properties after the reaction.
Figure 4.53

Recontactor Page
The Recontactor page displays calculated results of the
recontactor.
If the Catalytic Reformer does not contain a recontactor,
then the Recontactor page appears blank.

4-78

Catalytic Reformer

4-79

Figure 4.54

Product Streams Page


The Product Streams page displays the properties of the product
stream exiting the Catalytic Reformer.
Figure 4.55

4-79

4-80

Feed Type Property View

4.7 Feed Type Property


View
The Feed Type property view enables you to modify the selected
feed data.
Figure 4.56

Object

Description

Name field

Enables you to specify the name of the feed data.

Description field

Enables you to provide an explanation/description


of the feed data.

Created field

Displays the date and time when the feed data


was created.

Modified field

Displays the date and time when the feed data


was last modified.

Kinetic Lump Weight


Percents table

Enables you to specify the value of the kinetic


lumps ratio in the feed data.

Normalize button

Enables you to normalize the values in the Ratio


Value column so the sum of the ratio equals 1.

Delete button

Enables you to delete the current feed type in the


Feed Type property view.

To access the Feed Type property view, in the Reformer Reactor


Section property view, click the Feed Data tab, select the
Library page, and click the Add button.

4-80

Catalytic Reformer

4-81

4.8 Calibration Set Library


Property View
The Calibration Set Library property view enables you to
manage the calibration factor sets.
There are several methods to access the Calibration Set Library
property view:

In the Reformer Configuration Wizard property view,


go to the Calibration Factors (3 of 3) page and click the
Library button.
In the Catalytic Reformer Property View, select the
Design tab, select the Calibration Factors page, and
click the Calibration Factors Library button.
In the Catalytic Reformer Environment, select
Reformer | Calibration Factor command from the
menu bar, and click the Library button in the Calibration
Factor Set property view.

Figure 4.57

The following table lists and describes the options available in


the Calibration Set Library property view:
Object

Description

Available Calibration
Factor Sets list

Displays all the factor sets available in the current


calibration environment.

View/Edit button

Enables you to view or modify the data of the


selected factor set in the Available Calibration
Factor Sets list.

4-81

4-82

Calibration Set Library Property

Object

Description

Add button

Enables you to add a new factor set and access


the Factor Set Property View.

Delete button

Enables you to delete the selected factor set in the


Available Calibration Factor Sets list.

Clone button

Enables you to create a copy/clone of the selected


factor set in the Available Calibration Factor
Sets list.

Import button

Enables you to import a calibration factor set data


from a *.csv file.

Export button

Enables you to export/save the selected factor set


(in the Available Calibration Factor Sets list) to
a file *.csv.

HYSYS provides a default calibration factor set with values in


the Calibration Set Library.
The calibration factor values, in the Default calibration factor
set, are read only.
To modify the calibration factors, you need to make a clone
of the Default Calibration Factor set, and modify the
calibration factor values in the cloned set.

4.8.1 Factor Set Property View


The Factor Set property view displays the variable values that
make up the calibration factor set. You can also edit the variable
values in the Factor Set property view.
You cannot modify the variable values of the default
calibration factor set provided by HYSYS.

To access the Factor Set property view:


1. Open the Calibration Set Library Property View.
2. Do one of the following:

Click the Add button to create a new calibration factor


set.
Select the calibration factor set you want to view in the
Available Calibration Factor Sets list and click the View/
Edit button.
Select the calibration factor set you want to edit in the
Available Calibration Factor Sets list and click the Clone
button.
4-82

Catalytic Reformer

4-83

The Factor Set property view appears.


Figure 4.58

The options in the Factor Set property view is grouped into three
pages:

Reactor
Advanced
Stabilizer

All three pages in the Factor Set property view contains the
following common options:
Object

Description

Name field

Enables you to specify the name of the calibration


factor set.

Description field

Enables you to provide a brief description on the


calibration factor set.

4-83

4-84

Calibration Set Library Property

Object

Description

Date Created
field

Displays the date and time when the calibration factor


set was created.

Date Modified
field

Displays the date and time when the calibration factor


set was last modified.

Reactor Page
The Reactor page enables you to access the Reactor Factors
group and specify variable values associated to the reactor.
Figure 4.59

4-84

Catalytic Reformer

4-85

Advanced Page
The Advanced page enables you to access the Advanced Factors
group and specify variable values associated to the advanced
options.
Figure 4.60

Stabilizer Page
The Stabilizer page enables you to enables you to access the
Fractionator Cuts group and specify variable values associated
to the stabilizer tower.
The Stabilizer page is blank if the Catalytic Reformer does
not contain a stabilizer tower.

4-85

4-86

Calibration Property View

Figure 4.61

4.9 Calibration Property


View
The Calibration property view enables you to calibrate the
Catalytic Reformer.
Figure 4.62

4-86

Catalytic Reformer

4-87

The Calibration property view is only accessible in the


Calibration Environment.

The following table lists and describes the common features in


the Calibration property view:
Object

Description

Run Calibration
button

Enables you to select one or more data set for the


calibration run and access the Validation Wizard
feature.
This button is unavailable until all required data is
entered.

Data Set drop-down


list

Enables you to select different data sets for


entering the data or viewing the results for the
calibration or the prediction run.

Manage Data Sets


button

Enables you to access the Data Set Manager


Property View to manage the data set.

Push Data to
Simulation button

Enables you to export input data from the current


data set in the calibration property view to the
property view in the Catalytic Reformer
environment.
Any existing simulation data will be overwritten
with the current calibration data.

Pull Data from


Simulation button

Enables you to import input data from the


property view in the Catalytic Reformer
environment into the current data set in the
Calibration property view.
Any existing calibration data will be overwritten
with the current simulation data.

Return to Simulation
button

Enables you to exit the Calibration environment


and return to the Catalytic Reformer environment.

Status bar

Displays the current status of the calibration/


prediction run.

Validation Wizard
When you click the Run Calibration button, HYSYS lets you
select the data set you want to use for the calibration run, and
validate the selected data set before the calibration is actually
run.
The Run Calibration button in the Calibration property view
is unavailable until all necessary calibration input is
complete.

4-87

4-88

Calibration Property View

Depending on how many data sets are available for the


calibration run one of the following property views appears when
you click the Run Calibration button:

Select Data Sets for Calibration property view


Validation Wizard property view

Select Data Sets for Calibration Property


View
This property view displays status and names of data sets
available with the calibration run.
Figure 4.63

The Select Data Sets for Calibration property view appears


only when there is more than one data set for the calibration
run.

Object

Description

Include column

Contains a checkbox that enables you to include or


exclude the data sets for the calibration run.
When a clear checkbox is selected, the Validation
Wizard property view appears.

Data Set Name


column

Displays the name of the data sets available for the


calibration run.

Status column

Displays the status of the associate data set.

Run Calibration
button

Enables you to run the calibration using the selected


data set in the Select Data Sets for Calibration group.
This button is not active until you have selected and
validated a data set.

4-88

Catalytic Reformer

4-89

Object

Description

Stop button

Enables you to stop the calculation process during a


calibration run.
This button is only active during the calibration run
calculation.

Close button

Enables you to close the Select Data Sets for


Calibration property view without performing any
calibration run.

Validation Wizard Property View


This property view displays the mass flows and hydrogen flows
of feed and product streams (derived from the input data).
Figure 4.64

If there is only one data set for the calibration run, the
Validation Wizard property view appears when you click the
Run Calibration button.

4-89

4-90

Calibration Property View

Object

Description

Feed group

Displays the following properties for the feed


streams of the data set:
stream name
mass flowrate
total mass flowrate
feed hydrogen
total hydrogen

Mass and Hydrogen


Balance group

Displays the mass and hydrogen closure before


and after the product masses are adjusted.

Product group

Displays the following properties for the product


streams of the data set:
stream name
measured mass flowrate
adjusted mass flowrate
measured hydrogen flow rate
adjusted hydrogen flow rate
total measured mass flowrate
total adjusted mass flowrate
total measured hydrogen flow rate
total adjusted hydrogen flow rate
You can also assign or not assign bias to the
product stream by clicking the appropriate
checkbox in the Assign Bias column.

OK button

Enables you to close the Validation Wizard


property view and accept the changes made in the
property view.

Cancel button

Enables you to close the Validation Wizard


property view without accepting any changes
made in the property view.

The information displayed in the Validation Wizard property view


enables you to analyse the measurement data before accepting
the data set for the calibration run.
If the total product mass rate is greater than the total feed
mass rate by about 2-3%, you should review the flow rate
and gravity information of the products.
If you think the error is acceptable, you can decide how you
would like to distribute the mass imbalance by assigning the
bias to any of the product streams (except coke). Once the
bias is assigned, the Validation Wizard adjusts the mass flow
of the selected product stream(s) to match the feed total
mass flow by re-normalization.

4-90

Catalytic Reformer

4-91

Data Set Manager Property View


The Data Set Manager property view enables you to add,
modify, clone, delete, or rename the Catalytic Reformer data
sets associated to the calibration run.
Figure 4.65

Object

Description

Available Data Sets


list

Displays all the data sets available in the associate


calibration/prediction run.

Add button

Enables you to add a new data set to the


calibration/prediction run.

Delete button

Enables you to delete the selected data set in the


Available Data Sets list.

Clone button

Enables you to clone the selected data set in the


Available Data Sets list.

Rename button

Enables you to rename the selected data set in the


Available Data Sets list.

4.9.1 Design Tab


The Design tab contains features used to configure the reactor
in the Catalytic Reformer operation. The features are grouped
into the following pages:

Configuration
Geometry
Notes

4-91

4-92

Calibration Property View

Configuration Page
The Configuration page enables you to access the Reformer
Configuration Wizard and modify reactor type, number of
reactor beds, and whether the reactor contains a recontactor.
Figure 4.66

4-92

Catalytic Reformer

4-93

Geometry Page
For more information,
refer to Geometry Page
section.

The Geometry page enables you to specify detailed information/


structure of the reactor beds and heaters.
Figure 4.67

Notes Page
For more information
refer to Section 1.2.3 Notes Page/Tab.

The Notes page provides a text editor where you can record any
comments or information regarding the specific unit operation or
the simulation case in general.

4-93

4-94

Calibration Property View

4.9.2 Feed Data Tab


The Feed tab contains features used to configure and modify the
feed stream properties entering the FCC Reactor Section.
The features are grouped into the following pages:

Library
Properties

Library Page
For more information,
refer to Library Page
section.

The Library page enables you to create, copy, modify, import,


export, and delete feed data types entering the reactor
operation.
Figure 4.68

4-94

Catalytic Reformer

4-95

Properties Page
For more information,
refer to Properties Page
section.

The Properties page enables you to specify properties for virtual


feeds. The virtual feeds are feeds not represented by internal or
external streams in the subflowsheet and flowsheet respectively.
Figure 4.69

4.9.3 Operation Tab


The Operation tab contains features used to manipulate the
operation parameters of the Catalytic Reformer operation.
The features are grouped into the following pages:

Feeds
Reactor Control
Catalyst
Recontactor
Product Heater
Stabilizer
Solver Options
Solver Console
Advanced

4-95

4-96

Calibration Property View

Feed Page
Refer to Feeds Page
section for more
information.

The Feeds page enables you to modify the physical properties of


the feed streams entering and exiting the reactor section of the
Catalytic Reformer operation.
Figure 4.70

4-96

Catalytic Reformer

4-97

Reactor Control Page


Refer to Reactor Control
Page section for more
information.

The Reactor Control page enables you to modify the variables


that control the reactor.
Figure 4.71

4-97

4-98

Calibration Property View

Catalyst Page
Refer to Catalyst Page
section for more
information.

The Catalyst page enables you to modify the catalyst properties


in the reactor.
Figure 4.72

Recontactor Page
Refer to Recontactor
Page section for more
information.

The Recontactor page enables you to configure the recontactor


in the reactor.
If the Catalytic Reformer does not contain a recontactor, the
Recontactor page will appear blank.

4-98

Catalytic Reformer

4-99

Figure 4.73

Product Heater Page


The Product Heater page enables you to modify the outlet
pressure, pressure difference, outlet temperature, and/or heater
duty.
Figure 4.74

4-99

4-100

Calibration Property View

Stabilizer Page
The Stabilizer page enables you to modify the feed temperature,
top vapour pressure, bottom pressure, and reboiler duty (if
applicable).
Figure 4.75

The Stabilizer page is blank if the Catalytic Reformer


configuration does not include a stabilizer.

4-100

Catalytic Reformer

4-101

Solver Options Page


Refer to Solver Options
Page section for more
information.

The Solver Options page enables you to modify the calculation


variables used to determine the reaction results of the reactor.
Figure 4.76

4-101

4-102

Calibration Property View

Solver Console Page


Refer to Solver Console
Page section for more
information.

The Solver Console page enables you to view the solver


message generated by the reactor and run script commands.
Figure 4.77

Advanced Page
The Advanced page enables you to view the detail parameters
that affect the performance of the Catalytic Reformer.
The information in the Advanced page are intended for
expert users who have detailed knowledge on the Catalytic
Reformer.

4-102

Catalytic Reformer

4-103

Figure 4.78

4.9.4 Measurement Tab


The Measurement tab contains features used to configure the
operations, manipulate the product streams, and analyse the
production measurement results.
The features are grouped into the following pages:

Operation
Products
Analysis

4-103

4-104

Calibration Property View

Operation Page
The Operation page enables you to modify the parameters of the
reactor, compressor, and recycle stream.
Figure 4.79

The following table lists and describes the options available in


the Operation page:
Object

Description

Inlet Pressure
column

Enables you to modify the inlet pressure of the


stream entering each reactor.

Pressure Drop
column

Enables you to modify the pressure drop in each


reactor.

Delta T

Enables you to modify the temperature difference


in each reactor.

Discharge Pressure
cell

Enables you to modify the pressure of the stream


exiting the compressor.

Suction Pressure cell

Enables you to modify the suction pressure of the


compressor.

4-104

Catalytic Reformer

4-105

Object

Description

H2 Purity of Recycle
cell

Enables you to modify the purity of hydrogen in


the recycle stream.

Measured Octanes
group

Enables you to modify the RON and MON values of


the product stream for C5+ and C6+.
If you do not have values for the measured
octanes on a C5+ and C6+ basis, the model will
estimate values from the reformate values entered
in the Products page, Measurement tab. The
estimated values are displayed on the Analysis
page, Measurement tab.

Products Page
The Products page enables you to modify the product stream
parameters.
Figure 4.80

The following table lists and describes the options available in


the Products page:
Object

Description

Gas Rate row

Enables you to modify the gas flow rate of the


applicable product stream.

Liquid Rate row

Enables you to modify the liquid flow rate of the


applicable product stream.

4-105

4-106

Calibration Property View

Object

Description

Mass Rate row

Enables you to modify the mass flow rate of the


applicable product stream.

RON row

Enables you to modify the RON (research octane


number) value of the applicable product stream.

MON row

Enables you to modify the MON (motor octane


number) value of the applicable product stream.

Composition row

Enables you to select the basis used to specify the


composition of the product stream. There are
three options:
percentage in moles
percentage in weight
percentage in volume

component rows

Enables you to modify the composition of the


product streams.

Analysis Page
The Analysis page enables you to view the analysis results of the
product measurement data.
Figure 4.81

The information is split into four groups:

The Mass and Hydrogen Balances group displays the


mass flow rate and hydrogen flow rate for the feed
stream, product stream and closure.

4-106

Catalytic Reformer

4-107

The Ring Generation group displays the flow rate for the
number of carbons in the feed and reformate stream,
and the percentage change between the two streams.
The Light Ends Ratios group displays the molar flow rate
of the light end components in the product stream,
percentage value of the light ends in the product stream,
and the Iso to Normal butane ratio.
The Estimated Octanes group displays octanes estimated
from the measured reformate on a C5+ and C6+ basis.

4.9.5 Calibration Control Tab


The Calibration Control tab contains features used to control the
calibration calculation.
The features are grouped into the following pages:

Parameter
Objective Function

Parameter Page
The Parameter page enables you to modify the initial, lower
bound, and upper bound parameter value, and select which
parameters are used in calibrating the reactor model.
Figure 4.82

4-107

4-108

Calibration Property View

The following table lists and describes the options available in


the Parameter page:
Object

Description

First column

Displays the list of available calibration parameters


for you to select and/or modify.

Included column

Enables you to toggle between considering or


ignoring the calibration parameter by selecting or
clearing the appropriate checkboxes.

Initial Value column

Enables you to modify the initial value of the


calibration parameters.

Lower Bound column

Enables you to specify the lower bound value of


the calibration parameters.

Upper Bound column

Enables you to specify the upper bound value of


the calibration parameters.

HYSYS provides default factor set values for the initial values
of the parameters (in the Initial Value column).

Objective Function Page


The Objective Function page enables you to construct the
objective function for the calibration.
Figure 4.83

4-108

Catalytic Reformer

4-109

The first column contains the list of available variables for the
calibration objective function and the second column enables
you to specify the sigma value for each variables.

4.9.6 Analysis Tab


The Analysis tab displays the calculated results of the
calibration.
The calibration results are grouped into the following pages:

Calibration Factors
Mass Balance
Summary
Feed Blend
Product Yields
Reactors
Heater
Recontactor
Stabilizer
Product Streams

4-109

4-110

Calibration Property View

Calibration Factors Page


Refer to Section 4.9.5 Calibration Control Tab
for more information on
the Parameter and
Objective Function
pages.

The Calibration Factors page enables you to save, export, and


edit the current calibration factor set in the calibration run.
Figure 4.84

The Calibration Factors page also contains two groups:

The Parameter group displays the whether the variable


was used as a reconciliation variable in the calibration,
the initial and final values of the variable and the upper
and lower bounds used for the reconciliation variables.
The Objective Function group displays the sigma used for
each term in the objective function, the measured value,
the model value and the delta (model - measured) value.

4-110

Catalytic Reformer

4-111

Save Calibration Factor Set


To save the current calibration factors:
1. Click the Save for Simulation button.
The Save for Simulation button is activated only when the
calibration of the current set (as indicated in the Data Set
drop-down list) is successfully completed.

The Save Calibration Factor Set property view appears.


Figure 4.85

2. Enter a name of the calibration factor set in the Set Name


field.
To export the current calibration factor set values into the
simulation environment, select the Use this set for current
simulation checkbox.
3. Click OK.

Export Calibration Factor Set


To export the calibration factor set into a file:
1. Click the Export button.
The Export button is activated only when the calibration of
the current set (as indicated in the Data Set drop-down list)
is successfully completed.

4-111

4-112

Calibration Property View

The File selection for exporting Factor Sets property view


appears.
Figure 4.86

2. Use the Save in drop-down list to select the location and


folder for the exported calibration factor set file.
3. Enter the name of the calibration factor set file in the File
name field.
The calibration factor set data is saved as a *.csv file.
4. Click Save.

Modify Calibration Factor Set


To modify the current calibration factor set:
1. Click the Calibration Factors Library button.
The Calibration Set Library Property View appears.
2. In the Calibration Set Library property view, select the
calibration factor set you want to modify.
Aspen HYSYS Refining automatically assigns the following
name to the current calibration factor set Set-n, where n is
an integer number.

4-112

Catalytic Reformer

4-113

3. Click the Edit button to open the Factor Set Property


View.
The Calibration Set Library also enables you to add, delete,
clone, import, and export calibration factor sets.
4. In the Factor Set property view, make the modifications and
accept the modified values by closing the property view.

Mass Balance Page


The Mass Balance page displays the calculated flow rate of the
feed and product streams, and the mass and hydrogen balance.
Figure 4.87

4-113

4-114

Calibration Property View

Summary Page
The Summary page displays the calculated values of the WAIT,
yields and RON of the octane and reformate, recycle H2
properties, Hydrogen yield properties, and aromatic yield
properties.
Figure 4.88

4-114

Catalytic Reformer

4-115

Feed Blend Page


The Feed Blend page displays the calculated physical properties
of the feed stream from the calibration run.
Figure 4.89

4-115

4-116

Calibration Property View

Product Yields Page


The Product Yields page displays the calculated yield results of
the product stream from the calibration run.
Figure 4.90

4-116

Catalytic Reformer

4-117

Reactors Page
For more information,
refer to Reactors Page
section.

The Reactors page displays the key simulation results of the


riser and reactor from the calibration run.
Figure 4.91

4-117

4-118

Calibration Property View

Heater Page
The Heater page displays the calculated results of the heater
parameters from the calibration run.
Figure 4.92

4-118

Catalytic Reformer

4-119

Recontactor Page
For more information,
refer to Recontactor
Page section.

The Recontactor page displays calculated results of the


recontactor from the calibration run.
Figure 4.93

If the Catalytic Reformer does not contain a recontactor,


then the Recontactor page appears blank.

4-119

4-120

Calibration Property View

Stabilizer Page
The Stabilizer page displays the calculated results of the
stabilizer from the calibration run.
Figure 4.94

If the Catalytic Reformer does not contain a stabilizer, then


the Stabilizer page appears blank.

4-120

Catalytic Reformer

4-121

Product Streams Page


The Product Streams page displays the properties of the product
stream from the calibration run.
Figure 4.95

4-121

4-122

Calibration Property View

4-122

Hydrocracker

5-1

5 Hydrocracker

5.1 Introduction................................................................................... 3
5.1.1 Feed Characterization System .................................................... 3
5.1.2 Reaction Kinetics...................................................................... 6
5.2 Overall Operation Structure/Environment ................................... 17
5.2.1 Main Environment .................................................................. 18
5.2.2 HCR Environment ................................................................... 21
5.3 HCR Configuration Wizard............................................................ 23
5.3.1 Configuration Page ................................................................. 24
5.3.2 Geometry Page ...................................................................... 26
5.3.3 Calibration Factors Page .......................................................... 27
5.4 HCR Property View....................................................................... 27
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.4.4

Design Tab ............................................................................ 28


Reactor Section Tab ................................................................ 31
Fractionator Tab ..................................................................... 41
Results Tab............................................................................ 43

5.5 Feed Type Library Property View ................................................. 49


5.6 HCR Reactor Section Property View ............................................. 51
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4

Design Tab ............................................................................ 52


FeedData Tab......................................................................... 54
Operation Tab ........................................................................ 56
Results Tab............................................................................ 62

5.7 Calibration Set Library Property View .......................................... 66


5.7.1 Factor Set Property View ......................................................... 67

5-1

5-2

Hydrocracker

5.8 Results Property View ..................................................................70


5.8.1
5.8.2
5.8.3
5.8.4
5.8.5
5.8.6

Feed Blend Page .....................................................................70


Product Yields Page .................................................................71
Product Properties Page ...........................................................72
Reactor Page ..........................................................................72
Hydrogen System Page ............................................................73
Hydrogen Balance Page ...........................................................73

5.9 Calibration Property View .............................................................74


5.9.1 Design Tab .............................................................................79
5.9.2 Feed Data Tab ........................................................................82
5.9.3 Operation Tab..........................................................................87
5.9.4 Operation Measure Tab .............................................................95
5.9.5 Product Measure Tab ................................................................96
5.9.6 Calibration Control Tab............................................................101
5.9.7 Analysis Tab ..........................................................................102
5.10 References................................................................................117

5-2

Hydrocracker

5-3

5.1 Introduction
The Hydrocracker model in Aspen HYSYS Refining is a state-ofthe-art Hydrocracker Unit simulation system that can be used
for modeling a single-stage, two-stage Unicracker, or two-stage
Isocracker hydrocracker unit as a standalone unit operation or
as part of a refinery-wide flowsheet. The Hydrocracker unit
operation includes feed characterization system, reactor section,
recycle gas loop(s), product separation, and product mapper.
The reactor model is based on rigorous kinetics. The feed
characterization system and product mapper are designed to
work together with the Aspen HYSYS Refining assay system so
the Hydrocracker model can be simulated in a refinery-wide
flowsheet.
Memory Considerations: The standard 2GB of RAM is usually
sufficient, but for very large models, 4 GB of RAM may be
required to solve the simulation. Disabling the HYSYS Start
Page may also allow more memory for the Hydrocracker
process.

5.1.1 Feed Characterization


System
For more information
about the Hydrocracker
subflowsheet, refer to
Section 5.2.2 - HCR
Environment.

The Hydrocracker within Aspen HYSYS Refining has its own set
of library and hypothetical components. The following is the
component list for the Hydrocracker subflowsheet:
Nitrogen

C9A*

MAN2HI*

HNNITA2*

IC9-2*

H2S

C10A*

HN1*

HA4*

NC10*

Hydrogen

LTHA*

HA1*

C47P*

NC11*

Ammonia

MBNITN*

MTHA2*

VN1*

NC12*

Methane

MBNITA*

HN2*

VA1*

NC14*

Ethane

MTHN*

HN3*

VN2*

NC16*

Propane

MTHA*

HN4*

VN3*

C10N-1*

C4*

MS12*

MA2NHI*

VN4*

C10N-2*

5-3

5-4

Introduction

C5*

MNNITA*

HAN*

VAN*

C12N*

C6P*

MN3LO*

MANAHI*

VBNITA2N*

C14N*

C6N*

MANLO*

HA2*

VA2*

C16N*

C6A*

MA2LO*

HAN2*

VTHA2N*

C12A*

C7P*

MAN2LO*

C26P*

VAN2*

C14A*

C7N*

C18P*

HAN3*

VAN3*

C16A*

C7A*

MA2NLO*

HA2N*

VA2N*

IC10*

LTH*

MN1HI*

HANA*

VANA*

IC11*

LBNIT*

MA1HI*

HA2N2*

VA2N2*

IC12*

C8P*

MANALO*

HA3*

VA3*

IC14*

C8N*

MN2HI*

HTHAN*

VA4*

IC16*

LNNIT*

MN3HI*

HBNITAN*

VNNITA3*

12N2*

C8A*

MANHI*

HS28*

VTHA3*

14N2*

C9N*

MTHAN*

HTHA2*

NC9*

16N2*

LS8*

MA2HI*

HBNITA2*

IC9-1*

Below is a legend to help you decode the meaning of the above


list:

For components starting with C, the number beside the C


indicates the carbon number of the component. These
components end in P, N, or A indicating whether they are
paraffins, naphthenes, or aromatics.

There are two isomers for C10N.

For components starting with NC, they are normal


paraffins. The number beside the C indicates the number
of carbon atoms.
For components starting with IC, they are isoparaffins.
The number beside the C indicates the number of carbon
atoms.
For components ending in N2, they are two ring
naphthenic compounds. The prefix number indicates the
number of carbon atoms.
For components starting with L, they boil in the gasoline
range.

5-4

Hydrocracker

5-5

For components starting with M, they boil in the distillate


range.
For these components with LO ending, they boil toward
the beginning of the distillate temperature range.
For these components with HI ending, they boil toward
the end of the distillate temperature range.

For components starting with H, they boil in the gas-oil


range.
For components starting with V, they boil in the vacuum
resid range.
A Th in the component indicates a thiophene ring.
A BNit indicates a ring structure containing a basic
nitrogen.
An NNit indicates a ring structure containing a non-basic
nitrogen.
An N followed by a number indicates the number of
naphthenic rings in a component.
An A followed by a number indicates the number of
aromatic rings in a component.
An ANA indicates two aromatic rings separated by a
naphthenic ring.
An S in a compound indicates a sulfidic structure followed
by a number indicating the number of carbon atoms.
Medium (M) components ending with LO have 14 carbon
atoms, medium components ending with HI have 18
carbon atoms.
Heavy (H) components have 21 carbon atoms.
Vacuum Resid (V) components have 47 carbon atoms.

These components are either used directly in the kinetic reactor


model or mapped into the components used within the kinetic
reactor model.
Aspen HYSYS Refining provides a transition command between
the main flowsheet environment and the Hydrocracker
subflowsheet environment to handle the calculation of the
composition of the Hydrocracker components. In order to use
the transition command, you must specify a feed type. The feed
type will specify a base composition of components in the kinetic
reactor model basis. This base fingerprint, along with the
distillation, gravity, sulfur content, nitrogen and basic nitrogen
content, and bromine number can be used to generate the
composition of the kinetic lumps used by the model.

5-5

5-6

Introduction

In the Hydrocracker subflowsheet environment, you have more


options for calculating the composition of the feed. For example,
you can calculate the composition based on a boiling range of an
assay by specifying bulk properties or by specifying the kinetic
lumps.

For the assay option, you can select an assay to be


associated with the feed. The feed type is specified along
with the initial and final boiling point to generate a
composition of the feed.
For the bulk properties option, you can specify the feed
type along with distillation data, gravity, sulfur content,
nitrogen and basic nitrogen content, and bromine
number. You can optionally input data for refractive
index, viscosity, and Ca content.
For the kinetic lumps option, you can specify the feed
type along with the composition of the components that
is desired. You can also enter a bromine number to
generate the inlet composition of olefins in the feed.

5.1.2 Reaction Kinetics


The reactor model in the Hydrocracker model in Aspen HYSYS
Refining is based on rigorous kinetics. There are 97 components
in the reaction network and 177 reaction pathways. The
components and reaction networks are consistent with typical
Hydrocracking reactions.

Components
The component slate chosen to represent the feed and the
product streams of the Hydrocracker plant is comprised of 116
components covering the full range from hydrogen to
hydrocarbons with 47 carbon atoms (B.P. 1300 C).
In the reactor model, the 19 olefin components are assumed to
be completely saturated in the first reactor bed. These olefins
are saturated in an Aspen extended reaction block before the
kinetic model for the first reactor bed. The Aspen extended
reaction block calculates the enthalpy of reaction for the olefin
saturation. This heat is distributed through the first reactor bed.
This method reduces the number of components throughout the
reactor section in order to improve the model performance.
5-6

Hydrocracker

5-7

The Component Slate for the Hydrocracker Reactor


Model table shows the corresponding components in the
reactor model. The total number of components in the
reactor model is 97.
The Component Slate for Hydrocracker Model only
in the feed table shows the corresponding olefin
components in the feed but not in the reactor model.

The light ends will be defined using discrete components


through C3. For C4 to C10 hydrocarbons, one pure component is
used to represents several isomers. For example, the n-butane
represents both n-butane and iso-butane. For higher boiling
point components, only compounds with carbon number 14, 18,
26, and 47 are used to represent a wide range of boiling point
components.
The components also cover different classes of hydrocarbons
that include one-ring naphthenics to 4-ring aromatics.
The 13 sulfur components are separated into 8 groups:
thiophenes, sulfides, benzothiophenes, tetrahydrobenzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, tetrahydrodibenzothiophenes, naphthabenzothiophenes, and tetrahydronaphthabenzothiophenes.
The nitrogen compounds are represented by 10 components
that include both basic and non-basic nitrogen compound.

Component Slate for the Hydrocracker Reactor Model


Component

Formula

Abbreviation

Nitrogen

N2

N2

Ammonia

NH3

NH3

Hydrogen Sulfide

H2S

H2S

Hydrogen

H2

H2

Methane

CH4

C1

Ethane

C2H6

C2

Propane

C3H8

C3

N-Butane

C4H10_2

C4

N-pentane

C5H12_2

C5

Class

Paraffins
CnH2n+2

5-7

5-8

Introduction

Component

Formula

Abbreviation

2,3-dimethylbutane

C6H14_2

C6P

2,3-dimethylpentane

C7H16_5

C7P

2,3-dimethylhexane

C8H18_6

C8P

2,6-dimethylheptane

C9H20_4

C9P

2,5-dimethyloctane

C10H22-1

C10P

n-tetradecane

C14H30

C14P

n-octadecane

C18H38

C18P

Tetracosane

C26H54

C26P

C47 Paraffins

C47H96

C47P

Methylcyclopentane

C6H12-2

C6N

Methylcyclohexane

C7H14-6

C7N

Cyclohexane, 1,4dimethyl

C8H16-7

C8N

1-trans-3,5trimethylcyclohexane

C9H18-1

C9N

C14-1-ring-cycloheaxane

C14H28

MN1Lo

C18-1-ring-cycloheaxane

C18H36

MN1Hi

C21-1-ring-cycloheaxane

C21H42

HN1

C47-1-ring-cycloheaxane

C47H94

VN1

Trans-decaline (two
Ring)

C10H18-2

C10N

C14-2-ring-cyclohexane

C14H26

MN2LO

C18-2-ring-cycloheaxane

C18H34

MN2HI

C21-2-ring-cycloheaxane

C21H40

HN2

C47-2-ring-cycloheaxane

C47H92

VN2

C14-3-ring-cyclohexane

C14H24

MN3Lo

C18-3-ring-cycloheaxane

C18H32

MN3Hi

C21-3-ring-cycloheaxane

C21H38

HN3

C47-3-ring-cycloheaxane

C47H92

VN3

C21-4-ring-cycloheaxane

C21H36

HN4

C47-4-ring-cycloheaxane

C47H88

VN4

Benzene

C6H6

C6A

Toluene

C7H8

C7A

Class

Naphthenes
CnH2n

CnH2n-2

CnH2n-4

CnH2n-6

Aromatics

Para Xylene

C8H10_3

C8A

2-methyl-3ethylbenzene

C8H12-3

C9A

1,2,3,4,tetrahydronaphthalene

C10H12

C10A

n-octylbenzene

C14H22

MA1Lo

CnH2n-6

5-8

Hydrocracker

Component

Formula

Abbreviation

C18-1ring-Arom

C18H30

MA1Hi

C21-1ring-Arom

C21H36

HA1

C47-1ring-Arom

C47H88

VA1

C14tetrahydronaphthalene

C14H20

MANLo

C18tetrahydronaphthalene

C18H28

MANHi

C21tetrahydronaphthalene

C21H34

HAN

C47tetrahydronaphthalene

C47H86

VAN

C14-naphthalene

C14H16

MA2Lo

C18-naphthalene

C18H24

MA2Hi

C21-naphthalene

C21H30

HA2

C47-naphthalene

C47H82

VA2

C14-1 ring-Arom-2-ring
Naphthene

C14H18

MAN2Lo

C18-1 ring-Arom-2-ring
Naphthene

C18H26

MAN2Hi

C21-1 ring-Arom-2-ring
Naphthene

C21H32

HAN2

C47-1 ring-Arom-2-ring
Naphthene

C47H32

VAN2

C14-2 ring-Arom-1-ring
Naphthene

C14H14

MA2NLO

C18-2 ring-Arom-1-ring
Naphthene

C18H22

MA2NHi

C21-2 ring-Arom-1-ring
Naphthene

C21H28

HA2N

C47-2 ring-Arom-1-ring
Naphthene

C47H80

VA2N

C21-3ring-Arom

C21H24

HA3

C47-3ring-Arom

C47H76

VA3

Fluorene, 9-methyl

C14H12

MANALo

C18H20

MANAHi

C21H26

HANA

C47H78

VANA

C21-4ring-Arom

C21H18

HA4

C47-4ring-Arom

C47H70

VA4

C21-1 ring-Arom-3-ring
Naphthene

C21H30

HAN3

C47-1 ring-Arom-3-ring
Naphthene

C47H82

VAN3

5-9

Class

CnH2n-8

CnH2n-12

CnH2n-10

CnH2n-14

CnH2n-18
CnH2n-16

CnH2n-24
CnH2n-12

5-9

5-10

Introduction

Component

Formula

Abbreviation

Class

C21-2 ring-Arom-2-ring
Naphthene

C21H24

HA2N2

CnH2n-18

C47-2 ring-Arom-2-ring
Naphthene

C47H76

VA2N2

Sulfur Components
Thiophene

C4H4S

LTH

C8-Cyclo-sulfide

C8H16S

LS8

C12-Cyclo-sulfide

C12H24S

MS12

C28-Cyclo-sulfide

C28H56S

HS28

Benzothiophene

C8H6S

LTHA

Benzothiophene,
dimethyl-

C10H10S

MTHA

C10-tetarhydrobenzothiophene

C10H12S

MTHN

C14-trtrahydrodibenzothiophene

C14H16S

MTHAN

C21-trtrahydrodibenzothiophene

C21H30S

HthAN

C14- dibenzothiophene

C14H12S

MthA2

C21- dibenzothiophene

C21H26S

HthA2

C47-tetrahydronaphthabenzothiophene

C47H84S

VthA2N

C47naphthabenzothiophene

C47H72S2

VTHA3

Pyrrolidine (non-basic
Nitrogen)

C4H9N

LBNit

Pyrrole (basic nitrogen)

C4H5N

LNNit

Quinoline, 1,2,3,4tetrahydro- (non-basic)

C9H11N

MBNITN

Quinoline (basic)

C9H7N

MBNITA

Nitrogen Components

C9H9N

MNNitA

Phenanthridine,
tetrahydro-

C21H33N

HBNitAN

Phenanthridine

C21H25N

MBNitA2

Carbazole, dimethyl-

C21H27N

MNNitA2

C35H55N

VBNitA2N

C47H73N

VNNitA3

5-10

Hydrocracker

5-11

Component Slate for Hydrocracker Model only in the feed


Component

Cumene

Formula

Abbreviation

C6H12

C6-olef

C7H14

C7-olef

C8H16

C8_OLEF

C8H8

C8A_OLEF

C10H20

C10_OLEF

C10H16

C10N_OLE

C10H10

C10A_OLE

C14H28

C14_OLEF

C14H26

MN1Lo_OL

C14H20

MA1Lo_OL

C18H36

C18_OLEF

C18H34

MN1Hi_OL

C18H28

MA1Hi_OL

C21H40

HN1_OLEF

C21H34

HA1_OLEF

C26H52

C26_OLEF

C47H94

C47_OLEF

C47H92

VN1_OLEF

C47H86

VA1_OLEF

Reaction Paths
The Hydrocracker model in Aspen HYSYS Refining includes the
following reaction types:

Hydrodesulfurization (HDS)
Hydrodenitrogenation (HDN)
Saturation of aromatics (Hydrogenation)
Ring opening
Ring dealkylation
Paraffin hydrocracking
Saturation of olefins
Saturation of olefin reaction calculations are done in a
separate Aspen extended reaction block before the
stream flows into bed 1. In the reactor bed 1, the heat of
reaction calculated for the olefin saturation reactions is
distributed through the bed.
5-11

5-12

Introduction

The Hydrocracker reaction scheme has the following important


characteristics:

45 reversible aromatics saturation reactions


19 irreversible olefins saturation reactions
Saturation and dealkylation of non-basic nitrogen lumps
Dealkylation and HDN for basic nitrogen lumps
Saturation and dealkylation for hindered sulfur lumps
Dealkylation and HDS for unhindered sulfur lumps

The figure below shows the importance of modeling aromatics


saturation reversible.
Figure 5.1
Hydrocracker Example for Aromatics Crossover

Above a certain temperature, equilibrium effects start to outweigh kinetic effects, and additional saturation becomes
difficult. This temperature-dependent aromatics crossover
causes the degradation of middle distillate properties - kerosene
smoke point and diesel cetane - near the end of hydrocracker
catalyst cycles.

5-12

Hydrocracker

5-13

The figure below illustrates the importance of including both


hindered and unhindered sulfur components in the reaction
scheme.
Figure 5.2
Reaction Pathway Illustration: Sulfur-Containing Components

As discussed in recent publications:

aliphatic sulfur compounds are relatively easy to remove


with hydroprocessing
thiophenes, benzothiophenes, and dibenzopthiopenes
are somewhat more difficult
substituted benzo- and dibenzothiophenes are very hard
to remove.

In the Direct Mechanism for the hydrodesulfurization of


dibenzothiophene:

Dibenzothiophene adsorbs to the catalyst surface


The catalyst abstracts sulfur
Biphenyl desorbs from the catalyst surface
Hydrogen removes sulfur from the catalyst as H2S

Alkyl substitution of dibenzothiophene at the 4-position, the 6position - or both - sterically hinders this pathway. Before these
hindered molecules can be desulfurized, they must first be
saturated (which converts a planar aromatic ring into a more
flexible saturated ring) or dealkylated.

5-13

5-14

Introduction

As shown in the previous figure, the reaction scheme for the


Hydrocracker in Aspen HYSYS Refining prohibits direct
desulfurization of 4,6-alkyl dibenzothiophenes. The figure below
reflects this feature of the models.
Figure 5.3
Hydrocracker Example of H2 Consumption vs. Product Sulfur

As the extent of desulfurization increases, hydrogen


consumption rises geometrically, in part because the model
requires alternative HDS pathways for substituted
dibenzothiophenes, and in part because at the higher required
temperatures other saturation and cracking reactions are
accelerated.

Reaction Kinetic Expression


Rate equations are based on the Langmiur-Hinshelwood
(adsorption-adsorption/reaction/ desorption) mechanism. H2S
inhibits HDS reactions, and both NH3 and organic nitrogen
inhibit acid-catalysed reactions. For each reaction type, an
adsorption term is calculated as a multiplier for the rate
expression. Each reaction type is first order with respect to the
hydrocarbon and each reaction type has a unique order for
hydrogen. There are also a set of activity factors that affect
various reactions based on the type of reaction and the boiling
point of the component.

5-14

Hydrocracker

Activity Class

Description

SAT

Overall saturation activity

HSAT

Bottoms saturation activity

MSAT

Distillation saturation activity

LSAT

Naphtha saturation activity

HDS

Overall hydro-desulfurization activity

HHDS

Bottoms hydro-desulfurization activity

MHDS

Distillate hydro-desulfurization activity

LHDS

Naphtha hydro-desulfurization activity

HDN

Overall hydro-denitrogenation activity

HHDN

Bottoms hydro-denitrogenation activity

LHDN

Naphtha hydro-denitrogenation activity

PCR

Overall paraffin cracking activity

HPCR

Bottoms paraffin cracking activity

MPCR

Distillate paraffin cracking activity

LPCR

Naphtha paraffin cracking activity

RDA

Overall ring dealkylation activity

HRDA

Bottoms ring dealkylation activity

MRDA

Distillate ring dealkylation activity

LRDA

Naphtha ring dealkylation activity

5-15

For example, the rate expression for hydro-denitrogenation of


LNNIT would have the following form:
d------------------------[ LNNIT ]n
= ACT ADS NIT k f [ LNNIT ] [ H 2 ]
dt

(5.1)

where:
[LNNIT] = Concentration of LNNIT
ACT = Total activity for the reaction
This is a product of each activity that affects the
reaction. In this case, the activities affecting the
reaction are the HDN and LHDN.
ADSNIT = LHHW Adsorption term
[H2] = Hydrogen concentration
n = Power for H2 for denitrogenation reactions
This value is unique for each reaction type.

5-15

5-16

Introduction

Deactivation of Hydrocracker
Catalyst
The Hydrocracker model includes a deactivation model which
allows the model to predict the number of days remaining in a
catalyst cycle. The deactivation is a function of the severity, the
amount of multi-ring aromatics in the feed, and the H2 partial
pressure of the system. The user specifies the number of days in
service and the weight average boiling point (WABP) for the end
of the cycle.

System Pressure Control


For the Hydrocracker in Aspen HYSYS Refining, the user always
specifies the High Pressure Separator pressure and the pressure
for the recycle gas loop compressors. The pressures are
calculated backwards from the High Pressure Separator based
on specified pressure difference.

Reactor Temperature Control


The Hydrocracker model in Aspen HYSYS Refining allows the
user to control the severity of the reactors in a variety of ways:

Specify the inlet temperature for each reactor bed.


Specify the outlet temperature for each reactor bed.
Specify the WABT (weight average bed temperature) for
each reactor bed.
Specify the WART (weight average reactor temperature)
for each reactor and the temperature difference rise
between each bed within each reactor.
The nitrogen in the effluent from reactor 1 can be used
instead of the WART for reactor 1. Similarly, the
conversion and bottoms flow can be used instead of the
WART's for reactors 2 and 3.

5-16

Hydrocracker

5-17

5.2 Overall Operation


Structure/Environment
In HYSYS, the Hydrocracker operation appears as an object icon
in the Main environment PFD.
Figure 5.4

The Hydrocracker operation is actually a subflowsheet (HCR


Environment) containing the required reactor and fractionator
(if applicable) that make up a hydrocracker.
Figure 5.5

5-17

5-18

Overall Operation Structure/

5.2.1 Main Environment


In the Simulation/Main environment, the following features are
available for the Hydrocracker:

create a Hydrocracker template


create or add a Hydrocracker
access Hydrocracker (HCR) property view
access HCR environment/subflowsheet
delete existing Hydrocracker

Create Hydrocracker Template


HYSYS enables you to create templates of Hydrocracker
operations, so you can import them in existing HYSYS process
flowsheet diagram (PFD).
To create a Hydrocracker template:
1. Select File | New | Hydrocracker in the menu bar.
The HCR Configuration Wizard property view appears.
HYSYS automatically creates a Hydrocracker fluid package
with predetermined component list for the Hydrocracker
template.

2. In the first page of the HCR Configuration Wizard property


view, you can configure the design of the Hydrocracker.
3. Click Next.
4. In the second page of the HCR Configuration Wizard
property view, you can specify the reactor parameters.
5. Click Next.
6. In the third and final page of the HCR Configuration Wizard
property view, you can select or specify a set of calibration
factors.
7. Click Done.
Aspen HYSYS Refining completes the Hydrocracker
subflowsheet, based on the specified information from the
HCR Configuration Wizard, and opens the HCR environment.

5-18

Hydrocracker

5-19

8. In the HCR environment, you can:

Access and modify the reactor by double-clicking the


reactor object icon in the HCR PFD.
Access and modify the fractionator by double-clicking on
the fractionator object icon in the HCR PFD.
Access the Calibration environment and calibrate the
HCR model.
9. In the menu bar, select File | Save As or File | Save
command to save the Hydrocracker template as a *.hcr file.

Create/Add Hydrocracker
To add a Hydrocracker into a PFD:
1. Open the appropriate simulation case.
2. Open the UnitOps property view.
3. In the Categories group, select the Refinery Ops radio
button.
4. In the Available Unit Operations group, select HCR Reactor
and click Add.
The HCR Template Option property view appears
5. In the HCR Template Option property view, do one of the
following:

Click Read an Existing HCR Template to add a


Hydrocracker operation based on an existing template.
The Hydrocracker operation appears on the PFD.
Click Configure a New HCR Unit to add a Hydrocracker
operation and configure it from scratch.
The HCR Configuration Wizard property view appears,
and you have to configure the basic structure of the
Hydrocracker operation using the features available in
the HCR Configuration Wizard. After you have specified
the minimum information required, the Hydrocracker
operation appears on the PFD.
6. Open the Hydrocracker property view and make the
necessary changes/specifications/connections for the
simulation case.

5-19

5-20

Overall Operation Structure/

Access HCR Property View


To open the Hydrocracker (HCR) property view, do one of the
following:

On the PFD property view, right-click the Hydrocracker


operation icon and select View Properties command
from the Object Inspect menu.
On the Workbook property view, click the Unit Ops tab,
select the Hydrocracker under the Name column, and
click the View UnitOp button.
On the Object Navigator property view, select UnitOps
radio button in the Filter group, select the applicable
flowsheet in the Flowsheet group, select the
Hydrocracker operation in the Unit Operations group, and
click the View button.

Access HCR Environment


To access the Hydrocracker subflowsheet (HCR environment):
1. In the Main PFD, open the HCR property view.
2. In the HCR property view, click the HCR Environment
button.

Delete Hydrocracker Operation


To delete an existing Hydrocracker operation, do one of the
following:

On the PFD property view, select the Hydrocracker


operation icon and press DELETE.
On the PFD property view, right-click the Hydrocracker
operation icon and select Delete command from the
Object Inspect menu.
On the HCR property view, click the Delete button.
On the Workbook property view, click the Unit Ops tab,
select the Hydrocracker under the Name column, and
click the Delete UnitOp button.

5-20

Hydrocracker

5-21

5.2.2 HCR Environment


In the HCR environment, the following features are available for
the Hydrocracker:

access the individual operation property views that make


up the Hydrocracker operation
access HCR Configuration Wizard
select calibration factor set
access Results property view

Access Operation Property View


1. In the HCR environment, open the PFD property view.
2. On the PFD, do one of the following:

Double-click on the operations icon.


Right-click on the operations icon and select View
Properties command in the object inspect menu.

Access HCR Configuration Wizard


To access the HCR Configuration Wizard, do one of the
following:

In the HCR environment, select HCR | Configuration


Wizard command in the menu bar.
Open the HCR Reactor Section property view, click the
Design tab, select the Configuration page, and click
the Configuration Wizard button.

5-21

5-22

Overall Operation Structure/

Select Calibration Factor Set


To select the Calibration Factor Set for the Hydrocracker
operation:
1. Select HCR| Calibration Factor command from the menu
bar.
The Calibration Factor Set property view appears.
Figure 5.6

2. Open the Select a calibration factor set to use for


simulation drop-down list and select a calibration factor
set.
You can click the Library button to open the Calibration
Set Library Property View to create, clone, and modify a
calibration factor set.

Access Results Property View


To access the Results property view, select HCR | Results
command in the menu bar. The Results property view displays
the Hydrocracker simulation summary.

5-22

Hydrocracker

5-23

5.3 HCR Configuration


Wizard
The HCR Configuration Wizard enables you to quickly set up the
Hydrocracker operation.
The HCR Configuration Wizard is made up of three sequential
pages. You are required to enter information in a page, then
move on to the next page in order.
The following table lists the common buttons available at the
bottom of the HCR Configuration Wizard property view:
Button

Description

Next>

Enables you to move forward to the next page.

<Prev

Enables you to move backward to the previous page.

Cancel

Enables you to exit the HCR Configuration Wizard without


saving any changes or creating a Hydrocracker operation.

Close

Enables you to exit the HCR Configuration Wizard and keep any
specifications or changes made to the Hydrocracker operation.

Done

Enables you to exit the HCR Configuration Wizard and finish


configuring the Hydrocracker operation.

To access the HCR Configuration Wizard:


1. In the HYSYS desktop menu bar, select FILE | New | HCR
command.
HYSYS automatically completes the Simulation Basis
environment specifications and then enters the Simulation
environment.
The HCR Configuration Wizard property view appears.
or
1. In the Main Environment, press the F12 to open the
UnitOps property view.
2. In the Available Unit Operations group, select Hydrocracker
and click Add.
The HCR Template Option property view appears.
3. Click the Configure a New HCR Unit button.

5-23

5-24

HCR Configuration Wizard

The HCR Configuration Wizard property view appears.


or
1. In the HCR Environment, select HCR | Configuration
Wizard command from the menu bar.
The HCR Configuration Wizard property view appears.
or
1. In the HCR Reactor Section Property View, click the
Design tab and select the Configuration page.
2. Click the Configuration Wizard button.
The HCR Configuration Wizard property view appears.

5.3.1 Configuration Page


The Configuration page (first page) of the HCR Configuration
Wizard property view enables you to specify the configuration of
the Hydrocracker.
Object

Description

Basic Configuration
group

Contains two radio buttons that enables you to


select a single or two stage Hydrocracker unit
operation.

Number of Reactors
drop-down list

Enables you to select the number of reactors per


stage in the Hydrocracker.

Number of Treating
Beds drop-down list

Enables you to select the number of treating beds


per stage in the Hydrocracker.

Number of beds row

Enables you to select the number of beds per


reactor in the Hydrocracker.

Number of high
pressure separators
drop-down list

Enables you to select the number of separators in


the Hydrocracker.

Include amine
scrubber checkbox

Enables you to toggle between including or


excluding amine scrubber to the separator in the
Hydrocracker.

Naphtha Cuts dropdown list

Enables you to select the number of naphtha cuts


in the separator.

Distillation Cuts
drop-down list

Enables you to select the number of distillation


cuts in the separator.

Cut column

Displays and enables you to modify the names of


the cuts in the separator.

Recycle column

Enables you to toggle between including or


excluding a recycle stream to the cut.

5-24

Hydrocracker

5-25

Figure 5.7

5-25

5-26

HCR Configuration Wizard

5.3.2 Geometry Page


The Geometry page (second page) of the HCR Configuration
Wizard property view enables you to specify the internal
diameter, catalyst load, catalyst density, and bed voidage for the
beds in each reactor.
Figure 5.8

5-26

Hydrocracker

5-27

5.3.3 Calibration Factors Page


The Calibration Factors page (third page) of the HCR
Configuration Wizard property view lets you either generate a
set of calibration factors or select a set from a list of any presaved calibration factor files.
Figure 5.9

5.4 HCR Property View


The Hydrocracker (HCR) property view contains features used to
manipulate the overall Hydrocracker operation and enable you
to enter the HCR environment.
To access the HCR property view:

5-27

5-28

HCR Property View

1. In the Main environment, open the PFD property view.


2. In the PFD property view, double-click on the Hydrocracker
object icon.
Figure 5.10

The following table lists and describes the common features in


the HCR property view:
Object

Description

Delete button

Enables you to delete the Hydrocracker operation.

HCR Environment
button

Enables you to enter the HCR Environment.

Status bar

Displays the status of the Hydrocracker operation.

Ignore checkbox

Enables HYSYS to ignore the Hydrocracker


operation during the process flowsheet calculation.

5.4.1 Design Tab


The Design tab contains features used to configure the overall
structure of the Hydrocracker operation.
The features are grouped into the following pages:

Connections
Tuning Factors
5-28

Hydrocracker

5-29

Notes

Connections Page
The Connections page enables you to configure the stream
flowing into and out of the Hydrocracker and specify the name of
the Hydrocracker unit operation.
Figure 5.11

Object

Description

Hydrogen
Makeup table

Enables you to select or specify the hydrogen makeup


stream flowing into the stages of the Hydrocracker.

Fractionated
Products table

Enables you to specify or connect the product stream


from the Hydrocracker subflowsheet to the external
product streams of the main flowsheet.
This table is only available if the Hydrocracker
operation contains a fractionator.

Reactor Effluent
table

Enables you to specify or connect the reactor effluent


stream from the Hydrocracker subflowsheet to an
external stream in the main flowsheet.
This table is not available if the Hydrocracker contains
a fractionator.

Name field

Enables you to modify the name of the Hydrocracker


unit operation.

Feed Type
Library button

Enables you to access the Feed Type Library


Property View and modify the feed type available for
the Hydrocracker.

5-29

5-30

HCR Property View

Object

Description

Feeds table

Enables you to select or specify the feed stream


flowing into the Hydrocracker. You can also select the
feed type of the feed stream.

Recycle Gas
Purge table

Enables you to specify or connect the purge stream


from the hydrocracker subflowsheet to the external
purge streams of the main flowsheet.

Calibration Factors Page


The Calibration Factors Page enables you to create, edit, view,
and apply a calibration factor set to the Hydrocracker.
Figure 5.12

Object

Description

Calibration Factor
Set drop-down list

Enables you to select and apply a calibration factor


set to the Hydrocracker.
Initially, Aspen HYSYS Refining provides a default
calibration factor set. The calibration factors in the
default set are read only.
If you want to manipulate the factor values, you
have to create your own calibration factor set.

Calibration Factors
Library button

Enables you to access the Calibration Set


Library Property View.
The Calibration Set Library property view enables
you to create, import, clone, edit, export, and
delete a calibration factor set.
5-30

Hydrocracker

5-31

Object

Description

Reactor Section table

Displays the following calibration factors:


Global activity
HDS activity
HDN activity
SAT activity
Cracking activity
Ring opening activity
Light gas tuning factors
Catalyst deactivation
Reactor pressure drop factors

Fractionator Key
Parameters table

Displays the top and bottom index of the zones in


the fractionator.
This table does not appear if the Hydrocracker
does not contain a fractionator.

Notes Page
For more information
refer to Section 1.2.3 Notes Page/Tab.

The Notes page provides a text editor where you can record any
comments or information regarding the specific unit operation or
the simulation case in general.

5.4.2 Reactor Section Tab


The Reactor Section tab contains features used to configure the
reactor in the Hydrocracker operation.
The features are grouped into the following pages:

Feed
Specification
Recycle Gas Loop
Catalyst Deactivation
Solver Options
Solver Console

5-31

5-32

HCR Property View

Feed Page
The Feed page enables you to modify the properties of the feed
streams entering and exiting the Hydrocracker.
Figure 5.13

Object

Description

Feed
Conditions
table

Enables you to modify the following properties of the feed


stream(s) entering the Hydrocracker:
volume flow rate
mass flow rate
temperature
pressure
entry location
If you select Split option, the Select Feed Location
Property View appears and enables you to specify
the feed stream flow ratio between the reactors.

Total Feed
table

Enables you to modify the following properties of the


reactors:
total feed preheat duty
total feed pressure
gas to oil ratio

5-32

Hydrocracker

5-33

Select Feed Location Property View


The Select Feed Location property view enables you to select the
entry location of the feed stream and (if applicable) specify the
fraction of the feed stream entering each reactor.
Figure 5.14

Displays the selected


feed stream.

Object

Description

Reactor radio
buttons

Enables you to select the reactor for feed stream


to enter.

Split radio button

Enables you to activate the split option.

Split table

Enables you to specify the fraction of the feed


stream entering each reactor.

Normalize button

Enables you to normalize the sum of the feed


fraction to equal 1.

Accept button

Enables you to apply the specifications in the


Select Feed Location property view to the
Hydrocracker and close the Select Feed Location
property view.

Cancel button

Enables you to exit the Select Feed Location


property view without accepting the specifications.

5-33

5-34

HCR Property View

Specification Page
The Specification page enables you to modify the temperature of
the beds in each reactor of the Hydrocracker.
Figure 5.15

5-34

Hydrocracker

5-35

Recycle Gas Loop Page


The Recycle Gas Loop page enables you to configure the
parameters of the Hydrogen makeup and recycle gas streams.
Figure 5.16

Object

Description

HPS and
Recycle Gas
Compressor
table

Enables you to modify the following properties of the


recycle gas loops:
stream temperature
stream pressure
outlet pressure of the stream exiting the compressor
pressure difference between the stream and the
reactor stage

Product
Heater table

Enables you to modify the following properties of the


heater:
temperature of exiting stream
duty
pressure of exiting stream
pressure difference in heater

Hydrogen
Makeup
Stream table

Enables you to modify the following properties of the


hydrogen makeup stream:
mole flow rate
temperature
pressure
composition

5-35

5-36

HCR Property View

Catalyst Deactivation Page


The Catalyst Deactivation page enables you to modify two
catalyst deactivation parameters: weight average bed
temperature at the end of a cycle and Day on Stream.
Figure 5.17

5-36

Hydrocracker

5-37

Solver Options Page


The Solver Options page enables you to modify the calculation
variables used to determine the reaction results of the reactor.
Figure 5.18

Object

Description

Convergence
Tolerance group

Contains the Residual field that enables you to specify the maximum
residual value allowed for the convergence calculation.

Iteration Limits
group

Contains two fields that enable you to control the iteration range for the
OOMF Solver performance:
Maximum Iterations field enables you to specify the maximum
number of iterations.
Minimum Iterations field enables you to specify the minimum number
of iterations.

Creep Step
Parameters
group

Contains three fields that enable you to configure the creep function of the
OOMF Solver:
On/Off Switch drop-down list. Enables you to select On (enable) or
Off (disable) option for the creep feature.
Iterations field. Enables you to specify the number of iterations per
creep step.
Step Size field. Enables you to specify the size of each creep step.

Completeness
Checking group

Contains the Override Spec Group Completeness checkbox that enables


you to toggle between:
Overriding the normal calculation behaviour.
Retaining the normal calculation behaviour.
The normal calculation behaviour requires the spec groups be completed
before solving the unit operation.

5-37

5-38

HCR Property View

Object

Description

SQP Hessian
Parameters
group

Contains features used to manipulate the SQP Hessian parameters:


Initialization drop-down list. Enables you to select one of four options
to initialize the Hessian value:
Normal (default). Hessian initialized with identity matrix. This setting
balances efficiency and robustness. It is well suited for general purpose
optimization problems. Typical applications are offline optimization and
online problems that start very far from a solution.
Aggressive. Hessian initialized with small values. This setting moves
the problem to bounds faster than the Normal mode. This setting is
preferred for highly constrained optimization problems with few Degrees
of Freedom at solution. Ideal applications are well-posed online realtime optimization problems.
Scaled. A combination of the Aggressive and Advanced modes. This
setting is recommended for highly constrained optimization problems
with few Degrees of Freedom at solution and a nonlinear objective
function.
Advanced. Hessian initialized with 2nd order information. This setting is
recommended for problems with many Degrees of Freedom at solution
and/or quadratic objective function. Ideal for data reconciliation
problems, both online and offline.
Scaling factor field. Enables you to specify the scaling factor.
Updates stored field. Enables you to specify the number of updates
stored during calculation (default value is 10).

Line Search
Parameters
group

Contains features used to configure the line search parameters:


Algorithm drop-down list. Enables you to select one of four methods
for the line search algorithm:
Normal (default). A proprietary line search designed to balance
robustness with efficiency.
Exact. A well-known exact penalty line search. It is too conservative for
most practical problems.
Residual. A proprietary line search designed to initially favour the
convergence of residuals over the objective function improvement.
Square. A line search designed to attempt to enforce bounds on cases
with no Degrees of Freedom. It should be used only in cases where
there are multiple solutions to a problem, and the desired solution lies
within the bounds.
Step Control drop-down list. Enables you to select one of three options
for the step size:
Normal (default). The original method.
Aggressive. A modified method that tends to take larger steps.
Conservative. A modified method that tends to take smaller steps.
Step Control Iterations field. Enables you to specify the number of
step iterations.

Variable Scaling
Parameter group

Contains the On/Off Switch drop-down list that enables you to select one of
the following options:
On. Activates the variable scaling parameter.
Off. Deactivates the variable scaling parameter.

Failure Recovery
Action dropdown list

Enables you to select one of the following action in case of failure:


Do nothing.
Revert to the previous results before the solve (this is the default
option).
Revert to the default input and results.

5-38

Hydrocracker

5-39

Solver Console Page


The Solver Console page enables you to view the solver
message generated by the reactor and run script commands.
Figure 5.19

Object

Description

Message and Script


Commands field

Displays the messages and commands from the


solver of the FCC reactor.

Command field

Enables you to enter the text code for a command


for the solver.

Clear Output button

Enables you to clear the messages in the


Simulation Engine Message and Script Commands
field.

Clear Command
button

Enables you to clear the command history.

5-39

5-40

HCR Property View

EO Variables Tab
The EO variables tab contains the Equation Oriented variables
in the Hydrocracker. Use the table and the EO Variables button
to inspect or edit the EO variables. Right-click over the column
headings to show or hide selected columns.
Figure 5.20

5-40

Hydrocracker

5-41

Pre and Post Solve Command tabs


This file allows expert users a back door to set variables that
can't be set through the RefSYS interface. Be careful when using
it; variable changes will not be reflected in the interface.
Figure 5.21

5.4.3 Fractionator Tab


The Fractionator tab contains options for the fractionator in the
Hydrocracker. The options are split into the following pages:

Zone Pressures
Specs

If the Hydrocracker does not contain a fractionator the above


pages appear blank.

5-41

5-42

HCR Property View

Zone Pressures Page


The Zone Pressures page enables you to specify the top
pressure values for the fractionator zones and the bottom
pressure of the fractionator.
Figure 5.22

Specs Page
Refer to Specs Page
section from Chapter 6 Petroleum Column for
more information.

The Specs page enables you to specify the values of the product
output streams of the fractionator. These are the values that the
Column algorithm tries to meet.
There are two specs options to choose from: TBP Cut Point or
Product Flow Fraction. Depending on which option you select in
the Spec Option group, the features available in the Specs page
varies.

5-42

Hydrocracker

5-43

TBP Cut Point option

Figure 5.23

Product Flow Fraction option

Figure 5.24

5.4.4 Results Tab


The Results tab displays the calculated simulation results of the
Hydrocracker.
The information is grouped in the following pages:
5-43

5-44

HCR Property View

Feed Blend
Product Yields
Product Properties
Reactor
Hydrogen System
Fractionator
Hydrogen Balance

Feed Blend Page


The Feed Blend page displays the detailed characterization of
each individual feed and the blend of feeds going to each
reactor.
Figure 5.25

If there is more than one reactor, there will be a drop-down list


that allows you to select the reactor and view the values
corresponding to the selected reactor.

5-44

Hydrocracker

5-45

Product Yields Page


The Product Yields page displays the standard cut yields from
the simulation.
Figure 5.26

If the Hydrocracker contains a fractionator, there will be two


radio buttons: Standard Cut Products and Fractionated Products.
Depending on the radio button selected, the Yields group
displays the yields for standard cuts or the fractionated yields.
The liquid product cuts for the Fractionated Products option
correspond to those specified in the Specs Page of the
Fractionator tab.

5-45

5-46

HCR Property View

Product Properties Page


The Product Properties page displays the properties of liquid
cuts from the simulation.
Figure 5.27

If the Hydrocracker contains a fractionator, there will be two


radio buttons: Standard Cut Products and Fractionated Products.
Depending on the radio button selected, the Product Properties
group displays the properties for standard cuts or the properties
for the fractionated products.
The liquid product cuts for the Fractionated Products option
correspond to those specified in the Specs Page of the
Fractionator tab.

5-46

Hydrocracker

5-47

Reactor Page
The Reactor page displays the calculated parameter results of
the reactors in the Hydrocracker operation.
Figure 5.28

Hydrogen System Page


The Hydrogen System page displays the calculated results of the
hydrogen makeup stream and recycle gas stream.
Figure 5.29

5-47

5-48

HCR Property View

Fractionator Page
The fractionator page displays the calculated results of the
product stream cut points from the fractionator.
Figure 5.30

If the Hydrocracker does not contain a fractionator, this


page is blank.

5-48

Hydrocracker

5-49

Hydrogen Balance Page


The Hydrogen Balance page displays the calculated results of
the hydrogen balance and hydrogen consumption.
Figure 5.31

5.5 Feed Type Library


Property View
The Feed Type Library property view enables you to import,
export, delete, and configure the feed type data.
You cannot delete the default feed type provided by Aspen
HYSYS Refining.

To access the Feed Type Library property view:


1. Open the HCR Property View.
2. Click the Design tab and select the Connections page.
3. Click the Feed Type Library button.

5-49

5-50

Feed Type Library Property View

The Feed Type Library property view appears.


Figure 5.32

The following table lists and describes the options available in


the Feed Type Library property view.
Object

Description

Feed Types list

Displays the names of the feed type available in


the Hydrocracker

Import button

Enables you to import feed types (from *.csv files)


into the Hydrocracker.

Export button

Enables you to export a selected feed type, in the


Feed Types list, to a *.csv file.

Delete button

Enables you to delete a selected feed type, in the


Feed Types list, from the Hydrocracker.

Properties of
Selected Feed Type
table

Enables you to modify the property information of


a selected feed type in the Feed Types list.

Lump Weight
Percents radio
button

Enables you to modify the percent lump weight


value of the selected feed type.

Biases radio button

Enables you to modify the following properties of


the selected feed type:
light, medium, and heavy WABP
light, medium, and heavy WABP bias
Light and heavy cut point bias
total Ca and Cn bias

5-50

Hydrocracker

5-51

5.6 HCR Reactor Section


Property View
The HCR Reactor Section property view enables you to configure
and modify the reactor part of the Hydrocracker operation.
To access the HCR Reactor Section property view:
1. Enter the HCR environment.
2. Access the PFD by clicking the PFD icon.
PFD icon

3. On the PFD property view, right-click the Reactor Section


object icon.
4. Select View Properties command from the object inspect
menu.
The HCR Reactor Section property view appears.
Figure 5.33

5-51

5-52

HCR Reactor Section Property View

The following table lists and describes the common features in


the HCR Reactor Section property view:
Object

Description

Delete button

Enables you to delete the reactor section.

Status bar

Displays the status of the reactor section of the


Hydrocracker operation.

Ignore checkbox

Enables HYSYS to ignore the reactor section during the


process flowsheet calculation.

5.6.1 Design Tab


The Design tab contains the features used to configure the
reactor section of the Hydrocracker operation.
These features are grouped into the following pages:

Configuration
Geometry
Notes

Configuration Page
The Configuration page enables you to specify the reactor name,
and displays the reactor type and number of reactor beds.
Figure 5.34

5-52

Hydrocracker

5-53

To modify the configuration, click the Configuration Wizard


button to access the HCR Configuration Wizard property
view.

Geometry Page
The Geometry page enables you to specify the following
parameters of each reactor beds:

internal diameter
catalyst loading
catalyst density
bed voidage

Figure 5.35

Notes Page
For more information
refer to Section 1.2.3 Notes Page/Tab.

The Notes page provides a text editor where you can record any
comments or information regarding the specific unit operation or
the simulation case in general.

5-53

5-54

HCR Reactor Section Property View

5.6.2 FeedData Tab


The FeedData tab contains features used to configure and
modify the feed stream properties entering the HCR Reactor
Section.
The features are grouped into the following pages:

Library
Properties

Library Page
The Library page enables you to modify, import, export, and
delete feed data types entering the reactor operation.
Figure 5.36

Object

Description

Feed Types
group

Displays the list of feed data types available for the


reactor.

Import button

Enables you to import a feed data from a file. The feed


data are saved in *.csv type files.

Export button

Enables you to export the selected feed data (from the


Available Feed Types group) into a *.csv file. The
exported feed data can be imported into a different
applicable operation.

5-54

Hydrocracker

5-55

Object

Description

Delete button

Enables you to delete the selected feed data in the


Available Feed Types group.

Properties of
Selected Feed
Type table

Enables you to modify the property information of a


selected feed type in the Feed Types list.

You can also access the features in the Library page by


clicking the Feed Type Library button in the Connections
page of the HCR property view.

Properties Page
The Properties page enables you to specify properties for virtual
feeds. The virtual feeds are feeds not represented by internal or
external streams in the subflowsheet and flowsheet respectively.
Figure 5.37

Object

Description

Feeds group

Displays both real and virtual feed streams connected


to the Hydrocracker.

Add button

Enables you to create a virtual feed stream.


Aspen HYSYS Refining automatically assigns a default
name to the virtual feed stream and treats the virtual
stream as an internal stream.

Delete button

Enables you to delete the selected feed stream from


the Feeds group.
If the selected feed stream is a real stream, then both
the internal and external streams will be deleted.
5-55

5-56

HCR Reactor Section Property View

Object

Description

Assay radio
button

Enables you to specify assay properties of the selected


feed type in the Feed Type list.

Bulk Properties
radio button

Enables you to specify bulk properties of the selected


feed type in the Feed Type list.

Kinetic Lumps
radio button

Enables you to specify kinetic lumps properties of the


selected feed type in the Feed Type list.

Assay drop-down
list

Enables you to select the assay associated to the


selected feed type in the Feed Type list.
This drop-down list is only available if you select the
Assay radio button.

Feed Properties
group

Contains a table that displays the list of properties


available for you to view or modify of the selected feed
stream.
The variables available in this table vary depending on
which radio button you select in the Selected Feed
group.

5.6.3 Operation Tab


The Operation tab contains features used to manipulate the
operation parameters of the Hydrocracker operation.
The features are grouped into the following pages:

Feeds
Specifications
Recycle Gas Loop
Catalyst Deactivation
Solver Options
Solver Console

5-56

Hydrocracker

5-57

Feeds Page
Refer to Feed Page
section for more
information.

The Feeds page enables you to modify the physical properties of


the feed streams entering and exiting the reactor section of the
Hydrocracker operation.
Figure 5.38

Specifications Page
The Specifications page enables you to modify the reactor bed
parameters of the Hydrocracker operation.
Figure 5.39

5-57

5-58

HCR Reactor Section Property View

Recycle Gas Loop Page


Refer to Recycle Gas
Loop Page section for
more information.

The Recycle Gas Loop page enables you to modify the recycle
gas parameters of the Hydrocracker operation.
Figure 5.40

Catalyst Deactivation Page


Refer to Catalyst
Deactivation Page
section for more
information.

The Catalyst Deactivation page enables you to modify the


catalyst parameters of the Hydrocracker operation.
Figure 5.41

5-58

Hydrocracker

5-59

Solver Options Page


The Solver Options page enables you to modify the calculation
variables used to determine the reaction results of the reactor.
Figure 5.42

Object

Description

Convergence
Tolerance group

Contains the Residual field that enables you to specify the maximum
residual value allowed for the convergence calculation.

Iteration Limits
group

Contains two fields that enable you to control the iteration range for the
OOMF Solver performance:
Maximum Iterations field enables you to specify the maximum
number of iterations.
Minimum Iterations field enables you to specify the minimum number
of iterations.

Creep Step
Parameters
group

Contains three fields that enable you to configure the creep function of the
OOMF Solver:
On/Off Switch drop-down list. Enables you to select On (enable) or
Off (disable) option for the creep feature.
Iterations field. Enables you to specify the number of iterations per
creep step.
Step Size field. Enables you to specify the size of each creep step.

Completeness
Checking group

Contains the Override Spec Group Completeness checkbox that enables


you to toggle between:
Overriding the normal calculation behaviour.
Retaining the normal calculation behaviour.
The normal calculation behaviour requires the spec groups be completed
before solving.

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5-60

HCR Reactor Section Property View

Object

Description

SQP Hessian
Parameters
group

Contains features used to manipulate the SQP Hessian parameters:


Initialization drop-down list. Enables you to select one of four options
to initialize the Hessian value:
Normal (default). Hessian initialized with identity matrix. This setting
balances efficiency and robustness. It is well suited for general purpose
optimization problems. Typical applications are offline optimization and
online problems that start very far from a solution.
Aggressive. Hessian initialized with small values. This setting moves
the problem to bounds faster than the Normal mode. This setting is
preferred for highly constrained optimization problems with few Degrees
of Freedom at solution. Ideal applications are well-posed online realtime optimization problems.
Scaled. A combination of the Aggressive and Advanced modes. This
setting is recommended for highly constrained optimization problems
with few Degrees of Freedom at solution and a nonlinear objective
function.
Advanced. Hessian initialized with 2nd order information. This setting is
recommended for problems with many Degrees of Freedom at solution
and/or quadratic objective function. Ideal for data reconciliation
problems, both online and offline.
Scaling factor field. Enables you to specify the scaling factor.
Updates stored field. Enables you to specify the number of updates
stored during calculation (default value is 10).

Line Search
Parameters
group

Contains features used to configure the line search parameters:


Algorithm drop-down list. Enables you to select one of four methods
for the line search algorithm:
Normal (default). A proprietary line search designed to balance
robustness with efficiency.
Exact. A well-known exact penalty line search. It is too conservative for
most practical problems.
Residual. A proprietary line search designed to initially favour the
convergence of residuals over the objective function improvement.
Square. A line search designed to attempt to enforce bounds on cases
with no Degrees of Freedom. It should be used only in cases where
there are multiple solutions to a problem, and the desired solution lies
within the bounds.
Step Control drop-down list. Enables you to select one of three options
for the step size:
Normal (default). The original method.
Aggressive. A modified method that tends to take larger steps.
Conservative. A modified method that tends to take smaller steps.
Step Control Iterations field. Enables you to specify the number of
step iterations.

Variable Scaling
Parameter group

Contains the On/Off Switch drop-down list that enables you to select one of
the following options:
On. Activates the variable scaling parameter.
Off. Deactivates the variable scaling parameter.

Failure Recovery
Action dropdown list

Enables you to select one of the following action in case of failure:


Do nothing.
Revert to the previous results before the solve (this is the default
option).
Revert to the default input and results.

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Hydrocracker

5-61

Solver Console Page


The Solver Console page enables you to view the solver
message generated by the reactor and run script commands.
Figure 5.43

Object

Description

Simulation Engine
Message and Script
Commands field

Displays the messages and commands from the


solver of the FCC reactor.

Enter Script
Command field

Enables you to enter the text code for a command


for the solver.

Clear Message
button

Enables you to clear the messages in the


Simulation Engine Message and Script Commands
field.

Get Prev. Command


button

Enables you to retrieve a previous command from


the command history and place the text code in
the Enter Script Command field.

Get Next Command


button

Enables you to retrieve the next command from


the command history and place the text code in
the Enter Script Command field.

Run Command
button

Enables you to run the command code in the Enter


Script Command field.

Clear Command
button

Enables you to clear the command history.

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5-62

HCR Reactor Section Property View

5.6.4 Results Tab


The Results tab enables you to view the calculated variable
results of the Hydrocracker.
The information is grouped into the following pages:

Feed Blend
Product Yields
Product Properties
Reactor
Hydrogen System
Hydrogen Balance

Feed Blend Page


The Feed Blend page displays the calculated physical properties
of the feed stream entering the reactor.
Figure 5.44

For multiple reactors, use the drop-down list to view the feed
blend properties in each reactor.

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Hydrocracker

5-63

Product Yields Page


The Product Yields page displays the calculated yield results of
the product streams exiting the Hydrocracker.
Figure 5.45

Product Properties Page


The Product Properties page displays the calculated physical
properties of the product streams exiting the Hydrocracker.
Figure 5.46

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5-64

HCR Reactor Section Property View

Reactor Page
The Reactors page displays the key simulation results of the
reactor (s) in the Hydrocracker.
Figure 5.47

Hydrogen System Page


The Hydrogen System page displays the calculated results of the
Hydrogen make-up streams and Hydrogen recycled gas.
Figure 5.48

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Hydrocracker

5-65

Hydrogen Balance Page


The Hydrogen System page displays the calculated results of the
Hydrogen consumption in the reactor(s) and Hydrogen balance
in each streams.
Figure 5.49

5-65

5-66

Calibration Set Library Property

5.7 Calibration Set Library


Property View
The Calibration Set Library property view enables you to
manage the calibration factor sets.
There are several methods to access the Calibration Set Library
property view:

In the HCR Configuration Wizard property view, go to


the Calibration Factors (3 of 3) page and click the
Library button.
In the HCR Property View, select the Design tab,
select the Calibration Factors page, and click the
Calibration Factors Library button.
In the HCR Environment, select HCR | Calibration
Factor command from the menu bar, and click the
Library button in the Calibration Factor Set property
view.

Figure 5.50

The following table lists and describes the options available in


the Calibration Set Library property view:
Object

Description

Available Calibration
Factor Sets list

Displays all the factor sets available in the current


calibration environment.

View/Edit button

Enables you to view or modify the data of the


selected factor set in the Available Calibration
Factor Sets list.

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Hydrocracker

5-67

Object

Description

Add button

Enables you to add a new factor set and access


the Factor Set Property View.

Delete button

Enables you to delete the selected factor set in the


Available Calibration Factor Sets list.

Clone button

Enables you to create a copy/clone of the selected


factor set in the Available Calibration Factor
Sets list.

Import button

Enables you to import a calibration factor set data


from a *.csv file.

Export button

Enables you to export/save the selected factor set


(in the Available Calibration Factor Sets list) to
a file *.csv.

HYSYS provides a default calibration factor set with values in


the Calibration Set Library.
The calibration factor values, in the Default calibration factor
set, are read only.
To modify the calibration factors, you need to make a clone
of the Default Calibration Factor set, and modify the
calibration factor values in the cloned set.

5.7.1 Factor Set Property View


The Factor Set property view displays the variable values that
make up the calibration factor set. You can also edit the variable
values in the Factor Set property view.
You cannot modify the variable values of the default
calibration factor set provided by HYSYS.

To access the Factor Set property view:


1. Open the Calibration Set Library Property View.
2. Do one of the following:

Click the Add button to create a new calibration factor


set.
Select the calibration factor set you want to view in the
Available Calibration Factor Sets list and click the View/
Edit button.
Select the calibration factor set you want to edit in the
Available Calibration Factor Sets list and click the Clone
button.
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5-68

Calibration Set Library Property

The Factor Set property view appears.


Figure 5.51

The options in the Factor Set property view is grouped into two
pages:

Reactor
Fractionator

Both pages in the Factor Set property view contain the following
common options:
Object

Description

Name field

Enables you to specify the name of the calibration


factor set.

Description field

Enables you to provide a brief description on the


calibration factor set.

Date Created
field

Displays the date and time when the calibration factor


set was created.

Date Modified
field

Displays the date and time when the calibration factor


set was last modified.

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Hydrocracker

5-69

Reactor Page
The Reactor page enables you to access the Reactor Factors
group and specify variable values associated to the reactor.
Figure 5.52

Fractionator Page
The Fractionator page enables you to access the Fractionator
Cuts group and specify variable values associated to the
stabilizer tower.
Figure 5.53

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5-70

Results Property View

The Fractionator page is blank if the Hydrocracker does not


contain a fractionator.

5.8 Results Property View


The Results property view contains and displays the same
information in the Results Tab of the HCR Reactor Section
Property View.
To access the Results property view:
1. Access HCR Environment.
2. Select HCR | Results in the menu bar.
The Results property view appears.
The information displayed in the Results property view will
appear blank, if the Hydrocracker unit operation is not
solved or completed.

5.8.1 Feed Blend Page


The Feed Blend page displays the calculated physical properties
of the feed stream entering the reactor.
Figure 5.54

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Hydrocracker

5-71

For multiple reactors, use the drop-down list to view the feed
blend properties in each reactor.

5.8.2 Product Yields Page


The Product Yields page displays the calculated yield results of
the product streams exiting the Hydrocracker.
Figure 5.55

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5-72

Results Property View

5.8.3 Product Properties Page


The Product Properties page displays the calculated physical
properties of the product streams exiting the Hydrocracker.
Figure 5.56

5.8.4 Reactor Page


The Reactors page displays the key simulation results of the
reactor (s) in the Hydrocracker.
Figure 5.57

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Hydrocracker

5-73

5.8.5 Hydrogen System Page


The Hydrogen System page displays the calculated results of the
Hydrogen make-up streams and Hydrogen recycled gas.
Figure 5.58

5.8.6 Hydrogen Balance Page


The Hydrogen System page displays the calculated results of the
Hydrogen consumption in the reactor(s) and Hydrogen balance
in each streams.
Figure 5.59

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5-74

Calibration Property View

5.9 Calibration Property


View
The calibration property view allows you to:

Specify feeds, catalyst, operating conditions and


measurements for a calibration run.
Perform a calibration run.
Save the calculated Calibration Factors for use in the
simulation run.
Push data from a calibration run to the HCR Reactor
Section property view.
Pull data from the HCR Reactor property view to the
Calibration property view.

Figure 5.60

To access Calibration property view:


1. Access the HCR environment
2. Select HCR | Calibration command in the menu bar.
The Calibration view of the active HCR operation appears.

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Hydrocracker

5-75

Note: When you access the Calibration view, you also enter the
Calibration Environment.
The HCR Calibration view contains the following objects below
the tabs:
Object

Description

Run Calibration
Button

Enables you to select one or more data set for the


calibration run and access the Validation Wizard
property view. This button is unavailable until all
necessary input data is complete.

Run Prediction
button

Enables you to select one or more data set for the


prediction run and access the Specification
Wizard property view. This button is unavailable
until all necessary input data is complete.

Data Set
drop-down list

Enables you to select different data sets for


entering the data or viewing the results for the
calibration or the prediction run.

Manage Data Sets


button

Enables you to access the Data Set Manager


Property View to manage the data set.

Push Data to
Simulation button

Enables you to export input data from the current


data set in the calibration property view to the
property view in the HCR environment.
Any existing simulation data will be overwritten
with the current calibration data.

Pull Data from


Simulation button

Enables you to import data from the property view


in the HDC environment into the current data set in
the Calibration property view.
Any existing calibration data will be over written
with the current simulation data.

Return to
Simulation

Enables you to exit the Calibration environment


and return to the HCR environment.

Status Bar

Displays the current status of the calibration run.

Validation Wizard
When you click the Run Calibration button, Aspen HYSYS
Refining lets you select the data set you want to use for the
calibration run, and validate the selected data set before the
calibration is actually run.
Note: The Run Calibration button in the Calibration view is
unavailable until all necessary calibration input is complete.
The Select Data Sets for Calibration view displays status and
names of data sets available with the calibration run.
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5-76

Calibration Property View

This view will appear only when there is more than one data set.
If theres only one data set, Validation Wizard view will appear
instead.
Object

Description

Run Calibration

Enables you to run the calibration using the


selected data set in the Select Data Sets for
Calibration group.

Stop

Enables you to stop the calculation process during a


calibration run. This button is only active during the
calibration run calculation.

Close

Enables you to close the Select Data Sets for


Calibration view without performing any calibration
run.

Select the appropriate checkbox under the Include column to


select the data set you want to use in the calibration run. When
you select the checkbox, the Validation Wizard view of the
selected data set appears.
The Validation Wizard property view displays the mass flows of
feed and product streams (derived from the input data), and
coke flow and wt% hydrogen in coke (calculated using air rate
and flue gas analysis).
The information displayed enables you to analyse the
measurement data before accepting the data set for the
calibration run.

If the total product mass rate is greater than the total


feed mass rate by about 2-3%, you should review the
flow rate and gravity information of the products. If you
think the error is acceptable, you can decide how you
would like to distribute the mass imbalance by assigning
the bias to any of the product streams (except coke).
Once the bias is assigned, the Validation Wizard adjusts
the mass flow of the selected product stream(s) to match
the feed total mass by re-normalization.
If the coke flow and wt% hydrogen in code values are not
reasonable, the air rate measurement and flue gas
analysis should be reviewed before calibration is run.

In the Coke and Sulfur Balance group, you must specify the
following values for the Calibration of coke and sulfur balance:

Wt% feed sulfur in code (default = 5%)


Wt% coke from stripper (default = 15%)
Stripper efficiency (default = 75%)
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Hydrocracker

5-77

When all the information in the Validation Wizard view appears


satisfactory, click the OK button to accept the values in the
selected data set. The Validation Wizard view closes and you
return to the Select Data Sets for Calibration view.
Note: You can click the Cancel button to close the Validation
Wizard View without saving/accepting any changes made in the
view.
Once the data set has been selected and validated, you can click
the Run Calibration button on the Select Data Sets for
Calibration view to start the Calibration run.

Specification Wizard
When you click the Run Prediction button, Aspen HYSYS
Refining lets you select a calibration factor set, and select data
set you want to use for prediction calculation.
Note: The Run Prediction button in the Calibration view is
unavailable until all necessary input is complete.
The Select Data Sets for Prediction view displays status and
names of data sets available with the calibration run. The
following table lists and describes the options in the Select Data
Sets for Prediction view:
Object

Description

Select Calibration
Factor Set to Use for
Prediction
drop-down list.

Enables you to select a calibration factor set to use


in the prediction calculation.

Library button

Enables you to access the Calibration Set Library


view to manage the calibration factor set.

Run Prediction
button

Enables you to run the prediction calculation using


the selected calibration factor set for data sets
included in the Select Data Sets for Prediction
group. The button is not active until you have
selected and validated a data set.

Stop button

Enables you to stop the process during a prediction


calculation.

Close button

Enables you to close the Select Data Sets for


Prediction view without performing any prediction
calculation.

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5-78

Calibration Property View

Select the appropriate checkbox under the Include column to


select the data set you want to use in the prediction. When you
select the checkbox, the Specification Wizard view of the
selected data set appears.

The Specification Wizard property view enables you to


select the variable(s) that is specified for the prediction
calculation, the rest of the variables will be calculated.
In the Regenerator group, select the appropriate
checkbox of the variable you want the prediction
calculation to accept the specified value, while the rest of
the variables are calculated based on the specified value.
If a fractionator is included into HCR, then the TBP cut
point specs appears in the Specification Wizard view. you
can modify the values in the Specify TBP Cut Points
group and the new data will be used in the prediction
run.
Click the OK button to close the Specification Wizard
view and accept the modification/selections.
Click the Cancel button to close the Specification Wizard
view and not accept the modification/selections.

Data Set Manager Property View


The Data Set Manager property view enables you to add,
modify, clone, delete, or rename the calibration data sets
associate to the calibration run.
The following table lists and describes the options in the Data
Set Manager view:
Object

Description

Available Data Sets


list

Displays all the data sets available in the associate


calibration/prediction run.

Add button

Enables you to add a new data set to the


calibration/prediction run.

Delete button

Enables you to delete the selected data set in the


Available Data Sets list.

Clone button

Enables you to clone the selected data set in the


Available Data Sets list.

Rename button

Enables you to rename the selected data set in the


Available Data Sets list.

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Hydrocracker

5-79

5.9.1 Design Tab


The Design tab is the same as the Design tab in the HCR Reactor
Section property view. This tab enables you to enter specific
information about the HCR unit you are modeling. This
information is used in a calibration run.
Figure 5.61

Use the Design tab to view the following types of information


about the HCR:
Use this page

to

Configuration

View the configuration of the HCR

Geometry

View the geometry of the following elements of the


HCR:
Internal Diameter
Catalyst Loading
Catalyst Density
Bed Voidage

Notes

Enter notes about calibration

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5-80

Calibration Property View

Configuration Page
The Configuration page on the Design tab of the Calibration
property view is a read-only page.
This page displays the flowsheet configuration information:

The
The
The
The
The

number of reactors
number of HPS
type AMINE Scrubber
presence and type of fractionator
number of beds

Note: To change configuration specifications, you need to go


back to the HCR environment.
Figure 5.62

5-80

Hydrocracker

5-81

Geometry Page
The Geometry page on the Design tab of the Calibration
property view displays the flowsheet geometry information.
Figure 5.63

Note: If you selected the Allow Midpoint Injection option on


the HCR Configuration Wizard Configuration Page (page 1),
Aspen HYSYS Refining displays the Injection Point in the
Reactor group.
The groups in the Geometry page contains the following
information:
Group[

Description

Internal Diameter

The internal diameter of the reactor.

Catalyst Loading

The loading KG of the reactor.

Catalyst Density

The density of the reactor.

Bed Voidage

The Bed Voidage of the reactor.

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5-82

Calibration Property View

If mid-point injection is allowed, then:


Field

Description

Total Length

The total length of the riser.

Top Section
Diameter

The diameter of the top section of the riser (from


injection point to riser top).

Bottom Section
Diameter

The diameter of the bottom section riser (from riser


bottom to injection point).

Injection Point

Location of injection point from the bottom of the


riser.

Notes Page
For more information
refer to Section 1.2.3 Notes Page/Tab.

Use the Notes page to make any notes about the calibration of
the HCR and related matters. Notes can be useful for informing
other people working with your case about changes and
assumptions you have made. You can:

Enter notes in the Notes window


Add objects, for example, a formatted Word document,
in the Notes window.

5.9.2 Feed Data Tab


Use the Feed Data tab on the Calibration property view to enter
specific information about the feed(s) to the HCR unit you are
modeling. This information is used in a calibration run.
The following table lists and describes the pages in the Feed
Data tab view:
Use this page

to

Library

Specify Feed Data information for a calibration run.

Properties

Specify properties for virtual feeds, which is to say


feeds that are not represented by an internal and
external stream in the subflowsheet and flowsheet
respectively.

5-82

Hydrocracker

5-83

Library Page
Use the Library page on the Feed Data tab of the Calibration
property view to manage the Feed Type Library.
Figure 5.64

A library of feed types is provided in the HCR/Feed Library sub


folder on your installation folder. You can import one or more of
them to your simulation.
The following table lists and describes the options in the Library
page:
Objects

Description

Feed Types

Displays the type of feeds associated with the HCR


operation.

Properties of
Selected Feed Types

Displays the following information:


Lump Weight Percents
Biases

Import button

Enables you to import a feed type from a file in the


HCR operation.

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5-84

Calibration Property View

Objects

Description

Export button

Enables you to export a selected feed type (from


the Feed Types list) into a separate file. The
exported feed type can be imported into a different
HCR operation.

Delete button

Enables you to delete a selected field type in the


Feed Types list.

Properties Page
Use the Properties page on the Feed Data tab of the Calibration
property view to specify properties for virtual feeds, which is to
say feeds that are not represented by an internal and external
stream in the subflowsheet and flowsheet respectively. The real
feed streams also appear here, but there are restrictions.
Figure 5.65

5-84

Hydrocracker

5-85

The following table lists and describes the common features in


the Properties page:
Object

Description

Feeds List

Displays the feed stream associated with the HCR


operation.

Add button

Enables you to create/add a new virtual feed


stream and assign it a default name as if it were an
internal stream.

Clone button

Enables you to create a copy of the selected feed


stream in the feed list.
If the selected feed stream is a real stream, the
copy is flagged as a virtual feed.

Delete button

Enables you to delete the selected field stream in


the feed list.
If the selected feed stream is a real stream, then
both the internal and external streams will be
deleted.

Selected Feed group

Contains three radio buttons that enables you to


select different methods to manipulate the selected
feed stream in the Feeds list.
The HCR model uses these feed types and Feed
Type properties to generate kinetic lumps of the
feed for the simulation.

Feed Properties
Group

Displays all the properties of the selected feed


stream in the Feeds list.
Various stream properties can be modified,
depending on the method you selected in the Feed
Properties group.

If you selected the Assay radio button:

The feed properties calculated from the assay and the cut points
are displayed.
Field

Description

Feed Type

The feed type. Select the feed type from the dropdown list. The feed types available are those in the
Feed Types list on the Library page of the Feed
Data tab.

Assay

The name of the assay.

Initial Point

Initial point of the distillation.

Final Point [C]

Final point of the distillation.

API Gravity

The API gravity of the feed.

Specific Gravity
(60F/60F)

The specific gravity of the feed.

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5-86

Calibration Property View

Field

Description

Distillation Type

TBP
D86
D1160
D2887

0% Point [C]

0% point of the distillation.

5% Point [C]

5% point of the distillation.

10% Point [C]

10% point of the distillation.

30% Point [C]

30% point of the distillation.

50% Point [C]

50% point of the distillation.

70% Point [C]

70% point of the distillation.

90% Point [C]

90% point of the distillation.

95% Point [C]

95% point of the distillation.

100% Point [C]

100% point of the distillation.

Total Nitrogen
[ppmwt]

Total Nitrogen content in the feed, ppmwt.

Basic Nitrogen
[ppmwt]

Basic Nitrogen content in the feed, ppmwt.

Total/Basic
Nitrogen Ration

Ratio of total basic nitrogen content.

Sulfur Content%

Sulfur content in the feed, wt%

If you selected the Bulk Properties radio button:

Field

Description

Name

The name of the feed.

Feed Type

The feed type. Select the feed type from the dropdown list. The feed types available are those in the
Feed Types list on the Library page of the Feed
Data tab.

API Gravity

The API gravity of the feed.

Specific Gravity
(60F/60F)

The specific gravity of the feed.

Distillation Type

TBP
D86
D1160
D2887

0% Point [C]

0% point of the distillation.

5% Point [C]

5% point of the distillation.

10% Point [C]

10% point of the distillation.

30% Point [C]

30% point of the distillation.

50% Point [C]

50% point of the distillation.

70% Point [C]

70% point of the distillation.

90% Point [C]

90% point of the distillation.

5-86

Hydrocracker

Field

Description

95% Point [C]

95% point of the distillation.

Total Nitrogen
[ppmwt]

Total Nitrogen content in the feed, ppmwt.

Basic Nitrogen
[ppmwt]

Basic Nitrogen content in the feed, ppmwt.

Total/Basic
Nitrogen Ratio

Ratio of total basic nitrogen content.

Sulfur Content%

Sulfur content in the feed, wt%

5-87

If you selected the Kinetic Lumps radio button:

If the feed is connected to an external stream, then you cannot


choose a Property Method. You can only change the feed name
and the feed type.

Operation Tab
The Operation tab in the Calibration property view is the same
as the Operation tab in the HCR Reactor Section property view.
The Operation tab contains features used to manipulate the
operation parameters of the Hydrocracker operation.

Feeds Page
The Feeds page of the Operation tab of the Calibration property
displays the calculated physical properties of the feed stream
entering the reactor. This data is used for calibration runs.
The following table lists and describes the options in the Feed
page view:

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5-88

Calibration Property View

Object

Description

Feed
Conditions

Enables you to modify the following properties of the feed


stream(s) entering the Hydrocracker:
volume flow rate
mass flow rate
temperature
pressure
entry location
If you select Split option, the Select Feed Location
Property View appears and enables you to specify
the feed stream flow ratio between the reactors.

Total Feed

Enables you to modify the following properties of the


reactors:
total feed preheat duty
total feed pressure
gas to oil ratio

Specification Page
The Specification page on the Operation tab of the Calibration
property enables you to modify the reactor bed parameters of
the Hydrocracker operation.
Figure 5.66

5-88

Hydrocracker

5-89

Recycle Gas Loop Page


The Recycle Gas Loop page on the Operation tab of the
Calibration property view enables you to modify the recycle gas
parameters of the Hydrocracker operation.
Figure 5.67

The Recycle Gas Loop page contains the following groups:


Group

Description

HPS and
Recycle Gas
Compressor

Enables you to modify the following properties of the


recycle gas loops:
stream temperature
stream pressure
outlet pressure of the stream exiting the compressor
pressure difference between the stream and the
reactor stage

5-89

5-90

Calibration Property View

Group

Description

Product
Heater

Enables you to modify the following properties of the


heater:
temperature of exiting stream
duty
pressure of exiting stream
pressure difference in heater

Hydrogen
Makeup
Stream

Enables you to modify the following properties of the


hydrogen makeup stream:
mole flow rate
temperature
pressure
composition
hydrogen purge fraction

Catalyst Deactivation Page


The Catalyst Deactivation page enables you to modify the
catalyst parameters of the hydrocraker operation.
Figure 5.68

5-90

Hydrocracker

5-91

Fractionator Page
The Fractionator tab contains options for the fractionator in the
Hydrocracker. The options are split into the following pages:

Zone Pressures
Specs

If the Hydrocracker does not contain a fractionator the


above pages appear blank.

Solver Options Page


The Solver Options page on the Operation tab of the Calibration
property view enables you to modify the calculation variable
used to determine the reaction results of the reactor.
Figure 5.69

5-91

5-92

Calibration Property View

The Solver Option page contains the following information:


Object

Description

Convergence
Tolerance

Contains the Residual field that enables you to specify the maximum
residual value allowed for the convergence calculation.

Iteration Limits

Contains two fields that enable you to control the iteration range for the
OOMF Solver performance:
Maximum Iterations field enables you to specify the maximum
number of iterations.
Minimum Iterations field enables you to specify the minimum number
of iterations.

Creep Step
Parameters

Contains three fields that enable you to configure the creep function of the
OOMF Solver:
On/Off Switch drop-down list. Enables you to select On (enable) or
Off (disable) option for the creep feature.
Iterations field. Enables you to specify the number of iterations per
creep step.
Step Size field. Enables you to specify the size of each creep step.

Completeness
Checking

Contains the Override Spec Group Completeness checkbox that enables


you to toggle between:
Overriding the normal calculation behaviour.
Retaining the normal calculation behaviour.
The normal calculation behaviour requires the spec groups be completed
before solving.

SQP Hessian
Parameters

Contains features used to manipulate the SQP Hessian parameters:


Initialization drop-down list. Enables you to select one of four options
to initialize the Hessian value:
Normal (default). Hessian initialized with identity matrix. This setting
balances efficiency and robustness. It is well suited for general purpose
optimization problems. Typical applications are offline optimization and
online problems that start very far from a solution.
Aggressive. Hessian initialized with small values. This setting moves
the problem to bounds faster than the Normal mode. This setting is
preferred for highly constrained optimization problems with few Degrees
of Freedom at solution. Ideal applications are well-posed online realtime optimization problems.
Scaled. A combination of the Aggressive and Advanced modes. This
setting is recommended for highly constrained optimization problems
with few Degrees of Freedom at solution and a nonlinear objective
function.
Advanced. Hessian initialized with 2nd order information. This setting is
recommended for problems with many Degrees of Freedom at solution
and/or quadratic objective function. Ideal for data reconciliation
problems, both online and offline.
Scaling factor field. Enables you to specify the scaling factor.
Updates stored field. Enables you to specify the number of updates
stored during calculation (default value is 10).

5-92

Hydrocracker

5-93

Object

Description

Line Search
Parameters

Contains features used to configure the line search parameters:


Algorithm drop-down list. Enables you to select one of four methods
for the line search algorithm:
Normal (default). A proprietary line search designed to balance
robustness with efficiency.
Exact. A well-known exact penalty line search. It is too conservative for
most practical problems.
Residual. A proprietary line search designed to initially favour the
convergence of residuals over the objective function improvement.
Square. A line search designed to attempt to enforce bounds on cases
with no Degrees of Freedom. It should be used only in cases where
there are multiple solutions to a problem, and the desired solution lies
within the bounds.
Step Control drop-down list. Enables you to select one of three options
for the step size:
Normal (default). The original method.
Aggressive. A modified method that tends to take larger steps.
Conservative. A modified method that tends to take smaller steps.
Step Control Iterations field. Enables you to specify the number of
step iterations.

Variable Scaling
Parameter

Contains the On/Off Switch drop-down list that enables you to select one of
the following options:
On. Activates the variable scaling parameter.
Off. Deactivates the variable scaling parameter.

Failure Recovery
Action dropdown list

Enables you to select one of the following action in case of failure:


Do nothing.
Revert to the previous results before the solve (this is the default
option).
Revert to the default input and results.

5-93

5-94

Calibration Property View

Solver Console Page


The Solver Console page on the Operation tab of the Calibration
property view enables you to view the solver message
generated by the reaction and run script commands.
Figure 5.70

The Solver Console page displays the following information:


Object

Description

Simulation Engine
Message and Script
Commands field

Displays the messages and commands from the


solver of the FCC reactor.

Enter Script
Command field

Enables you to enter the text code for a command


for the solver.

Clear Message
button

Enables you to clear the messages in the


Simulation Engine Message and Script Commands
field.

Get Prev. Command


button

Enables you to retrieve a previous command from


the command history and place the text code in
the Enter Script Command field.

Get Next Command


button

Enables you to retrieve the next command from


the command history and place the text code in
the Enter Script Command field.

5-94

Hydrocracker

5-95

Object

Description

Run Command
button

Enables you to run the command code in the Enter


Script Command field.

Clear Command
button

Enables you to clear the command history.

5.9.3 Operation Measure Tab


The Operation Measures tab contains the following pages:

Temp./Press. Page
Flow

Temp./Press. Page
The Operation Measure tab in the Calibration property view
allows you to input the temperature measurement that will be
used in the objection function for calibration.
Figure 5.71

5-95

5-96

Calibration Property View

The Temperature page contains the following two groups:


Object

Description

Temperature Rise

The rise in temperature.

Pressure Drop

The degree of pressure dropped.

Note: The number of columns depends on the number of


reactors. The number of rows is the maximum number of beds
among all reactors. The filed will be locked as a blank if the
particular bed does not exist in the specific reactor.
For example, if there are three reactors and there are two beds
in Reactor 1, three beds in Reactor 2 and two beds in Reactor 3,
then there will be rows for Bed 1, Bed 2 and Bed 3. However, the
cells for data in Bed 3 of Reactor 1 and Reactor 3 will be blank
and locked.

5-96

Hydrocracker

5-97

Flow Page
Use the Flow page on the Operation Measure tab of the
Calibration property view to input flow measurements in the
recycle loop that will be used in the objection function for
calibration.
Figure 5.72

5.9.4 Product Measure Tab


The Product Measure tab contains the options that enable you to
manipulate the cuts, light ends and heavy ends in the calibration
calculation.

5-97

5-98

Calibration Property View

Cuts Page
The Cuts page on the Product Measure tab of the Calibration
property view enables you to specify the number of GC analyses
and liquid product cuts.
Figure 5.73

The cuts available vary depending on whether the HCR has a


fractionator.

If the HCR has a fractionator:


The naphtha cuts, LCO cuts and Bottom cuts are those
you specified on the HCR Configuration Wizard.

If the HCR does not include a fractionator, then you must


specify the number of liquid cuts, which correspond to
the number of liquid product measurements you have.

Name of analysis or
cut

What/how many you can specify

Number of fuel gas


analyses

up to 5

Number of LPG
analyses

up to 4

5-98

Hydrocracker

Name of analysis or
cut

What/how many you can specify

Number of naphtha
cuts

up to 3

Number of Distillate
Cuts

up to 2

Bottom cuts

5-99

Bottoms
HCO and Bottoms

Light Ends Page


Use the Light Ends page on the Product Measure tab of the
Calibration property view to specify the GC data for:

Fuel Gases
LPGs
Naphthas

Figure 5.74

5-99

5-100

Calibration Property View

The table that appears in the Light Ends page enables you to
input measurement data and is based on the number of fuel
gas, LPC analyses and Naptha cuts specified on the Cuts Page.
For example, the Heavy Naphtha column appears only if the
configuration has a Heavy Naphtha draw.
For each type of cut (each cut is represented by a column) you
can enter the flow rate and composition in the appropriate cell.
Notes:

You only need to enter the Naphthenes, Olefins and


Aromatics data for the naphtha cuts. The HCR model
then extrapolates the curves to the regions where you
did not specify data.
For Fuel Gas columns, Liquid Rate variable is not
available and for the other columns, Gas Rate variable is
not available.
When you enter a value for a composition, the Input
Composition for GC Analysis dialog appears on which
to enter the data.

5-100

Hydrocracker

5-101

Heavy Liquids Page


Use the Heavy Liquids page on the Product Measure tab of the
Calibration property view to specify measured data for
fractionated streams, including flows and properties. Aspen
HYSYS Refining calculates the TBP cut for reactor
parameterization.
Figure 5.75

Note: You only need to enter the Naphthenes, Olefins and


Aromatics data for the naphtha cuts. The HCR model adjusts the
reference curve for Naphthenes, Olefins and Aromatics to match
the measurements specified. The model then extrapolates the
curves to the regions where you did not specify data.
The streams on the Heavy Liquids page correspond to the
fractionated draws that you specified:

on the HCR Configuration Wizard


on the Cuts Page if the HCR does not have a fractionator

The Olefins, Naphthenes and Aromatics in naphtha cut(s) are


required input. Those for other liquid cuts are optional.

5-101

5-102

Calibration Property View

The temperature and pressure are used for fractionator


calibration.
Note: The Heavy Naphtha and Light Naphtha flows appear
both on the Light Ends Page and in the Heavy Liquids Page.

5.9.5 Calibration Control Tab


Use the Calibration Control tab of the Calibration property view
to specify the reactor settings for:

Parameter
Object Function

Parameters Page
The Parameters page on the Calibration Control tab of the
Calibration property view displays a list of parameters and a
checkbox for each parameter to allow you to select which
parameters to be used in calibrating the reactor model.
Figure 5.76

5-102

Hydrocracker

5-103

This page contains several columns. The first column displays a


list of parameters. The second column is the initial values of the
parameters and the third column is a checkbox. The initial
values of the parameters are from the default factor set but you
can modify them.

Object Function Page


The Object Function page on the Calibration Control tab of the
Calibration property view allows the user to construct the
objective function for the calibration. This page contains a
matrix of two columns. The first column is the name of the
variables, the second is the sigma values for the variable.
Figure 5.77

5.9.6 Analysis Tab


The Analysis tab of the Calibration property view displays the
view populated with the results of a calibration run.

5-103

5-104

Calibration Property View

Note: Pages on the Analysis tab, except the Worksheet page,


display the calibration results of the current data set. You can
select the current data set from the Data Set drop-down list.

Calibration Summary Page


The Calibrations Summary page on the Analysis tab of the
Calibration property view displays the calculated calibration
factors. You can save these Calibration Factors as a named set
that can then be used in calibration runs. you can also export
the calibration factors to a file.
Figure 5.78

5-104

Hydrocracker

5-105

There are four buttons located on the top of the Calibration


Factor page and two groups. The following table outlines the
buttons:
Button

Action

Save for Simulation

Save the calibration factors for a simulation run,


by clicking Save for Simulation.
In the normal workflow, after running the
calibration and reviewing the results, you will save
the calculated calibration factors. Therefore, if you
return to the Simulation environment, the system
prompts you with the following question:
Do you want to make the newly calculated
calibration factors available for simulation?
If you select Yes - Aspen HYSYS Refining
proceeds as if you had clicked Save for
Simulation.
If you select No - the calibration property
view closes.
If you select Cancel - the Calibration
property view remains open.

Export

Export the calibration factors as a file.

Calibration Factors
Library

View the Calibration Set Library view.

Re-initialize

The factors are split into two read-only groups.

The Calibration Factors group displays all calculated


reactor and (if it exists) fractionator calibration factors:

Factors

Default Calibration Factor set

Global Activity
Reactor 1- Bed 1

0.7000

Reactor 1- Bed 2

0.7000

Reactor 2- Bed 1

0.7000

Reactor 2- Bed 2

0.7000

Overall HDS Activity


Treating Bed
Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

9.761-eOC
0.6336

430- HDS Activity


Treating Bed

1.000

Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

1.000

430-950 HDS
Activity

5-105

5-106

Calibration Property View

Factors

Default Calibration Factor set


Treating Bed

Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

0.7581
1.000

950+ HDS Activity


Treating Bed

1.000

Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

1.000

Overall HDN Activity


Treating Bed

0.2508

Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

0.8342

430- HDN Activity


Treating Bed

1.217

Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

1.000

950+ HDN Activity


Treating Bed

1.665

Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

1.000

Overall SAT Activity


Treating Bed
Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

7.000e-OC
1.035

430- SAT Activity


Treating Bed

1.000

Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

1.000

430-950 SAT
Activity
Treating Bed
Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

0.9032
1.000

950+ SAT Activity


Treating Bed
Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

0.9182
1.000

Overall Cracking
Activity
Treating Bed
Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

0.1679
1.000e-OC

430- Cracking
Activity
Treating Bed

2.200

5-106

Hydrocracker

Factors

5-107

Default Calibration Factor set

Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

1.000

430-950 Cracking
Activity
Treating Bed

2.498

Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

1.000

950+ Cracking
Activity
Treating Bed
Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

0.8000
1.000

Overall Ring
Opening Activity
Treating Bed

5.000e-OC

Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

1.000e-OC

430- Ring Opening


Activity
Treating Bed

1.000

Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

1.000

430-950 Ring
Opening Activity
Treating Bed

1.000

Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

1.000

950+ Ring Opening


Activity
Treating Bed

1.000

Treating Bed to
Cracking Bed Ration

1.000

Light Gas Tuning


Factors
C1

8.900

C2

5.000

C3

1.000

C4

0.1000

Catalyst
Deactivation
Initial Deactivation
Constant

Included
(Initial Value and Final Value will display if
present.

5-107

5-108

Calibration Property View

Factors

Default Calibration Factor set

Long Term
Deactivation Constant
Activation Energy

Included
(Initial Value and Final Value will display if
present.
Included
(Initial Value and Final Value will display if
present.

WABT Bias

Included
(Initial Value and Final Value will display if
present.

Reactor Pressure
Drop Factor
Reactor 1- Bed 1

Included
(Initial Value and Final Value will display if
present.

Reactor 1- Bed 2

Included
(Initial Value and Final Value will display if
present.

Reactor 2- Bed 1

Included
(Initial Value and Final Value will display if
present.

Reactor 2- Bed 2

Included
(Initial Value and Final Value will display if
present.

The Objective Function group displays the following


information:

Factors

Default Calibration Factor set

Temperature Rise
RIBI Temperature Rise [C]

1.000

RIB2 Temperature Rise [C]

1.000

R2BI Temperature Rise [C]

1.000

R2B2 Temperature Rise [C]

1.000

Recycle Quench Throws


Reactor 1
Bed 1 [STD_m3/h]

720.0

Bed 1 [STD_m3/h]

720.0

Reactor 2
Bed 1 [STD_m3/h]

720.0

Bed 2 [STD_m3/h]

720.0

Purge Gas Flow - Loop 1


[STD_m3/h]

36.00

H2 Makeup 1 rate - Loop 1


[STD_m3/h]

36.00

5-108

Hydrocracker

Factors

5-109

Default Calibration Factor set


H2 Consumption
[STD_m3/m3]

1.000

Product Flow and


Properties
Naphtha C6-430F Vol. Flow
[m3/h]

1.000

Diesel 430F-700F Vol. Flow


[m3/h]

1.000

Bottoms 700-1000F Vol.


Flow [m3/h]

1.000

Resid 1000F + Vol. Flow


[m3/h]

1.000

C1C2 Yield [%]

1.00

C3 Yield [%]

1.00

C4 Yield [%]

1.00

Sulfur in Bottom 700+F


[ppmwt]

10.00

Nitrogen in Bottom 700+F


[ppmwt]

10.00

5-109

5-110

Calibration Property View

Mass Balance Page


The Mass Balance page reports the errors in the mass flow
rates. The page also reports the adjusted mass flows that are
used in the calibration, based on how you have decided to
distribute the error in the Validation Wizard.
Figure 5.79

The following table list and describes the groups in the Mass
Balance page:
Section

Displays data on

Feed Group

Stream Name
Mass Flow [kg/h]
Hydrogen Flow [kg/h]

Material Balance

Closures (Measured/Adjusted)

Product Group

Stream name (Measured Mass Flow/Adjusted


Mass Flow and Ass. Bias)

Chemical Hydrogen

Consumption

5-110

Hydrocracker

5-111

Feed Blend Page


The Feed Blend page on the Analysis tab of the Calibration
property view displays the detailed characterization of each
individual feed and the blend of feeds going to each riser
location.
Figure 5.80

Note:

If there are two reactors, or there is a feed mid-point


injection, you can use the Blend Properties at
Selected Reactor Location list to choose the location
to display.

5-111

5-112

Calibration Property View

Product Yields Page


The Product Yields page on the Analysis tab of the Calibration
property view displays the standard Cut yields from the
simulation.
Figure 5.81

If the Hydrocracker contains a fractionator, there will be two


radio buttons: Standard Cut Products and Fractionated Products.
Depending on the radio button selected, the Yields group
displays the yields for standard cuts or the fractionated yields.
The liquid product cuts for the Fractionated Products option
correspond to those specified in the Specs Page of the
Fractionator tab.

5-112

Hydrocracker

5-113

Product Properties Page


The Product Properties page on the Analysis tab of the
Calibration view displays the calculated physical properties of
the product streams exiting the Hydrocracker.
Figure 5.82

The Product Properties group displays the following values for


each of the stream(s) listed:

API Gravity
Specific Gravity
Sulfur [%]
Total Nitrogen [ppmwt]
Basic Nitrogen [ppmwt]
Paraffins [%]
Naphthenes [%]
Aromatics [%]
RON
MON
Smoke Point [mm}
Freeze Point [C]
Flash Point [C]
5-113

5-114

Calibration Property View

Cetane Index
Four Point [C]
Watson K
Viscosity @ 100F [cP]

If the Hydrocracker contains a fractionator, there will be two


radio buttons: Standard Cut Products and Fractionated Products.
Depending on the radio button selected, the Product Properties
group displays the properties for standard cuts or the properties
for the fractionated products.
The liquid product cuts for the Fractionated Products option
correspond to those specified in the Specs Page of the
Fractionator tab.

Reactor Page
The Reactor page on the Analysis tab of the Calibration property
view displays the key simulation results of the reactor. The
results displayed depend on the configuration of the HCR.
Figure 5.83

5-114

Hydrocracker

5-115

Hydrogen System Page


The Hydrogen System page displays the calculated results of the
Hydrogen make-up streams and Hydrogen recycled gas.
Figure 5.84

Fractionator Page
The Fractionator page on the Analysis tab of the Calibration
property view displays the fractionator solver tuning
parameters.
The Section-based solver tuning parameters group displays for
each zone:

Top Index
Bottom Index
Top R2
Bottom R2

The TBP Cut Points group displays the calculated cut point to
match the specified flow rate of each zone.

5-115

5-116

Calibration Property View

Hydrogen Balance Page


The Hydrogen Balance page on the Analysis tab of the
Calibration property view displays key hydrogen balance
information and hydrogen-balance-related information.
Figure 5.85

The Hydrogen balance page reports the following data:


Group

Displays data on

H2 Consumption

Bed 1 [STD-m3/h]
Bed 2 [STD-m3/h]
Sum [STD-m3/h]

H2 Balance

H2 Flow in Makeup 1 [STD-m3/h]


H2 Flow in Makeup 2 [STD-m3/h]
H2 Flow in Total Makeup [STD-m3/h]
H2 Makeup per Feed Flow [STD-m3/m3]
H2 Flow in Purge [STD-m3/h]
H2 Purge per Feed Flow [STD-m3/m3]
Total H2 Consumption [STD-m3/h]
Total H2 Consumption per Feed Flow [STDm3/h]
Total H2 Losses [STD-m3/h]
H2 Losses per Feed Flow [STD-m3/m3]

5-116

Hydrocracker

5-117

Worksheet Page
The Worksheet page on the Advanced tab of the Calibration
property view displays the summary of the calibration results.
Each row in the table corresponds to each variable from every
other Analysis page, and each column for every included data
sets in the calibration run.
Figure 5.86

5.10 References
1

"The Lower It Goes, The Tougher It Gets," Bradford L. Bjorklund, Neil


Howard, Timothy Heckel, David Lindsay, and Dave Piasecki,
presented at presented at the NPRA 2000 Annual Meeting, Paper
No. AM-00-16, March 26-28, 2000.

"Improve Refinery Margins and Produce Low-Sulfur Fuels," Scott W.


Shorey, David A. Lomas, and William H. Keesom, World Refining
Special Edition: Sulfur 2000, Summer 1999, p. 41.

5-117

5-118

References

5-118

Petroleum Column

6-1

6 Petroleum Column

6.1 Introduction................................................................................... 2
6.1.1 Petroleum Column Conventions .................................................. 3
6.2 Petroleum Column Theory.............................................................. 4
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4

Petroleum Column Example ....................................................... 4


Water Handling ........................................................................ 7
Condenser Handling.................................................................. 7
TBP Cut Points ......................................................................... 8

6.3 Petroleum Column Installation .................................................... 10


6.4 Petroleum Distillation Column Property View .............................. 11
6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3
6.4.4

Design Tab ............................................................................ 11


Worksheet Tab ....................................................................... 13
Performance Tab .................................................................... 13
Calibration Tab....................................................................... 17

6-1

6-2

Introduction

6.1 Introduction
The Petroleum Column operation lets you model petroleum
distillation columns in a refinery. The Petroleum Column is
specifically designed to help with solving the following problems:

Simulating a petroleum column for a wide range of crude


oils within an optimization or gradient generation
scenario. In these situations, the column needs to be
simulated over and over again, and the column should
converge quickly and consistently in all scenarios.
Manually calibrating the Petroleum Column from plant
data.

If you require significant internal details of the column such


as vapor-liquid traffic or temperature profiles matching very
closely to plant data, or if you are interested in extreme
flexibility in the specifications or the topology of the column,
you should use the standard HYSYS column subflowsheet.

The focus of the Petroleum Column is to model the imperfect


separation of crude and other feeds that occur in the refining
industry as accurately as possible. The modeling of imperfect
fractionation plays a very important role in refinery economics.
Conversely the focus is not to use the tool as a detailed design
tool.
The Petroleum Column model has the following capabilities:

Allows one feed.


Allows you to specify the flow-ratio of each product with
respect to the feed, or the TBP cut-point of a product
with respect to the feed.
Calculates the composition, distillation curves,
temperature and flow for each of the products.
Calculates the petroleum properties for each of the
products of the Petroleum Column.

6-2

Petroleum Column

6-3

6.1.1 Petroleum Column


Conventions
Column Tray Sections, Overhead Condensers, and Bottom
Reboilers are each defined as separate, individual unit
operations. Condensers and Reboilers are not numbered stages,
as they are considered to be separate from the Tray Section.
By making the individual components of the column separate
pieces of equipment, there is easier access to equipment
information, as well as the streams connecting them.
The following are some of the conventions, definitions, and
descriptions of the basic columns:
Column
Component

Description

Tray Section

A HYSYS unit operation that represents the series of


equilibrium trays in a Column.

Stages

Stages are numbered from the top down or from the


bottom up, depending on your preference. The top tray is
1, and the bottom tray is N for the top-down numbering
scheme. The stage numbering preference can be selected
on the Connections page of the Design tab on the Column
property view.

Overhead
Vapor Product

The overhead vapour product is the vapour leaving the


top tray of the Tray Section in simple Absorbers and
Reboiled Absorbers. In Refluxed Absorbers and
Distillation Towers, the overhead vapour product is the
vapour leaving the Condenser.

Overhead
Liquid Product

The overhead liquid product is the Distillate leaving the


Condenser in Refluxed Absorbers and Distillation Towers.
There is no top liquid product in simple Absorbers and
Reboiled Absorbers.

Bottom Liquid
Product

The bottom liquid product is the liquid leaving the bottom


tray of the Tray Section in simple Absorbers and Refluxed
Absorbers. In Reboiled Absorbers and Distillation
Columns, the bottom liquid product is the liquid leaving
the Reboiler.

Overhead
Condenser

An Overhead Condenser represents a combined Cooler


and separation stage, and is not given a stage number.

6-3

6-4

Petroleum Column Theory

6.2 Petroleum Column


Theory
The solution strategy is based on fractionation indices and has
the following features:

Applicable over a very wide range of feeds.


Consistent between simulation and calibration.
Moderately accurate beyond the region of calibration.

6.2.1 Petroleum Column


Example
Consider a simple distillation column with one feed and two
products only. For near ideal systems such as hydrocarbon
systems, it is possible to correlate the distillate and bottoms
flow as shown in the figure below:
Figure 6.1

If one plots the quantity ln(Di/Bi) vs. NBPi for each component i,
the plot is typically bilinear.

6-4

Petroleum Column

6-5

where:
Di = molar component flow of component i in the distillate
Bi = molar component flow of component flow of component i
in the bottoms
NBP = normal boiling point of the component

The slope of the curve signifies the extent of imperfect


fractionation. As S tends to zero, there is virtually no separation,
and inversely as S tends to negative infinity, the separation is
almost perfect. The position of the curve horizontally is decided
by the overall distillate and bottoms flow distribution.
HYSYS assume that the slopes of the curves drawn above are
only a characteristic of the structure of the column, and are
independent of the feed or the pressure or other operating
conditions. This assumption enables HYSYS to calculate the
product composition of the distillate and bottoms streams, for a
wide range of feed conditions. Furthermore, HYSYS assume that
all Petroleum Columns are in indirect sequence of simple
columns.
Based on these assumptions the composition of the streams
coming out of each sections of the column can be calculated
using the following equations described below:

For each section:


d N, i
1
ln --------- = ------------ ( NBP i ) + K D, N
b N, i
D, N
1
= ----------- ( NBP i ) + K B, N
B, N
f N, i = d N, i + b N, i
DN =

d N, i

If d i > b i for all i

(6.1)

If d i < b i for all i


for all i

(6.2)

(6.3)

6-5

6-6

Petroleum Column Theory

BN =

b N, i

(6.4)

F N = DN + B N

(6.5)

For two consecutive sections:


FN 1 = DN

(6.6)

where:
N = section in the column
fN,i = i component flow rate in feed for section N
dN,i = i component flow rate in distillate for section N
bN,i = i component flow rate in bottoms for section N
D, N = fractionation index for the distillate section N
B, N = fractionation index for the bottom section N
KD,N = intercept for the distillate section N
KB,N = intercept for the bottom section N
DN = total distillate flow for section N
BN = total bottom flow for section N
FN = total feed flow for section N
You are required to specify fractionation indices for each
section, pressure for each section, and product flow fractions
for each product coming out of the column including the
condenser.
The sections are numbered from bottom of the column to the
top of the column.

6-6

Petroleum Column

6-7

The above system of equations is then solved for dN,i, bN,i, fN,i,
KD,N, and KB,N.

6.2.2 Water Handling


The above equations assume a water-free basis. As a result, the
quantity of water calculated through the equations is zero.
Water from the feed and stripping steam is allocated to the
water draw stream.

6.2.3 Condenser Handling


The equations in the preceeding Theory section generate the
composition of each product stream coming out of the
petroleum column. It is assumed that each liquid product of the
petroleum column is at its bubble temperature and each vapor
product is at its dew temperature. With this assumption and a
specified pressure, you can flash a product stream and calculate
its temperature. Condenser duty is calculated such that energy
balance around the petroleum column is satisfied:
Condensor Duty = Energy Out - Energy In = Product
Enthalpies - Feed Enthalpies - Reboiler Duties

6-7

6-8

Petroleum Column Theory

6.2.4 TBP Cut Points


The petroleum column uses the TBP cut point specification to
determine the quality of the product streams. The TBP cut point
can be best described using the example in the figure below:
Figure 6.2

Overhead

Naphtha

100C

250C

Kero

Gas Oil

280C

Residue

320C

500C

In the above case, the intention is to inform the column to split


the crude oil into five product streams.
The five product streams will have the following qualities:

top product is cut from the initial boiling point of the


crude up to 100C
naphtha product is cut between 100C and 250C
kero product is cut between 250C and 280C
gasoline product is cut between 280C and 320C
residue product is cut from 320C to the final boiling
point of the crude

These cut points are translated into molar flow fractions of the
feed.

6-8

Petroleum Column

6-9

The figure below displays an example of the cut points


translated into molar flow fractions:
Figure 6.3

In a crude column, there are no degrees of freedom to exactly


achieve the specified cut points at both ends of the column.
Furthermore, the column achieves perfect separation only at an
infinite number of stages.
Aspen HYSYS Refining can model imperfect separation and
therefore achieve the separation as shown in the figure below:
Figure 6.4

Portion of Naphtha in
Overhead

Overhead

Portion of Overhead
in Naphtha.

Naphtha

Individual cut

6-9

6-10

Petroleum Column Installation

6.3 Petroleum Column


Installation
There are two ways to install a Petroleum Column to your
simulation:
1. In the Flowsheet menu, click Add Operation. The UnitOps
property view appears.
2. Click the Refininery Ops radio button.
3. From the list of available unit operations, select Petroleum
Distillation.
4. Click the Add button.
OR
1. Press F6 to access the Aspen HYSYS Refining object palette.
2. Double-click the Petroleum Distillation icon: .

3. Use the first-time setup view to select the feed stream, enter
a total number of stages and specify the feed stream stage.
It is recommended to specifiy a sufficient number of stages the default is 10.

4. Click OK. You can now use the Petroleum Column Property
View Specs page to configure the column.

6-10

Petroleum Column

6-11

6.4 Petroleum Distillation


Column Property View
The Petroleum Distillation Column property view is sectioned
into tabs containing pages with information pertaining to the
column.
Figure 6.5

6.4.1 Design Tab


The Design tab contains all the options required to configure the
Petroleum Column. The options are grouped into the following
pages:
Specs
Advanced
Notes

6-11

6-12

Petroleum Distillation Column

Specs Page
The specs page configures the petroleum column. The following
table lists and describes the common objects at the Petroleum
Column Specs page.
Object

Description

Column
Name

Enter column name

Specification
Type

Specify column as either ECP (Effective Cut Point) or Yield


specification

Basis

Specify the basis of yield (Molar, Mass or volume)

Separate
Pure
Component
Product Cut

if checked, Overhead vapor stream will not have any hypo


compositions.

Product Info
Matrix

Specify product name, its draw stage, ECP, Yield


specification, SI TOP, SI BOT and ECP Offset
SITOP - Represents the separation co-efficient of the top
section. This is normally the scaled value of slope of curve
NBP vs. Ln(Di/Bi) where NBP is Normal Boiling Point of
components and Di is Molar flow in top section and Bi is
molar flow in bottom section. Specifically,
SI top = -1/slope of curve NBP vs. Ln(Di/Bi)
SIBOTTOM - Represents the separation co-efficient of the
bottom section. This is normally the scaled value of slope of
curve NBP vs. Ln(Di/Bi) where NBP is Normal Boiling Point
of components and Di is Molar flow in top section and Bi is
molar flow in bottom section.
ECP - Represents the intersection point of two lines NBP vs.
Ln(Di/Bi) for top section and for bottom section
ECP Offset - Represents the offset applied to the ECP
(Effective Cut Point) with respect to its relation to the NBP
(Normal Boiling Point). This has units of Temperature.
Cuts - Product streams.
DrawStage - It does not have physical meaning in
petroleum column calculation. But it determines the column
section whether the product is heavy or light.

Feed Info

Specify feed stream for petroleum column

Add Product

Add product stream. (Formerly Side Stripper fuction.)

Remove
Product

Remove the selected product stream

Import SCD

Import an SCD file

Save SCD

Start a wizard to save an SCD file from the petroleum


column

Run

Start column calculations to converge the column. The


button hides when column convergence calculation is in
progress.

6-12

Petroleum Column

6-13

Object

Description

Reset

Reset all calculated values in the column to the default


values. The button hides when the column convergence
calculation is in progress.

Stop

Stop the column calculation before column convergence.


The button is only available when the column convergence
is in progress.

Status

Display the status of the petroleum column

Ignore

Toggle between ignoring or considering the petroleum


column during process flowsheet calculations.

Advanced Page
The advanced page configures the advanced options in a
petroleum column, such as pressure and reboiler duty.
Figure 6.6

6.4.2 Worksheet Tab


The Worksheet tab presents summary pages of the information
contained in the stream property view for all the streams
attached to the unit operation.

6-13

6-14

Petroleum Distillation Column

6.4.3 Performance Tab


On the Performance tab, you can view the results of a converged
column on the Summary page, Column Profiles page, and
Feeds/Products page. You can also view the graphical and
tabular presentation of the column profile on the Plots page.

Summary Page
The Summary page gives a tabular summary of the feed or
product stream properties. Select the appropriate radio button
to display the information you want to see.

Energy Balance Page


The Energy Balance page displays the energy flow of any
Reboilers and condenser within the Petroleum Column.

Plots Page
The volume interchange plot displays two types of information:
Cumulative and Incremental. You can toggle between
Cumulative and Incremental by selecting the appropriate radio
button in the Volume Interchange group.

Cumulative Volume Interchange Plot


In the Cumulative plot, the complete picture of stream
separation in the entire column appears. The distilled volume
percent values (of all the feed and product streams) with
respect to temperature appear as curves on the plot.

6-14

Petroleum Column

6-15

Each curve shows the live boiling point behavior for each
stream. The curves from the product streams are normalized
with respect to the feed stream, and the curves are arranged in
increasing order of heaviness.
Figure 6.7

The volume interchange curves on the plot allows you to


interpret the amount of material from the feed stream that is
exiting each product stream. For example, a product curve
which starts boiling at 10% and ends at 30% implies that 20%
of the material from the feed stream is allocated to this product
curve. The product curve also implies that 10% of the feed
stream material has been allocated to the lighter product
curves, and 70% of the feed stream material has been allocated
to the heavier product curves.
The temperature associated to the volume interchange curves
indicates the temperature of when the material in a stream
curve starts and finishes boiling. The greater the overlap of
temperature between the product and feed curve, the better the
separation and vice versa.

6-15

6-16

Petroleum Distillation Column

An overlap in temperature between two adjacent product curves


indicates that some material from the light product stream will
enter the heavy product stream and vice versa. This overlap is
referred to as "tails".

Incremental Volume Interchange Plot


In the Incremental plot, the derivative curve of the cumulative
volume interchange plot appears. The volume rate values (of all
product streams) with respect to temperature appear as curves
on the plot. The area under a product curve in the Incremental
plot equals the flow rate of the product stream..
Figure 6.8

The degree of imperfect fractionation appears more clearly in


the Incremental plot. The overlaps in the plot, as shown in the
figure above, indicate the imperfect separation between the two
adjacent product streams.

6-16

Petroleum Column

6-17

The spikes in the product curves are the result of the discrete
nature of the HYSYS modeling of crude oil thermodynamics. A
crude, which typically has several thousand components, is
modelled using only 50 to 80 lumps (where each lump represent
a group of components with similar characteristics). This
lumping of components causes the spikes in the Increment plot.

6.4.4 Calibration Tab


The Calibration tab contains calibration options that enables you
to calculate the parameters (fractionation indices) of the
Zoneby- zone model. The calculated parameter values can be
use to configure the column in the simulation case.
The required input values of the calibration option are:

Feed temperature
Product temperature, pressure, flow rate, and
composition

To converge the column based on calibration calculation:


1. On the Feeds page, specify the required feed stream
information.
2. On the Products page, specify the required product stream
information.
3. On the Tables page, select the solver (Rigorous Optimization
or Short-cut). If the Rigorous Optimization solver is choosen
then solver settings and calibration weight factors can be
adjusted from "Calibration Parameter View" (this can be
opened by clicking Parameters button).
4. Click the Tables page Calibrate button.
After Aspen HYSYS Petroleum Refining has completed the
calculations, you can see results:
Tables page:

Tuning Parameters table displays the calculated values of


ECP, SI ToP, SI BOT and ECP Offset
Feed Composition table displays the calculated value of
reconstituted feed.
Rigorous Calibration Results view displays the calculated
and supplied values of calibration parameters (Product
yields and TBPs).
6-17

6-18

Petroleum Distillation Column

Plots page:

When rigorous optimization option is chosen, this page


displays the plot of calculated and supplied TBP
distillation curve.
When short-cut (graphical) method is chosen , this page
displays three different types of plots (1) Slope results
(2) Supplied vs. Calculated TBP curve (3) Feed curve

Feeds Page
The Feeds page lets you to calibrate the feed stream entering
the Petroleum Column..
Figure 6.9

The following table lists and describes the objects available in


the Feeds page:
Object

Description

Number of
Zones

Displays the number of zones available in the Petroleum


Column.

Feed
Temperature

Enables you to specify the temperature of the feed stream


entering the petroleum column.

6-18

Petroleum Column

6-19

Products Page
Use the Products page to enter the product flows, properties and
distillation information necessary for petroleum column
calibration.
Figure 6.10

The following table lists and describes the objects available in


the Products page:
Object

Description

Product
Enumeration

Select the product for which calibration data is entered

Temperature
cell

Specify the temperature of product

Pressure cell

Specify the pressure of product

Flow cell

Specify the flow rate of product

Density cell

Specify the density of product

Distillation
Curve cell

Specify the type of distillation data provided

Light Ends
checkbox

Toggle between activating or deactivating the option to


specify lightends composition for selected product

No of Points to
Add

Specify the number of additional points to add in product


distillation data

6-19

6-20

Petroleum Distillation Column

Products Flow
Basis Radio
button

Specify whether supplied product flow rate is dry basis or


wet basis

Distillation
Basis Radio
button

Specify whether supplied distillation data is Molar, Mass


or Liquid volume basis

Yield Matrix

Specify the yield information corresponding to supplied


distillation temperatures

Temperature
Matrix

Specify the distillation temperature information.

Component
Name Matrix

View the light end component name

Yield Fraction
Matrix

Specify the light end composition

NBP Matrix

Specify the light end normal boiling point

Clear Product
Data Button

Clear all the supplied distillation and light end


compositions

Clear Empty
Points Button

Remove all the supplied distillation entries with empty


values

Add More Data


Points Button

Add more data points (specified in No of Points to Add


cell)

Generate
Calibration
Data Button

Generate calibration data from either short-cut column or


from rigorous column.

6-20

Petroleum Column

6-21

Tables Page:
The tables page shows the calibrated parameters and calibrated
feed composition. This page also lets you select which algorithm
to choose for calibration.
Figure 6.11

The following table lists and describes the objects available in


the Tables page.
Object

Description

Tuning Parameters
Table

View the calibrated tuning parameters for petroleum


column (ECP, SI TOP, SI BOT, ECP Offset)

Feed Composition
Table

View the calibrated feed composition

Calibration
Algorithm Radio
button

Select either Rigorous Optimization or Short-Cut


(Graphical) method for petroleum column calibration

Initialization
Button

Active if Advanced Initialization is checked in


Calibration Parameters View. Opens the Calibration
Initialization View buttons and table.

Parameters Button

Active only if Rigorous Optimization radio button is


selected. Opens Calibration Parameters View for
rigorous optimization parameters.

Results Button

Active only if Rigorous Optimization radio button is


selected. Opens a window to view the calculated and
supplied TBP distillation curves.

6-21

6-22

Petroleum Distillation Column

Calibrate Button

Start calibration

Transfer Tuning
Parameters Button

Transfer the tuning parameters from Calibration


page to Simulation page.

Calibration Parameter View


Use the Calibration Parameter View to set the iteration and step
simulation controls, and to activate advanced initialization
settings.
Figure 6.12

The view has the following fields:


Control

Function

Convergence Tolerance

Enter Residual Value

Iteration Links

Set Min and Max iterations

Creep Step Parameters

Set Creep Step Parameters On or Off, Set


iterations and step size.

Failure Recovery Action

Set Option if convergence fails:


Do Nothing
Revert to the Previous results
Revert to the Short-Cut (Graphical
Method)
Short-Cut (Graphical Method)

Weight Factors table

Set simulation weight factors for


parameters.

6-22

Petroleum Column

Control

Function

Advanced Initialization
checkbox

Enable Initialization button and functions


on Calibration Table page.

Reset Default button

Clear all changes and reset to default


values.

6-23

Calibration Initialization Views


Use the Calibration Initialization Views to see and select initial
calibration parameters. The View displays the Calibration
Parameter initial values depending on input from the Calibration
Initialization View buttons.
To show the view,
1. Click Initialization on the Distillation Column Calibration
tab \ Tables Page. (Advanced Initialization must be
checked in the Tables \ Parameters View.)
2. In the Calibration Initialization view, click View Initial
Values.
Figure 6.13

The buttons perform the following functions:


Button

Function

View Initial Values

Shows current initial values and bounds for


ECP, SI TOP, SI BOTTOM and ECP Offset

Update Initial Values

Saves initial values for calibration as


updated from the last converged solution.

6-23

6-24

Petroleum Distillation Column

Button

Function

Initialize From Seq.


Calibration

Initival values for ECP, SI TOP, SI BOTTOM


and ECP Offset are generated from
sequential (short-cut) calibration method.

Initialize Default

ECP values are initialized from sequential


calibration, ECP Offset is initialized as 0.0
and SI TOP and SI BOTTOM are initialized
using default program value.

Plots Page
The Plots page displays the calculated calibration results in plot
format.
Figure 6.14

The following table lists and describes the object available in the
Plotted Results page:
Object

Description

Plotted Results dropdown list

Enables you to select the product stream zone you


want to view in the plot.

Manual Tuning
button

Available only if the Slope Results radio button is


selected.
Enables you to manually enter tuning-parameter
slope values.

Slope Results radio


button

Enables you to display the tuning parameter slope


values on the plot.

6-24

Petroleum Column

6-25

Object

Description

Plant vs. Calculated


radio button

Enables you to display the plant data and


calculated calibration results data on the plot.

Feed Curve radio


button

Enables you to display the feed curve on the plot.


The feed curve is the plotted values of distilled
volume percent values from the feed stream with
respect to temperature.

6-25

6-26

Petroleum Distillation Column

6-26

Petroleum Feeder

7-1

7 Petroleum Feeder

7.1 Introduction................................................................................... 2
7.2 Petroleum Feeder Property View ................................................... 2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
7.2.4

Connections Tab....................................................................... 4
Parameters Tab ........................................................................ 5
Worksheet Tab ......................................................................... 6
User Variables Tab .................................................................... 6

7-1

7-2

Introduction

7.1 Introduction
The Petroleum Feeder is a logical unit operation that allows
flexibility over how the crude proportions are defined and allows
you to mix petroleum assays from the Basis Environment with
assays from other streams in the flowsheet. In addition, you can
setup feeds as blends and/or cuts of petroleum assays. Streams
can also be setup to represent spiked or partial crudes.

7.2 Petroleum Feeder


Property View
There are two methods to add a Petroleum Feeder to your
simulation:
1. From the Flowsheet menu, select Add Operation [or press
F12]. The UnitOps property view appears.
2. Click the Aspen HYSYS Refining Ops radio button.
3. From the list of available unit operations, select Petroleum
Feeder.
4. Click the Add button.
OR
1. Press F6 to access the Aspen HYSYS Refining Object Palette.
2. Double-click the Petroleum Feeder icon.
Petroleum Feeder icon

7-2

Petroleum Feeder

7-3

The Petroleum Feeder property view appears.


Figure 7.1

There are three common objects at the bottom of the Feeder


property view, the following table describes these objects:
Object

Description

Delete button

Allows you to delete the operation.

Status bar

Displays the current status of the operation (for


example, missing information or errors
encountered during calculation).

Ignored checkbox

Allows you to ignore the operation during


calculations.
When the checkbox is selected, HYSYS completely
disregards the operation (and cannot calculate the
outlet stream) until you clear the checkbox.

7-3

7-4

Petroleum Feeder Property View

7.2.1 Connections Tab


The Connections tab contains the following pages:

Connections
Notes

Connections Page
On the Connections page, you can specify the assays, feed
streams, and product stream attached to the Petroleum Feeder.
You can change the name of the operation in the Name field,
and the fluid package associated to the operation in the Fluid
Package drop-down list.
Figure 7.2

Notes Page
For more information
refer to Section 1.2.3 Notes Page/Tab.

The Notes page provides a text editor where you can record any
comments or information regarding the specific unit operation or
the simulation case in general.

7-4

Petroleum Feeder

7-5

7.2.2 Parameters Tab


The Parameters tab contains one page, the Parameters page.
This page allows you to specify the feed ratio of assays and
streams entering the product stream.
The Petroleum Feeder does not consider the temperature,
pressure, or flow rate of any material streams connected to
the unit operation. The Petroleum Feeder only considers the
petroleum properties and composition from the associated
petroleum assays and material streams.

Parameters Page
The Parameters page contains a drop-down list and one or two
tables depending on your selection of feed type entering the
Petroleum Feeder.
Figure 7.3

The Balance Type drop-down list allows you to select the unit
basis for the specified values. There are three types of unit for
you to choose from mole, mass, and volume.

7-5

7-6

Petroleum Feeder Property View

The table in the Flow Ratio and Boiling Range group contains the
following:
Column

Description

First column

Displays the names of the assays and feed streams


connected to the Petroleum Feeder.

Ratio

You can specify the flow ratio of the petroleum assay(s) and
stream assay(s) that makes up the petroleum feeder
product stream.
For example, if you selected Mole as the unit basis of the
flow ratio, and you specify the Arab assay to have a ratio of
0.25. Then 25% of the product stream's mole composition
is from the Arab assay.
The sum values under the Ratio column must equal 1.

IBP

You can specify a different initial boiling point temperature


for the Petroleum Feeder blending calculation.
You cannot specify values lower than the HYSYS default
temperature.
The default values of the IBP and FBP are the boiling
temperature of the lightest and heaviest components in the
component list, respectively. These are not the initial and
final points of the TBP curve of the assay.

FBP

You can specify a different final boiling point temperature


for the Petroleum Feeder blending calculation.
You cannot specify values higher than the HYSYS default
temperature.

7.2.3 Worksheet Tab


Refer to Section 1.2.2 Worksheet Tab for more
information.

The Worksheet tab contains a summary of the information


contained in the stream property view for all the streams
attached to the Petroleum Feeder.
You must specify the temperature, pressure, and flow rate of
the product stream exiting the Petroleum Feeder. You can
specify these values in the Worksheet tab or the product
streams property view.

7.2.4 User Variables Tab


For more information on
implementing the User
Variables, refer to
Section 1.2.4 - User
Variables Page/Tab.

The User Variables tab contains the User Vars page. This page
allows you to create and implement variables in the HYSYS
simulation case.
7-6

Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor

8-1

8 Petroleum Yield Shift


Reactor
8.1 Introduction................................................................................... 2
8.1.1 Theory.................................................................................... 2
8.2 Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor Property View ................................. 3
8.2.1 Design Tab .............................................................................. 4
8.2.2 Product Specs Tab .................................................................... 7
8.2.3 Worksheet Tab ....................................................................... 11

8-1

8-2

Introduction

8.1 Introduction
If you do not have the Aspen HYSYS Refining license, you
cannot add a Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor.

The Petroleum Yield Shift reactor unit operation supports


efficient modeling of reactors by using data tables to perform
shift calculations. The operation can be used for complex
reactors where no analytical model is available, or where models
that are too computationally expensive.

8.1.1 Theory
Shift reactor models are empirical models representing the
response of the output of a reactor to changes in its operating
conditions. These models are not based upon the underlying
scientific theory for the reactor, or upon the chemistry of the
reaction, but simply upon an observation of how the output
responds to certain stimuli. The models are generally linear and
are only applicable within a fairly tight range of a particular base
condition.
The petroleum yield shift unit operation calculates the flow rates
of a defined set of product streams based upon the difference
between the current value of an independent variable and a
supplied base value. Dependent variables other than the flow
rates can also be specified.
The following general equations are used for the calculation of a
dependent variable yk:
y k
0
dyk ,j = -------- ( x j x j )
x j
0

yk = yk +

dyk ,j

(8.1)

(8.2)

j=0

8-2

Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor

8-3

where:
dyk,j = shift for dependent variable yk with respect to
independent variable xj
0

y k = base value for dependent variable yk at base conditions


of the independent variables x0

-----y- = rate of change of dependent variable yk with respect to


x
unit change in independent variable xj
xj = current value of independent variable

8.2 Petroleum Yield Shift


Reactor Property View
There are two methods to add a Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor to
your simulation:
1. From the Flowsheet menu, select Add Operation [or press
F12]. The UnitOps property view appears.
2. Click the Aspen HYSYS Refining Ops radio button.
3. From the list of available unit operations, select Petroleum
Shift Reactor.
4. Click the Add button.
or
1. Press F6 to access the Aspen HYSYS Refining Object Palette.
2. Double-click the Petroleum Shift Reactor icon.
The Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor property view appears.
Petroleum Shift Reactor
icon

8-3

8-4

Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor

Figure 8.1

There are three common objects at the bottom of the Petroleum


Yield Shift Reactor property view, the following table describes
these objects:
Object

Description

Delete button

Lets you delete the operation.

Status bar

Displays the current status of the operation (for


example, missing information or errors encountered
during calculation).

Ignored
checkbox

Lets you ignore the operation during calculations.


When the checkbox is selected, HYSYS disregards the
operation (and cannot calculate the outlet stream)
until you clear the checkbox.

8.2.1 Design Tab


Use the Design tab to configure the Petroleum Yield Shift
reactor. The options are grouped in the following pages:

Connections
Model Data
User Variables
(Lets you create and implement your own variables for
the current operation)
Notes
(Lets you add comments which are exclusively
associated with the unit operation)
8-4

Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor

8-5

Connections Page
The Connections page (Figure 8.1) lets you configure the
material and energy streams flowing in and out of the reactor.
The following table describes the objects in the Connections
page:
Object

Description

Name field

Modify the name of the reactor.

Fluid Pkg field

Select the fluid package associated with the


reactor.

Main Feed field

Specify or select the main petroleum feed flowing


into the reactor. This stream is split into the cuts
specified in the Cuts table.

Energy Stream field


(optional)

Connect or create an energy stream if one is


required for the operation.

Calculated Feeds
table (optional)

Specify or select feed streams that need to be


calculated by the reactor. E.g. Hydrogen
consumption in Hydrocracking is usually calculated
by the model itself. The calculated feed will not
influence the product streams calculation.

Supplementary
Feeds table
(optional)

Specify or select additional feed streams to the


reactor. The total flow rate of the product streams
is determined from the sum of all feed streams
into the reactor.

Cuts table

Specify or select the product streams to associate


with the cuts of the main feed.

Supplementary
Products table
(optional)

Specify or select product streams that are not cuts


of the main petroleum feed.

Load - Save PIMS


Submodel icons

Import or Export an smc or cme model to or from


the petroleum shift reactor. This option is available
only after an smc/cme model is loaded into the
petroleum shift reactor.
You can adjust the models smc/cme coefficients
before exporting it.

8-5

8-6

Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor

Model Data Page


Use the Model Data page to enter the base yield flow rates,
define the independent parameters of the model, and specifiy
the parameters base and shift values..
Figure 8.2

The parameters are optional and you do not have to supply


any parameter information to get the reactor to solve.

The following table lists and describes the options available in


the Model Data page:
Object

Description

Specify Independent
Variable button

Lets you add an existing Hysys simulation variable


as a new independent variable, or edit an existing
independent variable, or delete an independent
variable.

Specify Parameter
button

Lets you add/edit/delete an independent variable


that does not exist in Hysys simulation- e.g. age of
catalyst, reactor temperature.

Base Yield Flow


Rates Column

Specifies the base yield flow rates, i.e. product


flow rates when the independent variables (if
defined) are at the base values.

Independent
Variable / Parameter
Columns

All remaining columns in the table. The values in


these columns (except the first row) define the
rate at which the yield flow rates change with
respect to the changes in the independent variable
/parameter

8-6

Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor

8-7

Object

Description

Property Base row

The first row in the table. These values are the


base values of the independent variables/
parameters.

Yield Basis field

Option to specify the product yields either on a


flow rate basis or on a feed flow fraction basis

Yield Fraction Basis

Visible only if the Yield Basis is selected as Flow


Fraction. It lets you select the yield basis type as
mass, molar, or volume.

User Variables Page


For more information on
implementing the User
Variables, refer to
Section 1.2.4 - User
Variables Page/Tab.

The User Variables page lets you create and implement variables
in the HYSYS simulation case.

For more information


refer to Section 1.2.3 Notes Page/Tab.

Use the Notes tab record any comments or information


regarding the specific unit operation or the simulation case in
general.

Notes Page

8.2.2 Product Specs Tab


The Product Specs view allows the user to enter the product and
calculated feed information required by the model. The available
options are categorized into following pages.

Product Cuts
Assay Properties
Property Shift
TBP Curves
Results

8-7

8-8

Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor

Figure 8.3

Product Cuts page


Use the Product Cuts page to specify the temperature, initial
boiling point and final boiling point of the product streams and
calculated feed streams.

Assay Properties Page


use the Assay Properties page to select product properties which
are to be calculated by the model. This page view can be
categorized into two groups.

Assay Properties Selection group


Assay properties to be calculated can be selected using the
options in the Assay Properties Selection table. The table lists
the available product streams. Clicking in a cell in a column lets
you select an assay property that you want to manipulate for
that stream.

8-8

Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor

8-9

Assay Properties Definition group


The Assay Properties Definition group lets you specify an assay
(either feed assay or an assay from the list available in the case)
for each of the selected product properties.You can also enter
the base values for the properties, e.g. property values, when
the independent variables are at base values.
Object

Description

Cut

Select the cut stream containing the assay


property that you want to manipulate.

Assay Properties

Select the assay property for which you want to


specify a base value. Only properties selected for
the cut stream in the Assay Properties
Selection table are available.

Base Value

Specify the base value for the assay property. This


is the value of property that the reactor would
produce at the condition represented by the base
values of the independent variables.

Use Feed

Toggle between using or ignoring the assay


property values from the feed stream.

Use Assay

Open a drop-down list and select the assay


property values from a petroleum assay.

Property Shift Page


Use the Property Shift page to edit the base and shift values for
each of the product properties with respect to each of the
independent variables..
Figure 8.4

8-9

8-10

Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor

TBP Curves Page


The TBP Curves page lets you manipulate the product
composition. Referencing a user-provided TBP profile for the
product stream(s), Aspen HYSYS Refining can characterize the
outlet stream composition based on the entered boiling point
curve data.
Figure 8.5

The following table lists and describes the options available in


the TBP Curves page:
Object

Description

Stream drop-down list

Select the product stream associated to the


available TBP curve data.

Distillation/ Light Ends


option

Distillation option allows calculating hypo


composition based on TBP points. Light Ends
option lets you specify desired light end
composition.

Distillation type dropdown list

Select the appropriate distillation curve type


i.e. TBP, ASTM D86, etc.

Composition basis dropdown list

Select the appropriate composition basis i.e.


mass, volume or molar.

Volumetric Yield column

Specify the volume percent yield associated to


the specified temperature for the product
stream.

TBP column

Specify the TBP associated with the


volumetric yield.

8-10

Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor

8-11

Object

Description

Insert button

Add a volumetric yield between 0% and 100%


and corresponding TBP data to the table.

Delete button

Remove a selected volumetric yield and


corresponding TBP data from the table.
You cannot remove the default data set of 0%
and 100%.

Results Page
The results page provides a summary of all the variables
calculated by the petroleum shift reactor. The table on the left
shows all the product flow rates calculated by the model, and
the table on the right shows all the product properties calculated
by the model.
Figure 8.6

8.2.3 Worksheet Tab


Refer to Section 1.2.2 Worksheet Tab for more
information.

The Worksheet tab contains a summary of the information


contained in the stream property view for all the streams
attached to the Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor.

8-11

8-12

About PIMS Submodel Calculator

8.3 About PIMS Submodel


Calculator
The PIMS Submodel can be added into the Aspen HYSYS
Refining Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor either manual or by
importing a file.
Currently Aspen HYSYS Refining does not have all the necessary
models to fully simulate a refinery. With this new feature, Aspen
HYSYS Refining users will be able to create the missing models
as needed. users can take the equivalent PIMS models dat (in
the form of a smc file) and import it either manually or
automatically into a Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor (PYS Reactor).
The PYS Reactor will behave as a simplified version of refinery
reactors such as a hyrdrotreater. Another purpose of this feature
is to allow the Aspen HYSYS Refining user to simplify and speed
up some parts of the plant simulation. For areas where a reigour
model is not needed, the user can use a simplified version
imported in from PIMS to represent the rigorous model instead.
This feature is intended to help bridge the gap between refinery
planning and engineering/operations. PIMS Models are
ubiquitous within the refining customer base, this project will
provide a way for re-use of these models to the benefit of
planners and engineers.

8.3.1 Importing PIMS


Submodel Calculator File
In Aspen HYSYS Refining you can add an PIMS Submodel
Calculator by importing it from another source.
To import a PIMS Submodel Calculator:
1. Add a Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor to the flowsheet.
2. Click Load Pims SMC.
3. Select the smc file and click OK.

8-12

Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor

8-13

The PIMS Submodel Unit/Mapping view will appear. In this


view, all the weight and volume balance rows will be listed in
the Streams matrix. All the PIMS properties retrieved from
the equality rows will be listed in he Properties matrix.
4. Map the PIMS properties to the Aspen HYSYS Refining
properties by selecting the items from the drop-down list.
5. Note: Not all PIMS properties will have corresponding Aspen
HYSYS Refining properties. These properties are ignored.
6. Map the PIMS streams to the Aspen HYSYS Refining
Streams. use the drop-down list to select existing streams or
create a new stream.
7. Select a stream type. The available stream types are: Feed,
Upper Cut, Bottom Cut, Supplementary Feed and
supplementary Product. Only one bottom cut is allowed.
8. Click OK.
Note: Mapped streams will be populated in the Connections view
in the Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor. Additional information such
as Feed stream etc. must be supplied if it was not supplied in
froms PIMS.
The mapped properties and values will display in the MOdel Data
view in the Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor.
Fill in the Cut point information.

8.3.2 Manually Enter PIMS


Submodel Calculator File
1. Add a Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor to the flowsheet.
2. In the Connections page, create a corresponding Aspen
HYSYS Refining stream. Add the streams as Cuts, Bottom
Cut and Feed. In the PIMS table, the column SXXXFFF
(where XXX is smc model name) which has a value 1 in
corresponding VBALFFF is a feed stream FFF. The remaining
VBALPPP rows correspond to product streams PPP of the
Petroleum Shift Reactor (PSR).
3. Click Model Data view. All the Product streams are shown
as rows.

8-13

8-14

About PIMS Submodel Calculator

4. Click Insert Independent Var.


The Select Associated Object and Variable page appears.
5. Navigate through the variable list and click Calculator
properties.
6. Click Ok. A new column is added to the matrix. Rename the
column.
7. Once all the Independent Variables have been added, fill in
their base values and the base yields and shifted values. The
base value of the independent variable YYY is the value in
the cell (EYYYXXX, SXXXFFF). The base yields are the values
in column Balance corresponding to rows VBALPPP. For the
shifted values take the property values under Column
SXXXYYY for each of the WBALZZZ or VBALZZZ rows and
multiple by -1 and then divided by value under the same
column for Row EYYYXXX. Take these values and enter it into
the Stream and Property cell of PSR's model data.

The -ve sign in PIMS means production. IN Aspen HYSYS


Refining, the +ve sign means production. Take the values
from the BAS column and multiply by -1.
-999 represent 0
8. Fill in the Base yields, shifted values, cut information and
property base values.

8-14

Product Blender

9-1

9 Product Blender

9.1 Introduction................................................................................... 2
9.2 Theory ........................................................................................... 3
9.2.1 Simulation Calculation Mode ...................................................... 3
9.2.2 Optimization Calculation Mode ................................................... 3
9.3 Product Blender Property View ...................................................... 5
9.3.1
9.3.2
9.3.3
9.3.4
9.3.5

Connections Tab....................................................................... 7
Parameters Tab ........................................................................ 8
Optimization Tab .................................................................... 10
Worksheet Tab ....................................................................... 26
User Variables Tab .................................................................. 26

9-1

9-2

Introduction

9.1 Introduction
The Product Blender allows you to mix several streams together,
and calculate a blended property value or optimize the
properties in the product stream by back calculation and
determine the optimum mix ratios for the inlet streams.
This unit operation is like a black box consisting of splitters
and mixers. Each inlet stream enters a Tee or splitter, which
splits the stream based on the specified flow ratio. Then the split
streams enter the appropriate mixer. Each mixer represents the
blended product stream. The Product Blender also has a surplus
stream that is used to maintain mass balance in the unit
operation system.
For example, consider the figure below of a Product Blender with
three inlet streams, two product streams, and one surplus
stream.
Figure 9.1

Product streams E and D are a mixture of inlet streams C, B,


and A as indicated by the colored lines. The surplus stream
provides an exit flow for left over fluid from the inlet streams, as
shown in the above figure for inlet streams A, C, and B.

9-2

Product Blender

9-3

9.2 Theory
The Product Blender has two different calculation mode to
determine the flow rate in the product streams: Simulation and
Optimization.

9.2.1 Simulation Calculation


Mode
In the Simulation calculation mode, the inlet streams entering
the Product Blender must be completely solved, in other words
the status bar at the bottom of the Material Stream property
view must read OK.
Refer to Section 9.3.2 Parameters Tab for
more information.

The characteristics of the product and surplus streams are


based on the specified flow ratio from the inlet streams and the
automatic pressure assignment option.

9.2.2 Optimization Calculation


Mode
In the Optimization calculation mode, the Aspen HYSYS SQP
optimizer is used to determine the optimum values required to
achieve the specified objective functions.
For more information
about the SQP
optimization calculation
refer to Chapter 7 Optimizer Operation in
the HYSYS Operations
Guide.

The Aspen HYSYS SQP is a sequential quadratic programming


(SQP) algorithm incorporating an L1-merit function and a BFGS
approximation to the Hessian of the Lagrangian. The algorithm
features step size restriction, decision variable and objective
function scaling, a basic watchdog method, and a problemindependent and scale-independent relative convergence test.
The algorithm also ensures that the model is evaluated only at
points feasible with respect to the variable bounds.

9-3

9-4

Theory

Switching from Simulation to


Optimization
When you switch from Simulation to Optimization calculation
mode, HYSYS automatically places a stream cutter between the
Product Blender outlet streams and the connected downstream
operations.
The figure below displays a Product Blender in Simulation mode
with a valve connected to the product stream C. When the
Product Blender switches to Optimization mode, a stream cutter
is added to stream C.
Figure 9.2

The cutter is added to reduce the calculation time required


during the PFD calculation process. If all the operations and
streams in the PFD needed to be recalculated every time the
optimizer generated a possible solution, then the calculation
would take too long or lose information required for the PFD to
solve. So HYSYS places a cutter that will temporarily separate
the Product Blender from the rest of the PFD during the
optimization calculations. When the optimum value is found, the
value is propagated back into the PFD.
The stream cutter is inactive only during the optimization
calculation process in the Product Blender. Before and after the
9-4

Product Blender

9-5

calculation process, the stream cutter is active and allows


information from the Product Blenders output streams to flow to
the rest of the process flowsheet diagram.
The stream cutter is only placed when there is an operation
downstream to the Product Blender (in other words, an
operation connected to the outlet streams of the Product
Blender).

9.3 Product Blender


Property View
There are two methods to add a Product Blender to your
simulation:
1. From the Flowsheet menu, select Add Operation [or press
F12]. The UnitOps property view appears.
2. Click the Aspen HYSYS Refining Ops radio button.
3. From the list of available unit operations, select Product
Blender.
4. Click the Add button. The Product Blender property view
appears.
OR
1. Press F6 to access the Aspen HYSYS Refining Object Palette.
2. Double-click the Product Blender icon.
Product Blender icon

9-5

9-6

Product Blender Property View

The Product Blender property view appears.


Figure 9.3

There are four common objects at the bottom of the Product


Blender property view, the following table describes these
objects:

Refer to Section 9.2 Theory for more


information.

Object

Description

Status bar

Displays the current status of the operation (for example,


missing information or errors encountered during
calculation).

Delete
button

Allows you to delete the operation.

Calculation
Mode dropdown list

Allows you to toggle between simulation and


optimization calculation modes.
If you select the optimization mode without first adding any
variables (optimization variable, process constraints, or
objective functions), HYSYS will auto generate derivatives
and optimizer for optimum product flow rate with inlet
stream flow ratios as the optimization variables.
If you select the optimization mode after adding any
variables (optimization variable, process constraints, or
objective functions), HYSYS will keep the previous variable
values.

Ignored
checkbox

Allows you to ignore the operation during calculations.


When the checkbox is selected, HYSYS completely
disregards the operation (and cannot calculate the outlet
stream) until you clear the checkbox.

9-6

Product Blender

9-7

9.3.1 Connections Tab


The Design tab contains the following pages:

Connections
Notes

Connections Page
On the Connections page, you can specify the feed and product
streams attached to the Product Blender. You can change the
name of the operation in the Name field, and the fluid package
associated to the operation in the Fluid Package drop-down list.
Figure 9.4

Notes Page
For more information
refer to Section 1.2.3 Notes Page/Tab.

The Notes page provides a text editor where you can record any
comments or information regarding the specific unit operation or
the simulation case in general.

9-7

9-8

Product Blender Property View

9.3.2 Parameters Tab


The Parameters tab contains the Parameters page. This page
allows you to specify the inlet streams split ratio among the
product streams, and select the type of automatic pressure
assignment option.

Parameters Page
Figure 9.5

Feed Stream Flow Ratios


To specify the inlet stream split ratio, type in the split ratio value
(of the inlet stream) in the appropriate cell where both the inlet
stream row and product stream column intersect.
For example, consider a Product Blender with inlet streams A
and B, and product streams C, D, and Surplus.
Figure 9.6

9-8

Product Blender

9-9

If 50% of stream A is entering stream C and 25% of stream A is


entering stream D. Type 0.50 in the cell along row A and under
column C, and type 0.25 in the cell along row A and under
column D. HYSYS automatically calculates the amount of stream
ratio left for stream A, which is 25%, and sends the amount to
the Surplus stream.
The values in the rows of the Flow Ratio table represent split
ratios of the inlet streams, so the sum of values along each
row must equal 1.

Automatic Pressure Assignment


To select the automatic pressure assignment, click the
appropriate radio button in the Automatic Pressure Assignment
group.

The default is Set Outlet to Lowest Inlet, HYSYS assigns


the lowest inlet pressure to all the outlet stream
pressures.
If you specify Equalize All, HYSYS gives all attached
streams the same pressure.

If you are uncertain of which pressure assignment to use,


choose Set Outlet to Lowest Inlet.
Only use Equalize All if you are completely sure that all the
attached streams should have the same pressure.

9-9

9-10

Product Blender Property View

9.3.3 Optimization Tab


For more information on
the optimizer used by
Product Blender, refer to
Chapter 7 - Optimizer
Operation in the HYSYS
Operations Guide.

You must be in Optimization calculation mode, in order to


apply any of the options in the Optimization tab.

The Optimization tab contains a tree browser that lets you


access the following pages:

Variables Configuration Page. This page allows you to


modify initial values of the optimization variables used in
the optimization calculation.
Variables Inputs Page. This page allows you to
configure the optimization variables in the optimization
calculation.
Variables Results Page. This page displays the
calculated results of the optimization variables from the
optimization calculation.
Constraints Configuration Page. This page allows you
to modify the initial values of the constraints in the
optimization calculation.
Constraints Inputs Page. This page allows you to
configure the constraints in the optimization calculation.
Constraints Results Page. This page displays the
calculated results of the constraints from the
optimization calculation.
Objectives Page. This page allows you to configure the
goals of the optimization calculation.
Optimizer Configuration Page. This page allows you
to configure the calculation process of the optimization
calculation.
Optimizer Results Page. This page displays the results
of the calculation process from the optimization
calculation.

9-10

Product Blender

9-11

The following table describes the four common objects at the


bottom of the Optimization tab:
Object

Description

Create Derivative Util


button

Allows you to add derivative utilities or generate


default derivative utilities.
The default utilities are:
The flow ratios between the inlet and product
streams for the optimization variables.
The flow ratios between the inlet and surplus
streams for the process constraints.
The actual volume flow rates of the product
streams for the objective functions.

Refer to Chapter 14 Utilities in the HYSYS


Operations Guide for
more information on the
Derivative Utility property
view.
Refer to Chapter 7 Optimizer Operation in
the HYSYS Operations
Guide for more
information on the
Optimizer property view.

View Derivative
Utility button

Allows you to access the Derivative Utility property


view. The Derivative Utility property view contains
detailed information and option on the variables
and constraints.

Create Optimizer
button

Allows you to create an optimizer with default


optimizer parameter settings.

View Optimizer
button

Allows you to access the Optimizer property view.


The Optimizer property view contains detailed
information and options on the optimizer
configuration.

Add button

Allows you to add optimization variables,


constraints, or objectives for the optimization
calculation.
The type of optimizer parameters you can add,
depends on what is selected in the drop-down list.

Types of Parameters
drop-down list

Allows you to select the type of optimizer


parameter to add to the optimization calculation.
You have three choices: optimization variable,
constraint, or objective.

9-11

9-12

Product Blender Property View

Variables Configuration Page


The Variables Configuration page allows you to specify the name
and initial value of the optimization variables. The optimization
variables are variables that will be modified to achieve the
specified goal in the optimization calculation.
Figure 9.7

To access the Variables Configuration page, expand the


Variables branch in the tree browser and select Config.
To expand a tree browser, click the Plus icon
tree browser, click the Minus icon
.

. To shrink a

The table in the Variables Configuration page contains the


following information:
Column

Description

Opt Variable

Allows you to change the name of the optimization variable.


You can access the Optimization Object Property View
of the variable by double-clicking on the variable name.

Hooked
Object

Displays the object associated to the optimization variable.

Hooked
Property

Displays the property associated to the optimization


variable.

9-12

Product Blender

9-13

Column

Description

Current
Value

Allows you to change the current optimization variable


value.

Use
checkbox

Allows you to toggle between using or ignoring the


optimization variable during optimization calculation.
A selected checkbox indicates the variable is being used in
the calculation.

To remove a optimization variable, select the variable under the


Opt Variable column and press DELETE.

Variables Inputs Page


The Variables Inputs page allows you to specify the range of
values allowed for each optimization variable during the
optimization calculation.
Figure 9.8

To access the Variables Inputs page, expand the Variables


branch in the tree browser and select Inputs.
To expand a tree browser, click the Plus icon
tree browser, click the Minus icon
.

. To shrink a

9-13

9-14

Product Blender Property View

The table in the Variables Inputs page contains the following


information:
Column

Description

Minimum

Allows you to specify the lower bound property for the


variable during the optimization process.
This value might be different from its global minimum, if
the change in the variable is restricted to its allowed
amount, set by the maximum rate of change, during the
period in the optimization process.

Current
Value

Allows you to specify the current variable value before


optimization calculation.

Maximum

Allows you to specify the upper bound property for the


variable during the optimization process.
This value might be different from its global maximum, if
the change in the variable is restricted to its allowed
amount, set by the maximum rate of change, during the
period in the optimization process.

Range

Allows you to specify an alternative for the span.


The purpose of the range is to scale the gradients of the
cost function and constraints, to give similar gradient
magnitude for each variable. The gradients of the objective
function (and constraints) vary inversely with the variable
ranges.

Global Min.

Allows you to specify the absolute minimum value for which


the variable is operated.

Global Max.

Allows you to specify the absolute maximum value for


which the variable is operated.

9-14

Product Blender

9-15

Variables Results Page


The Variables Results page displays the optimum values of the
optimization variables used to achieve the goals you specified.
Figure 9.9

To access the Variables Results page, expand the Variables


branch in the tree browser and select Results.
To expand a tree browser, click the Plus icon
tree browser, click the Minus icon
.

. To shrink a

The table in the Variables Results page contains the following


information:
Column

Description

Start Value

Displays the initial value of the variable before optimization


calculation.

Current
Value

Allows you to specify the current variable value before


optimization calculation.

9-15

9-16

Product Blender Property View

Column

Description

Status

Displays the current status of the variable, which is


calculated by the Optimizer. Unlike constraints, opt.
variables are not allowed to move out of their bounds. The
Status property is set to one of:
Not Evaluated. Status of the variable is not
evaluated by the Optimizer.
Inactive. Variable Output property lies between the
Minimum and Maximum properties, but not on one of
the bounds.
Equality. Maximum and minimum properties of the
variable, Minimum and Maximum, are equal, and the
Output property has the same value as well.
Active Low. Variable Output property value is equal
to that of the Minimum.
Active High. Variable Output property value is equal
to that of the Maximum.

Price

Displays the shadow price (Lagrange multiplier) for the


given opt. variable, calculated by the Optimizer. The
shadow price is used to estimate the effect which small
changes to variable bounds have on the plant cost function.

Span

Displays the difference between the Global Minimum and


Global Maximum values for the variable and is calculated by
the variable set-up.
The role of the span is to convert every variable into the
range (0, 1), to use uniform numerical perturbations and
convergence tests.

Output

Displays the current value of the variable in the plant


model. The output value is determined by the optimizer
during the optimization process.

9-16

Product Blender

9-17

Constraints Configuration Page


The Constraints Configuration page allows you to specify the
name and initial value of the constraints. The constraints are
variables used to simulate real life limitations to the optimization
calculation.
Figure 9.10

To access the Constraints Configuration page, expand the


Constraints branch in the tree browser and select Config.
To expand a tree browser, click the Plus icon
tree browser, click the Minus icon
.

. To shrink a

The table in the Constraints Configuration page contains the


following information:
Column

Description

Constraints

Allows you to change the name of the constraint variable.


You can access the Optimization Object Property View
of the constraint by double-clicking on the variable name.

Hooked
Object

Displays the object associated to the constraint.

Hooked
Property

Displays the property associated to the constraint.

9-17

9-18

Product Blender Property View

Column

Description

Current
Value

Displays the current value of the constraint.

Use
checkbox

Allows you to toggle between using or ignoring the


constraint variable during optimization calculation.
A selected checkbox indicates the constraint is being used
in the calculation.

To remove a constraint, select the constraint under the


Constraint column and press DELETE.

Constraints Inputs Page


The Constraints Inputs page allows you to specify the amount of
deviation allowed for each constraint during the optimization
calculation.
Figure 9.11

To access the Constraints Inputs page, expand the Constraints


branch in the tree browser and select Inputs.
To expand a tree browser, click the Plus icon
tree browser, click the Minus icon
.

. To shrink a

9-18

Product Blender

9-19

The table in the Constraints Inputs page contains the following


information:
Column

Description

Minimum

Allows you to specify the lower bound of the constraint


value.

Current
Value

Displays the current constraint value.

Maximum

Allows you to specify the upper bound of the constraint


value.

Scale

Allows you to specify the number scale on which the


feasibility of the constraint is measured. This property is
used in conjunction with the Optimizer Zeta property, which
is a relative feasibility tolerance.
In general, a constraint is said to be feasible if:

Minimum Scale Zeta Current Maximum + Scale Zeta


where:
Minimum = lower bound properties of the constraint
Maximum = upper bound properties of the constraint
Current = current constraint value (equivalent to
Hooked Property for constraints, which have the
Use checkbox selected)
Min Chi^2

Displays whether or not a chi-square test is done for the


constraint.

9-19

9-20

Product Blender Property View

Constraints Results Page


The Constraints Results page displays the constraint values after
optimization calculation.
Figure 9.12

To access the Constraints Results page, expand the Constraints


branch in the tree browser and select Results.
To expand a tree browser, click the Plus icon
tree browser, click the Minus icon
.

. To shrink a

The table in the Constraints Results page contains the following


information:
Column

Description

Current Value

Displays the current value of the constraint.

Status

Displays the current status of the constraint, which is calculated by the


Optimizer. The Status property is set to one of the following:
Not Evaluated. The status of the constraint has not been evaluated by
the Optimizer.
Inactive. The constraint current property lies between the Minimum
and Maximum properties, but is neither Active High nor Active Low.
Violated Low. The constraint current property is less than Minimum Scale x Zeta, where Scale is the constraint Scale property and Zeta is
the Optimizer Zeta tolerance property.
Violated High. The current property is greater than Maximum + Scale
x Zeta.
Active Low. The constraint current property is less than Minimum +
Scale x Zeta, but greater than Minimum - Scale x Zeta.
Active High. Constraint current property is greater than Maximum Scale x Zeta, but less than Maximum + Scale x Zeta.

9-20

Product Blender

9-21

Column

Description

Normalization

When the Jacobian matrix is first calculated (first pass evaluation) the
Normalization property for the constraint is set to be the largest Jacobian
entry in the row (Sparse Row) of the Jacobian matrix corresponding to this
constraint. This number is used to normalize the rest of the given Jacobian
row, for all remaining Optimizer search steps (in other words, it is not
recalculated).

Base Value

When calculating the gradient of a given constraint with respect to each


variable, the internal scaled variable is perturbed away from the current point
by adding the number specified in the Optimizer Perturbation property. The
new value of the constraint is found corresponding to the new variable value,
and the change in constraint, divided by the change in the variable, is the
corresponding Jacobian element.
The constraint Base property stores the pre-perturbation value of the
constraint. Under certain circumstances, however, the Base property itself
can change during the Jacobian calculation. This is due to the fact that
removing a perturbation from a perturbed variable, and re-running the plant
model, will not reproduce the previous Base property within the constraint
Current property; this is due to noise in the model arising from non-zero
convergence tolerances (in other words, the de-perturbed constraint Current
differs slightly from the pre-perturbed Current).
Therefore, under certain circumstances (when the Pert_Reset flag property of
the Optimizer is checked) the Optimizer will remove the perturbation from
the variable, rerun the plant model, and then re-set the Base property of the
constraint to match the re-calculated Current property. This eliminates
associated noise from the Jacobian matrix.

Price

Displays the shadow price (Lagrange multiplier) for the given constraint,
calculated by the Optimizer.
If a feasible solution is found by the Optimizer, then a simple interpretation of
the Lagrange multiplier is that it gives the gradient of the cost function along
the corresponding constraint normal. Thus, the shadow price indicates the
approximate change to the objective function when increasing (in other
words, relaxing) the given active bound by a unit amount.

9-21

9-22

Product Blender Property View

Objectives Page
The Objectives page allows you to specify the name and price of
the objectives. The objectives are the goals you specified for the
optimization calculation.
Figure 9.13

To access the Objectives page, select Objectives branch from


the tree browser.
The table in the Objectives page contains the following
information:
Column

Description

Objective

Allows you to change the name of the objective.


You can access the Optimization Object Property View
of the objective by double-clicking on the variable name.

Hooked
Object

Displays the object associated to the objective.

Hooked Prop

Displays the property associated to the objective.

Current
Value

Displays the current value of the objective.

Weighted
Value

Displays the difference between the previous objective


value and the new optimized objective value.

Price

Allows you to specify the price value. The objective function


value is calculated using the following equation and price
value:

Objective Function Value = Price Value Current Value


For minimum objective value, price value = 1.
For maximum objective value, price value = -1.

9-22

Product Blender

9-23

To remove an objective, select the objective under the Objective


column and press DELETE.

Optimizer Configuration Page


The Optimizer Configuration page allows you to configure the
optimization calculation process and assumptions.
Figure 9.14

To access the Optimizer Configuration page, expand the


Optimizer branch in the tree browser and select Config.
The following table describes the objects in the Optimizer
Configuration page:
Object

Description

Maximum
Iteration field

Allows you to specify the maximum number of major


iterations. A major iteration consists of a sequence of
minor iterations that minimize a linearly constrained
sub-problem.

Objective Scaling
Factor field

Allows you to scale the objective function. Positive


values are used as-is, negative values use the factor
abs(scale*F) (where F is the initial objective function
value) and a value of 0.0 a factor is generated
automatically.

9-23

9-24

Product Blender Property View

Object

Description

Gradient
Calculation
Method dropdown list

Specifies what type of differences are being used when


constructing gradient approximations. 1-sided causes
forward differences to be used. 2-sided causes central
differences to be used.
For speed improvements you can choose one-sided
gradients. However, these may give less accurate
results, and may also result in the constraint bounds
being exceeded. Two-sided gradients require twice as
many function evaluations at a given solution, but can
provide a more accurate estimate of the constraint and
objective gradients, particularly for highly non-linear
problems or problems featuring large amounts of
noise.

Diagnostic Print
Level drop-down
list

Allows you to select the amount of information to


include in the Optimizer diagnostic file.

Accuracy
Tolerance field

A relative accuracy tolerance used in the test for


convergence. The following convergence test is used,

ConvergenceSum OptimalityTolerance max ( F ( x ) , 1.0 )


where:
M
r

ConvergenceSum = F ( x ) d +

uj Cj ( x )

j=1

The ConvergenceSum is a weighted sum of possible


objective function improvement and constraint
violations, and has the same units as the objective
function. This allows the same tolerance parameter to
be used for different problems, and makes the
convergence test independent of objective function
scaling.
Step Restriction
field

A line search step-size restriction factor used during


the first 3 iterations. Values greater than 1.0 result in
no step restriction. Set the factor to 1.0, 10-1, 10-2,
etc. to impose larger restrictions.

Perturbation Size
field

The change in size of the scaled variables is used in


gradient evaluation. Individual variables are scaled
according to the variable Minimum and Maximum
properties (or the Range property if the Fix Variable
Spans property checkbox is selected).

Maximum
Feasible Points
field

If the Optimizer algorithm is set to MDC_SQP /


MDC_SLP, this parameter gives the maximum number
of Optimizer iterations allowed to find the first feasible
solution.
If the Optimizer algorithm is set to NAG_SQP, this
parameter gives the maximum number of minor
iterations. A minor iteration in this case represents a
sequence of local improvements to the linearized
problem within a major iteration.

9-24

Product Blender

9-25

Optimizer Results Page


The Optimizer Results page displays the optimization calculation
results.
Figure 9.15

The following table describes the display fields in the Optimizer


Results page:
Field

Description

Starting
Objective Value

Displays the starting objective function value before


optimization calculation.

Final Objective
Value

Displays the current objective function value as


calculated by the Optimizer.

Termination
Reason

Displays the termination status of the Optimizer.


Values include Running, Step convergence,
Unbounded, Impossible, Not run, and Stopped.

Feasible Point
Iterations

Displays the number of minor iterations since the last


major iteration.

Solution Phase

Displays the current phase of the Optimizer algorithm.


Values include Initialize, Setup, OPT Deriv, OPT Search,
and Results.

Gradient
Evaluations

Reports the number of gradient evaluations performed


during the course of the optimization.

Actual Optimizer

Displays the number of major iterations.

Model
Evaluations

Reports the number of model evaluations performed


during the course of the optimization.

Code Version

The version of Optimizer.

Total CPU Time

Reports the time taken to solve the optimization


problem.

9-25

9-26

Product Blender Property View

Optimization Object Property View


Refer to Section 5.9 Optimization Objects in
the HYSYS.RTO
Reference Guide for
more information.

The Optimization Object property view contains the following


three tabs:

Connection tab. Displays the connections of the


optimization object to the flowsheet Object name.
Properties tab. Displays the properties of the
optimization object.
Transfer tab. Displays the transfer options/flags of the
optimization object.

9.3.4 Worksheet Tab


Refer to Section 1.2.2 Worksheet Tab for more
information.

The Worksheet tab contains a summary of the information


contained in the stream property view for all the streams
attached to the operation.

9.3.5 User Variables Tab


For more information on
implementing the User
Variables, refer to
Section 1.2.4 - User
Variables Page/Tab.

The User Variables tab contains the User Vars page. This page
allows you to create and implement variables in the HYSYS
simulation case.

9-26

Aspen HYSYS Refining Utilities

10-1

10 Aspen HYSYS
Refining Utilities
10.1 Introduction................................................................................. 2
10.2 Petroleum Assay Utility................................................................ 3
10.2.1 Design Tab ............................................................................ 5
10.2.2 Results Tab ............................................................................ 7
10.2.3 Dynamics Tab ...................................................................... 10
10.3 Swing Cut Utility ........................................................................ 11
10.3.1
10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4

Specification Tab .................................................................. 13


Light Ends Tab ..................................................................... 16
Assay Table Tab.................................................................... 17
PIMS Format Tab .................................................................. 19

10.4 PIMS Support Utility .................................................................. 21

10-1

10-2

Introduction

10.1 Introduction
The utility commands are a set of tools, which interact with a
process by providing additional information or analysis of
streams or operations. Similar to the HYSYS utilities, the Aspen
HYSYS Refining utilities become a permanent part of the
Flowsheet and are calculated automatically when appropriate.
They can also be used as target objects for Adjust operations.
Aspen HYSYS Refining utilities can be added through the
Available Utilities property view or the Utilities page on the
Attachments tab of a stream's property view.
Figure 10.1

A utility added through either route is automatically updated in


the other location. For example, if you attach an Envelope utility
to a stream using the Available Utilities property view, the
Envelope utility automatically appears on the Utilities page of
the Attachments tab in the property view of the stream to which
it was attached.

10-2

Aspen HYSYS Refining Utilities

10-3

10.2 Petroleum Assay


Utility
The Petroleum Assay utility is only available for use when
you have added a petroleum assay in the simulation
environment.
When there is a petroleum assay in the simulation
environment, the Boiling Point Curves utility is unavailable.

The Petroleum Assay utility, which is used in conjunction with


characterized assays from the Petroleum Assay, allows you to
obtain the results of a laboratory style analysis for your
simulation streams. Simulated distillation data including TBP,
ASTM D86, D2887, and D1160(Atm), as well as petroleum
properties for each cut point are calculated. The data can be
viewed in a tabular format or graphically.
The object for the analysis can be a material stream, a stream
phase in any stage of a tray section, a stream phase in a
separator, a stream phase in a condenser, or a stream phase in a
reboiler.
Figure 10.2

10-3

10-4

Petroleum Assay Utility

To ignore this utility during calculations, select the Ignored


checkbox on the utilitys property view. HYSYS disregards the
utility entirely until you restore it to an active state by clearing
the checkbox.

Adding a Petroleum Assay Utility


1. In the Tools menu, click the Utilities command. The
Available Utilities property view appears.
You can also access the Available Utilities property view by
pressing CTRL U.
2. From the list of available utilities, in the right pane, select
the Petroleum Assay utility.
3. Click the Add Utility button. The Petroleum Assay utility
property view appears.

Editing a Petroleum Assay Utility


1. In the Tools menu, click the Utilities command. The
Available Utilities property view appears.
2. From the list of installed utilities, in the left pane, select the
Petroleum Assay utility you want to view.
3. Click the View Utility button. The selected utilitys property
view appears. From here, you can modify any of the utilitys
properties.

Deleting a Petroleum Assay Utility


1. In the Tools menu, click the Utilities command. The
Available Utilities property view appears.
2. From the list of installed utilities, in the left pane, select the
Petroleum Assay utility you want to delete.
3. Click the Delete Utility button. HYSYS will ask you to
confirm the deletion.
You can also delete a utility by clicking the Delete button on
the utilitys property view.

10-4

Aspen HYSYS Refining Utilities

10-5

10.2.1 Design Tab


The Design tab contains two pages:

Connections
Notes

Connections Page
On the Connections page, you can select the parameters for the
Petroleum Assay utility.
Figure 10.3

To set the Petroleum Assay utility parameters:


1. On the Connections page of the Design tab, change the
Name of the utility, if desired.
2. From the Object Type drop-down list, select the object type
you want. The options are Stream, Tray Section, Separator,
Condenser, or Reboiler.
For a tray section, the petroleum assay properties can be
accessed on the Profiles tab of the Column Runner.

10-5

10-6

Petroleum Assay Utility

3. Click the Select Object button, the Select (object type)


property view appears.
Figure 10.4

The title of the Select (object type) property view depends


on the object type you selected. For example, if you select
the condenser, the Select Condenser property view appears.
4. Choose the appropriate object from the Object list, and click
the OK button to add the selected object to the utility.
The Object list can be filtered by selecting one of the radio
buttons in the Object Filter group.
5. For all object types except the Stream selection, from the
Phase drop-down list you can select the phase for the
analysis as either Vapour or Liquid.
6. If the Object Type which you have selected is a Tray Section,
from the Stage drop-down list select a stage.

Notes Page
For more information
refer to Section 1.2.3 Notes Page/Tab.

The Notes page provides a text editor, where you can record any
comments or information regarding the utility, or to your
simulation case in general.

10-6

Aspen HYSYS Refining Utilities

10-7

10.2.2 Results Tab


The Results tab contains three pages:

Boiling Curves
Properties
Plots

Boiling Curves Page


You can view the results of the boiling point curve calculations in
tabular format on the Boiling Curves page.
Figure 10.5

Simulated distillation profiles are provided for the following


assay types:

TBP
ASTM D86
ASTM D2887
ASTM D1160 (Atm.)

The ASTM D86 boiling point curve corresponds to the true


boiling points of the oil, which assumes no cracking has
occurred.

10-7

10-8

Petroleum Assay Utility

When the oil is characterized by a ASTM D86 distillation assay


with no cracking option, the ASTM D86 boiling point curve
corresponds to raw lab data, with no cracking correction applied.
When the oil is characterized by a ASTM D86 distillation assay
with cracking option, the ASTM D86 boiling point curve
corresponds to the assay input data.
Note: For best results it is recommended that a component list
be ordered by boiling point in ascending order. Use the Sort List
button in the Components List View to move an out-of-order
component to the proper position.

Properties Page
The Properties page displays the petroleum assay properties.
Figure 10.6

Plots Page
The Plots page displays the plots of the boiling point curves,
molecular weight, standard liquid density, and the petroleum
properties in graphical form. Examine the plot of your choice by
making a selection from the Property drop-down list.
10-8

Aspen HYSYS Refining Utilities

Refer to Section 10.4 Graph Control in the


HYSYS User Guide for
details concerning the
customization of plots.

10-9

You can customize a plot by right-clicking in the plot area, and


selecting Graph Control from the object inspect menu.
The figure below shows an example of the Plots page.
Figure 10.7

10-9

10-10

Petroleum Assay Utility

10.2.3 Dynamics Tab


The Dynamics tab allows you to control how often the utility
gets calculated when running in Dynamic mode.
Figure 10.8

The Control Period field is used to specify the frequency that the
utility is calculated. A value of 10 indicates that the utility be
recalculated every 10th pressure flow step. This can help speed
up your dynamic simulation since utilities can require some time
to calculate.
The Use Default Periods checkbox allows you to set the control
period of one utility to equal the control period of any other
utilities that you have in the simulation. For example, if you
have five utilities, and require them all to have a control period
of 5 and currently the value is 8, with this checkbox selected if
you change the value in one utility all the other utilities change.
Alternatively, if you want all the utilities to have different values
you would clear this checkbox.
The Enable in Dynamics checkbox is used to activate this
feature for use in Dynamic mode.

10-10

Aspen HYSYS Refining Utilities 10-11

10.3 Swing Cut Utility


The Swing Cut utility, which is used in conjunction with the
Petroleum Distillation column and the rigorous HYSYS distillation
column, allows you to generate and export assay tables with
user-specified swing cuts in PIMS format.
Aspen PIMS (Process Industry Modeling System) is a production
planning and optimization tool that is widely used in the refinery
industry. It allows you to determine the best operating
conditions at minimum cost using Linear Programming (LP) and
simplified assumptions. The Swing Cut utility provides tighter
integration between Aspen Aspen HYSYS Refining and Aspen
PIMS to achieve a wider refinery modeling solution.
LP crude assays consist of yields and properties of heart cuts
and swing cuts. Heart cuts refer to material that must always be
allocated to a given refinery stream. For example, the kerosene
heart cut is material that will always be taken from the crude
column kerosene draw. Swing cuts represent material that can
be allocated to two adjacent crude column draws.
For example, the naphtha/kerosene swing cut is material that
can be drawn out of the crude column with the naphtha stream,
or kerosene stream. The allocation of the swing cut is
determined by the cut point on the actual crude column; this is
set by specifying the TBPs.

Adding a Swing Cut Utility


1. In the Tools menu, click the Utilities command. The
Available Utilities property view appears.
You can also access the Available Utilities property view by
pressing CTRL U.
2. From the list of available utilities, shown in the right pane,
select the Swing Cut Utility.
3. Click the Add Utility button. The Swing Cut utility property
view appears.

10-11

10-12

Swing Cut Utility

Editing a Swing Cut Utility


1. In the Tools menu, click the Utilities command. The
Available Utilities property view appears.
2. From the list of installed utilities, shown in the left pane,
select the Swing Cut utility you want to view.
3. Click the View Utility button. The selected utilitys property
view appears. From here, you can modify any of the utilitys
properties.

Deleting a Swing Cut Utility


1. In the Tools menu, click the Utilities command. The
Available Utilities property view appears.
2. From the list of installed utilities, shown in the left pane,
select the Swing Cut utility you want to delete.
3. Click the Delete Utility button. HYSYS will ask you to
confirm the deletion.
You can also delete a utility by clicking the Delete button on
the utilitys property view.

Exporting Assay Properties from


Swing Cut Utility
You can only export assay properties after you have run the
Swing Cut calculation option.

1. Open the Swing Cut Utility property view.


2. Scope the appropriate objects.
3. Select the light end components for the Swing Cut
calculation.
4. Select the assay properties for the Swing Cut calculation.
5. Specify a tag name in the Crude tag field.
6. Click the Run button.
7. Click the Export Assay Table button to export the
calculated assay properties data to a *csv file.

10-12

Aspen HYSYS Refining Utilities 10-13

10.3.1 Specification Tab


The Specification tab allows you to specify the heart and swing
cuts that you want to calculate in the Petroleum Distillation
column.
Figure 10.9

The following table lists and describes the objects available in


the Specifications tab:
Object

Description

Name field

Name of the Swing Cut utility.

Scope Objects
button

Select a Petroleum Distillation column to be attached


to the Swing Cut utility by opening the Target
Objects Property View.

Calculation Basis
drop-down list

Select Volume Basis or Mass Basis for your


calculations.

Map Column
Specifications

Map rigorous column specifications with a cut name

Once you have connected the Swing Cut utility to a Petroleum


Distillation column, the product streams of the column are
shown in the Heart and Swing Cut table.
10-13

10-14

Swing Cut Utility

You can select the products you want to include in the printed
report in the Swing Cut utility by selecting their corresponding
checkboxes in the Include column.
The TBP Cut data for each product stream are retrieved from the
column. You need to specify a maximum TBP cut temperature to
define a swing cut. The maximum TBP Cut must be a
temperature value in between two adjacent product streams
and it must satisfy the following condition:
( T2 T1 )
T 1 + 1.0 < TBP < T 1 + -----------------------2

(10.1)

T2 > T1

(10.2)

where:
T1, T2 = temperature values for product stream 1 and 2
TBP = maximum TBP cut for the product stream 1

Since there is no specific TBP cut point for the last product
stream, the last maximum TBP cut must satisfy the following
condition:
T 1 + 1.0 < TBPLast < T 1 + 50.0

(10.3)

where:
T1 = temperature of the product stream before the last
product stream
TBPLast = swing cut TBP for the last product stream

You will not be allowed to enter a value if the value is out of


range.

10-14

Aspen HYSYS Refining Utilities 10-15

Map Column Specifications View


You can use the Swing cut utility in conjunction with rigorous
HYSYS distillation columns. To do this, generate active column
draw specifications for each of the products in the distillation
column. You can then use the Rigorous Column Configuration
view to map these active column draw specifications to cut
streams. .
Figure 10.10

To open the Rigorous Column Configuration view, click "Map


Column Specifications" on the swing cut utility view.
Use "Select Feed Stream" dialog box to select the feed stream
for the calculation. Flow and Swing flow are calculated using the
boiling curve of the selected feed stream and specified TBP cut/
Swing Cut temperatures. When the swing cut utility is executed,
the rigorous column is solved with the different flow
specifications.

10-15

10-16

Swing Cut Utility

10.3.2 Light Ends Tab


The Light Ends tab contains a table that displays the petroleum
light ends properties (yield by weight and volume, NBP,
molecular weight, and SG) of the components in the selected/
scoped objects.
You can select or clear the checkboxes under the Include
column to consider or ignore the component properties
during calculation.
Figure 10.11

10-16

Aspen HYSYS Refining Utilities 10-17

10.3.3 Assay Table Tab


The Assay Table tab allows you to select and view the assay
properties from the product stream used in the calculation.
Figure 10.12

Calculation Basis drop-down list enables you to select


Volume Basis or Mass Basis for your calculations.
Crude Tag field enables you to specify a PIMS tag for
the assay table.
Run button enables you to run the Swing Cut calculation
option.
Export Assay Table button enables you to export the
calculated assay properties data into a *.csv format file.

10-17

10-18

Swing Cut Utility

Selecting an Assay Property


To select an assay property for a product stream:
1. Under the Assay Property column, place the mouse cursor
over an empty cell.
The down arrow icon

appears in the cell as shown.

Figure 10.13

2. Click the down arrow icon to open the drop-down list and
select an assay property.

Property Calculation for Swing Cuts


After you have selected the desired cut properties for each
product stream, click on the Run button to run the utility.
Swing Cuts utility generates assay tables with user-specified
swing cuts. For each individual crude, the column will run once
using the default product cut points, and once again using the
maximum cut point for each product, where a swing cut was
selected.
For instance, in a Kero-LGO swing, the column will run with Kero
cut point set to maximum Kero TBP cut, and then the following
formulas are used to calculate properties (Ps) of Kero-LGO
swing.
From LGO:
Vs Ps + V1 P1 = ( Vs + V1 ) P2

(10.4)

[(V + V ) P V P ]
s
1
2
1 1
P = ---------------------------------------------------------------s
V
s

(10.5)

10-18

Aspen HYSYS Refining Utilities 10-19

where:
V = volume (or weight)
P = property
s = swing cut
1, 2 = state (low, high cut point)

The Swing Cut utility is available in steady state mode. You can
perform the calculations on the petroleum distillation column
without propagation of the perturbation to other unit operations.
The utility will be available within the subflowsheet environment
as well as at the main flowsheet level. Each instance of the
utility will be independent. There may be several instances of
the utility active in a flowsheet.

10.3.4 PIMS Format Tab


The PIMS Format tab allows you to associate a unique PIMS tag
for each product stream and cut property. When you export the
assay tables, these PIMS tags are used to represent the product
streams and cut properties in the csv file. You can type directly
in the cell to specify a PIMS tag.

10-19

10-20

Swing Cut Utility

Figure 10.14

Comma Separated Values (csv) file is a simple structured data


file. The file contains a table of product streams and their
corresponding properties data. The data in the file can be
accessed through Microsoft Excel application. Aspen Aspen
HYSYS Refining uses csv files to contain petroleum properties of
individual assays.
The following describes the general layout of the csv file:

In the first column, the PIMS tags for the product


streams and cut properties are displayed in combination.
In the second column, the full name of the product
stream and the associated cut property are displayed.
The third column displays the numerical data
information.
The crude tag is displayed in the first cell of the third
column. You can have multiple crude data displayed on
the same spreadsheet.

10-20

Aspen HYSYS Refining Utilities 10-21

10.4 PIMS Support Utility


The PIMS Support Utility generates a Common Model
Environment (CME) model from a set of dependent and
independent HYSYS variables. The generated model is a linear
or a multi-linear model built around the "deltabase shift"
concept in PIMS.
To open the PIMS Support Utility:
1. From the Main Menu, click Tools > Utilities.
2. In the Available Utilities dialog box, select the PIMS
Support Utility and click Add Utility.
For complete help on the PIMS Support Utility, see the HYSYS
Online documentation. (From the PIMS Support Utility View,
press F1.)

10-21

10-22

PIMS Support Utility

10-22

Isomerization Unit Operation

11-1

11 Isomerization Unit
Operation
11.1 The Isomerization Unit Operation ................................................ 2
11.2 Theory ......................................................................................... 2

11-1

11-2

The Isomerization Unit Operation

11.1 The Isomerization


Unit Operation
The Isomerization Unit Operation is a detailed kinetic model of
the isomerization unit. It models isomerization, hydrocracking,
ring-opening, saturation, and heavy reactions. The model uses
the same component slate as Refining Reformer, although only a
subset of approximately 25 components are used for the
reaction scheme. Since a typical isomerization feed would have
no olefins or C8 and above material, any olefins are mapped into
their corresponding paraffins, and all C8 components and above
are mapped into the C8 6-ring naphthenic component.

11.2 Theory
The reactor is modeled using the Aspen EORXR model. The rate
expression for each reaction class has been coded to match
literature data. The isomerization and hydrogenation reactions
are considered to be reversible, and the other reaction classes
are all considered to be irreversible. Each reaction class is first
order with respect to the primary reactant. Each reaction class
also has a denominator term following typical LHHW.
Before placing an isomerization unit in a flowsheet, the user
should first define an appropriate component slate. From the
Basis environment, the user can import the file CatRefIsom.cml.
This file is located in your HYSYS install directory under the paks
directory. The fluid package should be defined as SRK or Peng
Robinson. Alternatively, the user can use Aspen Properties and
use the file catref.aprbkp to define the components and the fluid
package. This file is located in your HYSYS install directory
under refsys\refreactor directory. If the correct component slate
has not been defined for the part of the flowsheet in which the
isom unit op is placed, the model will still initialize; however, the
model will not be able to execute until a basis with an
appropriate component slate is selected.
Once an appropriate component slate and fluid package have
11-2

Isomerization Unit Operation

11-3

been created for the isom model, the user can go into the
simulation environment and place an isom unit operation in the
flowsheet. The user may add this to the flowsheet either by
using the Refining unit operation palette (F6), or by adding a
unit operation (F12) and selecting the isom unit op from the list
of unit operations. It will take a short while after the block has
been placed to initialize the block.
Please see the online documentation for the latest instructions
on this unit operation.

11-3

11-4

Theory

11-4

Refining Transition Unit Operations 12-1

12 Refining Transition
Unit Operations
12 Refining Transition Unit Operations ................................................ 1
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4

Petroleum Transition .................................................................. 2


HCR Product Transition............................................................... 4
FCC Feed Adjust........................................................................ 4
Reactor Transitions .................................................................... 6

12.4.3 Reference:............................................................................. 9

12-1

12-2

Petroleum Transition

Aspen HYSYS Petroleum Refining has the following types of


transition operations:

Petroleum Transition
HCR Product Transition
FCC Feed Adjust
Reactor Transitions

12.1 Petroleum Transition


The Petroleum transition unit operation is used to convert one
petroleum stream to another petroleum stream with a different
basis.
This option is available in the following places:

Any flowsheet where a fluid package transition is


required with assays.
An FCC product transition from product lumps to assay
lumps
A Reformer product transition from reformer lumps to
assay lumps
A Hydrocracker product transition from hydrocracker
lumps to assay lumps

12.1.1 Basic Theory


For shared components, common property vectors are
transferred as is from the feed fluid package to the product fluid
package. If any of the feed or product property package is an
Aspen Properties Property Package, then only Molecular Weight,
Liquid Density and all petroleum property vectors are
transferred.
For hypo components in a product stream having only one pure/
hypo component of feed, common property vectors are
transferred as is from feed fluid package to the product fluid
package. If any of the feed or product property packages is an
Aspen Properties Property Package then only Molecular Weight,
Liquid Density and all petroleum property vectors are
transferred.

12-2

Refining Transition Unit Operations 12-3

For product stream hypo components defined by more than one


feed component, average properties are calculated according to
following rule:
1. Molecular weight is mixed by mole fraction.
2. 1/ Density is mixed by the mass blending rule.
3. Heat of formation and Heat of combustion is calculated by
the mass blending rule.
4. Ideal enthalpy coefficients are mixed by the mass blending
rule.
5. Critical Temperature and Critical Pressure is mixed by a
special mixing rule (See Reference 1 and 2)
6. Acentricity is mixed by the mole blending rule
7. Feed Hypo component viscosity is calculated at 100 F and
210 F, Bulk MolWt and Bulk Density is calculated
Product Hypo components ThetaA and ThetaB are
calculated such that bulk viscosity at two temperature is
matched
Product Hypo components characteristic volume is
calculated such that bulk density is matched
8. Remaining properties are calculated with the default
estimation methods provided in the hypo component view.
9. Petroleum properties are blended by mass/mole/volume.
Special cases are
Cloud Point (Cloud Point Index)
Flash Point (Flash Point Index)
Freeze Point (Freeze Point Index)
Pour Point (Pour Point Index)
RVP Property (RVP Index)
RON - Clear(Healy Method)
MON - Clear (Healy Method)
Steps (3) to (9) will not be performed if the feed or product
property package is an Aspen Properties package.
If the feed or product stream uses an Aspen Properties property
package then the remaining physical properties are estimated
using molecular weight, density and boiling point.
"The following Petroleum Properties are shifted to feed bulk
values:

Cloud Point
12-3

12-4

HCR Product Transition

Flash Point
Pour Point
MON (Clear)
RON (Clear)
MON (Leaded)
RON (Leaded)

12.2 HCR Product


Transition
This transition increases the granularity of the component list
used in the "HCRSRK" fluid package to achieve better results in
subsequent separation unit operations. This transition is used to
convert the HCRSRK fluid package (with HCR.cml component
list) stream to HCRSRKEXT fluid package (With the
HCR_extended.cml component list) HCR stream and vice versa.
This transition is available on stream cutter as well as
Hydrocracker flowsheet product transition drop-down menu.

12.3 FCC Feed Adjust


This transition converts an assay stream composition to FCC
kinetic lumps information. This transition is hidden in the sense
that it is only used internally inside the FCC unit operation to
characterize the FCC feed.
The feed characterization methods are designed to provide the
21-lump model with the feed composition based on the 21lumps. Although high resolution analyses can provide a fairly
detailed resolution of the types of molecules in the feed, even
this is an approximation. The feed characterization requires
inspection properties for its analysis, so this data is not suitable
as a basis for error analysis.
The properties that are used in FCC Feed Adjust are:
Minimum: Fingerprints (Feed Types) Distillation (TBP,
D2887, D86, D1160..), Suphur, Gravity
12-4

Refining Transition Unit Operations 12-5

Optional: Viscosity, Refractive Index, and Refractive Index


Temperature.
In general, the feed adjust model works by adjusting the
concentration of the pseudo components to match the feed
properties. This is done by calculating the values of various
multipliers for different pseudo component types. Following is a
list of multipliers:
Light Ratio - All light components
Medium Ratio - All medium components
Heavy Ratio - All heavy components
Ca Ratio - All aromatic compounds that do not have a hetero
atom.
Fingerprints are 21-lump representations of the feeds based on
the inspection data and the high-resolution data. These
fingerprints can be calculated in calibration environment and
simulation environment. Aspen HYSYS Petroleum Refining has
data for a wide range of feeds that have been converted to a
fingerprint database. When a feed such as VGO, hydrocracked
resid or other type of feed is used in the model, it is necessary
to select the appropriate fingerprint for the feed. If there are
multiple feeds then the appropriate fingerprint for each feed
should be used.
For the FCC model, the inspection properties are used to adjust
the fingerprint to the current feed data. Distillation curves show
the distributions of boiling points for the molecules in the feed.
Therefore, in the FCC feed characterization, the current
distillation and the reference distillation are used to adjust the
amount of material in the boiling ranges <430 F, 430 F to 650 F,
650 F to 950 F, and >950 F. Changing distillation curves also
changes the weight average boiling point (WABP) of the boiling
range. The 1,2, and 3 ring composition is adjusted to account
for these shifts in WABP. As WABP increases, typically we expect
more large rings and as it decreases, we typically expect
smaller rings. In addition, the inspection properties are used to
adjust the overall aromatic content. From the analyses of
several types of feeds, the feeds used to establish the library of
fingerprints; it is observable that the series formed from the

12-5

12-6

Reactor Transitions

molecular types form typical distributions. The molecular types


are paraffin, napthenics, 1-ring, 2-ring and 3-ring aromatics. It
is the reliance on this fact that is the primary assumption in the
feed characterization model. Associated with this assumption is
the application of a correlation for aromaticity based on the
inspection properties.
Therefore, with respect to the specific types of feeds listed in the
question, there is not an assumption that all coker gasoils have
the same aromatic breakdown. There is the assumption that
provided a fingerprint of a coker gasoil for a reference, the
inspection properties and distillation for another gas oil will shift
the aromatics in the correct direction. This same principle
applies to any other type of feed as long as there is a
representative fingerprint available.

12.4 Reactor Transitions


There are two types of reactor transition available in Aspen
HYSYS Petroleum Refining:
a. Hydrocracker Feed Adjust
b. Reformer Transition

12.4.1 Hydrocracker Feed


Adjust
This transition was developed to convert a feed stream with any
composition and properties into Hydrocracker kinetic lumps.
This transition is available on the stream cutter as well as the
Hydrocracker flowsheet environment feed data page.
The properties that are used in Hydrocracker feed adjust are:
Minimum: Distillation (TBP, D2887, D1160 .. etc), Sulphur,
Gravity, Nitrogen and Basic Nitrogen Content
Optional: Bromin Number, Viscosity, Refractive Index, and
Refractive Index Temperature

12-6

Refining Transition Unit Operations 12-7

Bromine Number is used to calculate olefin content of the feed


stock and thereafter it is assumed that all the olefins are
saturated to Paraffin lumps.
The feed adjust model works by adjusting the concentrations of
the pseudo components to match the feed properties. This is
done by calculating the values of various multipliers for different
pseudo component types. Following is a list of multipliers:
Light Ratio - All light components
Medium Ratio - All medium components
Heavy Ratio - All heavy components
Sulfur Ratio - All sulfur components
Nitrogen Ratio - All neutral nitrogen components
Basic Nitrogen Ratio - All basic nitrogen components
Ca Ratio - All aromatic compounds that do not have a
heteroatom
Cn Ratio - All naphthenic and hydroaromatic components
that do not have a heteroatom
There is also some relative adjustment of the relative number of
rings for aromatics and sulfur compounds based upon changes
of the WABPs. Note that the Ca ratio and Cn ratio are raised to a
power equal to the fraction of aromatic carbons and the fraction
of napthenic carbons for a given compound. This means that
compounds which are more highly aromatic are more greatly
affected than compounds that are less aromatic.

12.4.2 Reformer Transition


This transition was developed to convert a feed stream with any
composition and properties into Reformer kinetic lumps. This
transition is available on the stream cutter as well as the
Reformer feed characterization page.
There are two ways to characterize the Reformer feed:
1. Specify Feed composition directly as Reformer kinetic lumps
2. Use properties to characterize Reformer kinetic lumps

12-7

12-8

Reactor Transitions

In option 1, there is no calculation required.


In option 2, the following properties are required:
Minimum: Distillation, Paraffin Content (P), Naphthenic
Content (N), Aromatic Content (A)
Optional: Detailed GC analysis
It is also possible to characterize the Reformer feed from an
assay where a user just needs to specify the initial and final
boiling points of the naphtha fraction of that assay. In this case
properties will be generated from the assay. When a process
stream is used in a reformer transition, the stream properties
are used.
The PNA breakdown is used to ensure that the right amount of
paraffins, naphthenics, and aromatics are in the feed. The
distillation is used to break down each of the paraffins,
naphthenics, and aromatics by carbon number. The feed type is
used to set the various isomer ratios for the feed. Currently,
there is only a default feed type. If a you would like a ratio
different from the default you can create your own feed type
and use that instead.
To create a new feed type, you can go to Library ply of the Feed
Data tab in the reformer environment (similar applies to FCC
and Hydrocracker environment). You can type new values for
any of the ratios in the area entitled "Properties of Selected Feed
Type." You can export the feed type using the export button or
import a feed type using the import button. Note that if the
reformer is already completely specified, you should put HYSYS
in holding mode to change multiple values in the feed type.
Following is a description of each of the feed type properties:
Feed Type

Properties

IP5/Total C5

Fraction of C5's that are isopentane

nP5/Total C5

Fraction of C5's that are n-pentane

22-Dimethyl-butane/
Total P6

Fraction of C6 paraffins that are 22-dimethylbutane

23-Dimethyl-butane/
Total P6

Fraction of C6 paraffins that are 23-dimethylbutane

2-Methyl-pentane/Total
P6

Fraction of C6 paraffins that are 2-methylpentane

12-8

Refining Transition Unit Operations 12-9

3-Methyl-pentane/Total
P6

Fraction of C6 paraffins that are 3-methylpentane

Methyl-cyclopentane/
[Methylcyclopentane+Cyclohexa
ne]

Fraction of C6 naphthenes that are methylcyclopentane

22-Dimethyl-pentane/
Total P7

Fraction of C7 paraffins that are 22-dimethylpentane

23-Dimethyl-pentane/
Total P7

Fraction of C7 paraffins that are 23-dimethylpentane

24-Dimethyl-pentane/
Total P7

Fraction of C7 paraffins that are 24-dimethylpentane

33-Dimethyl-pentane/
Total P7

Fraction of C7 paraffins that are 33-dimethylpentane

223-Trimethyl-pentane/
Total P7

Fraction of C7 paraffins that are 223-trimethylbutane

2-Methyl-hexane/Total P7

Fraction of C7 paraffins that are 2-methylhexane

3-Methyl-hexane/Total P7

Fraction of C7 paraffins that are 3-methylhexane

Ethyl-pentane/Total P7

Fraction of C7 paraffins that are Ethyl-pentane

Dimethyl-cyclopentane/
Total N7

Fraction of C7 naphthenes that are dimethylcyclopentane

Ethyl-cyclopentane/Total
N7

Fraction of C7 naphthenes that are ethylcyclopentane

Normal P8/Total P8

Fraction of C8 paraffins that are n-octane

MB P8/Total P8

Fraction of C8 paraffins with multiple branches

N8 N5/[N5+N6 Ring]

Fraction of C8 naphthenes with a 5 carbon ring


structure

IP9/Total P5

Fraction of C9 paraffins that are branched

N9 N5/[N5+N6 Ring]

Fraction of C9 naphthenes with a 5 carbon ring


structure

IP10/Total P10

Fraction of C10 paraffins that are branched

N10 N5/[N5+N6 Ring]

Fraction of C10 naphthenes with a 5 carbon


ring structure

IP11/Total P11

Fraction of C11 paraffins that are branched

N11 N5/[N5+N6 Ring]

Fraction of C11 naphthenes with a 5 carbon


ring structure

12.4.3 Reference:
1. Leibovici, C.F. 1993. A consistent procedure for the estimation
of properties associated to lumped systems, Fluid Phase
Equilibria 87, 1993, 189-197.
2.Reid R.C., Prausnitz J.M., and Poling B.E., 1987. The properties
of gases and liquids, 4th Ed., McGraw Hill Book Company, p. 83.)

12-9

12-10

Reactor Transitions

12-10

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-1

A Petroleum Methods &


Correlations
A.1 Introduction .................................................................................. 2
A.2 Physical Property Calculation ........................................................ 2
A.2.1
A.2.2
A.2.3
A.2.4

Calculation for Molecular Weight................................................. 3


Calculation for Centroid Boiling Point........................................... 4
Calculation for Specific Gravity................................................... 4
Heat of Formation .................................................................... 5

A.3 Petroleum Property Calculation ..................................................... 5


A.3.1
A.3.2
A.3.3
A.3.4
A.3.5
A.3.6

Mass Blend.............................................................................. 6
Mole Blend .............................................................................. 7
Volume Blend .......................................................................... 7
Healy Method for RON and MON ................................................. 8
Component Level Calculations.................................................... 9
Stream Level Calculations ....................................................... 16

A.4 Comma Separated Value Files...................................................... 43


A.4.1 Format of CSV Files ................................................................ 43
A.5 Spiral Files ................................................................................... 51
A.6 References................................................................................... 52

A-1

A-2

Introduction

A.1 Introduction
This appendix is contains the blending rules of the physical and
petroleum properties in petroleum assays, the definition of a
Comma Separated Value (CSV) file, and the format of an XML
file containing a petroleum assay data.
If you do not have the Aspen HYSYS Refining license, you
will not be able to access the petroleum properties.

A.2 Physical Property


Calculation
For more information on
physical property
calculations, refer to
Appendix A - Property
Methods & Calculations
in the HYSYS
Simulation Basis guide.

All the physical properties of a stream with petroleum assays


are calculated/estimated based on three critical information:
molecular weight, centroid boiling point, and specific gravity.
These three property values are often provided with the
petroleum properties values of a petroleum assay.
If the three critical property values are not provided,
estimated values are calculated based on blending the
components property values. The components considered
are the components that are active in the petroleum assay.

When two petroleum assays are blended together, their physical


properties are recalculated/re-estimated using the blended
value of the molecular weight, centroid boiling point, specific
gravity, and heat of formation.

A-2

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-3

Notes on Research Octane Number (RON)


The Research Octane Number reported in Aspen HYSYS is
determined based on a proprietary correlation. It considers the
percentages of aromatics, paraffinics in the mixture and uses
D86 data at 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90%. This correlation is
generalized for mixtures of hydrocarbons - more specifically,
mixtures of alkanes. It might be heavily biased toward highly
naphthenic mixtures. The only apparent limitation on
applicability of the correlation is that the D86(50%) temperature
be <=220C.
Aspen HYSYS also provides a more sophisticated simulation tool
through Aspen RefSYS for accurate simulations of refinery
processes. The Research Octane Number reported in Aspen
RefSYS is determined by inputting or generating a RON for each
cut of the assay. This value is then blended into an overall RON
using one the of the following blending methods: Healy, mass,
mole and volume (user specific methods can also be used). This
allows, for an accurate representation of RON especially when
the system involves a lot of components other than alkanes.

A.2.1 Calculation for Molecular


Weight
The following equation is used to calculate the blended
molecular weight value:

MW blend =

MFlowS MW S
S
=
stream
---------------------------------------------------------------

MFlow S

(A.1)

S = stream

where:
MWblend = mixed molecular weight
MFlow = mass flow rate of stream S
A-3

A-4

Physical Property Calculation

MW = molecular weight in each stream

A.2.2 Calculation for Centroid


Boiling Point
The following equation is used to calculate the blended centroid
boiling point value:

VFlow S CBP S

= streams
CBP blend = S----------------------------------------------------------------VFlow
S

(A.2)

S = streams

where:
CBPblend = mixed centroid boiling point
VFlow = volumetric flow rate of stream S
CBP = centroid boiling point in each stream

A.2.3 Calculation for Specific


Gravity
The following equation is used to calculate the blended liquid
density/specific gravity value:

SG blend =

MFlow S
S--------------------------------------------= streams
-

(A.3)

VFlow S

S = streams

where:
SGblend = mixed specific gravity

A-4

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-5

VFlow = volumetric flow rate of stream S


The volumetric flow conditions is at standard 60F.
MFlow = mass flow rate of stream S

A.2.4 Heat of Formation


The following equation is used to calculate the blended heat of
formation value:

HofF blend =

MolFlow S HofF S
S
=
stream
------------------------------------------------------------------------

(A.4)

MolFlow S

S = stream

where:
HofFblend = mixed heat of formation
MolFlow = molar flow rate of stream S
HofF = heat of formation in each stream

A.3 Petroleum Property


Calculation
In Aspen HYSYS Refining there are two levels of calculation for
the petroleum properties:

Component Level. In this calculation method, individual


component properties in a stream are used to calculate
the petroleum property.

Component level blending occurs in all situations when two


or more streams enter a unit operation. For example, in
mixers, separators, and distillation columns with two or
more feeds.

A-5

A-6

Petroleum Property Calculation

For example, consider the streams mixing in the figure


below. To calculate the blended Aniline Point for
component B in stream 3, the Component Level method
uses the B component property from stream 1 and 2.
You can also select the type of blending rule (mass,
mole, or volume) to calculate the new Aniline Point.
Figure A.1

Stream Level. In this calculation method, the overall


stream properties are used to calculate the petroleum
property.
For example, consider the streams mixing in the figure
above. To calculate the blended Aniline Point for stream
3, the Stream Level method uses the petroleum property
from component A, B, and C. In the case of Stream Level
there is only one type of blending equation available.

There are three main blending calculations that most of the


petroleum properties use: Mass, Mole, and Volume.

A.3.1 Mass Blend


This blending rule4 is used to blend properties based on mass
fraction using the following relation:

Mixprop =

MFlow S prop S
S
=
streams
-------------------------------------------------------------------

(A.5)

MFlowS

S = streams

where:
MFlow = mass flow rate of stream S
prop = property to be blended in each stream

A-6

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-7

Mixprop = mixed value of the targeted property

A.3.2 Mole Blend


The Mole Blend rule4 is used to blend properties based on mole
fraction using the following relation:

Mixprop =

MolFlow S prop S
S
=
streams
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

MolFlow S

(A.6)

S = streams

where:
MolFlow = molar flow rate of stream S
prop = property to be blended in each stream
Mixprop = mixed value of the targeted property

A.3.3 Volume Blend


The Volume Blend rule4 is used to blend properties based on
volume fraction using the following relation:

VFlow S prop S

= streams
Mixprop = S----------------------------------------------------------------VFlow
S

(A.7)

S = streams

where:
VFlow = volumetric flow rate of stream S
prop = property to be blended in each stream
Mixprop = mixed value of the targeted property

A-7

A-8

Petroleum Property Calculation

A.3.4 Healy Method for RON


and MON
The Healy Method9 blending rules for RON and MON are:
RON = RON sum + 0.05411 ( RONMON 1 RON sum RONMON )
2

+ 0.00098 ( Olfsum2 Olf sum ) 0.00074 ( Arom sum2 Arom sum )


MON = MON sum + 0.03908 ( RONMON 2 MON sum RONMON )
2

7.03 10 ( Arom sum2 Arom sum )

(A.8)

(A.9)

where:

RONi Vi

RON sum =

MONi Vi

MON sum =

Olfsum =

Olfi Vi
i

Olfsum2 =

Olfi Vi
i

Arom sum =

Aromi Vi
i

Arom sum2 =

Aromi Vi
i

RONMON =

( RONi MONi ) Vi
i

RONMON 1 =

RONi ( RONi MONi ) Vi


i

RONMON 2 =

MONi ( RONi MONi ) Vi


i

A-8

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-9

Vi = Volume Fraction
For stream level blending:
VolFrac=

Volume flow i
------------------------------------------------------volume flow of stream

For component level blending:


Volume flow of component i in stream
VolFrac = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total volume flow of component in all streams

See Also: Notes on Research Octane Number (RON) on


page 3.

A.3.5 Component Level


Calculations
The following sections describe the Blend rules and equations at
Component Level calculation for the assay properties in Aspen
HYSYS Refining.

Aniline Point
The Aniline Point16,6 is calculated using the following blending
rules:

Mass Blend
Mole Blend
Volume Blend

Aromatics By Volume
The Aromatics By Volume6 is calculated using Volume Blend.

Aromatics By Weight
The Aromatics By Weight16 is calculated using Mass Blend.

A-9

A-10

Petroleum Property Calculation

Asphaltene Content
The Asphaltene Content3 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Basic Nitrogen Content


The Basic Nitrogen Content3 is calculated using Mass Blend.

C To H Ratio
The C to H Ratio is calculated using Mass Blend.

Cloud Point
The mass, mole, and volume blending calculations are also
available.

Cloud Point Blending6,16 is calculated using the following


equations:
n

( v i CI i )
CIB i = --------------------------------1.8

CI i = ( 1.8 C i )

1
--n

(A.10)

(A.11)

where:
CIBi = Cloud Point of the blended component i
CIi = Cloud Point index of individual components
vi = Volume fraction of individual components
Ci = Cloud Point of individual components
n = default constant value of 0.55, for heavier cut point
HYSYS recommends 0.6

A-10

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-11

Conradson Carbon Content


The Conradson Carbon Content3 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Copper Content
The Copper Content6 is calculated using Mass Blend. The Copper
Content value reported on the stream property page is in units
of wt%.

Flash Point
The mass, mole, and volume blending calculations are also
available.

Flash Point Blending6,10,16 is calculated using the following


equations:
0.6

( v i FIi )
FIB i = -------------------------------------1.8

FI i = ( 1.8 F i )

1-----0.6

(A.12)

(A.13)

where:
FIBi = Flash Point of the blended component i
FIi = Flash Point index of individual components
vi = Volume fraction of individual components
Fi = Flash Point of individual components

Freeze Point (Temperature)


The Freeze Point6,16 is calculated using the following blending
methods:

Mass Blend
A-11

A-12

Petroleum Property Calculation

Mole Blend
Volume Blend

Molecular Weight
The Molecular Weight is calculated using Mass Blend.

MON Clear
The MON Clear6 is calculated using Healy Method for RON and
MON.

Naphthenes By Volume
The Naphthenes By Volume6 is calculated using Volume Blend.

Naphthenes By Weight
The Naphthenes By Weight3,16 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Ni Content
The Ni Content6 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Nitrogen Content
The Nitrogen Content6 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Olefins By Volume
The Olefins By Volume is calculated using Volume Blend.

Olefins By Weight
The Olefins By Weight3 is calculated using Mass Blend.

A-12

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-13

Paraffins By Volume
The Paraffins By Volume6 is calculated using Volume Blend.

Paraffins By Weight
The Paraffins By Weight3,16 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Pour Point
The mass, mole, and volume blending calculations are also
available.

Pour Point Blending6,16 is calculated using the following


equations:
PI i = exp ( 73.0883 + 12.885 In ( P i 1.8 ) )
ln ( PI i V i ) 73.0883
exp --------------------------------------------------------------
12.885

PIB i = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------1.8

(A.14)

(A.15)

where:
Pi = Pour Point of individual components
PIi = Pour Point index of individual components
Vi = Volume fraction of individual components
PIBi = Pour Point of the blended component i

Refractive Index
The Refractive Index is calculated using the following blending
rules:

Mass Blend
Mole Blend
Volume Blend

A-13

A-14

Petroleum Property Calculation

RON Clear
The RON Clear6 is calculated using the Healy Method for RON and
MON.

RON Leaded
The RON Leaded calculated using the following blending rules:

Mass Blend
Mole Blend
Volume Blend

Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP)


The mass, mole, and volume blending calculations are also
available.

RVP Blending1,8,14,15 is calculated using the following equations:

( V i RVPI i )
RVPB = --------------------------------------0.145

RVPI i = ( RVP i 0.145 )

0.8

1.25

(A.16)

(A.17)

where:
RVPi = RVP of individual components
RVPIi = RVP index of individual components
Vi = Volume fraction of individual components
RVPB = RVP of the blended component i

A-14

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-15

SG (60/60F)
The SG (60/60F)7 is calculated using Volume Blend.

Smoke Point
The Smoke Point2 calculated using the following blending rules:

Mass Blend
Mole Blend
Volume Blend

Sulfur Content
The Sulfur Content12 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Vanadium Content
The Vanadium Content6 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Viscosity
The Viscosity is calculated using an indexing method, and there
are two methods available. One method uses 0.8 as the
parameter constant and the second method uses 0.08 as the
parameter constant.

U b = 10

U mix =

10Vmix

xi log ( log [ Vi + c ] )

(A.18)

(A.19)

where:
Ub = viscosity of blend
Ui = viscosity of component i

A-15

A-16

Petroleum Property Calculation

Xi = composition fraction of component i


C = parameter constant

Wax Content
The Wax Content6 is calculated using Mass Blend.

A.3.6 Stream Level


Calculations
The following sections contains the Blend rules and equations at
Stream Level calculation for the assay properties in Aspen
HYSYS Refining.
Aspen HYSYS Petroleum Refining calculates distillation
properties using the hypothetical component NBP as the final
boiling point. For each hypothetical component, the centroid
boiling temperature is also reported on the Edit Property page.
For Aspen HYSYS cases, the hypothetical component NBP is
defined as the centroid boiling temperature. In these cases, the
centroid boiling temperature is not reported on the Edit
Property page. Do not apply Aspen HYSYS Petroleum Refining
correlations for these cases or it will report the properties using
incorrect assumptions. You should convert a Aspen HYSYS case
to an Aspen HYSYS Petroleum Refining case by creating a
petroleum assay.

Acetaldehyde (toxic emission)


Toxic emissions from Acetaldehyde11 is calculated using the
following equations:
Acet B
( T 1 B1 )
( T2 B2 )
( 0.444e
+ 0.556e
)
ToxEmi Acet = -------------6
10

(A.20)

A-16

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-17

where:
T 1 = 0.0002631 ( Sulf T ) + 0.039786 ( RVP T ) 0.012157 ( E300 T )
0.005525 ( Arom T ) 0.009594 ( MTBE T ) + 0.31658 ( ETBE T )
+ 0.24925 ( Ethanol T )
B 1 = 0.0002631 ( Sulf B ) + 0.039786 ( RVP B ) 0.012157 ( E300 B )
0.005525 ( Arom B ) 0.009594 ( MTBE B ) + 0.31658 ( ETBE B )
+ 0.24925 ( Ethanol B )
T 2 = 0.0002627 ( Sulf T ) 0.012157 ( E300 T ) 0.005548 ( Arom T )
0.05598 ( MTBET ) + 0.3164665 ( ETBE T ) + 0.2493259 ( Ethanol T )
B 2 = 0.0002627 ( Sulf B ) 0.012157 ( E300 B ) 0.005548 ( Arom B )
0.05598 ( MTBEB ) + 0.3164665 ( ETBE B ) + 0.2493259 ( Ethanol B )
SulfT = sulfur content, range 0 to 500
AromT = aromatics content, range 0 to 50
RVP T = Reid Vapor Pressure 0.145
MTBET =

34.7 ( Mass of componenti )


i

ETBE T =

34.7 ( Mass of componenti )


i

Ethanol T =

34.7 ( Mass of componenti )


i

AcetB = 7.25 for winter, 4.44 for summer


SultB = 338.0 for winter, 339.0 for summer
RVPB = 11.5 for winter, 8.7 for summer
E300B = 83.0 for winter, 83.0 for summer
AromB = 26.4 for winter, 32.0 for summer

Aniline Point
The Aniline Point6,16 is calculated using Volume Blend.

A-17

A-18

Petroleum Property Calculation

Note: AP values in HYSYS are computed in K. Because some


components may be missing AP values, x i 1 . That means
AP ( @K ) AP ( @C ) + 273.15

Aromatics By Volume
The Aromatics By Volume6 is calculated using Volume Blend.

Aromatics By Weight
The Aromatics By Weight16 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Asphaltene Content
The Asphaltene Content3 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Basic Nitrogen Content


The Basic Nitrogen Content3 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Benzene (toxic exhaust emission)


Toxic emissions from Benzene11 is calculated using the following
equations:

ExBenz B
( T1 B1 )
( T2 B2 )
ToxEmi ExBenz = ---------------------( 0.444e
+ 0.556e
)
6
10

(A.21)

where:
T 1 = 0.0006197 ( Sulf T ) 0.003376 ( E200 T ) + 0.02655 ( Arom T )
+ 0.22239 ( Benz T )
B 1 = 0.0006197 ( Sulf B ) 0.003376 ( E200 B ) + 0.02655 ( Arom B )
+ 0.22239 ( Benz B )

A-18

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-19

T 2 = 0.000337 ( Sulf T ) + 0.011251 ( E300 T ) + 0.011882 ( Arom T )


+ 0.222318 ( Benz T ) 0.096047 ( OxyT )
B 2 = 0.000337 ( Sulf B ) + 0.011251 ( E300 B ) + 0.011882 ( Arom B )
+ 0.222318 ( Benz B ) 0.096047 ( Oxy B )
SulfT = sulfur content in ppm weight, range 0 to 500
AromT = aromatics content, in volume percent, range 0 to 50
OxyT = oxygen content in terms of weight percent.
= i (wt frac. of Oxygen in Compi) (MassCompi),
where i = Ethanol, MTBE, ETBE, TAME.
BenzT = benzene content in volume percent.
EXBenzB = 77.62 for winter, 53.54 for summer
SulfB = 338.0 for winter, 339.0 for summer
E200B = 50.0 for winter., 41.0 for summer
AromB = 26.4 for winter, 32.0 for summer
BenzB = 1.53 for winter, 1.64 for summer
E300B = 83.0 for winter, 83.0 for summer
OxyB = 0.0 for winter, 0.0 for summer

Benzene (toxic non-exhaust


emission)
Toxic non-exhaust emissions from Benzene11 is calculated using
the following equations:
ToxEmi NonExBenz = BenzE HotS + BenzE Diu
+ BenzE RunLos + BenzE Reful

(A.22)

where:
BenzEHotS = 10 ( Benz T VOC HotS )
( 1.4448 0.0342 [ MTBE T ] 0.080274 [ RVP T ] )
BenzEDiu = 10 ( Benz T VOC Diu )
( 1.3758 0.029 [ MTBE T ] 0.080274 [ RVP T ] )

A-19

A-20

Petroleum Property Calculation

BenzERunLos = 10 ( Benz T VOC RunLos )


( 1.4448 0.0342 [ MTBE T ] 0.080274 [ RVP T ] )
BenzEReful = 10 ( Benz T VOC Reful )
( 1.3974 0.0296 [ MTBE T ] 0.081507 [ RVP T ] )
Region 1:
VOC HotS = 1000 ( 0.006654 [ RVP 2 ] 0.08009 [ RVP T ] + 0.2846 )
VOC Diu = 1000 ( 0.007385 [ RVP 2 ] 0.08981 [ RVP T ] + 0.3158 )
VOC RunLos = 1000 ( 0.017768 [ RVP 2 ] 0.18746 [ RVP T ] + 0.6146 )
VOC Reful = 1000 ( 0.0004767 [ RVP T ] + 0.011859 )
Region 2:
VOC HotS = 1000 ( 0.006078 [ RVP 2 ] 0.07474 [ RVP T ] + 0.27117 )
VOC Diu = 1000 ( 0.004775 [ RVP 2 ] 0.05872 [ RVP T ] + 0.21306 )
VOC RunLos = 1000 ( 0.016169 [ RVP 2 ] 0.17206 [ RVP T ] + 0.56724 )
VOC Reful = 1000 ( 0.004767 [ RVP T ] + 0.011859 )
RVP T = Reid Vapor Pressure 0.145
RVP 2 = ( RVP T )
Benz T =

34.7 ( Mass of componenti )


i

MTBET =

34.7 ( Mass of componenti )


i

A-20

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-21

Butadiene (toxic emission)


Toxic emissions from Butadiene11 is calculated using the
following equations:
But B
(T B )
(T B )
- ( 0.444e 1 1 + 0.556e 2 2 )
ToxEmi But = ----------6
10

(A.23)

where:
T 1 = 0.0001552 ( Sulf T ) 0.007253 ( E200 T ) 0.014866 ( E300 T )
0.004005 ( Arom T ) + 0.028235 ( Olef T )
B 1 = 0.0001552 ( Sulf B ) 0.007253 ( E200 B ) 0.014866 ( E300 B )
0.004005 ( Arom B ) + 0.028235 ( Olef B )
T 2 = 0.043696 ( Olef T ) 0.060771 ( OxyT ) 0.007311 ( E200 T )
0.008058 ( E300 T ) 0.004005 ( Arom T )
B 2 = 0.043696 ( Olef B ) 0.060771 ( Oxy B ) 0.007311 ( E200 B )
0.008058 ( E300 B ) 0.004005 ( Arom B )
SulfT = sulfur content, range 0 to 500
AromT = aromatics content, range 0 to 50
OlefT = olefins content, range 0 to 25
Oxy T =

34.7 ( Mass of componenti )


i

ButB = 15.84 for winter, 9.38 for summer


SulfB = 338.0 for winter, 339.0 for summer
E200B = 50.0 for winter, 41.0 for summer
E300B = 83.0 for winter, 83.0 for summer
AromB = 26.4 for winter, 32.0 for summer
OlefB = 11.9 for winter, 9.2 for summer
OxyB = 0.0 for winter, 0.0 for summer

A-21

A-22

Petroleum Property Calculation

C To H Ratio
The C to H Ratio is calculated using Mass Blend.

Cetane Index (D976)


Cetane Index (D976)17 is calculated using the following
equation:
2

CetIdx 976 = 420.34 + 0.016 ( API ) + 0.192 ( API ) log 10 ( D86T50F )


2

+ 65.01 ( log [ D86T50F ] ) 0.0001809 ( D86T50F )

(A.24)

where:
D86T50F = D86 value in F at 50% volume

Cetane Index (D4737)


Cetane Index (D4737)17 is calculated using the following
equation:
CetIdx 4737 =
45.2 + 0.0892 ( T10Dif ) + ( 0.131 + 0.901 [ SG Corr ] ) T50Dif
+ ( 0.0523 0.42 [ SG Corr ] ) T90Dif
2

(A.25)

+ 0.00049 ( [ T10Dif ] [ T90Dif ] ) + 107.0 ( SG Corr )


+ 60.0 ( SG Corr )

where:
SG Corr = exp ( 3.5 [ SG 0.85 ] ) 1.0
T10Dif = D86T10 - 215.0
D86T10 = D86 value in C at 10% volume
T50Dif = D86T50 - 260.0
D86T50 = D86 value in C at 50% volume
T90Dif = D86T90 - 310.0

A-22

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-23

D86T90 = D86 value in C at 90% volume

Cetane Number
Cetane Number17 is calculated using the following equation:
Cetane Number = 5.28 + 0.371 ( CetIdx 4737 ) + 0.0112 ( CetIdx 4737 )

(A.26)

where:
CetIdx4737 = Cetane Index (4737), see Equation (A.25)

Cloud Point
Cloud Point Blending6,16 uses two options:
The Aspen HYSYS Refining Indexing Method uses the following
equations:
0.55

( vi Ci )
CIB = -----------------------------------1.8

CI = ( 1.8 CIB )

1
---------0.55

(A.27)

(A.28)

where:
CIB = Blended Cloud Point index
CI = Cloud Point index of stream in F
vi = Volume fraction of individual components
Ci = Cloud Point of individual components in K

A-23

A-24

Petroleum Property Calculation

The Crude Manager Indexing Method for Cloud Point uses the
following equations:
CIB = ( V i exp ( 0.035 C i ) )

(A.29)

CIB )CI = log (--------------0.035

(A.30)

There is also a backup method equation:

CIB i = 10.0

7.41 + 5.49 log 10 ( BP i ) 0.712 ( BP i )

0.315

0.133 ( SG i )

(A.31)

where:
BP = average boiling point ( R)
SG = specific gravity

Conradson Carbon Content


The Conradson Carbon Content3 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Copper Content
The Copper Content6 is calculated using Mass Blend.

DON (Clear)
DON is calculated at the Aspen HYSYS Refining stream level
using the following formula:

RON + MON
DON ( Clear ) = --------------------------------2

(A.32)

A-24

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-25

Driveability Index
The driveability index is calculated at the Aspen HYSYS Refining
stream level using the following formula:

DI = 1.5 TBP10F + 3.0 TBP50F + TBP90F

(A.33)

where:
DI = Driveability Index
TBP10 = 10 vol % TBP F
TBP50 = 50 vol % TBP F
TBP90 = 90 vol % TBP F

Flash Point
Flash Point Blending6,10,16 is calculated using the following
methods:
Flash Point: Indexing Method:
0.6

FIB =

( v i FIi )
---------------------------------------

(A.34)

1.8

FI = ( 1.8 F i )

1
------0.6

(A.35)

where:
FIB = Blended Flash Point
FIi = Flash Point of component i in K
vi = Volume fraction of component i
FI = Flash Point of stream in K

A-25

A-26

Petroleum Property Calculation

Flash Point: API2B7.1 Method


1
FP = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.84947
0.024209 + ------------------------------ + 3.4254e-3 log ( d86temp10 )
D86temp10

(A.36)

where:
FP = Flash point in K
D86temp10 = 10 vol% D86 temperature in K

This is also a back up method for calculating the flash point


when the indexing method fails (due to not having the Flash
point of individual components).
Flash Point: Riazi Cuts Method
This method calculates the Flash point of individual component
by following equation
1
FP i = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.84947
----------------- 0.024209 +
+ 3.4254e-3 log ( NBP i )
NBP i

(A.37)

where:
NBPi = Normal boiling point of component i in K
FPi = Flash point of component i in K

It then blends the flash point of individual components using the


Wickey18 method.
6.1188 + 2414.0
Flash Point Index = pow 10.0, -------------------------------------------
FP i + 230.56

(A.38)

2414.0
FP = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 230.56
( 6.1188 + log 10 ( FlashPointIndex ) )

(A.39)

A-26

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-27

where:
FP = Flash point of stream in K

Flash Point: Linear D86 Based Method


The Linear D86 based method uses a simple correlation:

FP = param1 + param2 D86_IBP + param3 D86_5

(A.40)

where:
D86_IBP = D86 IBP in C,
D86_5 = 5 vol % D86 in C
FP = Flash point of stream in C

Param1, param2, param3 and D86 IBP can be specified from the
correlation manager.

Freeze Point (Temperature)


Freeze Point temperature6,16 is calculated using the following
methods:
Freeze Point: Aspen HYSYS Refining Indexing Method
1
--3

FP = ( Vf max ) ( F max F min ) + F max

(A.41)

where:
Fmax = maximum freeze point of all components in K
Fmin = minimum freeze point of all components in K
Vfmax = maximum volume fraction among all components

A-27

A-28

Petroleum Property Calculation

Freeze Point: CrudeManager Indexing Method

FIB i = exp ( 2.35 + 0.03638 FI i )

(A.42)

FI = ( Ln ( FIB ) 2.35 ) 0.03638


where:
FIi = Freeze Point of component i in F
FIBi = Freeze Point Index for component i
FI = Freeze Point of stream in F

Formaldehyde (toxic emission)


Toxic emissions from Formaldehyde11 is calculated using the
following equations:
Form B
(T B )
(T B )
- ( 0.444e 1 1 + 0.556e 2 2 )
ToxEmi Form = ---------------6
10

(A.43)

where:
T 1 = 0.010226 ( E300 T ) 0.007166 ( Arom T ) + 0.0462131 ( MTBE T )
B 1 = 0.010226 ( E300 B ) 0.007166 ( Arom B ) + 0.0462131 ( MTBE B )
T 2 = 0.10226 ( E300 T ) 0.007166 ( Arom T ) + 0.0462131 ( MTBE T )
0.031352 ( Olef T )
B 2 = 0.10226 ( E300 B ) 0.007166 ( Arom B ) + 0.0462131 ( MTBE B )
0.031352 ( Olef B )
AromT = aromatics content, range 0 to 50
OlefT = olefins content, range 0 to 25
MTBET =

34.7 ( Mass of componenti )


i

FormB = 15.34 for winter, 9.7 for summer

A-28

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-29

E300B = 83.0 for winter, 83.0 for summer


AromB = 26.4 for winter, 32.0 for summer
OlefB = 11.9 for winter, 9.2 for summer

Kinematic Viscosity @ X C
Kinematic viscosity is calculated for the liquid phase. The value
for temperature can be specified in the correlation manager.
(The default value is 37.78 C (100 F)). First, pressure is
determined using TV flash (vapor fraction = 0) and then the
kinematic viscosity is determined at this condition.
Sometimes HYSYS TV flash returns two liquid phases and one
happens to be a very heavy liquid. The resulting viscosity for
this case is generally higher than than that of a single liquid
phase. If you are not expecting two liquid phases, you should
modify the maximum number of phase settings in the basis
environment.

Luminometer Number
The Luminometer Number is calculated using the following
formula:
L = 12.03 + 3.009 ( Smoke ) 0.0104 ( Smoke )

(A.44)

where:
L = The Luminometer Number
Smoke = the smoke point in mm.

Mean Average Boiling Point:


The following is the formula used to calculate the Mean Average
Boiling Point:
MeABP = 0.5 * (MABP + CBP)

A-29

A-30

Petroleum Property Calculation

where:
MABP = (Xmol * CentroidBP)
CBP =((Xvol*(

CentoridBP)))^3

Xmol = Mole Fraction


Xvol = Volume Fraction
CentroidBP = Centroid Boiling Temperature in Kelvin
MeABP = Mean Average Boiling Point in Kelvin

Note: this correlation uses the Centroid Boiling Temperature


point property shown on the stream page. If this property is
missing than this property is calculated by following formula:
CentroidBPi = 0.5 * (NormalBPi + NormalBPi-1)
where:
NormalBPi = Normal (Final) Boiling Point of component i (in
Kelvin)
NormalBPi-1= Normal (Final) Boiling Point of component i-1
(in Kelvin)
CentroidBPi = Calculated Centroid Boiling Point (in Kelvin)

For good results, it is important to have the component list


ordered by boiling point in ascending order.

Molecular Weight
The Molecular Weight is calculated using Mass Blend.

MON Clear
The MON Clear is calculated using Volume Blend.

Naphthenes By Volume
The Naphthenes By Volume6 is calculated using Volume Blend.

A-30

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-31

Naphthenes By Weight
The Naphthenes By Weight6,16 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Ni Content
The Ni Content6 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Nitrogen Content
The Nitrogen Content6 is calculated using Mass Blend.

NOx (emission)
Emissions from NOx11 is calculated using the following
equations:
NOx B
( T1 B1 )
( T2 B2 )
NOx = -------------( 0.738e
+ 0.262e
)
6
10

(A.45)

where:
T 1 = 0.0018571 ( Oxy T ) + 0.0006921 ( Sulf T ) + 0.0090744 ( RVP T )
+ 0.000931 ( E200 T ) + 0.00846 ( E300 T ) + 0.0083632 ( Arom T )
7

0.002774 ( Olef T ) 6.63 10 ( Sulf T ) 0.000119 ( Arom T )


+ 0.0003665 ( Olef T )

B 1 = 0.0018571 ( Oxy B ) + 0.0006921 ( Sulf B ) + 0.0090744 ( RVP B )


+ 0.000931 ( E200 B ) + 0.00846 ( E300 B ) + 0.0083632 ( Arom B )
7

0.002774 ( Olef B ) 6.63 10 ( Sulf B ) 0.000119 ( Arom B )


+ 0.0003665 ( Olef B )

T 2 = 0.000252 ( Sulf T ) 0.00913 ( Oxy T ) 0.01397 ( RVP T )


+ 0.000931 ( E200 T ) 0.00401 ( E300 T ) + 0.007097 ( Arom T )
5

0.00276 ( Olef T ) 7.995 10 ( Arom T ) + 0.0003665 ( Olef T )

A-31

A-32

Petroleum Property Calculation

B 2 = 0.000252 ( Sulf B ) 0.00913 ( Oxy B ) 0.01397 ( RVP B )


+ 0.000931 ( E200 B ) 0.00401 ( E300 B ) + 0.007097 ( Arom B )
5

0.00276 ( Olef B ) 7.995 10 ( Arom B ) + 0.0003665 ( Olef B )

SulfT = Sulphur content, range 0 to 500


AromT = Aromatics content, range 0 to 50
OlefT = Olefins content, range 0 to 25
OxyT = Oxy mod mass component 100 (For ethanol Oxymod =
0.347, MTBE Oxymod = 0.187, ETBE Oxymod = 0.157,
and TAME Oxymod = 0.157)
RVPT = 8.7 for winter, RVP 0.145 for summer
If you do not specify a Reid Vapor Pressure value, Aspen
HYSYS Refining automatically use 8.7 (the Winter value).
NOxB = 1540.0 for winter, 1340.0 for summer
RVPB = 8.7
OxyB = 0.0
SulfB = 338.0 for winter, 339.0 for summer
E200B = 50.0 for winter, 41.0 for summer
E300B = 83.0
AromB = 26.4 for winter, 32.0 for summer
OlefB = 11.9 for winter, 9.2 for summer

Olefins By Volume
The Olefins By Volume is calculated using Volume Blend.

Olefins By Weight
The Olefins By Weight3 is calculated using Mass Blend.

A-32

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-33

Paraffins By Volume
The Paraffins By Volume6 is calculated using Volume Blend.

Paraffins By Weight
The Paraffins By Weight3,16 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Polycyclic (toxic emission)


Toxic emissions from Polycyclic11 is calculated using the
following equations:
T1 B1
T2 B2
0.003355ToxEmi Poly = --------------------( 0.444e
+ 0.556e
)
6
10

(A.46)

where:
T 1 = 0.0005219 ( Sulf T ) 0.0003641 ( Oxy T ) + 0.0289749 ( RVP T )
2

+ 0.01447 ( E200 T ) + 0.0001072 ( E200 T ) 0.068624 ( E300 T )


2

+ 0.0004087 ( E300 T ) + 0.0323712 ( Arom T ) 0.002858 ( Olef T )


0.0003481 ( Arom T E300 T )
B 1 = 0.0005219 ( Sulf B ) 0.0003641 ( Oxy B ) + 0.0289749 ( RVP B )
2

0.01447 ( E200 B ) + 0.0001072 ( E200 B ) 0.068624 ( E300 B )


2

+ 0.0004087 ( E300 B ) + 0.0323712 ( Arom B ) 0.002858 ( Olef B )


0.0003481 ( Arom B E300 B )
T 2 = 0.043295 ( RVP T ) 0.003626 ( Oxy T ) 0.000054 ( Sulf T )
0.013504 ( E200 T ) 0.062327 ( E300 T ) + 0.0282042 ( Arom T )
2

0.002858 ( Olef T ) + 0.000106 ( E200 T ) + 0.000408 ( E300 T )

0.000287 ( Arom T E300 T )

A-33

A-34

Petroleum Property Calculation

B 2 = 0.043295 ( RVP B ) 0.003626 ( Oxy B ) 0.000054 ( Sulf B )


0.013504 ( E200 B ) 0.062327 ( E300 B ) + 0.0282042 ( Arom B )
2

0.002858 ( Olef B ) + 0.000106 ( E200 B ) + 0.000408 ( E300 B )

0.000287 ( Arom B E300 B )


SulfT = sulfur content, range 0 to 500
AromT = aromatics content, range 0 to 50
OlefT = olefins content, range 0 to 25
OxyT =

34.7 ( Mass of componenti )


i

RVP T = Reid Vapor Pressure 0.145


PolyB = 4.5 for winter, 3.04 for summer
SulfB = 338.0 for winter, 339.0 for summer
RVPB = 11.5 for winter, 8.7 for summer
E200B = 50.0 for winter, 41.0 for summer
E300B = 83.0
AromB = 26.4 for winter, 32.0 for summer
OlefB = 11.9 for winter, 9.2 for summer
OxyB = 0.0

Pour Point
The Pour Point6,16 of a stream may be calculated using either of
two methods:
Method 1 (Default)

PPidx = ( Vol i ( exp ( 73.0883 + 12.885 log ( PP i 1.8 ) ) )


PPidx 73.0883
log
------------------------------------------------

12.885
PP = exp ------------------------------------------------------1.8

(A.47)

(A.48)

A-34

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-35

where:
PPidx = Pour Point index
Voli = Volume Fraction of component i
PPi = Pour point of component i in K
PP = Pour point of component i in K

Method 2.

PPidx = Vol i exp ( PP i 0.03 )

(A.49)

log ( PPidx )
PP = ----------------------------0.03

(A.50)

where:
PPi = Pour Point of component i in F
Voli = Volume Fraction of component i
PPidx = Pour point index
PP = Pour point of stream in F

Refractive Index
The Refractive Index13 is calculated using Volume Blend

Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP)


For Flash at 37.5C, RVP is assumed to be the saturation
pressure.

RVP Blending1,3,8,14,15 is calculated using the following


equations:
pow ( V i RVP i ,0.8 )
RVPB = --------------------------------------------------------0.145

(A.51)

A-35

A-36

Petroleum Property Calculation

RVPI i = pow ( [ RVP i 0.145 ] ,1.25 )

(A.52)

where:
RVPi = RVP of individual components in kPa
RVPIi = RVP index of individual components in kPa
Vi = Volume fraction of individual components
RVPB = RVP of the blended component i

As a backup, RVP calculations reference the API 5B1.1 method

RON Clear
The RON Clear6 may be calculated using the following methods:
RON Clear: Indexing Method
RON - Index (RONidxi) is calculated from following equation:
RONidx i = a + b ( RON iC )

(A.53)

The values of parameters a, b and c are dependent upon the


value of RONi.
RONidx blends by volume and the RON of the blend are
calculated using the following reverse formula:

RON = exp (d,Log ( RONidx e ) f)

(A.54)

The values of parameters d, e and f are dependent upon the


value of RONidx.
where:
RONi = RON of component i
RONidxi = RON Index for component i

A-36

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-37

RON = RON of blend


RONidx = RON Index for blend
a, b, c, d, e and f = Parameters

RON Clear: see Volume Blend


RON Clear: see Healy Method for RON and MON.

RON Leaded
The RON Leaded is calculated using Volume Blend.

SG (60/60F)
The SG (60/60F)7 is calculated using Volume Blend.

Smoke Point
The Smoke Point2 is calculated using the following blend index:i
1
SPidx = Vol i --------

SP i

(A.55)

1
SP = --------------SPidx

(A.56)

where:
SPi =Smoke Point of Component i
Voli =Liquid Volume Fraction of Component i
SPidx = Smoke Point Index of Stream
SP = Smoke Point of Stream
A-37

A-38

Petroleum Property Calculation

Standard Liquid Density


Standard Liquid Density is calculated using following equation:

moleFrac i MW i
SLD = ( moleFrac i MW i ) ---------------------------------------------

Den i

(A.57)

where:
moleFraci = Mole Fraction of component i
MWi = Molecular Weight of component i
Deni = Density of component i in kg/m3
SLD = Standard liquid density of stream in kg/m3

Sulfur Content
Sulfur Content12 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Total Toxic Emission


Total toxic emission11 is calculated using the following equation:
ToxEmi Total = ToxEmi NonExBenz + ToxEmi Poly + ToxEmi But
+ ToxEmi Acet + ToxEmi Form + ToxEmi ExBenz

(A.58)

where:
ToxEmiNonExBenz = toxic emission from non-exhaust Benzene,
see Equation (A.22)
ToxEmiPoly = toxic emission from Polycyclic, see Equation
(A.46)
ToxEmiBut = toxic emission from Butadiene, see Equation
(A.23)
ToxEmiAcet = toxic emission from Acetaldehyde, see
Equation (A.20)

A-38

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-39

ToxEmiForm = toxic emission from Formaldehyde, see


Equation (A.43)
ToxEmiExBenz = toxic emission from exhaust Benzene, see
Equation (A.21)

Vanadium Content
Vanadium Content6 is calculated using Mass Blend.

Viscosity
Viscosity is calculated using standard HYSYS methods. (See The
Aspen HySYS Simulation Basis Reference Guide)

VOC (exhaust)
Exhaust from VOC11 is calculated using the following equations:
ExVOC B
( T 1 B1 )
( T 2 B2 )
( 0.444e
+ 0.556e
)
ExVOC = ---------------------6
10

(A.59)

where:
T 1 = 0.0005219 ( Sulf T ) 0.0003641 ( Oxy T ) + 0.0289749 ( RVP T )
2

+ 0.01447 ( E200 T ) + 0.0001072 ( E200 T ) 0.068624 ( E300 T )


2

+ 0.0004087 ( E300 T ) + 0.0323712 ( Arom T ) 0.002858 ( Olef T )


0.0003481 ( Arom T E300 T )
B 1 = 0.0005219 ( Sulf B ) 0.0003641 ( Oxy B ) + 0.0289749 ( RVP B )
2

0.01447 ( E200 B ) + 0.0001072 ( E200 B ) 0.068624 ( E300 B )


2

+ 0.0004087 ( E300 B ) + 0.0323712 ( Arom B ) 0.002858 ( Olef B )


0.0003481 ( Arom B E300 B )
T 2 = 0.043295 ( RVP T ) 0.003626 ( Oxy T ) 0.000054 ( Sulf T )
0.013504 ( E200 T ) 0.062327 ( E300 T ) + 0.0282042 ( Arom T )
2

0.002858 ( Olef T ) + 0.000106 ( E200 T ) + 0.000408 ( E300 T )

0.000287 ( Arom T E300 T )


A-39

A-40

Petroleum Property Calculation

B 2 = 0.043295 ( RVP B ) 0.003626 ( Oxy B ) 0.000054 ( Sulf b )


0.013504 ( E200 B ) 0.062327 ( E300 B ) + 0.0282042 ( Arom B )
2

0.002858 ( Olef B ) + 0.000106 ( E200 B ) + 0.000408 ( E300 B )

0.000287 ( Arom B E300 B )


SulfT = Sulphur content, range 0 to 500
AromT = Aromatics content, range 0 to 50
OlefT = Olefins content, range 0 to 25
OxyT = Oxy mod mass component 100 (For ethanol Oxymod =
0.347, MTBE Oxymod = 0.187, ETBE Oxymod = 0.157,
and TAME Oxymod = 0.157)
E200 T 65.52
E300 T 79.75 + 0.385 ( Arom T )
RVPT = 8.7 for winter, RVP 0.145 for summer
If you do not specify a Reid Vapor Pressure value, Aspen
HYSYS Refining automatically use 8.7 (the Winter value).
ExVOCB = 1341.0 for winter, 907.0 for summer
RVPB = 8.7
OxyB = 0.0
SulfB = 338.0 for winter, 339.0 for summer
E200B = 50.0 for winter, 41.0 for summer
E300B = 83.0
AromB = 26.4 for winter, 32.0 for summer
OlefB = 11.9 for winter, 9.2 for summer

A-40

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-41

VOC (total non-exhaust)


Total non-exhaust from VOC11 is calculated using the following
equations:

NonExVOC total = VOC HotS + VOC Diu + VOC RunLos + VOC Reful

(A.60)

where:
RVP T = Reid Vapor Pressure 0.145
RVP 2 = ( RVP T )

Region 1:
0.031807 ( RVP 2 ) 0.3568833 ( RVP T ) + 1.226859
NonExVOC total = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1000
[ 0.006654 ( RVP 2 ) 0.08009 ( RVP T ) + 0.2846 ]
VOC HotS = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1000
[ 0.007385 ( RVP 2 ) 0.08981 ( RVP T ) + 0.3158 ]
VOC Diu = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1000
[ 0.017768 ( RVP2 ) 0.18746 ( RVP T ) + 0.6146 ]
VOC RunLos = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1000
[ 0.0004767 ( RVP T ) + 0.011859 ]
VOC Reful = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------1000
Region 2:
0.027022 ( RVP 2 ) 0.300753 ( RVP T ) + 1.063329
NonExVOC total = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1000
[ 0.006078 ( RVP 2 ) 0.07474 ( RVP T ) + 0.27117 ]
VOC HotS = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1000
[ 0.004775 ( RVP 2 ) 0.05872 ( RVP T ) + 0.21306 ]
VOC Diu = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1000

A-41

A-42

Petroleum Property Calculation

[ 0.016169 ( RVP2 ) 0.17206 ( RVP T ) + 0.56724 ]


VOC RunLos = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1000
[ 0.004767 ( RVP T ) + 0.011859 ]
VOC Reful = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------1000

VOC (total)
Total VOC11 is calculated using the following equations:
VOC total = ExVOC + NonExVOC total (for Summer)

(A.61)

= ExVOC (for Winter)

Watson K
The Watson characterization factor, K, is defined by the
equation:

( MABP )1 3
K = -------------------------------Sp.Gr.

(A.62)

where:
MABP = the mean average boiling point in degrees Rankine
Sp.Gr. = the specific gravity ay 60 degrees f.
MoABP + CABP
MABP = -----------------------------------------2
MoABP = the molar average boiling point
=

XT

i i b

CABP = Cubic Average Boiling Point=

A-42

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-43

Where xi is the mole fraction of component i and xvi is the


volume fraction of component i.

Wax Content
The Wax Content6 is calculated using Mass Blend.

A.4 Comma Separated


Value Files
Comma Separated Values (.CSV) files are simple structured data
files. The files contain a table of components, and the
components molecular weight, normal boiling point, specific
gravity, and petroleum properties. The data in the file can be
accessed through Microsoft Excel. Aspen HYSYS Refining uses
CSV files to contain petroleum properties of individual assays.
Aspen HYSYS Refining can import the following information from
the CSV file:

A list of components.
Three critical physical properties: molecular weight,
centroid boiling point, and specific gravity. The rest of the
physical properties are calculated based on the three
critical properties.
All petroleum properties.
All gas chromatography properties.

A.4.1 Format of CSV Files


For Aspen HYSYS Refining to properly read and interpret the
data in a CSV file, there are some simple format rules that need
to be followed. These include the correct format, precise spelling
of component names, and the required units for the properties.
The following describes the general layout of a .csv file for an
assay:

A-43

A-44

Comma Separated Value Files

The first three lines of csv assay file contain name and date
information related to the file. For example:
Name,Assay-4
Created,19/07/2007 10:59:07
Modified,19/07/2007 11:00:03

The fourth row defines the table heading. The first column has
the heading Cpt (Component), followed by the property names
listed in sequence, separated by commas.
The remaining rows contain the corresponding component
names and property values in sequence, separated by commas:
Methane,n1,n2,n3,n4,etc,etc.

The correct case and spelling of the properties are required for
Aspen HYSYS Refining to properly import the assay values. Any
change in spelling results in Aspen HYSYS Refining reading the
in properties as user properties, and the property values will be
displayed in the UserProp column, instead of in the correct
property name column. Below are the proper designations for
Aspen HYSYS Refining properties:
Acidity, Aniline Point, Aromatics By Volume, Aromatics By
Weight, Asphaltene Content, Basic Nitrogen Content, Boiling
Temperature, C to H Ratio, C5 Mass, C5 Vol, Cloud Point,
Conradson Carbon Content, Copper Content, Copper/Iron
Content, Flash Point, Freeze Point, Mercaptan Sulfur
Content, Molecular Weight, MON (Clear), MON (Leaded),
Naphthenes By Volume, Naphthenes By Weight, Nickel
Content, Nitrogen Content, Olefins By Volume, Olefins By
Weight, Paraffins By Volume, Paraffins By Weight, Pour Point,
Refractive Index, Reid Vapour Pressure, RON (Clear), RON
(Leaded), Smoke Point, Sodium Content, Standard Liquid
Density, Sulfur Content, True Vapour Pressure, Vanadium
Content, Wax Content, Viscosity @ 50C, Benzene Content By
Volume, Benzene Content By Weight, Toluene Content By
Weight, Toluene Content By Volume, Isoparaffin By Weight
and Isoparaffin By Volume.

A-44

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-45

Property Units in CSV Files


The table below displays some of the properties in the Comma
Separated Valued (CSV) file and their corresponding units:
Property

Unit

Acidity

Wt/Wt

Aniline Point

Kelvin

Aromatics by Volume

Vol %

Aromatics by Weight

Weight %

Asphaltene Content

Weight %

Boiling Temperature

Kelvin

C to H Ratio

No Units

Centroid Boiling Temperature

Kelvin

Cloud Point

Kelvin

Composition

Mole Fraction

Conradson Carbon Content

Weight %

Copper Content

ppmWt

Copper/Iron Content

ppmWt

Flash Point

Kelvin

Freeze Point

Kelvin

Iron Content

ppmWt

IsoParaffins by Volume

Volume %

Luminometer Number

No Units

Mercaptan Sulfur Content

Weight %

Molecular Weight

No Units

MON (Clear)

No Units. Octane Number

MON (Leaded)

No Units

Naphthenes by Volume

Volume %

Naphthenes by Weight

Weight %

Nickel Content

ppmWt

Nitrogen Content

ppmWt

Olefins by Volume

Volume %

Olefins by Weight

Weight %

Paraffins by Volume

Volume %

Paraffins by Weight

Weight %

Pour Point

Kelvin

Refractive Index

No Units

Reid Vapor Pressure

Kilo Pascal (kPa)

RON (Clear)

No Units

RON (Leaded)

No Units
A-45

A-46

Comma Separated Value Files

Property

Unit

Smoke Point

Millimeters

Sodium Content

Weight %

Standard Liquid Density

Kg/m3

Sulfur Content

Weight %

True Vapor Pressure

Kilo Pascal (kPa)

Vanadium Content

ppmWt

Viscosity @ 100C

CentiStokes (cSt)

Viscosity @ 50C

CentiStokes (cSt)

Wax Content

Weight %

You must use the correct/required units while specifying the


property values in the CSV file for Aspen HYSYS Refining to
interpret the values correctly.

A.4.2 File Versions


The first level branch of the petroleum assay XML file displays
the file version, as shown in the figure below.
Figure A.2

You have to click the Plus icon


to expand the Version branch
to view the second level branch.

A-46

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-47

A.4.3 File Types


The second level branch of the petroleum assay XML file displays
the file type, that indicates whether the file was created,
exported, imported, and so on.
Figure A.3

You have to click the Plus icon


view the third level branch.

to expand the Type branch to

A.4.4 Crude and Component


Information
The third level branch of the petroleum assay XML file displays
the following:

Name of the petroleum assay


Description of the petroleum assay
Date of when the petroleum assay was created
Date of when the petroleum assay was last modified

A-47

A-48

Comma Separated Value Files

List of components in the petroleum assay

Figure A.4

You have to click the Plus icon


to expand the Crude and
Component branch to view the information in each branch.
In the Component branch, each individual component has a
Y or N value for the active state.

The Y indicates the component is being used in the


petroleum assay.
The N indicates the component is not being used in
the petroleum assay.

In the Component branch, the list of components are split into


two types:

Library components. These are the standard and default


components provided by Aspen HYSYS Refining. Each
library component branch contains the name of the
component and indicator on active state.
Hypothetical components. These are the non-standard
crude oil components. Each hypothetical component
branch contains the name of the component, indicator on
active state, indicator on the component type (in other
words, is it a hypocomponent? Yes or No), final boiling
point temperature (in Kelvin), and initial boiling point
temperature.

A-48

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-49

A.4.5 Individual Component


Information
The forth level branch displays all the physical and petroleum
properties of each individual component.
Figure A.5

You have to click the Plus icon


to expand the Individual
Component branch to view the property information in each
branch.
Each Property branch contains the name of the property and
the property may or may not have a value. You can specify or
modify the value of a property by clicking in between the two
quotation marks and typing in the new value.

A-49

A-50

Comma Separated Value Files

HYSYS User Property Aliases for


Aspen HYSYS Refining
When you import a HYSYS assay into Aspen HYSYS Refining, the
user properties defined in the HYSYS oil environment should be
transferred to their corresponding Aspen HYSYS Refining
properties. However, because HYSYS names are limited to 12
characters, they will frequently not match their corresponding
Aspen HYSYS Refining names, which may be longer.
As a workaround for this, Aspen HYSYS Refining is set up to
recognize certain under-12 character property names from
HYSYS, and to pass their values to the correct Aspen HYSYS
Refining property names.
After the HYSYS assay import, you should rename the HYSYS
user properties using the aliases shown below, so their values
will be applied to their associated Aspen HYSYS Refining
properties. The table lists the Aspen HYSYS Refining user
property names on the left, and the associated aliases on the
right.
When the HYSYS user property is renamed using the alias, and
the assay is recalculated, the imported HYSYS properties are
applied to the correct Aspen HYSYS Refining property names.
Target Aspen HYSYS
Refining Property

Use this HYSYS Alias

Acidity

Acidity W

Aniline Point

Aniline Pt

Assay - Aromatics Vol Pct

Aromatics V

Assay - Aromatics Wt Pct

Aromatics W

Asphaltene Content

Asphaltene

Basic Nitrogen Content

Basic N2

C to H Ratio

C/H Ratio

Cloud Point

Cloud Pt

Conradson Carbon Content

Conradson C

Copper Content

Copper

Cetane Number

Cetane No

Flash Point

Flash Pt

Freeze Point

Freeze Pt
A-50

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-51

Target Aspen HYSYS


Refining Property

Use this HYSYS Alias

MON (Clear)

MON-Clear

MON (Leaded)

MON-Leaded

Assay - Naphthenes Vol Pct

Naphthene V

Assay - Naphthenes Wt Pct

Naphthene W

Nickel Content

Nickel

Nitrogen Content

Nitrogen

Assay - Olefins Vol Pct

Olefins V

Assay - Olefins Wt Pct

Olefins W

Assay - Paraffins Vol Pct

Paraffins V

Assay - Paraffins Wt Pct

Paraffins W

Pour Point

Pour Pt

Refractive Index

Ref Idx

Reid Vapour Pressure

RVP

RON (Clear)

RON-Clear

RON (Leaded)

RON-Leaded

Smoke Point

Smoke Point

Sulfur Content

Sulfur

Mercaptan Sulfur Content

Mercaptan S

Sodium Content

Na

True Vapour Pressure

TVP

Vanadium Content

Vanadium

Iron Content

Iron

Luminometer Number

Lumino No

C5 Mass

C5 W

C5 Vol

C5 V

Viscosity @ 38C

Visc @ 38C

Viscosity @ 50C

Visc @ 50C

Viscosity @ 60C

Visc @ 60C

Viscosity @ 100C

Visc @ 100C

Wax Content

Wax

A.5 Spiral Files


The Spiral file contains the exact same information as the CSV
and XML file. The only difference is that the format and layout of
the information is structured so the information can be read by
the Crude Manager software. Refer to the Crude Manager help
system for more information.
A-51

A-52

References

Aspen HYSYS Refining imports the following information from


the Spiral file:

List of components.
Three critical physical properties: molecular weight,
centroid boiling point, and specific gravity. The rest of the
physical properties are calculated based on the three
critical properties.
All petroleum properties.

A.6 References
1

31.0 API Iranian Heavy Crude Oil, Chevron Oil Trading Company,
1971.

Albahri, T.A., Riazi, M.R., and Algattan, A.A., 2003, Analysis of


Quality of Petroleum Fuels, Energy & Fuels, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp.
689-693.

Aspen Physical Property System 12.1 Physical Property Data,


AspenTech Support, Aspen Technology Inc., viewed: 21 April 2006,
http://support.aspentech.com/CustomerSupport/Documents/
Engineering/AES%2012.1%20Product%20Documentation/
AprSystem%2012.1/
APRSYS%20121%20Physical%20Property%20Data.pdf

Auckland, M.H.T., and Charnock, D.J., The Development of Linear


Blending Indices for Petroleum Properties, J. Institute Petroleum,
Vol. 55, No. 545 (September 1969), pp. 322-329.

Baird, Cud Thomas IV, 1989, Guide to Petroleum Product Blending,


HPI Consultants Inc., Texas.

Crude Name: Sample Assay PTI Assay IF: SMP.01.2002, 2003,


Specializing In Crude Assay Information, PetroTech intel, viewed:
21 April 2006, http://www.petrotechintel.com/pti.data/
components/std_assay.pdf

DIADEM 2004, version 2.3.0, DIPPR Information and Data Evaluation


Manager for the Design Institute for Physical Properties, BYU DIPPR
Lab, e-mail: dippr@byu.edu.

Fasullo, P.A., Rvp Reductions Would Harm U.S. Gas-Processing


Industry, Oil Gas Journal, Vol. 86, No. 5 (February 1, 1988), pp.
51-56.

Healy, W.C., Maassen, C.W., and Peterson, R.T., A New Approach to


Blending Octanes. API Midyear Meeting, Division of Refining, New
York (May 27, 1959).
A-52

Petroleum Methods & Correlations A-53

10

Hu, J., and Burns, A.B., New Method Predicts Cloud, Pour, Flash
Points of Distillate Blends, Hydrocarbon Processing, Vol. 49, No. 11
(November 1970), pp. 213-216.

11

Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives, 2001 CFR Title 29, Volume 8,
National Archives and Records Administration, Code of Federal
Regulations,viewed: 21 April 2006, http://www.access.gpo.gov/
nara/cfr/waisidx_01/40cfr80_o1.html

12

Riazi, M.R., Nasimi, N., and Roomi, Y.A., 1999, Estimation of Sulfur
Content of Petroleum Products and Crude Oils, Ind. Eng. Chem.
Res., Vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 4507-4512

13Riazi,

Mohammad R., and Roomi, Yousef A., 2001, Use of Refractive


Index in the Estimation of Thermophysical Properties of
Hydrocarbons and Petroleum Mixtures:, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol.
40, No. 8, pp. 1975-1984

14Stewart,

W.E., More About Figuring RVP of Blends, Petroleum


Refiner, Vol. 40, No. 10 (October 1960), p. 109.

15

Stewart, W. E., Predict RVP of Blends Accurately, Petroleum Refiner,


Vol. 38, No. 6 (June 1959), p. 231.

16Strategic

Petroleum Reserve Crude Oil Assay Manual, 2nd ed.,


Strategic Petroleum Reserve Crude Oil Assays, U.S. Department of
Energy, Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Strategic Petroleum
Reserve Headquarters, viewed: 21 April 2006, http://
www.spr.doe.gov/reports/docs/crudeoilassaymanual.pdf

17Technical

Data Book: Petroleum Refining, American Petroleum


Institute, Vol 1 - III, May 1985.

18

R.O.Wickey, D.H. Chittenden, Hydrocarbon Processing, 42, 6, 1963,


157-158.

A-53

A-54

References

A-54

Index
A
access Calibration environment 4-22
access Catalytic Reformer environment 4-20
access Hydrocracker environment 5-20
access Hydrocracker sub operations 5-21
access Hydrocracker Wizard 5-21
access Reformer Configuration Wizard 4-21
access Results property view 5-22
Assay Manipulator 3-2
add 3-3
assay tab 3-6
change props page 3-7
composition page 3-9
connections page 3-4
create 3-3
design tab 3-4
notes page 3-5
options page 3-6
parameters page 3-5
property view 3-3
shift props page 3-8
user variables page 3-5
worksheet tab 3-11
B
Blend
centroid boiling point A-4
heat of formation A-5
liquid density A-4
molecular weight A-3
physical properties A-2
specific gravity A-4
Blending Rules 2-7
user define 2-23
Blends
Healy method A-8
mass A-6
mole A-7
MON A-8
RON A-8
volume A-7
C
Calibration
advanced options 4-102
catalyst 4-98
catalyst results 4-118
catalyst weight 4-104

coke laydown 4-104


configure reactor 4-92
control variables 4-107
data set 4-87
design reactor 4-91
feed blend results 4-115
feed condition 4-96
feed data 4-94
feed properties 4-95
feed type 4-94
heater temperatures 4-106
initial parameter value 4-107
manage data set 4-87, 4-91
objective function 4-108
operation measurement 4-103
operation variables 4-95
overall results 4-121
parameter 4-107
pinning percent 4-104
product property results 4-110
product yield results 4-116
property view 4-86
reactor control 4-97
reactor geometry 4-93
reactor pressure 4-105
reactor results 4-117
recontactor 4-98
recontactor results 4-119
results 4-109
run 4-87
select data set 4-88
sigma values 4-108
solver commands 4-102
solver console 4-102
solver options 4-101
solver scripts 4-102
summary results 4-120
validation wizard 4-89
Calibration Set Library
add set 4-82, 5-64
clone set 4-82, 5-64
delete set 4-82, 5-64
edit set 4-81, 5-63
export set 4-82, 5-64
import set 4-82, 5-64
property view 4-81, 5-63
Catalytic Reformer 4-3
add 4-19
advanced options 4-43

I-1

I-2

calibration 4-23, 4-86


calibration environment 4-23
calibration factor set 4-81
calibration factors page 4-31
calibration run 4-23, 4-87
catalyst 4-36
catalyst activity model 4-13
catalyst results 4-54
catalytic reformer environment 4-21
coke make model 4-11
components 4-6
configure reactor 4-59
connections page 4-30
create 4-19
deactivate catalyst 4-9
delete 4-20
design 4-30
environments 4-16
export calibration factors to file 4-111
factor set 4-82
feed 4-33
feed blend results 4-48
feed characterization 4-4
feed type library 4-56
feed type property view 4-80
fractionator 4-44
fractionator specs 4-45
main environment 4-17
modify calibration factor set 4-112
notes page 4-32
product property results 4-52
product yield results 4-49
property view 4-29
push calibration factors to simulation 4111
reaction expressions 4-9
reaction paths 4-7
reactor control 4-34
reactor design 4-59
reactor feed 4-61
reactor feed condition 4-65
reactor feed properties 4-63
reactor feed type 4-62
reactor geometry 4-60
reactor operation 4-64
reactor results 4-53
reactor section 4-33, 4-58
reactor temperature control 4-15
recontactor 4-38

recontactor results 4-54


reformer configuration wizard 4-24
results 4-47
solve commands 4-42
solver console 4-42
solver options 4-40
solver scripts 4-42
summary results 4-47
system pressure control 4-14
template 4-18
theory 4-6
zone pressure 4-45
Characterized GC Data Results
property view 2-38
Comma Separated Value File See CSV File
component level
Aniline Point A-9
aromatics A-9
asphaltene A-10
basic nitrogen A-10
C to H ratio A-10
Cloud Point A-10
Conradson carbon A-11
copper A-11
Flash Point A-11
Freeze Point A-11
molecular weight A-12
MON Clear A-12
naphthenes A-12
Ni A-12
Nitrogen A-12
olefins A-12
paraffins A-13
Pour Point A-13
refractive index A-13
Reid Vapor Pressure A-14
RON Clear A-14
RON Leaded A-14
rvp A-14
sg A-15
Smoke Point A-15
specific gravity A-15
sulfur A-15
vanadium A-15
viscosity A-15
wax content A-16
CSV File A-43
format A-43
layout A-43

I-2

I-3

property units A-44


D
Data Set Manager
add data set 4-91
clone data set 4-91
delete data set 4-91
property view 4-87, 4-91
rename data set 4-91
E
Edit Property Distribution Parameters
property view 2-38
Editing Properties
property view 2-32
F
Factor Set
fractionator page 5-66
property view 4-82, 5-64
reactor page 5-66
Flowsheet Menu
notes manager 1-9
H
HCR Configuration Wizard 5-23
calibration factors 5-27
configuration 5-24
geometry 5-26
HCR Reactor Section
catalyst deactivation page 5-55
configuration page 5-49
design tab 5-49
feed blend page 5-59
feed data tab 5-51
feeds page 5-54
geometry page 5-50
hydrogen balance page 5-62
hydrogen system page 5-61
library page 5-51
notes page 5-50
operation tab 5-53
product properties page 5-60
product yields page 5-60
properties page 5-52
property view 5-48
reactor page 5-61
recycle gas loop page 5-55

results tab 5-59


solver console page 5-58
solver options page 5-56
specifications page 5-54
Hydrocracker 5-3
add 5-19
calibration factor set 5-22
Calibration Set Library 5-63
catalyst deactivation page 5-35
components 5-6
connections page 5-29
create 5-19
deactivation of catalyst 5-16
delete 5-20
design tab 5-29
environments 5-17
Factor Set 5-64
feed blend page 5-41
feed characterization 5-3
feed page 5-32
feed type library 5-46
fractionator page 5-45
fractionator tab 5-39
HCR configuration wizard 5-23
HCR environment 5-21
HCR reactor section 5-48
hydrogen balance page 5-46
hydrogen system page 5-44
main environment 5-18
notes page 5-31
product properties page 5-43
product yields page 5-42
property view 5-20, 5-28
reaction kinetic expression 5-14
reaction kinetics 5-6
reaction paths 5-11
reactor page 5-44
reactor section tab 5-31
reactor temperature control 5-16
recycle gas loop page 5-34
Results 5-67
results tab 5-41
solver console page 5-38
solver options page 5-36
specification page 5-34
specs page 5-39
system pressure control 5-16
template 5-18
tuning factors page 5-30

I-3

I-4

zone pressures page 5-39


I
ISOM Unit Operation theory 11-2
Isomerization Unit Operation 11-2
N
Notes
add 1-8
Notes Manager 1-9
add 1-10
edit 1-10
search 1-10
view 1-10
Notes page 1-7
Notes tab 1-7
O
Optimization Object
property view 9-26
P
Petroleum Assay
analysis tab 2-40
blending rules 2-23
centroid point 2-4
edit properties 2-32
estimation tab 2-40
export 2-22
gas chromatography 2-33
GC data results 2-38
gc data tab 2-33
import 2-8
notes tab 2-41
PONA tree diagram 2-35
property view 2-29
Petroleum Assay Utility 10-3
add 10-4
boiling curves page 10-7
connections page 10-5
create 10-4
delete 10-4
design tab 10-5
dynamics tab 10-10
edit 10-4
plots page 10-8
properties page 10-8
results tab 10-7

Petroleum Assays 2-2


Spiral file 2-23
Petroleum Assays Utility
notes page 10-6
Petroleum Column 6-2
add 6-10
condenser handling 6-7
conventions 6-3
create 6-10
installation 6-10
plotted results page 6-24
property view 6-11
tbp cut points 6-8
theory 6-4
water handling 6-7
Petroleum Distillation Column 6-2
property view 6-11
Petroleum Feeder 7-2
add 7-2
connections page 7-4
connections tab 7-4
notes page 7-4
parameters page 7-5
parameters tab 7-5
property view 7-2
user variables tab 7-6
worksheet tab 7-6
Petroleum Properties A-5
component level A-5, A-9
Healy method A-8
mass blend A-6
mole blend A-7
MON blend A-8
RON blend A-8
stream level A-6, A-16
volume blend A-7
Petroleum Yield Shift Reactor 8-2
base shift page 8-9
connections page 8-5
design tab 8-4
notes page 8-7
product spec tab 8-7
property view 8-3
reactor params page 8-6
tbp curves page 8-10
theory 8-2
user variables page 8-7
worksheet tab 8-11
PIMS Support Utility 10-21

I-4

I-5

Prediction
advanced options 4-102
catalyst 4-98
catalyst weight 4-104
coke laydown 4-104
configure reactor 4-92
design reactor 4-91
feed condition 4-96
feed data 4-94
feed properties 4-95
feed type 4-94
heater temperatures 4-106
operation measurement 4-103
operation variables 4-95
pinning percent 4-104
reactor control 4-97
reactor geometry 4-93
reactor pressure 4-105
recontactor 4-98
solver commands 4-102
solver console 4-102
solver options 4-101
solver scripts 4-102
Product Blender 9-2
add 9-5
automatic pressure assignment 9-9
connections page 9-7
connections tab 9-7
constraints configuration page 9-17
constraints inputs page 9-18
constraints results page 9-20
create 9-5
inlet flow ratios 9-8
notes page 9-7
objectives page 9-22
optimization calculation mode 9-3
optimization tab 9-10
optimizer configuration page 9-23
optimizer results page 9-25
parameters page 9-8
parameters tab 9-8
pressure 9-9
property view 9-5
simulation calculation 9-8
simulation calculation mode 9-3
switching between simulation and
optimization 9-4
theory 9-3
user variables tab 9-26

variables configuration page 9-12


variables inputs page 9-13
variables results page 9-15
worksheet tab 9-26
R
Reactor Section
advanced options 4-72
catalyst 4-67
catalyst results 4-78
configuration 4-59
control 4-66
design 4-59
feed blend 4-74
feed condition 4-65
feed data 4-61
feed properties 4-63
feed type 4-62
geometry 4-60
notes page 4-61
operation 4-64
product properties 4-76
product yields 4-75
property view 4-58
reactor results 4-77
recontactor 4-68
recontactor results 4-78
results 4-73
solver commands 4-71
solver console 4-71
solver options 4-70
solver scripts 4-71
summary results 4-73
RefSYS
common property views 1-5
utilities 10-2
RefSYS Object Palette 1-6
RefSYS Options 1-2
Results
feed blend page 5-67
hydrogen balance page 5-70
hydrogen system page 5-70
product properties page 5-69
product yields page 5-68
property view 5-67
reactor page 5-69
S
Select Feed Location

I-5

I-6

property view 5-33


Spiral file A-51
stream level
acetaldehyde toxic emission A-16
Aniline Point A-17
aromatics A-18
asphaltene A-18
basic nitrogen A-18
benzene toxic emission A-19
benzene toxic exhaust emission A-18
butadiene toxic emission A-20
C to H ratio A-21
Cetane Index 4737 A-22
Cetane index 967 A-21
Cetane Number A-22
Cloud Point A-23
Conradson carbon A-24
copper A-24
DON(Clear) A-24
Driveability Index A-24
Flash Point A-24
formaldehyde toxic emission A-27
Freeze Point A-26
Luminometer Number A-28
molecular weight A-30
MON Clear A-30
naphthenes A-30
Ni A-30
nitrogen A-30
NOx emission A-30
olefins A-32
paraffins A-32
polycyclic toxic emission A-32
Pour Point A-33
refractive index A-34
Reid Vapor Pressure A-35
RON Clear A-35
RON Leaded A-36
rvp A-35
sg A-36
Smoke Point A-36
specific gravity A-36
Standard Liquid Density A-37
sulfur A-37
total toxic emission A-38
vanadium A-38
viscosity A-38
VOC exhaust A-39
VOC total A-41

VOC total non-exhaust A-40


wax content A-42
Swing Cut Utility 10-11
add 10-11
assay table tab 10-17
create 10-11
delete 10-12
edit 10-12
export assay properties 10-12
light ends tab 10-16
pims formate tab 10-19
property calculation 10-18
select assay property 10-18
specification tab 10-13
T
TBP Cut Points 6-8
U
User Variable
add 1-13
User Variables page 1-11
User Variables tab 1-11
utility
petroleum assay 10-3
PIMS Support 10-21
swing cut 10-11
W
Worksheet tab 1-6
X
XML file
component A-47
crude A-47
first branch A-46
forth branch A-49
individual component A-49
second branch A-47
third branch A-47
type A-47
version A-46

I-6