Anda di halaman 1dari 598


5^ai^O I02^^3f0



2 ,900.


Neuchatel Asphalte Co.,





6 9

O w n e rs o f -------------------------------- "


W orld-R enow ned









A l l W ork C arried O u t by E xpert W o rkm en a n d Q uaranieed.



REAL Asphalte












li) O N ,n m D
dH D

[r iA M E L O

E .T C

Wa l l DflDE.DOfl^D
b ^ -/ Flimdedo L a /il



F U R h lT U R E

ft W H R O C K E t C %

CRnPTSnEn ^ ;


C A R P E T S ,H f it1G m G S ,r iT n E I 1T S *
D E C O R flT IO n S & EV ER Y D E S C R IP T IO n
OF A R T F U R n iS H in G ^ , , , , ,


B Z4/-Z49
47-249 UULLinS


P ages

- vi, xlvi

A cetylene G enerators A


Cem ent

in g

a t e r ia l s ,

n g in e e r s
e n c in g

ir e

i r e -p r o o f

ow er

C o v e r in g (A s b e s t ic , F


e l io g r a p h e r s

e m e n t)

xxii, x x x v i , xx x v iii
iv, x v i, xviii, xl, x lv
x iv , x x v i, xx x v i

it t in g s

xx ii

A p p l ia n c e s

e a d l ig h t s ,


S t a i n e d G l a s s , & c.

G r a tes, F


a in t s ,

C e il in g s

a r n is h e s ,



e in f o r c e d

S a n it a r y

i r e -p l a c e s


a pers

C o v e r in g s




viii, xi, x iii, x i x

XX, x x v i, x x v iii

xii, xii, x liii

im b e r

x iv , xl

- XX, x x ii, x x x ix

T e c h n ic a l I n s t it u t io n
T il e s

xiv , xlii

n g in e e r s


iii, x v ii, xix, x x v i

x liv



Stoves, R

xi, XV

xiv, XXV, x xvi, x x x v i , x lv ii

- X, x x x i

C oncrete



- x x i , x xiv, xxvi

E lev ators


a n t e l p ie c e s ,


i b r o -C

u r n is h in g s

l e c t r ic

L if t s


e a t in g

xi, x iii

E x t in g u is h e r s

F u r n it u r e

- xii, xlii
- xxxvii, xxxviii

I nstru m en ts, &c



G as

XXX, x x x v iii

I ron

o o f in g

L ig h t in g

l e c t r ic


a c h in e r y

Corrugated R

ii, vi

v ii

C oncrete M

D raw

a v in g



h it e


h it e

L ead, W


E x t e r m in a t o r
h it e

Z in c

x v ii, XXXV


L e .> ^ d e .r

. Ca r b i d e , F e e d

7 A c e t y l e n e G e n e r a to r
T h a t HAS R E V O L U T I O N I S E D
, a c e t y l e n e LICHTING


B J S IM *


5 4 3 ru N O E R s La n e




H I G H L Y - P R O V E D , Economic, and Impervious
for Every Description of SOLID
such as for . . . .


---------------------- D A I R I E S ------------------------F A C T O R IE S

C E L L A R S , &c.


Also for W I N D O W
S IL L S ,
P la in a n d


C O P IN G S , &c.

C o lo re d .

V I M C E M T 'S

QranoHthic Jpaving Co.,



S T .,


IVesf A u stra lia n J^epresentative : J. F. V I N C E N T , L ake S treet, P E R T H .










, ^
Steel Works Ltd.,



C onstructional

L a rg e Stocks of
Rolled Steel Joists
Steel Channels
Angles, Tees, &c.
o f S ie m e n s <S)itartin P ro cess.



f. H. LEMON, Manager.


In S H E E T S , 4 ft. X 4 ft. and 8 ft. x 4 ft. A bsolutely
Fire-proof. P rice is. lod. light, 2s. 4d. heavy per sq. yard.

Congo Never - Leak Roofing.

In R O L L S , 72 ft. long by 3 ft. wide. / 4 -ply, 18s.; i-ply,
24s. 6 d .; 2-ply, 3 1 s.; 3-ply, 40s.; w ith Cem ent and N a ils
free. E ach R o ll covers 200 square feet, allow ing for laps.

Alpinite.------------------------ T h e Cooling M aterial for Ceilings and W alls. Fire-proof,

Rot-proof, Sound-proof. Sold in bales only for 25s., each
containing sufficient to cover 40 square yards 4 inches deep.

Concrete Building Machinery.

B L O C K S 9 in. deep x 10 in. wide x 32 in. long, or
C orner Blocks, made in a few m inutes. Inspection invited.

Anchor Fencing M aterials.. .

A ll K inds and D esigns, for C ountry or
for Prices or E stim ates.

S uburbs.

A sk


Tr a ve l l i ng Re p r e s e n t a t i v e :


W illia m


iT lC L D V I U K lM r .




w ' Y o m o c





1 rios'l


S e c u r e

M o s t

a M oaT

5 ar\iIaT:y

A M o a T

A rtialic

3 M oaT

L c o A o m to d l

CAmOGUE i l l m

/MD OuOMlWMa FELL - - -

Y o u fie



281Lw % D m E 5 i


iv iM ia rE M )

Hydraulic and General

Engineers.------S o le y J g e n ts f o r

D ic to r ia . .

C arnegie Steel C o.s STRUCTURAL MATERIAL.

Archd. Sm ith & S teven ss ELECTRIC ELEVATORS.
S p e c ia ltie s ............................................................................................

A ll

C lasses




Girders, Joists,
Bridges, Roofs,
Escape Stairs, Doors, Collapsible Gates, &c.
A m erican

Steel and W ire C o.s



. . and POWER LIFTS. . .

4 " +



Paterson & Co.,

Tracings and Drawings Reproduced.



d r a u g h t s m e n s





su n d ries

C o l l in s

Telephone 3773.


specia lity

St r e e t ,

M E L B O U R N E .


Saw, Planing, and Moulding Mills.





Supply Every Description





Corner of L o r i m e r & F e r r a r s S t s . ,






M a kers





. . . OF . . .

Rolled Steel Joists,

Tees, Angles, Bars,
Plates, &c.

^Ott$ K.EPT IN STOCK at their H ead Australasian

Engineering W orks,


W here all kinds of Constructional W ork,


A re


-4 )--------------------



---------------------------------- 0




A re maintained by the Sole Agents for N ew South W ales,





0 O.



E xpert

F ib r o u s

P la s te r

J l r t

S t u d io s, S h o w r o o m s, a n d

TELEPH O NE 3 1 3 3 ,


T )e c o ra to r s.

W orks ,

Mo d d l e

W est

S treet,

R i c h m o n d , V ict.


^ M a n u fa c tu re rs a n d Im porters o f . . . .

Mantelpieces, Grates,
and Tiled Fire-Places.





Sanitary and Lavatory W are, Baths, Sinks, &c.,

English and American Lock Furniture and Fittings.
Cooking Stoves and Ranges, including H ot W ater Installation, in all
S ole J ig e n ts for . . . .



Lumbeys Solar Boilers and Radiators for H o t-W ater Heating ; and
John W right & Co.s Eureka Gas-Stoves, Fires, Grillers, and Irons.


W orks : Park



M elbourne.

C o. h td.
H ead

O ffice:

Victorian A g e n ts :




L T D .,

Bourke St.,


O u r Machines are absolutely

O ver

^ ^


stalled. ^ ^
T h e largest E le
vator Firm in
f - f
W e may be con
sulted with refer
ence to proposed
Elevator W ork of
every description.



V ---------------------


V \ ''



c o sa i-T

c j3 E T
WighTs LAt\e

r < 0 ! a > M 1 1 3 ) ln ! E ,! 5 >


TEb4 0 8 I



iMiif ji j a i u i f u t i p /



The GRINNELL Automatic Sprinkler

and Fire Alarm System . . .
R e d u c e s Insurance R r e m iu m s 2 0 per cent.

T he

Kirkby Therm ostat Fire A larm System . . .

y ip p r o v e d hy Insurance C om panies.


----------------W IRED G LASS W I N D O W S .---------------


Simplex Chemical Fire Extinguisher . . . .

a n u fa c tu red in accordance with Insurance T legulations.




413 C o ll in s S t r e e t .

17 B o n d S t r e e t .

30 N o rth T e rra c e .




Glasgow head ^ Colour W orks,






(M elb o u rn e u e p o t :

486 Collins Street.

T el.

4 ,5 0 7



a i|d


Q u a litj?

F u r n is l]in g



H O M E -S C H E M E T H A T

h e illustration shows one of the

many varied ways of Decorating
a Room in the style of Louis
X V I. with our Panel Papers.

T h e variety of W all Papers,

Hangings, Carpets, and Furniture
which we carry in stock offers a wide
field of choice, and enables one to
select the correct shade to harmonize
as a whole.
By going to Robertson & Moffats
for the Furniture and O rnam enta
tions of the Home, you command art
istic excellence, enduring quality, and
the maximum of commercial value.

C o m p lete

C a ta lo g u e

F u rn itu re
P o s t F ree.


H ouse



Bourke St.--------------Melbourne.



< S C O T T

r n im m M m ii
?-0 ijowntxstl


6 1 8 -6 2 0 -6 2 2 -6 2 4




mmm^D E A N S



m m V





8 0 0 o r 2 1 0.




(O ff 3 2 8 C o l l i n s St.)







S u it



whom an




C a t a l o g u e s and P a t t e r n s


E R S K I N E S S H E E T A 8 P H A L T E



W ater H eaters

Are known throughout Australasia and

New Zealand as the Best and Safest
Heaters on the Market_________


Douglas &Co.,

- JA S .

A d e laid e


Q ueensland

- B R IS B A N E

N ew castle


P e rth

- H O L L O W A Y , B U R B R ID G E & C O .

& C O ., Pu lteney St.





N ew Z e a la n d - M essrs. T H O S . B A L L E N G E R & C O .

M elbourne.


M 'L A U G H L I N , 41 H u n te r St.


L I M I T E D , W ellington.





D a n ie l R o b e r t so n

S late and Tile

M erchant
262-264 K IN G ST R E E T ,
Estimates Supplied for
Complete Roofing at
Lowest Rates-------

fS ^ e lb o u r n e .



w" -r -f' II


tm m m

am a

^uitabl^ fo P ......




P ublic B u ild in g s ^
P riv a te
Stu d io

p 'o u s e s - ^

P lace . .

C /9orks


F lin d e rs

L ane,

M e lb o u rn e .


You do well, without a doubt, to have your
building installed with the " Ideal H ot
W ater H eating System.
U niform tem p eratu re d ay and night. D raughts avoided.
N o d irt, smoke, dust, or ashes m living rooms. N o smell.
M inim um attention req u ired . Econom ical, and easily
installed in new or existing buildings.


A rtis tic G a s f i t t i n g s , T i l e s .
T ile d Interiors, Surro u n d s, P anels, D ad o es, H e arth s,
M antelpieces, G rates, F en d ers, B aths, and
Sanitary W a re stocked. W ill m anufacture Gasfittings,
&c., to A rc h ite c ts own D esigns.












F ire -p ro o f, in s e c t-p ro o f, a n d U n s u r p a s s e d fo r
i n s u l a t i n g P u r p o s e s . V ery s t r o n g a n d lig h t. C a n
b e O u t a n d N a ile d lik e W o o d .
W a l l i n g a n d C e i l i n g in S h e e t s , 8 f t . x
a n d R o u n d e d S e c ti o n s f o r H o s p ita l W alls.
R o o fin g

S la te s, i s |

C O L O U R S Red,

D ark

in . x

f t.,

1 5 | in .

G rey,


L ig h t

G rey.

S e llin g y lg e n ts fo r V ictoria a n d T a sm a n ia :



W illia m
S tre e t,



g t r o p o l it a n

T E C H N IC A L In s t i t u t i o n
C L A S S G 5



ALL. B u i l d i n g B u b j g c t 5 - DD&; &

P ro bpg ctu a

F r o m T h g D i R G C T O R :]



J b ^ E F tV e i)

P l i j i c c < S > IU i)S ^

_ /^ .i\T iS T i( :R /= iD e i> - ( iE j^ a a






nTTinCS > MOUSE F IT n E r iT 5 *

565U)H)DALtf riELBOUCHt pnowrZSO)








W IN D O W S .

L IG H T S .








. . . .


T IL E S .

M A N T E L P IE C E S .

F R I E Z E S , D A D O E S , and

S ole J lg e n ts fo r

D E C O R A T IO N S .

. . . .

jBritish liu x fe r S^rism






iVlauj &



F o r W a lls , Floors, F ire-p la ces, a n d F u rn itu re .







and Plain



W hite and

Glazed Tiles,
Plain and



Highly Vitrified Tiles for Special Sanitary Work.


a ie n c e



t e r io r

ic h l y


e c o r a t io n


l a z e s

p e c ia l it y

o lo r ed

Terra-Cotta Work to Details.

/\USTRaliaMTesselated Tile ( 0.

H ea d





W orks : \




D ir e c t o r .


Showrooms :

289 C l a r e n c e S t ., S y d n e y .

A u s t r a l ia n
A r c h it e c t u r e
A Technical Manual
for all those engaged
in Architectural and
Building Work.





A R C H IT E C T .
F ellow


F ellow


F ellow


t h e
t h e
t h e

R oyal

I n st it u t e

R oyal V ic to r ia n

A u st r a l ia n


B r it ish

A r c h itects.

I n st it u t e


A r c h it e c t s .

I n stitu te


A r c h itects.

Illustrated by 94 Original Plates by the A uthor.






Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Brisbane,

NOTE. . .
^ I HAT the

tim e is ripe for

remember the






th ro u g h o u t

are rem inded th a t our


a book upon

A ustralian

A rchitecture, there can be no doubt, for, when we

th e





own peculiar conditions, climate,

m aterials m ust needs require

special and



m ay


once be


th a t



Books from E ngland and America th a t come from tim e

to tim e into this

m ark et do

needs of A ustraha.

n o t cater for the special

This fact has been very specially

borne in upon me during th e course of a busy Consult

ing P ra c tic e ; and


is well know n

Technical In stru cto rs, and

Text-Bookswhile often



am ong A rchitects,

Builders th a t

such im ported

adm irable in th e highest degree

w hen





th a t th e A ustrahan has to face.

The introduction

of this book, therefore, needs no

apology when it seeks to

needing inform ation

th e



the hands of those





rem em bered in th e carrying out of Building W orks.




D E S IG N .

Ch a pter

IV .

P age


r c h it e c t u r a l
l a n n in g




V I.

ow n

V I [.

IX .



f f ic e s

X I.

X V I.

a n k s,


o ps,


o s p it a l s ,


ed s


, B

r ic k w o r k




-cotta, T






e n t il a t io n

l u m b in g

X IX .

ow er



X X.

l a s t e r in g

a in t in g

h a n g in g



o in e r y "





o l is h in g

S p e c if ic a t io n


Sa n



l e c t r ic

, P






it t in g

X X I.

C o n s t r u c t io n



S a n it a t io n


C o v e r in g s


il e s


o u n d a t io n s




I I .- C O N S T R U C T I O N .

C o n c r e t e C o n s t r u c t io n


e a r in g




, B

u il d in g s

u r n is h in g

X IV .


a r d e n in g





F a c t o r ie s , S t a b l e s , H

u il d in g s

o u ses

is c e l l a n e o u s

e s ig n

ou ses




r a w in g


u a n t it y



e c o r a t in g

a in t a in in g


, G l a z in g ,

r it in g

l u m b in g

n g in e e r in g

ig h t in g

it a r y


a per



a k in g


P art

C o n s is tin g


1. D e s i g n .

C H A P T E R S I.



(I n c lu s iv e ).

' '


I ' ' '



#I I
- # ''W




m '




I n considering a treatise upon architecture, we are rem inded of

the very m any points of peculiar difference th a t m ust always
separate our A ustralian requirem ents and practice from th a t of the
old world.
W ith clim ate d istinct from others, w ith building m aterials of
distinctive character, and w ith requirem ents of life, business, and
h ab it difiering in m any degrees from the old civilization of lands of
ancient settlem ent, we are faced w ith problem s, in our building,
which require th e application of special stu d y ; and it is the object
and purpose of this m anual to direct a tte n tio n to some A ustralian
requirem ents, and to provide ideas and suggestions for m eeting
difficulties of a local ch aracter in A ustralian building work.
hlo small p a rt of the w ork of progress in A ustralia is the craft of
building ; a craft th a t a t once touches th e interests of every m an in
the com m unity and includes n o t an inconsiderable num ber, in the
labours involved in the m any trades and callings, depending upon
the building trad es for th eir m aintenance.

those who build, are

W ith those who provide,

th e m en who directth e m en of

technical skill and train ed intelligence in construction and design,

whose knowledge needs to be so directed th a t all this building m ay
be done to good purpose, th a t all this energy of effort m ay be
concentrated to th e wisest ends and the highest purposes.
To help in th e training of such m en is, therefore, the object of
this treatise, and to place w ithin easy reach of students facts and
examples of building practice th a t m ay assist in the practical
application of local building.

V a l u e o p H i s t o r y . A t

th e ou tset of architectural stu d y it is

well to rem em ber the inestim able value of history.

We are rem inded th a t architecture is one of th e m ost ancient of
all the occupations of m an, and th a t his w ork in this direction m arks
his progress and decline all down the ages.

So th a t in history we

have laid out for our instru ctio n and inspiration, works in con
struction, design, and sentim ent, which should help us the more
perfectly to lay in our own building foundations b oth tru e and
strong, and building w orthy of A ustralian progress.
The stu d y of architecture is, therefore, th e stu d y of the history of
the race, for, side b y side w ith m an s developm ent, there has been
m anifest his skill in building and his knowledge of the designers

The language of arch itectu ral expression is also, it m ay be

rem em bered,

a universal language,




narrow ing

influences of varying tongues ; hence we, in these m odern times,

are m ade rich heirs of all the ages, for, b y personal travel and also
by the p rin ted and illu strated literature, so ab u n d an tly given to the
subject, we m ay acquaint ourselves w ith the best th a t has been
done b y the great designers and builders of the past, and thus
prepare ourselves for th e tasks of our own tim e and day.
The stu d en t should, a t the o utset of his career, endeavour to
acquire th a t indispensable quality of m ind, the faculty of observa
tion, and, w ith this quality, also h ab itu ally draw w hat he sees,
ju st as th e literary stu d e n t reads up his history, his best authors,
and m akes b o th m ental and w ritten notes upon events and styles,
so the stu d en t in architecture should see, as far as possible, the
best of th e old buildings ; and, b y sketching and noting, gradually
build up in th e m ind an ordered knowledge of style and practice.
Taking, therefore, as a startin g po in t of study, some good
stan d a rd book upon th e history of architecture, the stu d en t will be
able, step by step, to follow the progress of th e ancient builders ;
and, as he proceeds, will find it convenient to look up other books,
records, and illustrations bearing and enlarging upon each special
building period which he m ay be studying a t the tim e.



m ethod he will find of inestim able value to him, in his subsequent

work of knowing th e architecturally good from th e architecturally
b a d ; and

in developing in himself th a t technical knowledge,

w ithout which he m ust inevitably fail when faced w ith the actual
problems of his calling.
Side by side w ith the reading of books, should be the drawing
of exam ples, which m ust be done system atically, th e leading
characteristics of each style being illustrated, especially w ith regard
to their general m ethods of construction and design, and th eir
peculiar moldings, features, and ornam ents.

I n the old world,

such studies should be conducted side b y side w ith the taking of

measurem ents, and actually p lotting and draw ing to scale portions
of good old examples, b u t in A ustralia, this being impossible,
recourse should be had to th e very best buildings here existent,
and the stu d en t should take some selected portion of such buildings,
and carefully measure, plot in a notebook, and afterw ards draw to
scale for future reference, m aking notes, meanwhile, of the m aterials
used, and the varying m ethods of construction.

The m ind will, in

this way, become acquainted w ith th e form and size of objects, and
their appearance, when delineated upon paper, in th e form of scale
The classics should be carefully studied, for th ey lie a t the basis
of all we know of those styles th a t are identified w ith the orders
of architecture.

They lead through the dim p ast of E gyptian

mysticism to the culm inating b eau ty of Greek art, and to the

m asterful developm ent of th e g reat im perial style of Rome, th a t
later on inspired th e renaissance.
Through th e E ast, we see th e richness and grace of B yzantine art,
w ith hanging dome and iridescent mosaic, and winding and th re a d
ing through the life of th e mediaeval ages of th e w estern nations, we
come to the ennobling grace of G othic architecture.
The m odern work, th e world over, tends to rem ind us how
progressive has been the knowledge of science and the practice of
hygienic laws, which find th eir reflex in present day building, to


which earnest stu d y we should direct our atten tio n , so th a t, from

the old and from th e new, we m ay g ather the best for our
A ustralian building.
M a t e r i a l s . I t

is im p o rtan t, too, th a t building m aterial should

be carefully considered.
In speaking of building m aterials we have to rem em ber the farreaching and ever-increasing com plexity of this g reat section of
building knowledge.
T h at the designer m ust know his m aterial, is of the greatest
im portance, and no pains should be spared in m aking acquaintance
w ith th a t section of knowledge th a t bears upon this aspect of
builders work.
The space a t our disposal in this book is, however, quite in
adequate to lay before th e reader anything like a thorough m anual
of building m aterial, for th e subject is so vast, and the range of
inquiry so extended, th a t m any volum es would be required to do
justice to it.
A part, altogether, from the ordinary stru ctu ral m aterials th a t are
more or less well-known to all those who build, m aterials are
constan tly

being supplanted

various kinds which require

w ith

m anufactured

atten tio n ,

and from

m aterials


designer m ay select m aterials for the work for the tim e being
under consideration.
M any of these m aterials are m anufactured by more or less secret

Placed upon th e m ark et w ith ample advertisem ent and

business recom m endation, it is only by actual test and personal

experience and use, th a t such m aterials m ay be specified, which
use, even w ith good m aterials, has to be varied, according to place,
position, and circum stance.
E very d ep artm en t of building is entered b y th e m anufacturer
who seeks th e use of artificial rath er th a n n a tu ra l m aterial, from
artificial stone to th e la te st embossed surface finish or sanitary


G reat technical knowledge and discretion is therefore required, in

selecting, to accept, and use th e best, and to avoid doubtful and
unsatisfactory goods.
In certain chap ters of this M anual, m aterials will be touched
upon under th e various trades, and this m ention m ay be supple
m ented by th e stu d e n t in th e broader fields of te st and practical
In dealing w ith a building m aterial
quality should be understood,

of w hatever

and its



tre a tm e n t {i.e., its

working and use) be accordingly arranged.

This quality is of th e highest im portance.

Take a brick, for

instance ; an ordinary brick is a m anufactured article b u rn t in the

fire, which, if a good brick, is tu rn ed out reasonably square,
uniform in color, w ith a h a rd resisting surface.
an article be tre a te d ?

H ow should such

I t is obviously unreasonable to seek to

make a cabinet work finish of it.

To sm ear it over w ith added color, to tuck p o in t it w ith more or
less mock joints is, therefore, to destroy its n atu ral quality.

I t is

brick, and if b u ilt into honest walling, w ith good bonding and
careful w eather-tight jointing, m ust look w h at it should look,
strong and sufficient in itself.
Take again terra-co tta or glazed faience ; these m aterials, being
baked, can never be m ade absolutely tru e like worked stone.
Their quality is revealed in a certain am ount of happy
v a ria tio n ; especially is this th e case in faience, where the guttering
of the coloring m a tte r leads to th e variation of density so charm ing
in this m aterial, while its glazed surface gives furth er opportunity
for a reflecting effect, peculiarly its own.
I t is unreasonable, therefore, to look for uniform ity in this

I ts q uality is in its variation.

Again, in stonew ork, leaving out the question of surface marbles,

the reasonable tre a tm e n t of stru ctu ral stone is to build the blocks
side by side and one upon another, yet, it is not unusual to see
sueh a case as red granite panels of unequal shape set into grey


granite walling, following th e m ethods of wood inlay rath er th an

any q uality of h ard stone m asonry.
M asonry, of all stru ctu ral works, lends itself th e m ost happily to
clear, obvious, constructive tru th .
And so on w ith other m aterials all have their own q u a lity .
Among the m etals, each has its own nature.

One is brittle, like

cast ir o n ; th e other is bendable, like w rought iron.

There is the

pliability of lead, though it possesses excessive expansive and

contractive tendencies, the m alleability of copper, and so on.
In tim bers, especially, this q u ality should be considered.

In the

cutting, th e nature, th e w ay a piece of tim ber m ay be sawn, even

the direction in w hich it is best planed, varies greatly in different
There is th e long, tenacious fibre of Oregon, th e soft, mild, broad
surface of clear pine, th e brittleness of edge of redwood, the
hardness of jarrah , the b e a u ty of grain of blackwood ; all capable
of being applied, worked and finished, where th e best qualities of
each m ay be b rought out by tru e craft labor to the best advantage.
Q uality, therefore, is of th e

greatest im portance

in rig h t

S ight

T eaching .In


w ith




'especially in endeavouring to m ake clear to the uninitiated the

various m ethods of present day construction, special a tte n tio n has
been given to th e production of th e num erous drawings illustrating
this M anual, and th e stu d e n t should so stu d y these in the
various chapters as to learn as m uch as possible from them .
The au th o r is aw are of th e extrem e value in such a study as
architecture of sight teaching, and w ith lim ited descriptive space a t
his disposal has endeavoured to teach, as far as possible, by means
of diagram m atic illustration.
This aspect of th e book is therefore specially urged upon the


D R A W IN G .

T he stu d en t should give diligent a tte n tio n to th e acquiring of a

sound knowledge of architectural drawing, for it is chiefly by this
means th a t he will be able to m ake clear the technical details, b oth
of design and construction, required

for th e

guidance of the

workmen engaged in the actual operations of building.

L ater on it will be seen how th e draw ing has to be supplem ented
by the specification, which is a docum ent describing, by m eans of
words, th e work shown upon th e drawings.

The tw othe drawings

and the specificationb o th being necessary as instructions and

direction, to those who actually carry out th e building works.
Before commencing arch itectu ral scale drawing, it is essential
th a t the stu d en t should acquire some knowledge of plane geom etry,
and be able to draw readily from set objects, as well as to produce
freehand and shaded drawings from arch itectu ral ornam ents.


class of instruction can generally be acquired a t a technical sc h o o l;

the a rt of architectural draw ing is, however, best learn t in an
architects office, supplem ented b y evening technical instruction.
I t will also soon be seen th a t a stu d en t cannot proceed far in the
making of an architectural draw ing w ithout a practical knowledge
of building construction, and his progress in draw ing m ust proceed
side by side w ith his studies of construction and of the actual forms
and designs of buildings, and the m aterials of which they are
E quipm ent . For architectural drawings a small and well-chosen
equipm ent should be obtained, consisting of th e following :
Dmwirig Board or Boards. These are best m ade of clear pine to



finish |-in . thick, glue jointed, and deeply grooved a t back every
2|- in. of size to allow ^-in. m argin around paper generally used,
and having tw o slot-screwed cedar ledges a t back and blackwood
slips a t edges for T square to work upon.
Mathematical Instrum ents of good lasting quality, consisting of
large size dividers, compasses (for pencil and for ink, w ith
lengthening bar), m edium size bow pen and pencil, and set of three
small spring bows, one with points, the others holding pencil and
pen respectively. These, w ith one or two draw ing pens, will be
found sufficient for all ordinary purposes.
T Squares m ust be of lengths to suit draw ing boards, the best
being of cedar w ith ebony edge, b u t good q uality squares are also
obtainable in pear wood.
Set Squares of either black vulcanite or tra n sp a ren t celluloid
one 60 8-in. and one 4 5 6-in.
Scale Rules of boxwood, one showing clearly -g-in., J-in., |-in .,
1-in., each scale on one edge only, and another showing xV-in.,
f-in., |-in ., 1^-in., 3-in. scales, or, b e tte r still, one scale upon each
rule, which is m uch more convenient for working, or the stu d en t
m ay m ake n eat paper scales for his own use.
Drawing Paper of W h atm an s make, w ith m edium surface,
is best for all general working drawings, either double elephant
(40 in. by 27 in.) or im perial (30 in. by 22 in.)

For details and

full-sized drawings, a cheap, tough cartridge paper, about double

elephant size, purchased in q u a n tity and stored fiat, as all drawing
paper should be (not rolled), is best, while for details requiring
special length, white wall-lining paper m ay be used.
Pencils. The pencils used should be the best drawing pencils

For th e W h atm an s paper, H and H H are the best

grades, while cheap H B and B E pencils will be found good enough

for the work of detailing upon cartridge.

A box of stick charcoal

should be k e p t on hand, for use in trying in large moldings,

curves, and ornam ental features.
In k s. The old-fashioned m ethod of rubbing up stick ink m ay



now be abandoned, and a supply of w aterproof b o ttled ink, and a

small bottle each of blue and red, obtained.
Colors. H ard cake colors by reputable m akers are the best, and
the following list will be found sufficient for all general p u rp o ses;
Alizarin Crimson
Venetian R ed
Hookers Green, N o. I

Y ellow Ochre
B urnt Sienna
Burnt Um ber
N eutral Tint

Prussian Blue
P aynes Gray
N eutral Orange.

Brushes.For coloring, sable brushes are best, and tw o or three

should be obtained, as small, m edium , and large, or, if found too
expensive, camel hair m ay be substituted.
Palettes.A nest of half a dozen white china palettes will be
found th e best for use in m ixing the colors, to which one or two
white glazed tiles m ay well be added.
Etcs.A supply of soft red india-rubber and some linen rag, for
cleaning pens, should also be obtained, as also one or two ink
erasers, a sharp penknife, a supply of ^-in. diam eter flat drawing
pins, a p rotractor, which is an in stru m en t on which is m arked the
degrees of the circle used for setting out angles of any required
degree, also a 7-in. clinograph, which is a wooden scj^uare, so a d ju st
able as to be set for th e ruling of roof slopes and sim ilar an g le s; two
or three French wooden curves, and a supply of ticjdng slips, which
are long lengths of paper ab o u t 1 in. wide, cleanly cu t from
cartridge paper, and used for m arking off sizes, for conveyance
from one p a rt of a draw ing to a n o th e r; a 2-ft. ordinary rule, a 6-ft.
folding m easuring rod, and a 66-ft. tape, together w ith a supply of
note books, one or two being of the blue-lined, scale-ruled type,
for plotting m easured up work.
S cale . The proper use of the scale is a t th e basis of all
architectural drawing, and th e stu d en t should early seek to m aster
its difficulties.

The scale in alm ost universal use for ordinary

working draw ings,

or, as th ey are

often called,


drawings, is the one-eighth scalei.e., a scale in which every one-



eighth of an inch represents a foot set out in feet and in tens of

feet (see scale on P late III.), so th a t th e use of the scale consists in
draw ing each p a rt of a proposed building, such, for instance, as the
rooms, walls, fire-places, doors, and windows, so th a t when read off
by th e scale th e y will show feet and inches on th e scale equal
to w hat is required in actu al feet and inches in th e building.
W hen greater detail of special p a rts of th e stru ctu re is required, th e
size of th e scale has to be increased ; hence we find th e J-in. (the
|-in . representing a foot) and th e 1-in. scales (1 in. representing a
foot) being more generally used for details, while for


moldings, enrichm ents, and ornam ents, draw ings should be m ade
th e actual size, which is th en called full size.
I t should also be rem em bered th a t an arch itectu ral draw ing is a
conventional w ay of showing certain objects, such objects being, for
th e m ost p art, too large to show actually.

The device is, therefore,

resorted to of showing th em in a certain conventional way.


make this clear, refer to P late I., in which a short list is given of
common objects used in planning, and th e w ay th e y are generally
shown upon a scale drawing.

This list th e stu d e n t m ay greatly

add to as he proceeds, as innum erable instances will be presented

in the course of his draw ing practice.

Take, for exam ple, the case

of door panel moldings, where, in a w idth of

in., there are actually

perhaps four lines, or an architrave m old 6 in. wide, containing,

perhaps, 9 lines.

These could not possibly all be shown to a small

sc a le ; th e outer and the inner, and perhaps one interm ediate line,
are therefore taken, and th e w idth over all shown.

The same rule

is applied to tu rn e d work, such as stair newels, v erandah posts, also

to carving, &c.
D raw ing . A t this stage a short general lesson upon architectural
draw ing will n o t be out of place.
I t is assum ed th a t a sketch design (not necessarily to scale) for a
lodge cottage has been given to th e stu d en t, th e sketch giving size
of apartm en ts, height of ceilings, thickness of walls, position df


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doors, windows, fire-places, &c.


The levels of the ground, the

no rth point, and such particulars as thickness of walls, roof pitch,

roof covering, &c., such as P la te II.
The first proceeding should be to m ake a rough scheme for
preparing a set of working drawings, say to a J-in. scale, and this
should be done b y first estim ating th e space th a t will be tak e n up
by the various p a rts of th e drawings, such as plan, four elevations,
two sections, and roof plan upon th e paper, th u s assuring neatness
of grouping.
Having, then, th e size of paper and general scheme settled,
proceed to pin down th e sheet of W h atm an s draw ing paper, which
m ay be in this case a half sheet of double elephant.

H old the

sheet up to th e light and observe th e w ater m ark, and, when

right side up, i.e., so th a t

lettering is n o t reversed, lay the

sheet upon the draw ing board w ithin half an inch of the left
side edge (let it be square w ith


and th e n pin it a t

the four corners, w ithin |- in . of th e edge, w ith draw ing pins closely
pressed home.

N ext, lay th e stock of th e T square to th e left-hand

edge of th e board, and, having sharpened your pencil w ith a long,

sharp point, proceed, using th e T square for all horizontal lines, and
the set square for all vertical lines, to set out firstly th e plan, using
the one-eighth scale to express all th e sizes given, and afterw ards
the elevations, sections, &c., as shown in P late II I .
Beginning a t th e plan, commence a t the top left-hand corner by
laying down a long horizontal line, upon which m ay be scaled off
the sizes ofBed 1, 13 f t . ; B ed 2, 11 f t . ; B ed 3, 11 f t . ; w ith I^-in.
walls between, and 11-in. hollow outside walls.

This scaling off is

merely laying the scale upon th e paper, and w ith the sharp point
of the pencil m arking off the sizes required.

This is b e tte r th a n

the usual way of taking off sizes from the scale w ith dividers.
N ext lay down th e 12 ft. w idth of B ed 1, draw horizontal lines of
walls, and so on, proceeding, in the general way, to lay down all
\^alls, avoiding a t the first touch
fire-places, &c.

details as doors, windows,



H aving n eatly draw n th e general scheme of apartm ents, n ex t

proceed to p u t in th e windows, and here th e very im p o rtan t
principle of centre lines should be rem em bered.

L et each p a rt

of a plan such as room s and fire-places be divided into two equal

parts, and a working centre line laid down, which is to be repeated
on b oth elevations and sections.

These centre lines will be in

pencil only, b u t b y their aid the drau g h tsm an will be able to set
out and check th e accuracy of his work far b e tte r th a n in any other

A fter th e windows, the door openings should be shown, w ith

th e hanging w ay of the doors added.

The fire-places can th en be

p u t in, and such details as k itchen sink, p a n try shelves, b ath ,

verandah tiles, outside steps, &c., be indicated.

The brick sleeper

piers under th e floors, as also bearers and floor joists, are also b etter
shown upon the plan by d o tted lines.
A fter th e draw ing of th e ground plan proceed w ith th e roof plan
by first of all laying down a simple outline, showing the outside
line of all walls, and from these build up th e lines of the roof,
showing projections of eaves, gables, &c., position of hips, valleys,
chimneys, w ith th eir gutters, flashings, &c.
N ext proceed to set up one of the sections, say A-A, and in so
doing rem em ber th a t a section is an im aginary cut through a
building, so arranged as to show w hat is m ost necessary for the
builder to know ab o u t th e construction.

The first line of the

section should be th e ground floor line, which is b etter ruled right

across th e paper, and is often fixed as a d atu m line, from which
all heights and depths are measured, w hether upon the drawings or
upon th e actual buildings.

The position of th e walls, doors, &c.,

are first obtained by paper ticking off the plani.e., m arking on a

slip of paper laid upon the plans th e position of th e various parts,
which are th en transferred to the sections draw n up, and the
heights added.

In th e same w ay the other sections should be

proceeded with, as also the elevations (external parts) of the

four sides of th e building, all as shown in P late III.
I t will be seen, by th e arrangem ent of th e drawings upon the



|o-Z1 m








paper, how tim e is saved by having, in one long top line, th e three
elevations and a section, as the T square is able to carry from one
to the other heights and levels common to each.

The same rule

applies to th e elevation and section upon the lower line, while,

from the position of th e elevation over th e plan, the lines m ay
be carried up directly off th e set square.
After th e various p arts of the drawing have been draw n in and
carefully overlooked and checked, proceed w ith th e lettering and
In this connection it is advisable to stu d y and practice lettering
and figuring of various kinds before attem p tin g work upon a
finished drawing.
The stu d en t m ay, if he will, stu d y books of lettering, and work
out various styles, b u t there is a danger of confusion by reason of
the great v ariety of fancy lettering.

F o r th e purpose of a working

drawing it is best to keep to two plain styles viz., plain block

lettering for headings and general purposes, capable

of being

rapidly produced by a broad ball-pointed pen, and clear script

writing for sm all notes, &c., supplem ented by plain figuring of the
various dimensions.
F or sketch drawings or studies of any special style of architecture,
lettering specially in character w ith the work m ay be employed,
such as R om an for R om an, G othic for Gothic, while the m any
elegant forms of m odern lettering will give rich opportunity.


lettering should have pencil horizontal guiding lines, as should all

lettering, and this m ay be tak en as a rule throughout architectural
drawings, as dissimilar from other drawings.
to accuracy upon every occasion.

when the inking in has been completed.


Use mechanical aids

These aids m ay be rubbed out

should therefore be used,

Pencil lines top and

and th e lettering carefully

centred and draw n in in pencil, regularity and evenness of size

being m aintained according to th e position upon th e sheet.
Inking I n . The draw ing having been quite finished in pencil, the
inking in m ay be proceeded with, and here, a t the outset, it is well



to rem em ber how extrem ely im p o rtan t it is to practice cleanliness.

L et pens be clean.

A little w ater in which to dip the pens as th ey

become d ry and a piece of linen rag on which to wipe them , will

secure this.

I t is also im p o rtan t to w atch th e ink and keep it

corked, otherwise, if exposed to th e air, it becomes stale and


The feeding device in the b o ttle is good, and saves

the old-fashioned h a b it of dipping th e ruling pen rig h t into th e

ink, and wiping th e outer surface.

The feeder, however, should

be k e p t clean, and n o t allowed to dry.

F o r the process of inking in an architectural


th e

following m ay be taken as a valuable practical rule for procedure.

In k in all h and work first, th e n all circular work, and lastly the
straigh t lines.

Begin, therefore, w ith th e nib pen, and carefully

p u t in all h an d curves, th en all figuring, lettering, &c.

any curves requiring the use of F rench curves.

A fterw ards

Then tu rn in all

circular lines, and lastly rule in th e straig h t work, rem em bering the
all im p o rtan t rule of keeping every line on th e sheet of one value
and thickness.

The actual thickness of line should a t the outset be

determ ined upon, and this m ay be th in , m edium , or th ick ,

according to the fancy or the tem peram ent of th e draughtsm an, b u t
w hatever thickness is set as a stan d ard , th a t stan d ard should be
adhered to throughout th e draw ing or the set of drawings.


dim ension lines use a th in red line, as also for any d a tu m ,

centre, or w o rk in g lines n o t necessarily a p a rt of the actual

Show soil drains also in red, and any special notes th a t

require extra prominence.

Storm w ater drains, rolled steel joists,,

as also the plotting of all old work upon the drawings, are best
shown in blue ink.
Coloring. W hen the inking in has been fully com pleted and the
sheet well looked over, proceed to clean off all superfluous pencil
m arks w ith soft rubber, being careful n o t to rub too hard, or the
surface of th e paper will be injured for coloring, and the lines m ade
ro tten or broken.

To tak e general d irt from th e paper, bread m ay

be used w ith advantage.





The various m aterials indicated upon th e drawings are now to be

made doubly clear by coloring, and for this purpose th e following
list of materials, and their representative colors, m ay be tak en as a
guide :


a t e r ia l s .

W ood floors
Tiled floors, hearths . .
Tiled roofs
Asphalt floors
Stone steps, hearths, sills
Brickwork (surface) . .
Brickwork (section) . .
Terra-cotta red
Terra-cotta buff
W oodwork (unwrought)
Woodwork (wrought)
Slates to roof (green)
Slates to roof (purple)
Ironwork (including gal. iron)
Plaster surfaces
Cemented surfaces (plain)
Cemented surfaces (rough cast)

Select the light washes first.

Yellow Ochre (light).

Crimson (very light).
Neutral Orange.
P aynes Gray.
Prussian Blue (light).
Venetian Red.
Crimson and Venetian R ed (half
and half).
Vermilion (light).
Y ellow Ochre.
Burnt Sienna.
Yellow Ochre and Indigo.
Indigo and Crimson.
Prussian Blue.
Neutral Tint.
Burnt Umber and Crimson.
Y ellow Ochre and Indigo (light).
P aynes Gray (light).
Speckled in Indian Ink with
pen, and left white.

R ub up the colors upon clean china

palettes in a very small q u a n tity of water, and then add more

water, and try on scrap paper till the required density is obtained,
then proceed to lay th e color on th e drawing, taking care to set the
board w ith a slight tilt forw ard so th a t colors m ay run downwards,
and not lie in puddles.

Keep a fairly full brush, and do n o t allow

any p a rt to d ry till th e whole wash is laid.

W hen one color is laid

over the various p arts of th e drawing, let it dry, and proceed w ith
the next color, m aking it a rule to lay down all light colors, and
especially all washes of large surfaces, first, leaving section and all
other dark p arts until last.



F or sectional work th e rule is to indicate by darker color th a n

th a t em ployed where surface only is indicated.

This m ay be

supplem ented in th e case of details by hatching, th a t is, scoring

across the sectional p arts w ith freehand lines a t an angle of 45
Details. The p reparation of details is an im p o rtan t p a rt of the
draughtsm an s task, a task, however, which is h ardly considered
w ithin th e capacity of a beginner, as th e proper delineation of the
special p arts of a building m ust needs require m ature knowledge.
Measuring up old work, draw ing out constructive details, and
observing actual work will, however, greatly assist the draughtsm an
in this class of drawing, which is b est done on sheets of cartridge
paper to the larger scales hereinbefore mentioned.
For purposes of showing elevations in detail, a ^-in. scale is a
good workable one, for the w orkm an can th en tak e every half-inch
on his ordinary two-foot rule as representing a foot.

F or fittings

and sm aller objects w ith m any breaks and lines, the 1-in. scale will
be found b etter, while th e 1^-in. and 3-in. scales are often also
All moldings, special features, and ornam ents should undoubtedly
be shown full size, and this is best done by drawing in, firstly, w ith
charcoal (which m ay be dusted off), and then hardening w ith bold
BB pencilling.

A free use of th e large color brush and monochrome

color is a great assistance in th e delineation of raised ornam ent, as

also is modelling clay or plasticine to show in tricate intersections.
In detailing, th e labor of inking in m ay often be dispensed with, it
being sufficient if th e drawings are neatly m ade in pencil and fixed
by light coloring.
Tracings. To m ake n eat and



of original

draw ings is one of th e necessary qualifications of th e draughtsm an,

and, in the practise of this, he will be enabled to pick up m any
hints, b oth of planning and m ethod, against the tim e when he
himself is entrusted w ith the preparation of original work.
Tracing is either done on linen or paper.



Tracing linen is the best for copies of working drawings in cases

where the contractor has to use them in all w eathers when carrying
out the building work, for in this w ay th ey have to w ithstand a
great deal of wear and rough handling.
To see tracings in use upon a building in rough, windy, and
showery w eather, before th e work is covered in, is to understand the
need for tough and w et-w ithstanding tracing linen and indelible ink.
To make a linen tracing, cut off from the roll sufhcient linen to
cover the draw ing to be traced, and work on the unglazed side.
Carefully and very firmly pin down, as th e linen tends to flabbiness
w ith working and changes of w eather.

Pounce the surface of the

linen with powdered chalk or cu ttle fish powder, or rub over w ith
soft rubber, so as to enable th e ink to grip the linen.

In using

chalk, wipe off all superfluous powder, otherwise it will clog the

Proceed exactly as already explained for inking in drawing.

Keep to a dense, even line, hand work first, then circular work, and
lastly straig h t lines, taking great care n o t to sm udge the work, and
remembering th a t ink on linen takes longer to dry th a n ink on
drawing paper.

First, when coloring, add a little soap to the color

to help it to lay freely, and color, for th e m ost p art, on the back
glazed side of paper, using th e face or unglazed side for sectional
parts or small pieces of coloring th a t need to be specially brought
out w ith greater clearness.
Ink paper tracings are done in the same way, b u t w ithout need
of pounce.

The coloring for this m edium should all be done on the

For pencil tracing, which is often used for duplicating details and
large scale drawings which only have a short tim e to wear, a good
unglazed paper is best, used w ith a m edium pencil, not soft enough
to make a woolly line, nor h ard enough to cu t the paper.

F o r this

work, too, the draughtsm an may, w ith advantage, use a chisel

point to the pencili.e., a po in t sharpened flat-wise, useful in
putting in long, straig h t lines, the round-pointed pencil being used
for other parts.



On tracing papers it is best to avoid coloring as m uch as possible,

as w ater tends to cockle up the paper and d istort the scale and
Duplicating. There are various ways of duplicating drawings
other th a n by tracing, such as by lithography, which m ay either
be done by laying a specially prepared tracing, draw n w ith grease
ink, upon lithographic stone, or by obtaining a transfer for the
stone, by m eans of photography, from the original drawing before
it is colored.

This is the cheapest process when a very large

num ber of copies is required.

W here a lim ited num ber only is required there is a process, now
being worked, whereby th e original drawing, before it is coloured,
m ay be sun-printed and facsim ile copies taken off, when the
original and the copies m ay be colored together.

An interm ediate

process is to sun p rint, on to helio paper, from a linen tracing.

Copies m ay also be m ade from linen tracings (uncolored) by sun
printing and blue prin ts produced, but, as these cannot be colored,
th ey have this disadvantage for architectural work.
M ounting
draughtsm an m ay sometimes require to m ount
his drawings for special purposes of display, such as for competitions,
or he m ay prefer working upon m ounted drawing paper rath er th an
upon sheets simply pinned down.

In some architects offices th e

old rule still prevails of m ounting the paper for all working

This secures a tig h t and sm ooth surface w ithout the

obstruction of pins, and only has th e disadvantage th a t the sheet

cannot be rem oved from the drawing board till the completion
of the drawing.

To m ount a sheet of drawing paper, lay face

downwards on a clean table and w et well th e whole of one side of

th e paper, allowing the w ater to fully soak in and charge the
paper, w ithout being too sloppy.

Then with blotting paper

lightly dry off the edges for about one inch all round the sheet,
after which proceed to glue all round the extrem e edge of the

T urn th e sheet over quickly and lay it on the drawing

board, th en pull out tig h t all round, and firmly rub down edges;



leave to dry (all night is best) in a cool place, and when dry th e
sheets should be found ta u t, smooth, and hard.
The same procedure can be gone through in th e m ounting of
drawings, for display, upon stretchers, which are sim ply fram es of
deal, generally about 3-in. by 1-in. scantling, covered around the
actual drawing w ith suitable colored paper.

In this class


mounting, the stretcher is best covered first w ith cheap calico,

otherwise there is danger of th e draw ing being broken through in
Perspective.A lthough perspective draw ing does not come (for
w ant of space) w ithin the scope of this treatise, the stu d en t m ay be
directed tow ards its study, w hich will be found fruitful in both
profit and pleasure.
To draw a building in perspective is to set up from the
geometrical drawings a picture delineating how the building will
appear to the ordinary lay spectator when actually built.

Such an

a rt is of the greatest value to the designer, for it enables him, n ot

only to te st the effect of the various p arts of a design, b u t also to
convey to the laym an a representation of w h at he is to expect in
the proposed building.




T he questions involved in planning and design are those th a t
em brace the distin ctly architectural difficulties of the designers
art, and m ust be approached w ith due




im portance of the decisions to be arrived at, rem em bering th a t the

building has to be b u ilt in the m inds eye ere it can be built in
Further, a building should not be considered prim arily as a
plan only, though the plan is, and should rightly be, considered
as a very im p o rtan t p a rt of the whole ; but a building should be
th o u g h t out and designed very m uch in the same way as a
modeller builds up an image in clay not in plan, nor in section,
nor in elevation, b u t in mass, and as a whole, an entity.

To do

this successfully, some m a tu rity of m ental effort and technical

skill will be found necessary, but, if the sim pler problems of
design be first of all approached in this way, and successfully
m astered, the way to larger and more in tricate schemes will be
m ade easier and plainer.

W hat is all-im portant is to begin right,

and to save the labor of unlearning false m ethods before com

mencing the learning of the b e tte r ways.
I t is a common error to suppose th a t it is fairly easy to make a
])lan, while a designers skill

is necessary to



The two should not be disassociated, for planning

can only be successful when it works in true harm ony w ith the
whole building ; the building of mass, of breaks, windows, heights
of apartm en ts, roofs, perspective, balance, color, and the rest.
The skilful designer holds in his hand the possibilities of lasting
fitness and beauty, when it is rem em bered how mass and line m ay



be made to express the varying sentim ents and em otions of the

man, such as solidity,


tru th ,


m ovem ent,

m ystery, rest, and so on.

W hat is more typical of solidity th a n th e granite walls of
ancient buildings,

or more

dignified th a n

th e

stately classic

columns, which vie w ith each other and w ith the

b eau ty of

entablature and arcade to suggest the balance of tru th ; while the

elongated clustering of uprising Gothic shafts lead aspiring thoughts
to the m ystery of groined roof and the rest of the old cathedral
Y et tru th is not confined to these things.

I t m ay lurk in a

kitchen chair as m uch as in a shrine, and

sim plicity is n o t

incompatible w ith beauty.

Color . Color should also be rem em bered as being an im p o rtan t
factor in design, and its harm onies studied and allowed for in
building design, for its possibilities, b oth outside and inside a
building, are well nigh limitless, and m ay be used w ith great skill
as a p a rt of the design.
Modern H y g ie n e .In rem em bering, however, the im portance
of these things, full consideration m u st a t all tim es be given to
those great laws of m odern hygiene, which should be embodied in
every new building, for, if b eau ty of form and color are necessary
for the pleasure of m ans em otional nature, so are the more
m aterial elem ents necessary for his well-being and health.
Our building ghould a t th e





To this end it will be found th a t building laws are

made and adm inistered b y city and ru ral councils and health
authorities, and these laws as a rule m ay be tak en as tending in
the direction of creating a h ealthy stan d ard , w herew ith to conserve
the m utual interests of gathered com m unities ; and in m ost of his
building the designer will find th a t the work has to conform to
certain of such requirem ents, the


of which

should be



ascertained from th e proper authorities, when any new building

work is in contem plation.
T hat h ealth is th e vital principle of norm al life we should
rem em ber, and so build as to bring into harm ony the laws of well
being, which science has revealed to m odern practice.

These laws,

given briefly, m ay be enum erated as the necessity for healthy

building sites, proper protection from the w eather, uncontam inated
air, sunlight, and pure w ater s u p p ly ; and the all-im portant need
for th e proper rem oval of all wastes by




drainage, cleansing,

requirem ents,


should en ter into th e w arp and woof of m odern building, and full
consideration and value should be given to them
building schemes are being form ulated.

when new

U nder these hygienic laws the question of site should have a t the
outset very careful consideration; and, speaking of building sites,
it will a t once be ap p aren t how the exigencies of business will
determ ine the site of business premises w ithout regard either to
aspect or health y conditions, and often in positions th a t offer
considerable difficulties to the application of the best laws of

Still, where possible, even these business sites should be

chosen where reliable w eight-bearing and dry subsoil foundations

m ay be established, and it should be rem em bered th a t the earth is
alw ays more or less charged w ith both air and w ater, which fact
has to be allowed for w hen considering the site for new building
I mpervious G round . The ideal site for building is undoubtedly
the im pervious site, either natural, such as rock, or made impervious
by artificial m eans ; b u t so ex istent as to offer an impervious
surface under the building, so th a t neither ground air nor excess of
m oisture m ay be draw n out of the ground to injure the building, the
goods stored in it, or its tenants.
H ouse S it e s . I n seeking the site for a dwelling-house, the


difficulties th a t are


characteristic of the Old W orld, such as

overcrowding, contam ination of soil by form er usage, m ade ground,

and other causes, th a t enter more largely into older and more
densely populated lands, are to a very great ex ten t absent from our

Therefore, from the virgin soil and broad openness of a

new country, the choosing of a site is m uch simplified.

Y et the

subject is, even am ong us, one of very considerable im portance,

and profitable tim e m ay well be given to the consideration of the
requirem ents of a good site.
A good site should undoubtedly be in a good climate, though
business considerations will generally determ ine the locality, if
not the place, in which a m an m ust build his house ; but, given
any climate, the site should be so situ ated as to avoid, as far as
possible, the disadvantageous elem ents of the prevailing weather,
while securing as far as m ay be its advantages.

For instance, in

one case there m ay be a furious h o t wind to be avoided, or in

another a refreshing afternoon breeze to be wooed.
A site should also be dry.

To build on spongy, ill-drained land

is folly, when it is rem em bered th a t such dam pness is highly

injurious, and tends to pulm onary and rheum atic diseases, if not
fevers and other ills.

In fact, any ground w ater under a building

may be taken as very strictly to be avoided, and the best sites are
those which are upon more or less well-draining soils, and which
allow the n atu ral rainfall to drain away, and th u s keep the ground
water well below the surface.
F or this reason, and for the general reason of drainage, low-lying
sites should be avoided, for such sites not only contain the natural
soakage from higher lands, b u t present, in m any cases, considerable
difficulties when th e question of w aste w ater drainage has to be
A clay subsoil tends to hold ground w ater, and, if chosen, should
be drained by agricultural pipes or by other suitable


otherwise it is certain to be highly charged w ith w ater in the dam p

seasons, and, for this reason, prove unhealthy, especially when



under the artificially created influences of the h eat of the house.

Sandy soils or those containing gravel subsoils are generally among
the m ost healthy, b u t elevation of general position should


chosen, and if the site in itself has some fall, it should be b etter
than flat land for m any reasons ; first, because surface drainage is
more easy to carry from n atu rally falling surfaces, and secondly,
because, both with house and garden, greater picturesqueness can
be obtained from undulating slopes th a n from level plains.
In sites for terrace houses the question of garden culture enters
b ut a little, if a t all, b u t with the great field of villa and country
house building before us, the claims of the garden are w orthy of
consideration, and it m ay be said th a t the healthiest soil upon
which to build a house is n o t always the m ost congenial for the
])lanting of a garden.

In this the designer will have to choose

which m ost to consider the health of the garden, or the well-being

of the dwellers in the house.

Perhaps, by some skill of labor, both

m ay be successfully compassed.
A plea m ay here be p u t in for adequate spacing in house sites.
The land should be chosen to offer adequate space around the
building, so as to avoid the m any objectionable features th a t m ust
accrue when the land is too far overspread w ith the building, not
only for reasons of light and air, b u t also for accessibility and for
the avoidance of overlooking from the windows and doors of one
house to another.

If a house and garden are to be designed as a

hom e, each tenem ent should have the elem ents in its com
position th a t ten d to self-containm ent, untram m elled by pinchiness
of site.
A site should, therefore, be chosen adequately large for the
building th a t is proposed to be erected upon it, and the ap artm en t
acco m m odation

roughly worked out before the land is decided

With the site chosen, and the accom m odation of the proposed
house enum erated, we m ay proceed to the consideration of those
])rmcij)les which affect the design of the structure.



M aterial . The question of m aterial m ust first of all engage

careful atten tio n , for it is w ith a chosen site, fixed requirem ents,
and available m aterial th a t

th e

designer has to



conditions will greatly affect th e m aterials to be used, for, as a rule,

in brick-producing districts it will be found advisable to use the
local article for th e w a lls ; if stone, then stone ; or, if wood be
available and in abundance, th en tim ber houses m ay be m ade both
practical and picturesque ; or, in districts where m aterials such as
these are not readily available, building by m eans of concrete
blocks m ay be resorted to, if rock, scoria, or gravel be found, b u t
w hatever m ay be th e m ain wall m aterial chosen, it should be
treated honestly, and th e house so designed as to show out the
naturalistic tre a tm e n t of w hatever m aterial is used.
After determ ining th e general wall m aterial, th e roof covering is
the next in im portance, and this m ay be of tiles, slates, iron,
shingles, or any of the m anufactured coverings upon the m arket.
The stru ctu ral tim bering, floors, finishing woods, &c., will all be
determ ined by local conditions and available funds.
P lotting the

Sit e .Before commencing th e design of the

house, th e site should be p lo tted upon drawing paperfor instance,

to a sixteenth scale, having th e levels shown in contours, so th a t
the falls can a t once be seen a t any point of th e land.

The four

points of the compass should also be accurately,determ ined, and a

careful note m ade of th e juxtaposition of adjoining buildings (if
any), and specially w ith regard to their doors and windows.
note should

also be m ade of any

n atu ral views,

or specially

advantageous outlooks, which m ay be tak en advantage of in th e

All these things should be laid down before any design for the
building is commenced.
Now, laying aside all ideas of a house design being produced like
a suit of ready-m ade clothing, ju st like some other house, th a t may
fit, or m ay not, b u t in any case is doubtful, and alm ost certain to



break down in some im p o rtan t particular, determ ine first the

general size of th e ap artm en ts required, and the best aspects for
each ap a rtm e n t w ith regard to sunlight, m orning and afternoon
light, coolness, heat, wind, dust, accessibility, and so on, and
planning in th e light of these the designer will realize th a t his work
has begun.
In the chapters upon H o u se s we will pursue this subject
fu r th e r ; sufficient in this th a t we here lay down the general
principles which should

be followed in house as in all other

W e would do well here to consider briefly a few general

questions of architectural designs, as they m ay affect the ordinary

work of th e designer.
P lan Mass . I t will be found th a t b u t lim ited progress m ay be
m ade in planning, before it is seen th a t, owing to the exigencies
of properly lighting the ap artm en ts of a building, certain mass forms
shape them selves in certain fixed ways th a t may, for the purpose of
study, be broadly grouped to g eth er; such, for instance, as the
ordinary rectangular mass of the one-story house upon a narrow
allotm ent of land, or the L-shaped plan, in larger houses, where the
serv an ts ap artm en ts and kitchen offices are cu t off som ewhat from
the main mass of the house.

The H -shaped plan, or its modifica

tions, is another common form th a t planning takes upon itself,

especially w ith in stitutional buildings upon open sites.
Then, again, there are the m any high city buildings th a t have to
depend upon front, back, and top light only, and these naturally
group around the breaks required for light areas.

Churches w ith

their cruciform plans, and other special buildings generally tend to

characteristic plan forms.
All these types require special and differing elevation and group
treatm en t, and the stu d en t would do well to study exam ples of
actual buildings where these problem s have been dealt with, both
in ancient and m odern buildings, as around problems such as these
are dem onstrated the subtle balance of successful design.



H eight Mass .-The determ ination of the height of a building

in a design is also of very great im portance, and presents in A ustralia
m any difficulties which are only casually touched upon in other

Our preference for a one-story tre a tm e n t of the greater

num ber of our dwelling-houses requires special and peculiar group

treatm en t, b u t lim ited precedent for which is found in other lands,
and upon these lines we m ay look for interesting developm ents as
the years reveal the working out of our own domestic a rc h ite c tu re ;
b ut w hatever th e character of th e building m ay be, its treatm en t
of mass, the position of conspicuous features such as gables, towers,
bays, oriels, roof masses, &c., should be considered in th e balance
of the whole, rem em bering how unsuitable such features m ay be
made if not applied w ith th a t nice sense of true balance th a t all
successful design requires.
H eight G ro u pin g . To lay down definite rules for this height
grouping would be m ost difficult, although, w ith a sense of its
param ount im portance in architectural composition, several writers
have endeavoured to lay down more or less accurate m athem atical
rules for dealing w ith the subject, and have endeavoured to read
into the

compositions of

successful designs


laws of

proportion and balance, ju st as in painting and pictorial com

positions (for the purposes of teaching) laws have to be form ulated
which m ay help to guide th e student.
Y et it is more likely th a t the greatj,m asters of a rt instinctively
felt the true balance of their designs, more th a n the fixed rule of
m athem atical accuracy. Still, to follow these rules is not w ithout
profit in acquiring a working knowledge of design.
Sty le .Design grouping is in tim ately affected by style, and
the student, by his history studies, will understand the leading
characteristics of th e various styles of architecture, and, in his own
work, will doubtless be influenced more b y one style th an another,
according to the largeness of his knowledge and the quality of his



te m p e ra m e n t; for architecture m ust needs be to a great ex ten t an

im itative art, even though, to a degree, it should be a creative
To work w ithin th e lim its of some chosen style, when designing
a building, is, therefore, th e

usual w ay to proceed, and

precedent will be found very strong.


The B ritish are a co n

servative people, in spite of liberal institutions, and rightly display

in their architecture th a t love for th e old forms, which have become
indestructibly in terb u ilt into th eir national architecture, and these
forms and precedents find their reflection in the d istan t lands of
their colonization.
To see th e best exam ples through our own eyes, and to use as
m uch or as little as best suits the proper purpose of our own
building, should therefore be our object.
Certain styles have, by th e usages of years, become identified
w ith certain classes of building, and this, in a measure, is often
good reason for their re-adoption, w ith those modifications th a t suit
th e to-day requirem entsfor instance, the various forms of G othic
find m uch b eau ty of old association for church work, interm ingled
b u t slightly w ith the round, arched R om anesque of the early Church.
The classic styles of Greece and Rom e, b o th in their pure in te rp re ta
tion and in modified form, have graced our public and semi-public
buildings for all tim e, and form a dignified and massive motif for a
national, ty p e of composition, suitable for large and extensive
buildings of a m onum ental character.
B ritain of all countries, too, is rich in the beauties of house

T ruly a country of homes, she offers endless fields

for study and suggestive ideas in dom estic architecture, as her ways
have wended through the m any years of her ever-changing re^m e.
F irst through rude Saxon to th e great feudal castles of the N orm an
invaders, whose massive walls even a thousand years have scarce

There m oat and draw bridge lie, b u t as an unused

image of a p ast necessity, th a t m ust needs give way before the

incoming of the greater English liberties, which brought w ith them



the stately mansions of th e renaissance, and the quaint half

tim ber houses of th e people.
The three great styles of Gothic (the early English, the decorated,
and the perpendicular) th a t lie so closely to the h eart of architec
tu ral E ngland will always inspire the designer of B ritish stock,
while, if the gorgeousness of E astern a rt and the quaintness of
foreign m anners in building m ay charm for a tim e, and influence
here and there, their strict reproduction is not sufficiently to the
public taste to find anything like general acceptance.
Then there are the great fields of m odern building the world
over to be studied, where varying conditions and n atu ral character
istics are constantly influencing the styles adopted, such as the tall
American business buildings, and th e ad ap tatio n of certain forms
of construction, such as steel fram ing or arm oured concrete, or
the working out of new motifs, such as the new a rt now being
developed in Europe.
From even this casual review, it will be seen how wide is the
designers range of selection for ideas, yet, when he has glanced
through all these styles, he will see how little is actually suitable to
the requirem ents of A ustralian practice.
The ad ap tatio n of style should be carefully weighed by the
designer, who will generally find it best to consider each building
problem distinctly upon its own peculiar and separate merit, and,
having in m ind w hat we have before enum erated of site, aspect,
accom m odation, clim ate, and


so design as to

tre a t the

building in w hat m ay be defined as a naturalistic manner.

In this

way, and in this way only, m ay we look for true developm ent in
our national architecture, free, on th e one hand, from slavish
copying, and showing an awakening tow ards such designing of
mass, parts, and ornam ents as shall best bring forth th a t con
form ity wdth tru th which makes for great architecture.
To strain merely after style is b u t too often to miss the highest,
while to allow the style to grow out natu rally from honest con
struction is better.



Side b y side w ith mass balance should be the securing of con

tin u ity in th e various external p arts of a building composition, a
certain threading together of th e various features, so th a t one is an
essential p a rt of th e other and of th e whole, and so th a t no one
feature m ay look

stuck on or superfluous.

The use of string

courses, bands, vertical shafts, and other line-form ing devices often
helps in this particular, while care should be taken to so design
verandahs, porches, bays, and any large projections which occur on
th e general body of the building, th a t th ey m ay be felt to be an
integral p a rt of th e whole, and n o t look as though th ey could
b etter be dispensed with.

In securing this continuity, it will

be found th a t color and m aterial will play a not inconsiderable

p art, for disconnection is often th e result if the projecting mass be
of a different m aterial from th e m ain mass, such as where a w eather
board addition is m ade to a brick building, or a flimsy verandah is
built up against a solid building w ithout any stru ctu ral clenching.
To m ake a design homogeneous is to m ake for success.'
S k y -l in e . One is often im pressed w ith th e im p o rtan t value of
sky-line In building.

In the fine clear skies of A ustralia, where

the eyes of m en are lifted more to the blue th an where the m urky
skies of colder climes have to be reckoned with, the value of the
sky-line is of added im portance, and, certainly w ith detached
buildings and w ith buildings occupying high or com m anding sites,
this consideration offers good o p p o rtu n ity for design, and should
be duly weighed,

rem em bering

th a t


w ith

pleasing roof

m assing and well-designed chim neys m uch m ay be d o n e ; and if

w ith these sm aller buildings b eau ty is obtained, w hat m ay not be
done w ith large public and sem i-public buildings, where tower and
spire and cupola m ay help the effect ?
O r n a m en t . A rchitectural ornam ent is an im portant p a rt of
design, and, to gether w ith moldings and features, goes largely to
m ake up th e character of good work.


In outside ornam ent certain factors

interior ornam ent enter.




do not govern

are m ostly considerations of

weather, exposure, direct sunlight and shadow, and these, in their

turn, affect m aterial and treatm en t.

O rnam ent should, however,

always be applied w ith restrain t, and, as far as possible, in

conform ity w ith the constructive character of th e building, for
nothing can be more fatal to successful ornam entation th a n its
excess. The eye needs repose, and th e plain surfaces should be
designed w ith as m uch care as ornam ented ones.
I t is well to observe how very vitally strong sunlight, and
consequently th e strong shadows, will affect th e appearance of a
building, and all external ornam ent should be designed w ith this
principle in mind.

The great b eau ty of cast shadows, when the

constructive masses are well balanced, is often alm ost all-sufficient

in a country such as A ustralia, where only those

ornam ental

features should be used which conform to these conditions.


wet, frosty, snow-laden clim ates have brought forth in building,

molding, features, roof slopes, projections, ornam ents, and forms to
counteract th e w orst effects of such w eather, or to bring out the
best effect possible, so th a t in a tem perate and sunny clim ate like
our own the tre a tm e n t should be different, and should be directed
to suit our peculiar circum stances, where the sun should be allowed
to do all it can tow ards the ornam enting of our building.
We should seek, too, to avoid meaningless ornam ent, or the
placing of any ornam ental work upon a building w ithout having
corresponding constructive value.
O knamental M o t if .All ornam ents m ust have some

m otif.

There is the religious symbolism of the E gy p tian wall ornam ents,

the exquisite carvings depicting the doings of gods and men upon
the friezes of the Greek Temples, repeated in a m easure by the
later Rom ans. The entw ining of the lotus, the honeysuckle, and
the a c a n th u s ; the m asks of men and animals, and later the
influence of these

old classics repeated


blended in the




Then there

is th e

v ast field of

C hristian


religious symbolism, all affecting architectural ornam ent, so th a t it

will be seen th a t each building m ust be considered, in its ornam ent
as in its general design, purely upon its m erit, and some suitable
motif be adopted, through
general ornam entation.

which should th read the scheme of

F o r ourselves, we m ay certainly tu rn w ith

profit to our own A ustralian flora and fauna to supply m otif for
such of our ornam ent, and, by learning the best m ethods of their
treatm e n t for this purpose, to so select and conventionalize w hat is
before us as to a d a p t m any of these distinct and beautiful forms to
the ornam entation of A ustralian buildings.
O rnamental D ista n ce . O rnam ent m ust always be designed
w ith tru e regard to its norm al distance from th e eye, th a t which is
near being capable of high and often m inute finish, while d istan t
objects are the b e tte r planned w ith boldness, both of conception
and projection.

F o r this work, some training in modelling is of

very g reat assistance to the designer, who m ay w ith profit take a

course of actual practical work w ith the clay, which medium is
fruitfu l in bringing out th e points of mass and projection th a t
constan tly recur in th e designing of ornam ent.
A nother point w orth rem em bering is th e differing value


projection upon a small mass, as against a large mass w ith the same

This is constantly seen in actual work, such as where

various groups of chimneys are allowed to have the same projection

of molding w hether they contain four or eight hues, the result
being th a t th e projection of the eight-hue chimney, if well balanced,
only overweighs and makes ugly the four-hued chimney, especially
a t the corners, where the oversailing is m ost seen.
principle applies to height.

The same

In cases where a chim ney rises out of

a ridge, its detail is often the same as a sim ilar chim ney rising
from th e eaves, w ith unhappy results to both, for every mass
should have its own weight of molding, projection, or ornam ent,
even though there m ay be m aster overhanging cornices th a t are
comm on to th e whole.



I n terior O rnament .In terio r ornam ent m ust be designed w ith

different tre a tm e n t from th e external.

In th e absence of direct

sunlight, diffused and artificial lighting only has to be reckoned

with, while the sheltered character of the work allows of m aterials
and colors which are not a t all admissible upon th e outside of a
building being introduced.

The questions involved in interior

ornam ent are so closely identified w ith other




afterw ards specifically dealt w ith in this book, th a t it is not

intended here to fu rth er enter upon them .

Sufficient to say th a t

all internal ornam ent should follow, in general trea tm e n t, the

design of a building as a whole, and should be in harm ony and
general ch aracter w ith i t ; nor should th e designers work, in our
opinion, be fully discharged before th e building as a decorated and
furnished and, if you will, garden-surrounded entity, be m ade by
his overseeing skill complete.


I V.



large proportion of building activ ity is always directed

tow ards th e erection of houses of m oderate size, either for letting

purposes or for individual ownership.

These activities are m ost

m arked in the ever-expanding suburbs of the larger cities, as well

as in those places where the closer settlem en t of the land calls for
new and suitable houses for th e people.
T h at each fam ily should aim a t th e occupancy of a separate
dwelling, however small, self-contained, and w ith its own land
allotm ent and garden, is a laudable am bition, which finds favor
am ong the ranks of the larger proportion of our population, and
some hints m ay therefore be here given to show how best, and
m ost econom ically, this class of building m ay be carried out.
The first quality th a t should be considered in house planning is
convenience, and this q uality should th read itself through the
various ap artm en ts of the house, and weave the whole together, so
as to result in a well-balanced composition.
T h at a house has to be lived in by a given class of persons, by a
given num ber of persons, and adm inistered in a certain way, should
be first before the m ind of the designer.
Site, aspect, accom m odation, and cost, therefore, are the first
things to be determ ined upon.
N othing can be worse th a n th e growing tendency of building
house p ro p erty on inadequate allotm ents of land, where the building
overspreads the site, to the exclusion of reasonable surrounding



brings w ith

it unwholesome ness and the

annoyance of being overlooked by adjoining owners.



The site, then, should be adequate to the house, and the house
suited to the site, and no house can be suited to a site w ithout the
aspect of


a p artm en t

being separately

considered and

planned, not as it happens to come in the plan, b u t w ith deliberate

purpose and design.

A t th e

o utset of house



m aterials for walls and roofs m ust be determ ined upon, and the
structure so arranged as to best suit th e m aterials chosen.

E very

m aterial has its possibilities, as every m aterial has its limits, and
every m aterial should be tre a te d in execution on its own peculiar
and best arranged way.
There is the b eau ty of the tim ber house, as there is also the more
substantial b eau ty of th e brick house or th e stone hom estead.
W here good building stone is available, su b stan tial walling m ay be
built in rubble work, an d if cube stone be found too expensive,
dressings of brickw ork m ay be b u ilt fair a t angles around door and
window openings, and to chim neys and general finishing parts.
This com bination of m asonry and brickw ork is usually found
satisfactory and reasonably economical.
For all general purposes, th e best wall m aterial for small houses
is undoubtedly brickw ork.

Bricks, being sm all and uniform in

size, lend them selves as a constructive m aterial to small work,

where breaks are frequent, an d w here the work is broken up into
m any parts, such as is necessitated by house-building.

The bricks

should be hard and sound in quality, and all external walls should
be built w ith a hollow cavity, so as to keep o u t w et and equalize
the tem perature as m uch as possible.
W eatherboard houses m ay be made, by proper construction,
sound and w eathertight, but, while th e initial cost of this class of
construction is less th a n stone or brick, th e life of the tim ber house
is much less, while th e cost of upkeep and p ainting m ust be
considered as an im p o rtan t item in th e m aintenance.
F or roof covering, tiles have m any points of recom m endation.
If of good quality th ey are fairly cool, easily laid, w eathertight,
lasting, good in color, and, if of th e

Marseilles p attern ,





Their disadvantage is excessive weight, especially

when wet, for, as a m aterial, terra-co tta is more absorbent th a n

Slates from reliable quarries, if well graded as to color, make
very lasting roofs.

They m ay, however, be classed as h o tte r th a n

tiles, and special provision should be m ade for v entilating the roof
spaces, as slates set close are non-ventilating in them selves.
Galvanized corrugated iron roofing m ay alw ays be relied upon
for resisting th e rainfall.

I t is, however, th e h o ttest of all roofing

for sum m er use, though it cools off quicker th a n tiles or slates when
cool changes occur.

Iro n is also the lightest, and, for this reason,

requires less roof tim bering th a n other coverings.

F o r its appear

ance, its use is, however, n o t recom m ended in good class work.
Shingle roofing is very pleasing in appearance, and, if of split
pepperm int gum, m ay be m ade extrem ely lasting.

The danger

from fire is, however, a serious disadvantage, w hich has led to the
prohibition of this class of covering w ithin certain tow n areas.
S uburban H ouses .I t is w ith the suburban villa th a t the
greatest house-building a c tiv ity will always prevail, and there good
work and b ad will th e m ost commingle w ith th e sway of popular
taste, and th e come and go of styles, m annerism s, and modes
of life.
T h at in suburban house building there is g reat o p p o rtunity of
reform , as there is also equal o p p o rtu n ity to do good work, there
can be no doubt, and m uch should be said and dem onstrated
tow ards bringing out th a t sound logic of n a tu ra h stic building, which
m ay, b y its sound and lasting reasonableness, leave no place for
th e unsoundness of th e common m anner.
True building, in th e houses of th e people, should be directed,
as far as possible, tow ards two endsth e creation of homes and the
encouragem ent of continuity.
The first includes much, and has its constructive and practical
buildino- side, as it also has its ethical side.

Home means con-


P l ll l ''III

peT-^pechve PPefch"

LA R G E S U B U D B A h V li^



S M A L L 3 U5 UP5 AM
wc.ii F = i a i







15-10 6

















venience for a house.


The basic idea of shelter, w ith all th a t it

includes, should be present, and this is n o t possible w ithout th a t

planning, arrangem ent, and

stru ctu ral com pletion which finds

itself in tune w ith our tru ly A ustralian conditions of life.

T hat our work has been all too tem porary, too transient, too
showy, frothy, unsuitable, and lacking in m any sound qualities
th a t are necessary for this continuity, we m ust all see.
To bring in, therefore, th a t which is b etter, to plan w ith reason
able restraint, and w ith logic and a sound use for each feature, and
above all to induce th a t sim plicity of taste, and appreciation of
plain, honest, true m aterial, ra th e r th a n

showy shams, should

produce betterm ent, in a special degree, in our suburban houses.

In suburban houses th e plan generally shows a tendency to
lengthen tow ards the back, th e sides of th e house having to be
close contained to give side spacing in th e garden.
A reasonable am ount of breaking up in th e plan is allowable,
and is an im provem ent upon th e old-fashioned box plan, with
apartm ents on two sides of a straig h t through passage.
On P late IV. a com pact plan of a small suburban villa, of
moderate size, w ith a northern aspect, is shown.

There is a side

approach porch to the front door, screened from S.W. rains, leading
to a little hall, w ith a stained glass window a t th e western end.
The drawingroom is conveniently off the hall, and in close touch
with the front door, so th a t casual visitors m ay directly approach,
without traversing th e house.
The diningroom faces west, and has a square bay, with an o u t
look south and north up and down the garden.

The kitchen is

across the passage, w ith an eastern aspect, and w ith a scullery,

fitted with copper and w ash-troughs, opening off.

The p an try is

planned south for coolness, and is off the back vestibule.

There are two bedroom sthe larger w ith northern aspect, which
is a pleasing w inter aspect, and the other having an eastern light.
A front elevation is given, showing general grouping and roof
lines, with ceilings 10 ft. 6 in. high.

There is a pent screening the



drawingroom b ay from th e high northern sun, while the verandah

screens the bedroom windows.
gables near th e ridge.

The roof is ventilated by louvred

On the same plate (No. IV.) is shown a large suburban villa, which
faces west, th e land falling som ew hat steeply to the front, which
helps the general effect.

F o r this reason the approach is up a

flight of outside stone steps, on to the verandah, and thence

through a side door to the hall, from which drawing and dining
rooms b o th open direct, an arrangem ent which works well in case
of entertainm ents, when the three apartm en ts m ay be practically
throwm into one.

There are three bedroom s grouped together upon

th e northern side, w ith a bathroom and linen store, and a side door
to the garden from the lobby.
There is a breakfast-room w ith eastern m orning light.
The kitchen has a cool southern aspect, 8vith a window^ well
arranged in relation to the range.

The p a n try and lock-up store

is also south.
There is a very good arrangem ent of scullery, laundry, and fuel
a t the n orth-east end, as also an outside lum ber-room and W.C.
The perspective sketch shows th e general grouping.

The house

is of brick, w ith a tiled roof, and wooden verandah treatm ent, the
ceilings being 11 ft. high.
A m odification of these plans is shown in fig. 1, P late V., where
the hall is m ade large, so as to serve as a sitting and living a p a rt
m ent.

This has m any points to recom m end it, not the least of

which is th e saving of passage room, for it m ust be rem em bered

th a t passages in a plan often occupy valuable space, and cost
quite as m uch as the same superficial area throwm into a room.
The object, therefore, of planning, as far as possible, w ithout
passages is to be encouraged.
W here a verandah is interposed, as in this case, between the
approach and th e hall itself, th a t crudeness, noticeable w^hen a

door opens directly into a dwelling-room, is not here

perceived, and such an ap artm en t as is here shown m ay, with




poQFt> w/TH rfieiM/pt"' wwa

VEDA/1DAH ( ji f L L L i i L M C L c a m )



L lV m o




C O M M O M R O O M V IllA '

V IL W \



7- 11




F I Q .Z .




F I Q .l .



window seat and fire-place and the adequate space given, prove a
pleasant apartm ent.
In this plan th e diningroom is in the front, and th e other a p a rt
m ents are grouped a t m oderate distances from the hall.
Common R oom Villa s . Much m ay be said in favor of an
arrangem ent of apartm ents, differing in som ew hat m arked degree
from the general villa, in th a t one large living or common room is
built to do the work generally assigned to th e draw ing and dining
rooms in an ordinary villa.
I t will a t once be seen th a t b y giving up th e superficial area of
these two apartm ents, and th e passage or hall th a t generally
connects them , and throw ing this space into one large apartm ent,
a fine spacious and open room is created, of a size b u t seldom seen
in a small house, and y et a t less cost th a n where th e subdivision is
By some little skill in arrangem ent of bay, ingle, and break,
quite enough privacy and separation can generally be secured to
fulfil all general requirem ents, while leaving, for such a clim ate as
Austraha, a very fine, spacious ap artm en t, lending itself to good
hygiene, as well as to aesthetic treatm en t.
A plan of this character is shown in fig. 2, P late V.
This villa faces east, and is approached by a flight of four stone
steps to a tiled verandah, where the front door opens into the large
common room, the verandah really acting as a sheltering lobby,
and the room being separated from direct outside view by a
panelled screen harm onizing w ith th e general design of the wood
work of the room.
This common room is 26 ft. long by 18 ft. wide, and has a
casement window in its N .E. corner w ith a long seat under it.
There is an octagonal b ay occupying the S.E. angle, from which
windows look in all directions, the opening being p a rtly screened
by an overhead grille.

A t the southern end there is a large, open

fire-place, w ith small window a t one side and door a t the other,
giving access to the south verandah.



In the front a small room is arranged as a study or supplem entary

sitting room.
There are four bedrooms, all grouped together and in touch with
a connecting lobby, the bathroom being in the m idst.
On th e S.W. side the domestic offices are. all kep t together.
These consist of kitchen, w ith a pantry, interposed between the
common room and a scullery and m aids room a t the back.
The back grouping of the building gives an opportunity for
forming a paved court w ith a high trellis screening, and w ith a
small fountain in th e centre.
This villa is planned for 11 ft. ceilings, one large roof over
spreading the m ain portion, w ith running down verandahs, the
hipped roofs of the two shallow back ridges running into the main
The common room bay is roofed as a low tower, insetting a t the
angle of th e high roof, w ith w eather vane finial.
V illas

w ith

A ttics . In the southern States, and wherever

clim atic conditions are reasonably m oderate, and allow such a

treatm en t, the roof pitch of the villa m ay w ith advantage be
increased, and the space so created used as attics.
This attic treatm en t has m any advantages. There is, first of all,
the easy creation of ex tra accom m odation a t m oderate c o s t; the
rooms, too, have a more extended outlook th a n the ground floor
apartm ents, while the roof, as an architectural feature, is nearly
always m uch im proved by increased height and pitch.
As the ceilings of attics are closer to the outside roof surfaces
th a n ordinary apartm ents, the roof should always be covered w ith
insulating m aterial to, as far as possible, equalize the tem peratures,
while windows should, where practicable, secure the draught of the
cool prevailing winds.
In an attic any of the roof space over about 4 ft. 9 in. in height
m ay w ith advantage be used, th e m ain height being about 8 ft.
On P late VI. two villa plans are shown, having attic apartm ents in
the roof space.


C O T T /\G E












F IG .4-. P L ^ M





^ l


iin tj


FIG . 1.


P IG . Z .

- PLA N -

ft T ,



Fig. 1 m ay be tak en as being reasonably complete as a com pact

villa plan, even w ithout attics, in which case th e stair hall could be
made narrow er b y m aking th e southern bedroom larger and leaving
out the staircase.
This villa, w ith eastern aspect, has direct fro n t door approach and
a verandah on the east and n o rth sides, th e m ain ap artm ents being
grouped on either side of the straig h t hall, the living rooms to the
north, the bedroom s to the south, and th e dom estic offices being a t
the back.
F rom the stair hall th e attics, consisting of three rooms, which
are shown by d o tted lines on th e plan, are reached.
W ith 10 ft. 6 in. ground door ceilings, and 8 ft. high attic ceihngs,
it is roofed high and free over th e m ain mass of the plan, w ith
slopes running down over verandah and scullery, and w ith gable
treatm en t incutting where th e diningroom and two of the bed
rooms ju t out from the general line.
In the other plan, fig. 2, som ew hat less accom m odation is shown,
there being one bedroom less th a n in the first plan, and only two
attic rooms.
The m ain approach door is here planned a t the side, the fronting
aspect of the house being north, w ith th e verandah on n orth and
The living room and sittingroom group are directly rig h t and
left off the hall, and the two bedroom s are to the east, the one next
the front having a circular bay.

The arrangem ent of the domestic

offices here plans well for a small villa, and m ay be noted.

The small stair to th e attic is opposite the living room door, and
leads to a box room off the half landing over the bathroom and to
two rooms in th e roof.
. Here, too, th e m ain roof mass is high pitched, and runs down
over the verandahs.
S mall Country H ouses .Away from the narrow allotm ent
of land, so charaeteristic of the suburban villa site, the country



villa or bungalow comes as a direct contrast.

The planning may

therefore w ith reason be more spreading, and the arrangem ents

made for th e exclusion, on the one hand, of m any things possible in
suburban houses which are n o t available in th e country, and, on
th e other hand, the inclusion of certain conveniences which are
peculiarly necessary in a country home.
The small country house, in our Commonwealth, has a very wide
range indeedfrom extrem e m oderation of clim atic conditions in
the south to tropical conditions in th e north.

We therefore illus

tra te a range of various designs, some suited to cool conditions,

others to sub-tropical requirem ents.
P late V II., fig. 1, shows a plan and perspective sketch of a villa
in a tem perate p a rt of the country, in which one of the principal
objects of th e planning has been to counteract the effect of very
high prevailing winds from the S. and S.W.
I t will be noted th a t th e working p arts of the house are com
p actly planned and well screened from these aspects.
This tim ber-built house is arranged on a spacious site, and covers
a space of some 70 ft. from n o rth to south.
The m ain e n try is sheltered under a small v erandah or pent,
from under which th e hall is entered, th e drawingroom to the
north having a ju ttin g -o u t b ay a t one corner.
stu d y or office off the hall.

There is a small

The diningroom is a long apartm ent,

lighted by square b ay windows, from which a small door gives

direct passage to the garden.

The fire-place is b uilt back into the

kitchen, th u s leaving the walls flush, w ith a small servery window

and table a t the side.

The three bedroom s have eastern windows

for m orning sunlight, and two of them are furnished w ith open
The bathroom is so planned as to allow of th e roof running down
over to th e lower level required.
In this plan th e domestic offices are outside the m ain house, the
kitchen being approached by a wide verandah, which is enclosed a t
the southern end, and has a skylight over, for plant-growing.


f fril^ctive Sk-etch



I r o o u FUEL

no. 1


I?- ifc







5A C K


V E C A /ID A n






FIG. 2


D in i/I G

V L B A /ID A n



^ ItCT



Off the kitchen is a large store-room, fitted w ith bins and


The scullery opens off the kitchen, and contains a sink

and a draining table.

This ap artm en t is also used as a wash-house,

and is fitted w ith a copper and w ash-troughs and served by an

outside door.
Small detached rooms are arranged outside for tools, fuel, cycles,
(fee., and in this way a useful, enclosed, paved yard is formed, con
taining rain-w ater tanks to supplem ent the general w ater supply.
The plan of another country villa is shown on the same plate
(fig. 2).

This is for a hot climate, and has a verandah on three

sides, the south only being left free.

This house supplies the requirem ents of a small grazier.


is a 9 ft. wide hall, from which draw ing and dining rooms open.
The drawingroom is of irregular shape and has a fire-place,
arranged in h an d y proxim ity to the outlook from th e bay window.
The diningroom has southern windows, w ith bookcases under,
upon either side of the fire-place.

There are also w estern windows,

to give outlook in this direction, screened b y the verandah con

tinuing on as a pen t over them .

There is a servery hatch through

to the p an try , which is fitted w ith a sink, storage cupboards, and

tables, and is arranged tow ards the cool south.
There are three bedrooms, the best having an angle bay.


bathroom is grouped w ith them , and is large in size a feature th a t

is m ost often required in country houses, where th e bathroom , to a
great extent, acts as a dressingroom, in which outdoor garm ents
m ay be changed for indoor clothing after the d ay s work is done.
A small den, which m ay be used for office purposes, is planned
near the back door, w ith a window facing the verandah.
U nder th e den is a cellar approached b y a stone stair.


cellar is lighted b y a window under th e den window, the table

acting as a bulkhead in giving height to same.
The kitchen has a cool aspect, and the range has good lighting

The scullery is also used as a wash-house, and has a door

and steps leading direct to the drying ground.



The building is of brick, w ith 12 ft. ceilings, the whole being

covered w ith a plain, low-pitched, tiled roof, extending w ithout
break over the verandahs, and supported th e re at w ith heavy,
square posts.
S u b -T ropical V illa s .^ As a type of a sub-tropical villa, fig. 3
on P late V. is shown.

as separate


this plan the drawing

apartm en ts


and dining

been dispensed w ith in

favor of a room y living room, which forms a large, com fortable, and
airy ap artm en t for com m on use.

This has an open fire-place by the

side of a flat bay window, looking on to the broad verandah.

There is a som ew hat steep fall in the land to the front, and the
house is k ep t well up, which calls for approach steps and handrailing to the verandahs.

On th e

S.E. side this verandah is

enclosed, giving space m arked Lounge, for use a t meal tim es

during sum m er, or for sitting out a t evening.
Two bedrooms are grouped w ith a bathroom between them on
th e north side of th e living room, separated by a lobby space, w ith
a wood grille overhead.

There are also two other bedrooms a t the

N .E. corner, from which a vine-covered y ard extends westward.

All the internal doors have hung fanlights over them , and, by
arrangem ent of these and opposite windows, cross air currents are
set up as m uch as possible.
I t will be noted th a t the domestic working portion of th e house,
grouped together on the west, consists of th e kitchen and scullery,
w ith a cool inside store and well-sheltered dairy, and a large
servants bedroom, with a passage and way out.

The fuel store and

E.C s. are kep t aw ay in the N.W . boundary of site.

All th e rain w ater is collected from the roofs by a complete
system of close-jointed piping, and conveyed to a large u nder
ground concrete storage ta n k in the yard, which has a windmill
and pum ping gear overhead, from which point a system of supply
pipes is conveyed to points where w ater is required about the house.
The ceilings are 12 ft. high, and the roof is low-pitched and wide-


spreading, and covered w ith corrugated iron.

of rough boarding over the


There is a covering

rafters, which is laid w ith

conducting felt, the roof space being well


ventilated to keep

apartm ents as cool as possible during th e sum m er heat.

The structure being of wood, great care has been exercised to
prevent the inroads of white ants from the ground, the whole
building being set up on stum ps of non-attackable wood, covered
on top w ith galvanized iron ant-stops.
B ush Cottages .A house of m oderate size, planned to suit the
requirem ents of a country settler, is shown in P late V III.
This house is of tim ber construction, and has an extra large
living room w ith a southern aspect.

There is a small sittingroom

off the entry, and it m ay be noted th a t th e fire-places to these tw o

rooms are of large size and so sunk as not to obtrude upon the
room space.
F our bedrooms are arranged along the eastern side.

Three of

these have eastern windows, while th a t on N.W . corner has a

special balcony, from which a picturesque view is obtained.
The domestic offices consist of a kitchen, w ith


cooking stove, sink supplied w ith w ater from outside tank, and
cupboard store and Scotch dresser.

N ext th e kitchen is a large

sized store-room, fitted w ith a row of zinc-lined bins, a table under

the southern window, and tiers of shelving.
On th e other side of the passage is another store, w ith the
bathroom beyond, in which, to save w ater, a tra y b a th is fitted
with a shower fed from outside tanks.
The windows are m ostly casem ents, of red Cahfornian pine
tim ber, oiled, the glass being in small, clear panes, leaded in.
The outside w eatherboards are of jarrah, allowed to go grey.
The roof is of corrugated iron, and is well ventilated w ith louvred
ventilators, th e ceiling being covered w ith non-conducting pugging.
The inside finishings are entirely in native tim bers, plainly treated,
and finished wuth oiled and wax-polished surfaces.



O ccasional H ouses .Among small houses an ever-growing

num ber is found am ong th e class of week-end or occasional houses.
Our seaside resorts and m ountain and country retreats bear witness
to the dem ands of the small house, or cottage, for occasional use.
These are m ostly of tim ber, and require, in several particulars,
to be planned differently from th e suburban or more perm anently
occupied property. They range from the one-roomed h u t or shanty
to the m any-room ed villa, and require specially planning and
detailing to fit them for their peculiar purpose.
F o r a house of several ap artm en ts the one large common room
or dining ap a rtm e n t is best, w ith small b u t num erous sleeping
ap artm en ts, and wide, spacious verandahs, which conserve the
beauty of special outlooks, and give opportunity for open-air life.
In m atters of detail a few practical points should be noted, as
follow s:
The locality should be carefully studied, and prevailing winds
noted and allowed for.
H e a t ra th e r th a n cold should be planned out, as the house is for
sum m er use.
The fierce sum m er h eat of the west m ust be screened if any
com fort is to be secured.
Roof, if of iron, which m ay be necessary on account of w ater
supply, should be interlined, and, if possible, of double m aterial, to
a c t like th e fly of a ten t, and thus cool the rooms below.
All windows and outside doors should be fitted w ith fly-proofing,
and windows should be of such a kind th a t this m ay be readily
There should be ample storage both for cooking utensils, crockery,
and for tinned foods.

E verything in th e stores should be arranged

so th a t if p u t aw ay and left they m ay be free from the inroads of

mice or ants.

F or this reason all storage bins, cases, &c., and the

store-room itself, should be lined w ith zinc or galvanized iron.

W ater tan k s are best planned under the shelter of verandahs, for
th e sake of coolness.

If it is intended to leave th e house w ithout a




ffDptcliVt jKtfch










1 5- 12





10967 6 3 - 3 2 10




60 __________ 40 __________%




caretaker when not in use, close outside shutters, locked from the
inside, should be planned to all windows, and rain w ater tanks
should be enclosed, and arranged w ith inside taps.
Generosity of fire-place spacing should be a feature, and ample
provision should be m ade for good log fires.
The kitchen, being a hot and odorous ap artm en t, is best kept
outside th e m ain building or entirely detached.
P late VI., fig. 3, shows a design for an occasional house w ith a
northern aspect.

There are verandahs on three sides, w ith the

rain-w ater tan k s under shelter.

The diningroom has a sitting

alcove containing a fire-place, and there are five bedrooms.


bathroom is fitted w ith w ater supply from the tan k s on the eastern

The kitchen is really outside the m ain house, and is

approached by th e verandah, yet is well in touch w ith the dining


The fire-place is b u ilt outside th e wall, so as n ot to heat

the house, and th e window, as do also the windows of four of

the bedrooms, faces th e cool south.
storage is in th e kitchen itself.

The crockery and utensil

The food storage is arranged o u t

side, between two of th e w ater tanks.

W orkmen s H omes .English architecture has always


special cognizance of homes for th e working classes, and m any

notable im provem ents in this class of dwelhng have been in
augurated of late years, b oth in th e erection of large, m any-storied
buildings and also in th e building of village houses, to a more
healthful as well as a more convenient arrangem ent of dwelhng
th an was form erly th e case.
The system of collective dwellings in large building blocks,
where separate tenem ents are placed together, m aking one large,
m any-storied building, has not, thus far, m ade progress in Aus

R a th e r has th e tendency been to so cheapen the means

of com m unication as to induce the working classes to seek the

more open lands for their dwellings.






be good




tu n ity to bring in an im proved class of building, specially suited

to families of strictly m oderate means.
As this class of property

is more


th a n

n ot


property, there should be double reason for its general character

istics being convenience, substantiality, and ease of m aintenance.
The u n fo rtu n ate rule th a t th e cheaper th e article th e more it is
ornam ented should here be decidedly rejected, as it can be readily
shown th a t for all purposes th a t which is simple, neat, plain, and
honest, if properly designed, will b oth look best and be best, from
a financial as well as a workable standpoint.
U pon P la te V I., fig. 4, is shown a plan and perspective sketch
of a sm all cottage.

There is a front living room and three bed

rooms, each w ith a fire-place.

The kitchen is a t the back, and

is fitted w ith a com pact cooking range, w ith a store cupboard a t

the side, and a long table, w ith a sink and draining board, under
th e window.

A food safe is b u ilt on th e lobby near by.

Off the back lobby is the wash-house, all under cover, containing
wooden w ash-troughs in pair, served w ith soft rain w ater from the
two outside tanks, and w ith a boiling copper.
A tra y b a th is also fitted in this ap artm en t, which is sufficient
for genera] purposes where w ater supply is limited.

cottage is plainly b u ilt of brick, w ith hollow outside

walls, the roof being of A ustralian tiles, w ith floors and verandah
tim bering of ja r rah.




I n the designing of large houses the difficulties th a t the designer

encounters in the small house is p roportionately increased, for w ith
the greater num ber of ap artm en ts the opportunities of correctly
lighting and grouping them become .more complex.

On the other

hand, the large house provides more scope and o pportunity, and
m any features m ay be introduced in th e larger structure th a t
would be out of place, or impossible, in the sm aller building.
The large houses now b u ilt are generally detached. The dem and
for the tow n house occupying the whole area of a street site is now
very lim ited, as p roperty of this class shows each year an increasing
tendency to pass into the hands of professional occupiers, while
suburban and out of tow n houses and mansions grow apace.
The detached house needs th e broad setting of an adequate site,
and specially so when the greater mass of m aterials visible outside
are new and liable to be garish in color, such as brick walls and
tile roofs. These, of course, mellow w ith tim e, b u t if a site be chosen
well filled w ith n atu ral greenery, th e result is m uch happier, both
at the beginning and for all time.
All red houses find their answering color note in the refreshing
framing of green, and sw ard and trees alike heighten in no small
degree the beauties of the building.
The requirem ents m entioned in C hapter III. as necessary in good
house sites should here be specially rem em bered, for the success of
a building depends in no small degree upon the suitability and
value of the site itself.
A t the outset of planning, a list of apartm ents, with the
approxim ate area of each, should be draw n up, and the whole
grouped broadly into four sectionsnam ely, reception and living



rooms ; slee])ing a]);u'tiueiits and tlicir accessories ; domestic offices,

siicli as k'itclien, stores, &c. ; and serv an ts quarters.

In addition

to these there m ay be outside buildings, such as stables, mens

((uarters, and the like.
If all these a])artm ents have to be placed on the one door, the
overspreading area will of necessity be very large, and m ay lead
to long and numerous passages.

If a tw o-story structure be

decided upon, some g reater com pactness of plan m ay be hoped for,

which should not be found inconvenient in working, if easy sta ir


m ade

])art of the scheme, and

with full domestic

conveniences so arranged as to make each lloor as far as possible


H o u se s. A


o n e-story




d elineated upon Plate IX .

This plate shows the ground lloor plan, having an elongated

western front of some 145 ft., with 20 apartm en ts and offices.
The reception ap artm en ts are grouped together a t the southern
end, and consist of a large entrance hall, off which four other rooms
open - viz., dining, billiard, drawing rooms, and library.

N ear the

entry, a t the corner of the hall, is a small lavatory and cloak

room with S ft. high ceiling.

In the billiard-room provision is

made for ai'tilicial lighting, while here, as also lor the draw ing
room and library, the southern aspect gives opportunity lor large
bow windows with broad glass display.
Doors from the dining and billiard rooms lead to a paved terrace
with sea ts and trees in tubs, surrounded by lo w para,])et walls, and
with a flight of steq)S down to the back garden.

N ext the diningroom is a room y pantry.

This also serves the

breakfastroom , which is S))ecially arranged with eastern as|)ect.

The general bedroom s are grouped along the west and nortjj,
and are of various sizes, all opening on to a 0 ft. wide verandah,
and having generous bath and lavatory accom m odation.

The best

bedroom has an attach ed dressingroom and private bathroom .





H S 'S l i I





The small bedroom on the n orthern front could also be used as a

dressingroom, en suite w ith one of the larger bedrooms.
Provision for children is m ade in large night nursery and nurses
bedroom, w ith day nursery having sunny eastern and northern
aspect, with play court attached.
The domestic offices consist of kitchen, cu t off by a swing door
from the rest of th e house, scullery off the kitchen, four stores,
tradesm ens entry, &c.
The servants have their own hall, and four bedrooms, w ith
eastern aspects, are provided for maids.
their own b a th and W.C.
This plan, while securing

The servants also have

correct aspect




apartm ents, lends itself to simple roofing and massing.

One m ain span of roof, from west wall of b a th to east wall of
kitchen, covers the long central portion, into which the other
portions of roof naturally converge.
A generous length of verandah, portion of which is covered w ith
sloping slate roof, and the rem ainder w ith m etal flat, runs around
northern and

w estern fronts.

A t the

en try th e verandah is

extended to form a pent, to protect carriage ingoing in wet

weather. This pen t is suspended over the drive on wood brackets,
fram ed beam-wise over posts.
The general external walling is of rubble stone, w ith dressed
white stone sills and dressings, th e m ain surfaces being finished in
white roughcast.
The roofs are covered w ith purple slates.

The verandah floors

are of 6 in. by 1 | in. red tiles laid herring-bone wise, and all
external woodwork is left n atu ral and well oiled.
The g ^ e r a l ceiling height is 12 ft. for m ain building, and 11 ft.
for m aids rooms, scullery, and stores.
A perspective draw ing of this house, as viewed from the so u th
west, is dehneated upon P la te X.
Plates X L , X II., and X III. show plans and perspective of a
large tw o-story suburban house.



This house shows an extended frontage to the S.E., and is

flanked w ith a wide verandah, extending a t th e end into a broad
loggia, which offers am ple space for sitting out.
The m ain entrance is up a flight of steps to the tow er porch,
which leads to a vestibule.

This vestibule is screened from the

hall b y a carved ornam ental wooden screen, which extends across

and continues in fro n t of th e staircase.
The hall is 30 ft. wide, w ith direct light to the verandah, and
offers a central com m unicating ap artm en t to the house, w ith large
fire-place and w ainscotted blackwood treatm en t.
The staircase commences ju st off th e hall w ith three steps,
startin g on to a square landing, which gives good effect.

U nder

the stair a small lav ato ry and cloak-room is arranged, w ith a door
to the outside from the back verandah.
The drawingroom , to the south of the vestibule, is a rectangular
room 22 ft. by 18 ft., w ith two bays w ith casem ent windows and
window seats.

F rom the southern b ay a door leads direct on to

the loggia.
A day-room is planned a t the end of the vestibule, and a
smoking-room, having a th ree-q u arter round bow window, w ith a
seat and table looking to the n o rth and west.
The diningroom is a large one, being 27 ft. by 17 ft., wdth bay
end ju ttin g beyond th e general fro n t line of th e block.

The serv

ing is done from the kitchen, across the servants passage to the
servery, which is near the back stair.

This servery is fitted with

cabinets, table, and a ro tatin g serving drum .

A serv an ts hall, 17 ft. by 16 ft., is arranged next the kitchen,
w ith windows looking on to the kitchen yard, and a fire-place
betw een, so planned

th a t fire

and outlook m ay be


The k itchen has a left-hand light to the range, and a door direct
to veran d ah for tradesm en.
The scullery is off the kitchen, the sink being directly under
good light.



Stores are arranged p a rtly in a cool basem ent served by the

back stair.

There is a crockery store oh the servery, and a larder

and p an try side by side oh the servants passage.

These, by their

window arrangem ent, catch the cool south wind.

A t the northern end of th e plan a range of domestic offices is
throw n out in such a way as to screen the house from the hot and
dusty north winds.

These offices consist of a wash-house, 15 ft.

by 12 ft., h tte d w ith four w ash-troughs and copper, the door being
oh the v e ra n d a h ; a laundry, 12 ft. by 12 ft., w ithin the house,
coal and wood stores, and three E.Cs.
The kitchen y ard is enclosed by a brick wall, and is paved and
surface drained.

This area is arranged for general outside domestic

The larger portion of the plan upbuilds into a tw o-story tr e a t
ment, the northern block from the scullery being roofed over as
ground hoor offices only.
The back stairs lead up to two servants bedroom sone large
and one sm alland m aids bathroom and general linen store.
These are all cut oh from the main bedroom s by a half-glass screen
and door.
The main h rst hoor ap artm en ts consist of six bedrooms of
varying size, all served w ith balconies.
The large bedroom . No. 1, has a dressing room attached, w ith
a private

bathroom .

The general bathroom is central,


near the head of th e staircase, the bedroom s being on either

The balconies are specially arranged so th a t the cool southern
winds of sum m er m ay b e . enjoyed by easy access from all a p a rt



P late


shows the


elevational treatm en t.
The walls are carried up for the m ost p a rt in plain brickwork,
the sills and w indow-heads and copings being of freestone.
The verandah floor, being high up from the ground, has a dwarf



wall tre a tm e n t upon which th e whole of th e wooden superstructure

is built.
The posts are of 7 in. by 7 iu. tu rn ed wood, supporting a half
tim ber and roughcast and wood pierced cu rtain screen, which
comes down below the balcony floor to ofler additional shelter on
the verandah.
W here th e v erandah, a t its southern end, extends into the wide
loggia, it is p artially roofed over a t th e v eran d ah top level w ith
tiles, the general portion being carried round the house as an
ordinary balcony.
The balcony is roofed by the carrying down of th e wide-spreading
roof of th e house, th e south end being finished w ith a bold half
tim ber gable.
The b alustrading is p a rtly of pierced work, relieved w ith closeset shingling, th e ceiling being of lined open tim ber work.
The tiled roof is gable-ended a t o u t-ju ttin g of projections, and
some break of line is obtained b y roofing over the end of the
diningroom as a fiat, and carrying up only a portion of the mass to
the full height, to form bedroom No. 6.

This arrangem ent provides

a priv ate balcony for th e room.

A tow er rises over th e m ain entrance, from a square to an
octagonal form, g radually finishing in th e round, w ith copper
dome and w rought-iron finial.

H o uses .The large

country house

m ay well be

considered as in m any ways distinct from th e town or suburban

The cou n try house is, m ost often, aw ay from the direct supply
advantages of towns, and, in th e extended areas of the country,
th e house of th e sq u a tte r or large estate owuier needs specia^y to
be very self-contained, particularly w ith regard to m any things
th a t m ake for difference in planning.
There is generally, first of all, b u t sm all consideration required
for lim itation of site.

Given m any acres of land on station, farm ,


s i


IB '

4 f ) r

o x x v A \j


Ulliilir MJIt j

','"111 III I

" " i m



^ -




run, or estate, a suitable spot for the house is generally chosen,

embodying, if a wise choice be made, consideration of level of
land, dryness, accessibility to roads, aspect, outlook, and suitability
for drainage.
To decide


a m atter of

the m ost suitable building m aterials, also, is


special expedient of opening

m om ent






or the



m anufacture of bricks, and the im p o rtan t question of carting

tim bers and finishing goods over considerable distances, m ust be
allowed for when the

design is being prepared.



tingencies will often considerably restrain the elaborateness of the

country house, and lead to its character being the more u tilitarian
th an ornam ental.
The num ber and general size of the ap artm en ts m ust be first of
all approxim ated, and usually these will be found to differ from
tow n houses.
The one-story house undoubtedly finds th e m ost favor for
country houses, even though, by reason of the accom m odation
required, th ey have to extend over wide areas, in which passages
have to be multiplied.
There is, however, a strong feeling among m any, th a t a onestory building is easier to adm inister, and where this is the case
the building is b etter so planned.
For a building of this character a massing of m ain apartm ents
along a rectangular front, w ith entrance in th e centre, having one
back wing for kitchen offices and servants quarters a t one end,
and a corresponding wing for bedrooms a t the other end, thus
forming a back central

c o u r ty a r d ,

is a m ethod often adopted. ,

W ith well-planned san itary conveniences there seems no reason

why a tw o-story house should not be found as convenient, or even
more so, th a n a one-story house, for in this way all the sleeping
apartm ents m ay be self-contained upon the first floor, leaving the
ground floor free for living and reception rooms and adm inistrative



An office, in some convenient place a t the back or side of the

house, w ith access from inside, y e t w ith outside door, where men
m ay approach, is often required in the country house.

A lavatory

and coat or gun room in a sim ilar position are also often desirable
where persons coming in from outside occupations or sport m ay
wash and p artially change garm ents and boots before entering the
house proper.
S ervants quarters should be very spacious in country houses,
where servants

have to live

aw ay from


am usem ents of

town, an d as m uch accom m odation should be provided for their

convenience as possible.

E ach serv an t should have a separate

bedroom ; there should also be a serv an ts b a th and common

sittingroom or servants hall and d istinct san itary offices.
Mens room s are best planned aw ay from the house in detached
In laying down the orientation of the plan and th e aspect of

apartm ents,

th e

general rules laid down in the chapter

upon Planning and D esign should here be carefully applied,

side by

side w ith

considerations of local clim ate



The hall, of generous dimensions, m ay well enter into the design
of th e country house, and, if of two stories, good effect m ay be
obtained by carrying up this a p artm en t the full height of the
building, and grouping th e room s around.
The ex ten t to which th e verandah is m ade use of in the planning
will depend very largely upon th e h eat or tem perature of the
clim ate, b u t in all country houses, even in tem perate zones, the
verandah adds m uch com fort to the house, if so arranged as not
to obscure needed sunlight from the apartm ents, and if portions
be arranged w ith V enetian sh utters or glass sheltering screens
m uch added convenience m ay often be obtained.
The m an in th e

c ity ,

where co n stan t w ater supply is the daily

order of things, will find it difficult to realize the vital im portance

of this m atter to th e co u n try house.

The old settlers often built



near by to creeks or w atercourses, b u t, w liether this be done and

the supply obtained by pum ping or well-sinking, or w hether the
rainfall alone be depended upon, this question of w ater m ust have
im p o rta n t place in th e planning.
For reasons of rain w ater supply th e roof covering is best of
galvanized corrugated iron, as, even with a light fall of rain, there
is no loss by absorption, a loss which is considerable where tiled
roofs are p u t on.
From an aesthetic stan d p o in t, the tiled or the slated roof is, of
course, undoubtedly best, and where the whole of th e w ater supply
is n ot obtained from the roof, this form of roof-covering could be
U nderground or sem i-underground tan k s are generally the best
to a large

h o u se,

w ith all eaves spoutings made large and kep t

clear of debris, th e down pipe heads being screened with wire to

prevent leaf choking, and all underground pipe runs to the tan k
being herm etically jointed in cem ent, and laid so as to minimize

dan ger

of fracture from

s e ttle m e n ts

or tree roots, and conse

quent possible contam ination.

The best kind of ta n k is one m ade of reinforced concrete, capable
of being flushed out, above which auto m atic windmill pum ping
gear is fitted , wdth sm all storage tanks, and a com plete

sy ste m


galvanized iron, welded tube supply pipes carried to all points in

the house as to a tow n residence.
N ext to considerations of local clim ate, and side by side w ith it,
is to plan against the insect pests th e m osquito, the ant, and the
flyand this planning will add m aterially to the success of the
country house.
A com plete system of window and door fly wire-proofing m ay
often w ith ad v an tag e be adopted.

Perhaps a rem oval system is

best, where fram es m ay be tak en down in w inter, num bered, and

stored till again required for sum m er use.
For this reason th e double-hung window, w ith its box frames,
though not so pleasing in design as th e casem ent, is often more



practical, as this type of window leaves openings free both for

outside and inside blinds.
W here term ites


prevalent, it

will be



im p o rtan t it is th a t all tim ber should be specially guarded from

their ravages, and a complete barrier

sy ste m

against their inroads

built up betw een th e ground and the house.

The country house, in a special degree, requires liberal storage

W here large q u antities of food supplies have to be kept,

zincdined bins and well-shelved and cupboard-fitted store rooms,

and pantries w ith im pervious floors, need to be planned.
Food larders should always be upon the cool side of the house,
and as far as possible, subject to cool air currents.
Dairies should have well sheltered and hollow walls, and, if
directly under the roof, the covering should be specially insulated,
w ith eaves widely overhanging to create shade.
surfaces, and all fittings should be impervious,

The floor, wall

and soarranged

th a t th ey m ay be flushed w ith w ater throughout.

If the w ater supply be in any way sufflcient, the country house
offers good o p p o rtu n ity

sy ste m

for the installation of a small, self-

of septic ta n k drainage disposal, all the fittings

of the house being arranged and trap p ed as for a city system, w ith
underground m ain pipe ru n to a small, air-tight septic tank,
through which the flow m ay pass to a coke filter bed, and thence
as effluent to trenched and p lanted garden or fodder land.
If power is available, and skilled m echanical aid to hand, an
electric light p lant will be found suitable for lighting a country

Acetylene gas also offers a clean and effective system,

being easily self-contained, and, if a generator which drops the

carbide au tom atically in a lim ited q u a n tity into the w ater be used,
b u t little a tte n tio n is required.

The pipes m ay be ordinary gas

pipes, save w ith very carefully tightened joints, and the burners of
special p attern .
If kerosene lam ps are used, there should be a proper lamp-room
allowed for in the planning, where everything connected w ith lamp
filling and cleaning m ay be kept.


w '^ a w 'v 'a 3 A




r j]





The country house, of all houses, should have the quality of

simple and direct purpose in its constructive character.
W here the aspect is open and wide, large, plain masses, if well
proportioned, are all th a t are required in the outside design, and
the plainer the general detail is m ade th e b etter.


g uttering,

com plicated

system s

lighting, or equipm ent, excess of outside

of drainage,

woodwork requiring

painting, or anyth in g likely to require sudden or special attention,

should be avoided, rem em bering the position of the house aw ay
from the general service of skilled workmen.
The successful planning of the country house, more th a n any
other, is dependent upon the arranging of a large num ber of
accessory buildings and enclosures.

The garden, the approach,

the horse paddocks, the m ens quarters, th e stables, workshop,

laundry, and m any other sm all buildings have to be allowed for
around the house, and in th e progress of m odern invention these
show their evolution, and change w ith th e coming of such things
as m otor cars, acetylene gas plants, and bacterial system s of
sewerage, which

m odern requirem ents





sideration in the design of the cou n try house.

A Country Bungalow. A country bungalow design is shown upon
Plate XIV.
The plan shows a house of considerable dimensions planned for a
position where unlim ited area of land is obtainable.
The clim ate being hot, endeavour has been m ade to so open out
the plan as to induce cross currents of air from the prevailing winds.
I t will be noticed th a t in broad massing th e plan is roughly
divided into three p a rts the central living p art, th e n orth sleeping
part, and the south dom estic part.
The general aspect is east, and entrance is across an I I ft. wide
verandah to a porch, which leads into a 10 ft. wide hall some 21 ft.
long, lighted a t the w estern end by a long set of windows looking
into a conservatory.
Opening off the hall is the drawingroom, w ith double doors, and
long, low, casem ent windows w ith window seat.



The library, an ap artm en t 18 ft. by 11 ft., is upon the opposite


Through the hall running along the w estern side is a wide

corridor, used as a lounge, and fitted w ith seats.

From this a door

opens to the back verandah and courtyard.

A 26 ft. by 13 ft. billiard-room is planned next th e library, and
beyond th e billiardroom, a t the cool southern end, the diningroom
is placed.

This room is 28 ft. long by 16 ft. wide, the eastern wall

being arranged w ith bay end.

There is a wide outside recess in

the southern wall for th e sideboard, which, by

this means, is

prevented from obstructing the general w idth of the room.

The diningroom is in easy touch w ith th e k itchen and domestic
offices, which are arranged a t an angle of 15, so th a t wind m ay
pass right through and across th e apartm ents, and, while cooling
the rooms, prevent any cooking odours from entering the house
The domestic offices consist of a 17 ft. by 13 ft. kitchen, with sidelighted range, and a scullery off th e same, w ith ample table and
sink accom m odation and a door leading out to the verandah.
There is a p a n try w ith sink and cabinets opposite the dining
room door, also a store for general purposes.
U nder th e kitchen a cellar is arranged, approached by a small
stair ju st outside th e kitchen door.
Beyond the scullery a series of stores is arranged, and


m aids bedroom s w ith bathroom attach ed .

The sleeping ap artm en ts a t th e northern end of the plan consist
of a large best bedroom, w ith dressingroom, fitted w ith b a th and
la v a to r y

basin ; and three other bedrooms, w ith separate bathroom ;

and a nursery, which opens out into a large, sunny play verandah
for children.

This veran d ah is enclosed w ith balustrading, through

which a small gate leads to th e long northern verandah, 11 ft.

The general tre a tm e n t and finish is of the sim plest kind, b ut
substan tial throughout.
for dom estic offices.

The ceilings are 12 ft. high, with 11 ft.


lu a Oh



' e

S' ,p




The walls are of hollow brickw ork, an d th e broad, low -pitched

tiled roof covers rig h t dow n over th e v erandahs, w ith out break of
eaves, as seen in th e sm all perspective given.
A Two-story Country House. P lates X V. and X V I. show plans
and perspective respectively of a tw o-story co u n try house.
This house shows spacious accom m odation upon a com pact plan,
self-contained an d grouped to look well from all sides.
In a design of th is ch aracter, w here th e site is am ple, the
designer need n o t be ham pered, as in a su b u rb an allotm ent, in
having to m ake a front.

All elevations should be alike tru th fu lly

and substan tially treated .

T urning to th e ground floor plan, hg. 1, it will be seen th a t the
chief e n try is th ro u g h a portico a t th e S.E. angle of the block.
This leads in to a large an d lo fty hall, 16 ft. wide, w hich extends
some 13 ft. back, w ith a b ro ad staircase a t th e w estern end leading
to the gallery above.

A b o u t half of this hall ru n s th e full height

of the tw o stories of th e building, an d is lighted a t th e eastern end

with long narrow w indow s, u n d er which a low seat is placed, from
which a good view of th e garden an d approaching drive m ay be
obtained th ro u g h a range of low windows.
A secondary e n try is th ro u g h a porch on th e so u th side, which
leads th ro u g h a sh o rt

p a ssa g e

to an occasional bedroom .

is a coat room , w ith w ardrobes,

& c .,

B eyond

where clothes m ay be changed

before e n try is m ade in to th e m ain p a rts of th e house, this being

a convenient arran g em en t in a co u n try house.
The draw ingroom is ap p roached off th e hall th ro u g h a broad
arched opening.

This room has a bow window w ith southern

The lib ra ry is nex t, also w ith a south ern aspect, and

having th e fire-place specially arran g ed near th e window, so th a t

the o ccupan t m ay sit near th e fire an d y e t enjoy th e view o b ta in
able from th is aspect.
A m orning-room , w ith eastern an d n o rth ern aspect and door
to verandah, is pleasan tly arranged a t th e N .E . corner of the



The diningroom is a large ap artm en t, 24 ft. by 18 ft., w ith long,

low, square bay a t n o rth ern end.
door to th e verandah.

F ro m this room, also, there is a

A sideboard recess is placed on the western

side of th e room near to th e serving drum from the pantry.


p a n try runs th e full w idth of th e kitchen, and is 8 ft. wide, and well
equipped w ith glass-fronted
tables, sink, &c.

c a b in e ts ,

cutlery and plate drawers,

B eyond is the kitchen, 22 ft. by 19 ft., with

range fitted w ith h o t-w ater service.

Off th e kitchen is the scullery, w ith exit to a back verandah.
A bakery and bak ers oven com plete th e western end of th e plan.
A back stair leads to a large basem ent for storage purposes,
consisting of general store, wine-cellar, and larder.
The first floor, fig. 2, is given over to sleeping apartm ents.
There is an ordinary bedroom over th e draw ingroom and a suite of
rooms on th e north, consisting of best bedroom, w ith dressingroom
and p riv ate b athroom and lavato ry .

A door off the best bedroom

leads into another bedroom over th e m orning-room , which is also

approached from th e gallery.

A nother bedroom, near the tower,

has a dressingroom attach ed to it, and from these ap artm en ts there

is a small sta ir up th e tow er to 'look-out above the roof ridge.
This look-out has a practical use in case of bush fires, such an
elevated position being useful in locating an outbreak.

secon d

bedroom is also shown on the first floor.

The m aids q u arters are cut off from th e general ap artm ents by
a half-glass door and screen.

These qu arters consist of b a th

room, sewing room, and linen room, w ith back stair to domestic
offices below.
A useful housem aids lav ato ry is arranged next the m aids b a th
room, consisting of a sm all a p artm en t fitted w ith slop hopper, sink,
pail, cupboards, &c. ; here hot and cold w ater is laid on, and leadcovered floor, properly graded, allows of the whole place

b e in g

])eriodically flushed out.

The general building is of brick, w ith freestone work to portico.
U nder the eaves, above a course of molded bricks, the walls are



roughcasted, th e gables being of heav y h alf-tim ber work.



is a slate roof, w ith tile ridging.

All the drainage is arran g ed as to a tow n house, an d served by a
septic ta n k

sy ste m

of sewerage disposal, placed a t some distance

from th e house, w ith the effluent discharging in to an ad jacen t

An efflcient w ater supply is o b tain ed by well-sinking, and a full
service m ade available by pum ping, storing, an d reticulating by
pipes all over th e house.
X V I.

A perspective is illu stra te d upon P late




VI .





No inconsiderable percentage of city buildings are those required

for office and business use, as a p a rt from storage or m anufacturing
purposes, and w ith these buildings


have briefly now to deal.

In th e planning, financial considerations will usually be found to

determ ine th e am o u n t of accom m odation to be provided and the
num ber of stories to be built, while

c ity

building regulations will

be found to govern thickness of walls and general character of


Should a building be in different tenancies, with

d istin ct entrances, th e usual rule is th a t such buildings m ust have

horizontal sep aratio n i.e., th e portion of the building entered and
adm inistered from one entrance m ust be cu t off from the other
portions by m eans of fire-proof flooring, practically m aking of
each portion a separate building.

This is n o t always enforced, b u t

is a reasonable precaution in case of fire, and is a law in some of

the A ustralian cities.
L ight is of th e very greatest im portance in an office building,
and m ust, from th e very outset, affect the disposition of the plan.
Unless a corner site be chosen, a city building has usually to
depend, in a very large degree, upon front lighting, or front and
back lighting, th e p a rty walls being exem pt from use for lighting

This often leads to th e introduction of light areas

as a m eans of lighting th e interior, and

e s p e c ia lly

so in positions

where a num ber of small ap artm en ts require separate and direct

light and air.
P late X V II. is designed to show th e disposition of light areas
applied to three different building sites.

t t t

L ii.

n r%

FIG. 2 .

F IG . I .


1 J L L J _

! y

r r i '

- - 4 ^

F IG . 3 .

F IG . 4 .


F IG . 3 .

F 1 G .6 .
D lA G lW l'S /W l/iG


T A E ttD irflB K Il
CITY w i u m




Fig. 1 is a large corner site, w ith a frontage to two streets and a

back lane.

Here it is necessary to light th e one rem aining side

exem pted from direct lighting, and this is done l>y th e introduction
of a rectangular-shaped area.

In the centre of the block a glass

roof is shown, m arked lig h t, lighting th e centre portions of the


Glass-roofing in this way is som etim es adopted, so th a t the

ground floor ap a rtm e n ts m ay extend over the whole area of the

ground floor, th e light areas being roofed a t ceiling height and
extending up open to th e upper floors.
Fig. 2 shows th e same site with a p artm en ts so arranged as to
require only one light area, glass-roofed over.
Fig. 3 shows another site. This site has an extensive depth,
and front and back frontages to streets, b u t no side light.

H ere

the shading shows how areas are introduced to light th e interior

areas which, in this case, extend th e full height of th e building and
practically divide th e building into three blocks.
Fig. 4 shows th e same site differently treated .

In this case the

ap artm en ts are som ew hat sm aller, and six light areas are required.
Figs. 5 and G illu strate a m uch sm aller site th a n the other two.
H ere only front and back lighting is available.

The figures show

two ways of internal lighting one by m eans of an angle-shaped

area, and th e other by tw o rectangular areas.

These areas are

shown by the shading.

Areas should offer good reflected light, and for this

p u rp o se

should be carefully regulated in size to suit the height of the

building and th e norm al inten sity of light, so th a t light and air m ay
reach the lowest placed rooms.

F o r th e purpose of reflection the

outer walls are som etim es lined w ith white glazed tiles or bricks.
In the general construction of an office building, fire-resisting
construction is undoubtedly b e s t ; b u t, such m ethods being some
tim es found too expensive, a com promise m ay be made by laying
in all passages and stairs of fire-resisting m aterials.
P artitio n s require to be carefully considered, and some of them
a t least usually require to be so arranged as to be movable, to suit



possible ten an ts, w ith o u t interfering too m uch w ith the stru ctu ral
work of th e building.
All m eans of com m unication should be direct elevators and
stairw ays ready to h an d and in direct incom ing ways.
The sa n ita ry offices should be grouped on each floor, and all
passage floors and dadoes finished in washable m aterial.
External D esign. I n ex tern al design the office building has its
own peculiar difficulties, accen tu ated usually by being confined to a
fro n t.

Such a mode of tre a tm e n t is, of course, absolutely

necessary where only one street frontage exists.

I t is only when

th e building is upon a corner site th a t the grouping can be

directed satisfactorily tow ards giving a b e tte r feeling of distinctive
m ass grouping.

P lain, bare p a rty

walls often produce


resistance in th is class of designing, especially in positions where

adjoining buildings are, as th ey invariably are in our cities, of
differing heights.

P lates X V III., X IX ., and frontispiece


elevational designs for th e plans shown upon P late X V II.

P la te X V III. is a design in reinforced concrete for the m ain
front of th e plan on P la te X V II., fig. 5.
The building is a five-story one, w ith basem ent, the ground floor
being left free as a large, open business cham ber, and the top floor
arranged for use as a fine a rt gallery.
O p p o rtu n ity is given by th e position of th e entrance to emphasize
th e m ass above the door by a vertical tre a tm e n t of line, the other
portions of fro n t being left severely plain.
gives h o rizo n tality to th e sky line.

The roof is flat, which

A balcony is arranged to serve

th e first floor windows, which, while of value as a useful ad ju n ct

to th e accom m odation, gives th a t projecting relief which the large,
flat m ass of th e walls above requires.
The design, as a whole, is tre a te d in the m odern m anner, and
aim s a t giving th e exact am o u n t of light required, w ith sim plicity
and directness of finish.
P la te X IX . is a tre a tm e n t for the elevation of the m am street
frontage of fig. I on P late X V II.


1 lt=: UII


IPE E ilD K ) v /fc O T E C tl TRO/IT




,1 -






' .V .




QTY OmCL D011D1/1G






The design is in th e G othic m anner, and is for a seven-story

building, w ith sub-basem ent an d a high-pitched roof.

There are

three entrancestwo leading direct from street pavem ent to base

m ent.

The m ain entrance is grouped in the centre of the elevation,

which, as a whole, is tre a te d so as to offer some co n trast of repose

when com pared w ith th e rem aining portions of th e front.
The upper a p artm en ts on th e wings have open balconies behind
long stone pillar shafts ending in open tracery work above.
The front is designed to be b uilt in freestone in two tin ts, the
upper portion of th e walls being constructed in bands of varying

The high roof is covered w ith slates, and some picturesque-

ness of sky line is obtained by th e ornam ental pinnacles and centre

The frontispiece plate is a design for th e angle site building
shown on P late X V II., fig. 1.
This design is specially arranged for a h o t clim ate, where light
glare has to be reduced an d generous balcony and shade tre a tm e n t


B anks are essentially tow n buildings, and often occupy very

im p o rtan t and prom inent sites in A ustralian cities.

They need in

their planning well th o u g h t out consideration, n o t only th a t they

m ay merely look well, b u t th a t the intricacies of planning, peculiar
to this class of building, should be happily blended, and so arranged
as to give naturalness of grouping, w ith dignity and substan tiality
of general mass.
The large m ajo rity of banks are, in a degree, residential, an d
divide them selves into three classes of accom m odation viz., the
public p art, th e working office p art, and th e residential p a rt and
how to blend and work these properly is the problem of bank
The following is given as an exam ple of th e accom m odation



allowed for in a prom inent city bank, and m ay be taken as a guide

indicating the class and am ount of accom m odation usually provided
in a building of the larger class.
A centrally situ ated banking cham ber with a floor area of 2,500
super, feet, containing space for public and office space for three
tellers, two receiving titles clerks, four ledger keepers, two pass
book clerks, two journal clerks, two bill clerks, with small public
counter ; one clerk for fixed deposits, drafts, check books, &c., with
a small public counter ; two exchange clerks, w ith a small counter
for other bank clerks ; two corresponding clerks, w ith typew riter
tables ; also space for a le tte r clerk, w ith copying presses, return
and security clerk, &c.
The acco u n tan ts office is in touch w ith the public, y et is so
arranged and elevated as to overlook the whole of the office.
A well placed and am ply spaced m anagers room, w ith waiting
room and branch inspectors room, is attached.
The strong-room is ab o u t 160 ft. super., w ith one-third divided off
by a steel grille.
Store-room s (fitted w ith shelves) for stationery and vouchers of
a b o u t 200 super, feet.

D itto for old papers, &c., about 400 super,

Luncheon room for bank officers, w ith h a t and coat room, cycle
room, & c .
Fuel store, separated lavatories, W .C.s, &c., and m anagers
residential quarters.
Such a building m ay be planned upon land having a frontage of
ab ou t 45 ft. w ith a dep th of about 120 ft.

A corner site is usually

preferred, as giving greater accessibility and also facilities for

direct lighting, and the varied approaches

n ecessary

for public,

m anager, clerks, tradesm en, &c.

As an illustration of a small bank design, P late X X . is given,
which illustrates a building upon a narrow b u t deep corner site.
The entrance to the public portion of the bank is upon the
corner, where a screen lobby is arranged.

This is a very im portant


nr m

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P e iS )p e o u v e

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F eerl

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G C 0 C 7 ID P L B A




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I ll

feature, as wind and d u st require to be counteracted, yet, in sucb

a way as to give easy and safe ingress and egress.

A space of

about 750 ft. super is given over to the w orking p a rt of the bank,
which in this case consists of office, w aiting-room , m anagers room,
strong-room , store, lav ato ry , &c.
The m anagers p riv ate entrance is from the side street, and th e
accom m odation provided on th e ground floor is hall, private way

banking cham ber,

diningroom ,

kitchen, wash-house, fuel,

W.C., back verandah, and yard, and on th e first floor a front

sitting-room and three bedroom s,
facilities for a brfck


bath , and linen store, w ith






bedrooms, if required.
At the back of the site, nex t to a right-of-w ay, a clerks y ard is
arranged, w ith sa n ita ry accom m odation.
The perspective shows th e external

design of the


carried out in stone and brick, w ith slate roofing.

Strong Room s. In all banks th e construction of th e strong-room
m ust be skilfully considered.

These m ay consist of specially

m anufactured arm oured plate enclosures, or of some form of steel

reinforced concrete.

In large strong-room s ex tra

s e c u r ity

is some

tim es obtained by building th e room entirely of close-packed steel

railw ay rails bedded in c o n c re te ; or a boiler plate case m ay be
made, lined on two sides w ith brickw ork.

In an y case, th e doors

and grilles to th e room s require to be of special m ake and securely

b u ilt in.

All shelves and fittings should be fireproof, and some

form of effective, y e t safe, m eans of lighting and ventilation

requires to be designed.

Generally. The planning and building of shop premises is a

class of work th a t comes frequently w ithin the scope of the
designer, and although the actual planning of such premises is too
dependent upon various business requirem ents and questions of
site, area, and size to allow of fixed rules being laid down, still



there are im p o rtan t questions of detail, which are more or less

m et w ith in every problem , th a t m ay here be briefly touched upon.
Lighting. This class of work presents its own peculiar difficulties,
n ot th e least of which is th e question of adequate lighting.
Shops are generally required to occupy street sites abutting
directly on adjoining owners, and it is only when a corner site is
chosen th a t th e problem of side-lighting is som ewhat eased.
F o r certain classes of business th e

front windows,


adequate for display, are often so occupied w ith stock as to offer

b u t lim ited light to


shop itself,




frequently has to rely upon other m eans of lighting, such as a

centre well through the upper floor or floors w ith lantern over, or,
if th e shop be

of shallow depth, back

lighting or otherwise

intern al area lighting.

O ne-story premises are more easily dealt with th a n two or
m any storied structures, as satisfactory lighting can generally be
obtained to any distance back from th e street frontage by half
glass saw -tooth roofing.
A device which finds increasing favor for shop-lighting from the
front is to so plan th e fro n t windows as to create shallow lights
above the display portion of the window and above verandah

This lets in a flood of high light to carry back into the

shop proper, unobstru cted by window display.

In th is it m ay be rem em bered th a t beyond a certain height, as
from 11 ft. to 13 ft. from th e pavem ent, th e display window is of b u t
little! value, as the eye of the shopper is generally directed only
w ithin th e range of a norm al height from the pavem ent.
Interm ingled w ith the question of adequate lighting m ust come
the question of direct sunlight screening, for, if the premises
be sufficiently lighted for th e dull days of winter, certain screening
devices will be necessary for the direct glare of summer, and this
m ust n o t be forgotten, especially where goods for sale m ay be of
such a n atu re as to be subject to the fading influences of strong



E levational D esig n .In designing th e shop elevation three

things should be borne prom inently in m ind.

F irstly, adequate

lig h tin g ; secondly, spacing for p erm anent a d v e rtise m e n t; and

thirdly, the effect of adjoining buildings upon the new structure.
The deeper th e premises the larger m ust be the provision for
front lighting, which m ay lead to alm ost a pier-like treatm en t, the
greater area of the front being glass, but, w hatever the arrange
m ent, some happy balance of proportion should be secured.
Advertising has become so v ital a p a rt of m odern business th a t
provision for its proper and perm anent display should from the
outset be m ade upon th e front elevation, otherwise unsightly
boards m ay be afterw ards erected, covering up the architectural

There is no reason against proper spacings being left in

the elevation for this purpose, which can be either carried out by
painting or by m etal lettering upon tiled or m arble surfaces, or by
wrought-iron sky signs, all of which devices are best made and
considered as p a rt of the perm an en t structure.
Adjoining premises will always affect any design, and such
adjoining work, if any, should be draw n and p lotted to scale, upon
the paper in position, before th e designing of th e new elevation is
started, and the new work designed under the influence of the old.
In this way questions of height, projection, and style will have full
In Plate X X L is shown a detailed elevation of a two-storied
shop for a drapery firm, having a frontage of 20 ft., w ith a southern
The ground floor height is 15 ft., and the front floor height
12 ft.
The shop window case is k ept down to w ithin 12 in. of the foot
path, the lower portion of plate-glass rising therefrom to a height
of 10 ft.

The space above this is used to directly hght the shop

over the top of the window case. A deep fascia is secured by

tiling the space above the glass right up to th e sill height of the
first floor windows, upon which raised m etal letters are secured.



sim ilar arrangem ent is planned near the p arap et for the word
D rapers.
The general work of th e front is in red brickwork, w ith buff
freestone dressings, the tiles being iridescent blue, w ith gilt letters.
There is a tiled roof, th e flanking tu rre ts being covered w ith green
oxidized copper.
The Shop W indow. In considering th e design of the shop front
windows a few hints m ay be given as to arrangem ent.
By reference to th e figures upon th e lower portion of P late X X I.
it will be seen how, in various ways th e actual length of window
glass m ay be increased to give greater display space to the public.
Fig 1. shows how th e m ain portion of frontage m ay be recessed,
an arrangem ent which in cases of wide frontages m ay be repeated
again and again.
In fig. 2 is an arrangem ent for

throw ing

window a t a flat angle from frontage line.

the whole of the

This has the double

advantage of increasing th e length of glass frontage and m aking

ex tra space in th e front of window.

In cases where footpaths are

very narrow an d traffic heavy, a som ew hat sim ilar device to this
m ay be resorted to viz., th e setting back of the window case
several feet parallel to th e frontage line, and by this means
throw ing a certain portion of the frontage entirely into the footpath.
Fig 3 sets out a plan to fu rth er increase th e window case front
age area, and if there be good depth in the shop, some plan of this
kind m ay be found of g reat advantage.

A modification of the

same idea is seen in fig. 4, where long show windows are planned on
both sides of a generous entrance lobby.
Window Casing.As each business will have its own m ethod of
window display, so will th e design of th e window casing be m odi
fied accordingly, b u t it m ay be noted how m arkedly of late years
the tendency has become to open out th e shop front in every
possible way.

As an evolution from the old type of shut in

and sh u t up work the

change has been very m a rk e d ; and

further, in carrying out this idea of openness, the dem and has


ig iG N

r o D ft

3M 0P

5coU of





nG .o.


DEVICES o r s n o p r p o /iT
n / \ Y E )E ] H C R E F \E )E D ______

.SCAL-E or F'E.E'T







increased for lowering th e sill, and if a basem ent be n ot form ed in

front requiring stallboard lighting, the sill m ay be brought down
nearly to th e footpath level.
In this p u rsu it of openness, sh u tte r devices are in a large num ber
of cases decreasing or disappearing altogether, th e v ast increase in
the brilliancy of street lighting having, a t least in the im p o rtan t
towns, worked a m arked change.
Shop front fitting has to a g reat e x te n t become specialized, and
in designing high-class work consideration should be given to
obtaining the m ost effective and practical arrangem ent consistent
with available funds.

B y the v ast im provem ents effected of recent

years in sheet m etal working, nickeling, and copper finishing, light

sashes w ith m etal covering m ay be su b stitu ted for wood molding
and nietal letterin g on glass, w hilst tiles or m arble m ay be designed
in place of the old style of brasses.
Dust Exclusion and Ventilation.D ust exclusion and adequate
ventilation should be fully considered in th e window case, which, for
m ost businesses, requires to be entirely enclosed and self-contained,
all back doors being tig h tly fitted.

In ventilating, th e ventilation of

th e case should be entirely a p a rt from th e shop, and if the serious

nuisance of w inter glass condensation is to be avoided, proper
tube vents should be inserted in th e ceilings, carried rig h t through
the building, and finished above th e roof w ith exhaust cowls.
Ground Flooring. In actu al practice, the ground flooring of the
shop often gives grave trouble.

I n any buildings close bounded a t

the sides and w ith b u t sm all m eans of venting from the street or
back, wooden floors are m ost liable to suffer from dry rot, and also
from wet ro t w hen th e ground is not, as it should be, asphalt
covered and k e p t dry.

This serious curtailm ent of the life of

wooden floors leads to th e recom m endation, where possible, of such

a m aterial as pure m ineral asp h alt on concrete being used in place
of wood flooring.

This floor obviates all danger from decay.


m aterial is highly lasting, an d n o t of so cold a n atu re as tiles or

floors having cem ent as a basis of their m ixture.



Street Verandahs.In southern aspects verandahs are not as a

rule required, b u t where they are ado])ted th ey are subjected to
the laws of local authorities, and in some of the leading cities a
stan d ard p a tte rn is insisted upon.
The verandah, like the structure, m ay be designed with per
m anent advertisem ent display, and should be strong and stable to
w ithstand high wind ])ressures.
In the use of cast-iron posts there is a serious danger, for in case
of a heavy an d sudden blow, such as m ay occur from a runaw ay
horse, an irreparable fracture m ay occur sufficiently serious to tear
down the whole of the verandah.

If cast-iron posts are used they

should, therefore, have inserted through them a welded tube core

and the interstices filled w ith fine cem ent concrete.

In this way,

though a sudden fracture should occur, the core will tem porarily
carry th e weight.
Skylights, too, are a source of danger if not strongly constructed
and holding heavy glass.

In these the wired plate, which is able to

w ithstand reasonable pressure should anyone step upon it, or, in

case of hailstorm , offer some safety to the persons who m ay be
under the shelter of the verandah, is best.




subject to

th e

approval of the


authorities, and plans and designs, clearly illustrating any proposed

scheme, usually require to be subm itted for approval before a
building is commenced, in addition to which the public health
authorities in some of the S tates have power over hotel stru ctu ral
arrangem ents.
I t is highly im p o rtan t th a t, in hotel design, the idea th a t such a
building is required for semi-public purposes should be prom inently
before the



a well-arranged degree

of privacy

w ithin the residential and sleeping portions of the house secured,

while due prom inence is given to the more ]niblic portions.
H otels differ very widely indeed in character, and range from the


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out-back small w eatherboard


hotel, of very lim ited size, to the

large, elegantly furnished city or residential hotel.

two extrem es lies a broad

range of very

Betw een these



some designed on open sites in the country, where land is more

readily available, and where, as in m ark et towns, very full y ard
and stabling accom m odation is required, and others in busy city
streets closely surrounded by other buildings.
Two designs are here given of hotelsP lates X X II. and X X III.
one upon a closed-in site, and th e other upon a corner.
P late X X II. shows a plan upon a 36 ft. street frontage, closed
in between adjoining properties.

I t has a southern aspect and a

right-of-w ay access a t th e rear.

Two entrances are arranged, one direct into th e bar, and the other
a t the side, th e accom m odation upon th e ground floor consisting
of a 17 ft. by 16 ft. bar, w ith a serving lobby a t th e rear, giving
general access to the house.

A commercial room and two parlors on

the ground floor group around th e bar, and this public p a rt of the
house is cut off on th e one h an d from the diningroom and dom estic
offices, which are arranged a t th e rear of th e m ain building, and
which are in them selves self-contained, and on th e other from all
the bedroom accom m odation, which is grouped together upon the
first floor.
In hotels no sleeping a p a rtm e n t should contain less th a n 1,200
cubic feet of air space, and each room should be well and directly
lighted, and have am ple m eans of ventilation, a p a rt from the

The upper floors, w herever possible, should be of fire-

resisting m aterials, as certainly should all the staircases, and all

floors above th e ground floor should have altern ativ e means of
escapei.e., escape in more th a n one direction.

F ire hydrants,

hoses, fire buckets, &c., should also be provided, w ith ready access
in case of fire.
In the design under review th e sm allest bedroom is 13 ft. by
10 ft.

In some hotels the sm aller room s are m ade 10 ft. by 10 ft.

by 12 ft. high, which gives th e m inim um of cubic space for a single




H ere th e accom m odation, though small, is generous in room


There being no underground drainage, the sanitary

fittings are k e p t well to th e rear of th e premises, and a house

m aids p a n try w ith slop sink is planned in semi-open louvred
annexe a t th e end of th e first floor passage and n ex t to the bath.
A balcony runs along in front of th e rooms facing west, cantilevered out from below.
The section shows the general system of height and internal
trea tm e n t, and the elevation shows a brick and terra-co tta tr e a t
m ent of the front.

A hot-w ater supply system to this building is

illustrated in H o t W ater E ngineering, C hapter X V III.

P late X X III. shows a large hotel for a country tow n upon a
corner site.

H ere the b ar is upon the angle a t the junction of two

streets, th e door being screened under a round tu rre t feature.

The general hotel e n try is betw een th e b ar and a front billiardroom.

The accom m odation upon the ground floor includes a large

comm ercial room, w ith access to a g a rd e n ; a b ar lounge, a smokingroom, a lav ato ry and

two small sitting-rooms, together with

a large public and a small priv ate diningroom .

The kitchen and

scullery are combined in one large ap artm en t, w ith stores having a

cool southern aspect grouped nex t to them .

The large diningroom

has th e greater area of window space to th e southw ard.

The yard, approached from th e side street, could be planned w ith
stabling, W .C.s, stores, &c., as required.
The first floor contains 13 bedroom s of various sizes, two b a th
rooms, W.C.s, &c., and two sitting-room s, with balconies, escape
stairs, &c.
In the roof space a ttic rooms are arranged above the plan
The perspective sketch illustrates the general grouping of the


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S H ED S .

I n determ ining the design of a shed for shearing purposes, some

estim ate m ust be m ade of th e average num ber of sheep to be
shorn, and a knowledge obtained, b y th e designer, of the m ethods
and general w orking, and th e m ost econom ical and practical way
of deahng w ith th is tru ly A ustralian ind u stry .
G reat differences of opinion exist, even am ong m en well practised
in statio n work, as to th e planning of these buildings, and especially
w ith regard to m inor details.

B u t for general shearing purposes

the plan usually resolves itself in to either a side or a centre board

system , each fed by pens and served w ith a wool room of varying
size, according to th e num ber of sheep usually d ealt with.
A side board plan is one in which th e shearers work in one long
row. The centre board is an arrangem ent where th e shearers work
in two long rows on th e same board or floor.
The process of shearing consists, broadly, in driving the sheep in
from the ru n into storage paddocks around th e shed, from which
th ey are d rafted in to th e building.

This is rendered necessary,

firstly because the process of shearing is carried on under cover,

and secondly, it is highly im p o rta n t th a t the anim als should be dry
a t the tim e of being shorn.

To secure th is la tte r end in dam p

w eather th e anim als are driven into th e building overnight, ready

for shearing the n e x t m orning.
The floor of th e building should be raised up so th a t the general
work is carried on a t a height of about 4 ft. 6 in. above the
general ground level.



Tlio sheep, therefore, en ter th e hnilding up ram ped ways into

storage pens, these pens leading from one to the other into
catching pens, which are next the shearing hoard.

The shearing

hoard is really a floor on which th e men work.

The shearer tak es his sheep from th e catching pen, shears it
(either hy hand or hy m achinery), and passes it down into the
counting pen, from which, after counting, the anim als are driven
hack to th e general run.
The fleece and wool falling from the shearers hands is gathered
up hy hoys and carried to th e wool room.

This should he a large,

open, welhlighted ap artm en t, containing wool tables, classers tahle,

])iece-picking tables, and a series of bins wherein the various classes
of wool are deposited.

From these bins the wool is passed out to

the press, where it is haled, and afterw ards to th e weighing machine.

A fter branding, &c., it is passed out, ready for export, to the
dray s th a t hack up to th e ou ter doors.
A well-considered plan should alw ays provide for a central wool
room, so th a t economy of space working m ay he secured, and need
less running to and fro avoided.

In very large sheds the shearing

hoards are b est arranged to rig h t and left of th e wool room.

Machine shearing will also affect the plan, as provision m ust he
m ade for ])ower, eith er hy sta tio n a ry or portable steam , oil, or
other power engine.

The building m ust he so arranged to perm it

lines of shafting to drive on to the actual work with as little

loss of power as possible.
Lighting is im p o rtan t, and should he ample, w ithout glare of
d irect sunlight, the shearing hoard and the wool classers tables
being specially considered.
V entilation, too, should he m ost am])le, h u t special care should
he taken , in very exposed situations, to avoid the danger of rain
entering th e outlets, which it is very liable to do in such isolated
buildings as shearing sheds unless specially planned against.
Plates X X IV . and X X V . show a scheme for a shearing shed
capable of dealing w ith ab o u t 20,000 sheep.


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The centre shearing board is 18 ft. wide by 42 ft. long, and is

spaced for 16 shearers, 8 on either side.
A series of storage pens is arranged on three sides of the shearing
board, fed by way in ram ps a t the eastern end of the building, up
which the sheep are driven to th e general floor level, which is 4 ft.
6 in. above th e ground.

These pens are three deep on n o rth and

south of shearing board, th e two outside storage pens being 10 ft.

by 10 ft., and through these the sheep pass to the catching
pens, which are 10 ft. b y 9 ft.

A fter being shorn, the sheep are

passed down a ram p opposite each shearer to th e counting pens,

which are post and rail enclosures under th e general floor, e x te n d
ing out into the open to south and north.


cross section through shearing

b o ard

an d


{Plate X X V .) it will be seen how these arrangem ents are planned.

This section shows the shearing board, w ith a high roof over and
ridge ventilation.

The lighting is over the back of catching pens,

and is so fixed as to give good diffused light direct to the place where
th e shearers work.

Two shearers use th e one catching pen, which

is on the general level, a counting pen below being reserved for

each m an.

The section shows these rail-enclosed pens, which are

all fitted w ith gates.

The pens are covered w ith a low lean-to

roof, and are lighted and v en tilated by a continuous row of louvred

openings, extending along th e entire south and east sides of build

A t the w estern ends windows are arranged, so th a t sheep

m ay be driven tow ards the light when coming in from th e eastern


This is a p oint to rem em ber, for sheep go more readily to

the light when entering a building.

The wool room is directly open to the shearing board, w ith th e
floor upon the same level.

This is a large, open ap a rtm en t, 70 ft.

by 40 ft., w ith 15 ft. inside walls and open tim ber, king post roof.
For constructional purposes th e roof is divided into six cross
spaces, and five roof principals carry the continuous purlins for the
roof iron.

B etw een the principals th e side windows and doors are


The windows a t th e side are k e p t specially high up and



shaded by wide overhanging eaves supported on brackets.

lation is carried on by a ventilating tu rret.

V enti

This wool room is fitted w ith th e furnishings and apparatus

required for th e general work of dealing w ith the fleece and wool
after it comes from the sheep.

There are, first of all, the wool

tables, nearest to th e shearing board, upon which the wool is first

deposited, and n ex t th e classers table, on which the quality of the
wool is determ ined before it is passed to the bins.

The bins are

nex t to the press, and the weighing machine is placed handy to

the clear end of th e room from which the bales are passed out
through the d ray doors.
All tim ber in or near th e ground

should be red gum, the

stum ps being protected w ith sheet-iron a n t stops.

stru ctu ral

tim bers

for th e roof.

are of hardwood, w ith

All general

Oregon tie

beam s

The floors of all storage and catching pens within

the building are laid w ith open battening, cu t arris wise, so th a t the
droppings m ay pass through.

The floor of shearing board and

wool room are laid w ith Queensland hoop pine.

The whole of th e external surfaces of the walls and roof are
covered w ith galvanized corrugated iron, painted w ith cooling
com position.



As one of the staple industries of A ustralia is butter-m aking,

there is an increasing dem and for buildings suitable

for this

These differ w ith the locality, and also with the class of

building m aterial m ost readily available.

F or this ty p e of planning a thorough knowledge of the scientific
tre a tm e n t of m ilk and cream for butter-m aking purposes, and its
preparation for home and export consum ption, is essential, coupled
w ith skill in arranging the m achinery and p lan t to the best possible
The m ain object of design should be to properly house the plant.

V E E A T iD A A











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'Jhis should be the very first consideration, and everything should

sta rt from this objective.
To decide, therefore, upon th e necessary m achinery and plant is
of prim ary im portance, and m nst be considered side by side with
the site, character of clim ate, and orientation of the building.
I he whole process of butter-m aking should be so carried on as
to ensure the m ost thorough cleaidiiiess.

E very ])art of the

building and plant should be so arranged as to be easily washable

and rendered impervious to the lodgm ent of injurious bacilli.
In buildings of this class the different constitutions of factories
should be borne in mind.

Some take milk oidy, some both milk

and cream, others again cream oidy.

This last type of factory is

quickly becoming the most common, owing to the g reat advantages

obtained from the system of home separating.
Id ate XX V r. shows a factory where cream only is treated.


is necessarily different in area and construction from one where

milk or both cream and milk are dealt with, as, in the la tte r typi^s,
larger floor spacing and slightly different arrangem ents have to be
Econom y and cleanliness in handling is of the first im portance,
and this necessitates, in the first instance, easy and convenient
approach for the suppliers, and the prevention as far as possible
of dust from cartage, and its entrance into the building.


outside walls and the roof are best well insulated, so as to ensure
evenness of inside tem perature.

A full and constant supply of pure,

cool w ater is also absolutely essential to th e working of all b u tb u

factories, and should be made available to all convenient points.
The floor in churning, butter-w orking, and washing-up rooms
should be of smooth m aterial, as far as [)ossible w ithout joints, and
graded to open channels with direct leads to a proper system of
outside drainage.
P late X X V 1. illustrates a b u tter factory working four churns
and two butter-w orkers.

The walls are of brick, built hollow, all

internal surfaces being hand-trow elled in cement, and all angles




The cream, in cans, is received from the supply vehicles

a t the N .E. corner of the building, and elevated, by m eans of a lift,

to the receiving stage, where it is graded, and samples taken for

The cream is then passed through the coolers into the

cream vats, of which there are three upon a sub-floor below (see
cross section).

These v ats are placed im m ediately

above the

churns, and from them the cream passes directly into the churns

The subsequent processes are allowed for upon the ground

floor (see plate).

H ere th e churning room is shown, a butter-

working room, two cool stores, salt store, &c.

Allowance is m ade for washing the cans upon the first floor in
th e washing room, which has a reinforced concrete floor with
special finish to w ithstand th e wear and tear of the cans.


cans are th e n passed down a light lift to a clean can stage placed
a t c a rt height above the ground floor, where they m ay be readily
passed out to th e suppliers re tu rn vehicles.
The other points of th e design are m ade plain by the drawings.
The building is shown w ith brick walls and reinforced concrete
floors, th e cool store being carefully insulated.
Pow er is provided, and space allowed for p lan t in boiler and
engine houses, th e boilers being kep t carefully away, so as not to
overheat th e building.




th a t

apply to house-building have

reference to th e planning of stable buildings.


The site should be

dry, and as in this class of building there is special need for the
floors to be practically upon ground level, the general site should
be, if possible, shghtly elevated from the surrounding land, and all
drainage and w ater supply should be carefully regulated.
Aspect, too, has m uch im p o rta n t bearing upon stable planning,
especially w ith regard to h o t or cold prevailing winds and sun



Stable buildings are of varying character, according to the class

of stock served.
There is th e racing stable, in which th e m ost valuable stock is
housed, requiring in every p a rt high-class fittings and arrange
m ents ; the private stable, often of well nigh equal im portance, b u t
needing arrangem ents for vehicle housing and o ther accessories n o t
found in the racing stable ; and, th ird ly , the large class of buildings
for all round work of coaching, livery, station, and farm use.
This question of stable-planning is a large one, and calls for m uch
variation of arrangem ent according to

circum stances.

A few

guiding rules, which ap p ly more or less to all proper stable-building

m ay, however, be here laid down.
P la n n in g . In speaking of stable-planning, it should be pointed
out th a t the beginning of stable-planning is w ith the stalls or loose
boxesth e one or the other, or both.

Stalls should be ab o u t

6 feet wide, w ith a b o u t 9 feet 6 inches of length from head wall to

heel post, w ith a passage w ay, in the case of a single row of stalls,
of about 7 ft., which m ay well be increased if stalls be num erous
or in double rows. A bout 140 ft. super, is a reasonable area for a
loose box nearly or quite square.
Vehicle houses should be planned of sizes to suit each vehicle,
w ith easy access and am ple height, and, for the sake of th e paint,
aw ay from the stable fumes.
H arness is best k e p t o u t of a stable and in a proper harness
Feed storage will call for greatly varying conditions of planning,
some owners requiring large storage areas and others b u t small

These conditions will soon be felt in th e plan, as also

space required for groom s or atten d an ts, and w hether quarters be

required for m arried m en or not.
A dequate arrangem ents should be placed in the plan for paved
washing yards, b o th for horses and vehicles ; m eans for obtaining
h ot w ater is also often desirable, where the stable is aw ay from the



house service, while th e position of the m anure pit, storage for

tools, and approach for feed delivery should all be th ought of.
W ith the actual requirem ents in each case enum erated, harm ony
of grouping is of the first im portance, and as th e idea of a stable is
shelter, this idea of shelter should be well before the m ind in the
planning, for this reason.

All the working p arts are best in some

m easure roofed over and doors screened from heavy winds.

The height of a stable over stalls or loose boxes need not, for all
general purposes, exceed 11 ft.
Construction .The rules th a t apply to all good sound building





of wood the


should be well braced, the w eatherboards close fitting, and all

tim ber in th e ground, or liable to constant saturation, should be of
ja rra h or red gum.

F o r this reason wood block or slab floors, or

any floors other th a n those of im pervious h ard bricks, are open to

serious objection.
If an iron roof be used, a loft will offer valuable interposition
betw een th e changes of tem perature and the stable proper.
The best class of stables are b uilt of hollow brick walls and tiled
The aim of the b est stable construction should be to create
im pervious in tern al surfaces in all th e working parts, both
walls and floors, and also yards, th a t m ay be hosed out and
k ep t sweet and clean.
W indow s. Stable windows should be k ep t high up and well out
of th e w ay of th e work.
of glass.

They are best sm all and in small panes

The pivot-hung sash has m uch to recom m end it, as it

allows the w^hole of the opening to be exposed to air currents.

H opper-hung sashes are also good, and double-hung sashes offer
b e tte r service th a n th e casem ent for this class of work. To protect
th e windows w ith p erm anent \e n e tia n shuttering is often desirable,
so th a t th e stable m ay have the light sh u t out when the heat and
glare of sum m er and the pest of dies become acute.


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Doors. The sheathed door or flush outside panelled door is best

for stables.

F or vehicle houses and for stables other th a n those

where loose boxes open directly out to th e open air, the sliding
door is best if good, practical, easy-working gear be adopted.


form of hanging has th e g reat advantage th a t the door m ay be

opened little or m uch w ithout slam m ing an im portant


sideration in a stable door.

Paving.All ground floor surfaces are best laid to falls w ith
impervious m aterial.

F o r horse wear a surface is needed th a t is

a t once hard, durable, and non-shppery, and for this purpose

specially m ade, hard, grooved stable bricks are best, laid on concrete
and grouted in cem ent.

F or general purposes specially hard bu rn t

ordinary bricks, if set on edge, m ake a good lasting floor.

Partitions.W here a large num ber of horses have to be stalled
together, a space-saving division m ay be m ade w ith the bale pole
(a suspended piece of heavy tim ber betw een the stalls, about 14
in. by 2 in. by 8 ft. long).

F o r all general purposes the perm anent

division is best constructed of w rought iron and wood or wood only.

To each stall a strong, sto u t heel post should be well buried in
the ground, and th e p artitio n formed from post to wall, startin g a t
about 4 ft. 6 in. n ex t to the post, and rising to 7 ft. in height next
to the wall.
A bout 7 ft. is an average height for loose box partitions, the
upper 2 ft. 6 in., of which is m uch im proved if arranged w ith
vertical iron grilling in place of close boarding.
This also applies to stall partitions.
Mangers.Mangers should be set to a height of about 43 in. to
the top of the nosing ; those of enamelled iron are best.

If wood

be used th e front nosing is best carefully sheathed w ith galvanized

sheet iron.
Feed B in s.Feed bins, if of wood, should be hned vnth galvanized
sheet iron or zinc, and have close-fitting hinged lids to keep out
verm in.

They m ay be m ade of such sizes as to act as measures,

w ith a gauge scale p ainted upon the inside.



Drainage.If a stable be aw ay from a sewerage system , a wellgraded scheme of clean, open drainage is best for all purposes.
W here a stable is w ithin a sewered area the local regulations will
govern the drainage.
V entilation.-Ample currents of pure air are highly desirable in
th e stable, an d these should be secured b o th night and day.
In le ts m ay be arranged through windows, or through walls by
upcasting hoppers, an d ex h au st shafts m ay, w ith advantage, be
carried rig h t thro u g h th e roof to fleche or exhaust cowls.
P la te X X V II. shows th e plan of a p rivate stable, w ith three
stalls and tw o loose boxes.
The aspect is south, which protects the stable door and working
p a rts of the

plan from hot n o rth winds and dust, while, for

harnessing up, th e buggy-houses are sheltered from the south-w est

The stable itself is a rectangular ap artm en t, 44 ft. long by 16 ft.
6 in. wide b y 11 ft.



tw o fairly large loose

boxes, 13 ft. by 12 ft., and three stalls between.

The light is

m ostly from th e south, b u t small, high, hopper-hung lights are

provided in n o rth wall for w inter use.
The feed-room opens directly off th e stable, and is fitted w ith
bins filled from th e loft above b y m eans of galvanized-iron hoppers
and tubes.

There is a space near by for forks, rakes, and stable

A t th e east end of th e stable is a boiler house for h ot w ater,

w ith a fuel store under th e stair, served w ith a pitching door from
ea st side.

The saddle and harness room is 12 ft. by 8 ft., w ith

ea st light.
The tw o buggy-houses are planned for full-sized vehicles, and
have floor runners for wheels.

All along in fro nt of these a p a rt

m ents th ere is a verandah roof for harnessing up under shelter in

b ad w eather.
The stable proper has a loft over, served by a stone stair to a
sm all passage, w ith a m an s room facing east and a storage loft
over th e rem aining portion, fitted w ith outside loft doors and


P e PSPEC TJ V E .P k e t c h





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hauling tackle.


The walls are of brickw ork, b u ilt hollow, w ith

ground floors of specially h ard b u rn t bricks set on edge to falls.

The roof is tiled, and there is a special outlet ventilating shaft
from the stable ceihng to th e fleche above roof.
P late X X V III. is a plan of a one-story doctors stable in a
suburban area, where sm all feed storage only is required, and
where drainage is connected w ith underground sewers.

There are

three m edium -sized loose boxes, 12 ft. b y 10 ft., w ith doors open
ing north-east direct on to a verandah, and th e doors, being in
two leaves, give th e anim als a chance of direct outlook, which
secures an arrangem ent preferred by some proprietors.
The vehicle house is specially deep, so as to tak e a hansom cab,
a vehicle th a t requires some full 14 ft. of length, as, unlike other
light vehicles, the shafts in this vehicle are rigid and n ot hinged.
Good height is also arranged to tak e th e 8 ft. 6 in. over all
m easurem ent of cab. The doors of th e vehicle house are arranged
on overhead rollers, and ru n one in fro n t of the other.
The harness-room is directly off the verandah, and

is well

The feed-room is a t th e opposite end.
A verandah is arranged to connect up all th e working p arts of
the building, and th e plan as a whole gives good o p p o rtu n ity for
through ventilation and perflation.
R a c i n g S t a b l e s . A

racing stable, requiring, as it does, different

accom m odation from an ordinary stable, has to be so planned as to

suit this special kind of horse housing.
Such a stable is generally a u n it in a group of detached buildings,

th e

train ers


b arrack

apprentices, a sm all ordinary stable building, and




The plan here given (P late X X IX .) embraces the
requirem ents of a racing stable.


The aspect is east, and th e m ain en try through a pair of




iron gatesone wide for special use, one narrow to act as wicket for
everyday use.

These gates lead into an open way (not roofed

To th e left is a store and ofhce under the direct control of

the stu d groom or forem an in charge of the stable, who has a room
opening off this, where he m ay sleep, and be in direct touch w ith
the stable proper through the sliding door shown.

To the right

two other room s are grouped, approached direct from the stable
first, the gear room , where rugs, cloths, and gear of all kind are
s to r e d ; and next, th e saddle room.

These rooms are fitted

w ith cases, w ardrobes, lockers, &c.

The stable proper is purposely k ep t a p a rt from these working
apartm en ts.

I t contains eleven loose boxes, each 14 ft. by 12 ft.,

w ith a 15 ft. wide central approach way, w ith wide waggon

doors a t w estern end.
E ach loose box is a complete room in itself, 12 ft. to ceiling,
w ith 8 ft. high enclosures, the outer partitio n s of which are close
boarded, and th e divisions betw een the boxes similar up to a height
of 5 ft., and for the rem aining 3 ft. enclosed w ith round iron bar

This is so arranged

th a t the

horses can

see each

other, y et be u ndisturbed by w hat is passing in the


The m anger and h ay racks, of enamelled iron, are placed in one
corner of each box.

W ater receptacles are

not provided, as

differences of opinion exist as to the wisdom of allowing a horse

unlim ited w ater supply.

A nother corner is occupied w ith the

toilet cabinet.
The box doors are 4 ft. wide in two tier leaves, so th a t the lower
half m ay be closed, and the upper portion left open, should the
horse require special w atching b y the atte n d a n t, who may, by this
means, look in when engaged about the general work of the stable.
These doors are also planned directly in front of the manger, so
th a t, when the horse is feeding, an a tte n d a n t entering the box m ay
n atu rally approach th e horse on the near sidei.e., the left side of
the anim alan im p o rtan t item in door-planning.



I jlH A Y I^K lI



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lO G O & D Q X

/1 G

rO G O L





bQ lD G E

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^JrLQJ'yo Dt

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I t m ay be here m entioned th a t doors are b est hung opening out,

or sliding from outside.

Otherwise, should an anim al (as often

happens) become cast in th e box, he m ay lie in such a position

as to o b stru ct th e opening of th e door, an d th u s p re v en t its use in
an emergency.
L ight and ventilatio n is obtained

th ro u g h

shallow, high-up

windows, fitted to open inw ards as hoppers, w ith close cheeks to

prevent dow n draughts.
The general finish consists of w rought-iron uprig h ts supporting
the roof a t the ends of box divisions, iron gate posts, and grooved
iron frame fitted w ith 4 in. by 1 | in., T. and G., and V -jointed, fair
both sides, upright lining, oiled.

The wall surfaces to a height of

8 ft. are fined witfi brow n glazed bricks, tfie floor being of grooved
vitrified stable bricks.
I t should be noted th a t th e whole of th e drainage of this stable
is carried out by two simple open channels outside th e boxes, one
on each side of the centre space, w ith an o u tlet a t th e w estern end.
This leaves the building entirely free from underground drains of any

In stables where valuable stock is kept, and where the

attendance is very constant, some owners prefer th is system , as the

actual flow into a loose box drain is very slight w hen bedding is
constantly down, and th e u n derground drains, if n o t carefully
attended to an d periodically flushed, m ay give rise to fevers and
other disorders am ong th e anim als.
A t th e north-w est corner of the ground floor a feed room is
placed, with conveniences for dealing w ith th e daily feed work.
Zinc-lined storage bins w ith tu b e corn shoots are arranged here,
as also large hay-rack, &c.

These are replenished directly from

In section th e building is arranged as follows

The four rooms

a t the east fro n t are ceiled a t a height of 11 ft. an d roofed over

w ith gable-ended roofs.

The m ain building is ceiled a t a height of

12 ft. over loose boxes w ith a hardw ood ceiling to m atch th e box

Above this a long storage loft some 6 ft. high runs



right along the top of th e whole range of boxes, from end to end,
on b oth sides.

The centre space is carried up and ceiled a t a

height of 25 ft. from the ground floor, and is lighted and ven ti
lated by altern ate windows and louvres on either side overlooking
the lean-to roofs th a t cover the loft space over the boxes.
In racing stables the bulk storage of feed and bedding has to be
provided for.

In this case th e wide doors a t either end allow of

the in and out-going of waggons w ith hay or other feed, and its
uplift on to bridges a t either end of stable, and thence to lofts at
the sides.
As only old oats m ay be used, which should be stored for some
years, provision is m ade for storing in bulk by the reservation of a
close room, where the grain is unbagged and space allowed for turning
it over from tim e to tim e, to assist the m atu rity of the grain.


this way it is also k e p t free from verm in, who work less readily in
loose corn th a n in the bagged m aterial.
As an ad ju n ct to the stable a brick-paved washing floor is
provided, w ith provision for hosing and watering.

A space is also

given up to a sand bath.

The apprentices are housed in a detached building, consisting of
a general b arrack sleeping room, fitted w ith bunks, and with a
diningroom attach ed for general use.


ospit a l s



ings hospital planning

G e n e r a l l y .

occupies an

Among m odern build

im p o rtan t place, as, with

advancing civilization and the progress of medical science, each

year brings forw ard new dem ands for increased and im proved
accom m odation am ong our hospitals and charitable institutions.
Such buildings require to be designed, in m any ways, as a class
by them selves, bearing in m ind the various subdivisions of the
subject, which require in some degree

separate consideration,

notab ly where asylum s and charitable institutions are erected, not



necessarily classable as hospitals, b u t having rath er the character

of associated residences, closely allied to hospitals for the sick.
S ite



In considering hospital planning in general

the question of s ite and

im portant, and


a r e a is in the highest degree





building, which we have before enum erated, m ust here have added

N ot only should th e site be in a suitable and

healthy locality, b u t it requires to be am ple for the num ber of

patients proposed to be accom m odated upon it.

F o r this purpose,

to allow an acre for every 20 p a tie n ts if infectious, and 80 p atients

per acre if non-infectious, is a reasonable working basis.

e sig n


o sp it a l s.

F or outlying country dis

tricts a small hospital is usually sufficient, such as is shown in

P late X X X I.

This class of co u n try cottage hospital is usuallv

adm inistered by a local m edical m an, a su p erin ten d en ts and nurses

residence being in


is good, th e

proxim ity.

san itary



the ap a rtm e n t

disconnected, and


operating room well isolated, such a plan provides a practical

building for o rdinary requirem ents.
planning, however, the

In large general hospital

invariable practice is now adopted of

separately grouping the various types of accom m odation in distinct

buildings, w ith inter-com m unication by m eans of covered ways
These buildings consist usually of a centrally placed adm inis
trative block, containing all the necessary ap artm en ts required for
the due working of the in stitu tio n .

The w ards are contained in

separate pavilions, w ith the sanitary offices to each again isolated

from the w ards them selves by being placed in a disconnected
annexe, and such other separated buildings as kitchens, medical
officers residences, nurses quarters, &c., engine house, m ortuary,
and the num erous other buildings required in a fully-equipped

The spacing in the w ards m ay be divided into three



classesinfectious, non-infectious, and surgicaland should be

allowed for som ew hat in the following ratio :
Cubical contents
Floor space
Bed intervals . .

. .

1 ,5 0 0


1 ,2 0 0


. .

1 .0 0 0

cube ft.
super ft.
lineal ft.

A window should be provided on both sides of every bed, and a

w ard should n o t be less th a n 12 ft. high or 100 ft. long, w ith every
angle in the interior rounded, and all surfaces im pervious and
If erected w ith tim ber a hospital should never exceed one story
in height.

W hen of other m aterial, all construction should, as far

as practicable, be fire-proof, especially if the building is several

stories in height, and ample m eans of escape by fire-proof stairs
should be provided, there being two ways out from each ward or
block, w ith special fire hydrants, hoses, and other fire-extinguishing
app aratu s ready to h and in case of emergency.
E levators are best placed in an annexe. All stairs should be
fire-proof, and doors and m eans of com m unication should be wide,
ample, and well lighted, b oth by night and day.

For natural

lighting of wards, one-fifth to one-sixth of the super, area of the

wards m ay be tak en as a guide for window area.
V entilation should be very ample, b oth through windows and
also by m eans of artificial inlets and outlets, and both warming
and cooling of incoming air m ight well be considered, and special
provision made, n o t only for a complete system of h ot and cold
w ater installation, b u t for the carrying aw ay by drainage of all
wastes, and the destruction by fire of all solid refuse.
These points, together w ith the proper orientation of the wards,
the division of the sexes and classes of patients, convenience of
com m unication, b oth internally and externally, and ample outdoor
sheltered areas, such as paved courts, verandahs, or balconies, and
the all-im portant value of easy adm inistrative working, should all
be rem em bered in hospital planning.



0 P E 3 2 A T ^

C 01Q W ^D



P B l/lC lP lt OF AODPITAL P1A/1A1/1G.




l a n n in g


P la te X X X .


broadly the general principle usually ad o p ted in large hospital


The figure shows th e general road approach to the

adm inistrative block which, in this case, faces south and has a
porte cochere an d p o rte rs lodge a t entrance.

The porte cochere

is roofed overhead, so th a t, in w et or sto rm y w eather, persons passing

from or into vehicles m ay do so under cover, th e lodge-keepers
being a t h an d n ig h t and d ay to overlook arrivals and departures.
The adm in istrativ e block com m unicates by covered ways w ith
the four w ard blocks, called pavilions.

These m ay be one or

m any storied, an d are o rien tated side on to east and west, to

obtain full sun-hghting.

The west sides m ight w ith advantage be

protected from too excessive h e a t b y verandahs, and the east by

outside V enetian shutters.
Beyond th e pavilions and to the north-w est is the power-house
for h ot w ater, electric energy, or lighting ap p aratu s, &c.

To the

east of this a pathological school, or other necessary buildings of

the same character, could be placed.
The w ard pavilion, in a plan of this character, m ay be extended to
east and west as required, or a small isolation w ard could be placed
to the south of it upon th e other side of th e covered ways.
The space betw een th e pavilions should be such th a t the sunhght,
in some p a rt of th e day, reaches the whole of the walls, unaffected by
shadow from adjoining buildings.
This diagram is given m erely as illu stratin g a principle, n ot
necessarily as an actu al instance to be followed, for it will be found
in practice th a t every scheme of planning m ust of necessity show
variation of requirem ent and treatm en t.
Co t t a g e H

o sp it a l s.

cottage hospital


The building shown on P late X X X I. is a

and illustrates a


of sem i-private

hospital suited to co u n try districts where such an estabhshm ent is

adm inistered b y one or more m edical practitioners.
The plan shows four w ards, three being for tw o p atien ts each.



while a fou rth is for one p a tie n t only.

These w ards have generous

super, area, and face east or west, w ith windows on each side of

A bathroom fitted w ith a wheel b a th and a linen store are

convenient to the wards.

The hot w estern and northern sides of

the plan are protected by a wide verandah.

There is an 8-ft. wide

en try , w ith a sitting room for convalescents or visitors opening off


The kitchen offices and store are grouped together so as to

allow no odor of cooking to enter th e m ain portion of the building.

I t should be no ted th a t the operating room is disconnected from
th e m ain building, and is arranged w ith a south (neutral) light,
p artly vertical and p a rtly as a roof light.

This ap artm en t is

reached through wide pair doors, and has a fireplace, sinks, &c.,
and a sterilizing apparatus.

The walls, flooring, and ceilings here

require to be absolutely im pervious and washable.

A t th e extrem e n o rth end of th e plan, reached by a covered way,
the wash-house and sanitary offices are grouped, so as to be w ithin
reasonable touch of th e working of the establishm ent, y et cut off
from actual contact. These consist of the usual laundry equipm ent,
togeth er w ith large sinks, slop hoppers, W.Cs., and an isolated
cham ber for th e reception of w ard wastes.
The m ain building has a height of 12 ft. from floor to ceiling, the
windows being hopper-shaped to open inw ards in three heights,
w ith 2 ft. from th e floor to the lower edge of the glass and top
hopper well up to the ceiling.
The roofs of such a building require to be well insulated, and the
walls, if of brick, hollow, so as to m aintain, as far as possible,
equable tem p eratu re within.
V entilation should be carried on, as described in V entilation,
by special inlets, and tube ceiling outlets through the roof, the roof
being ventilated separately.

Introductory. In church planning we have a class of building in

m any ways distin ct from all other types, and needing, in con-


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C % ^ C T 1 0 /f*

K IT C /m r

P A ^ T g t T d ro i

15"* 14'




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18'* 14


v E p m D n n


hC O T T R G 2*
n C O P lT f tL


P IA /1




sequence, t h a t sep aratio n of tre a tm e n t aw ay, som ew hat, on th e one

h an d from th e dom estic, an d rem oved, on th e o th er h and, from the
m ark of pure com m ercialism .
To design a church as it should be designed requires, in a m easure,
special gifts, and certain ly success in th is m ay n o t be ob tain ed w ith
o u t strong sy m p ath y , in th e designer, to w ard s those m ed itativ e and
religious sentim ents w hich create a ro u n d such buildings so m uch of
th eir tru e charm and atm osphere.
Not Commercial. Few th in g s are m ore fa ta l to success in church
design th a n to introduce, in a n y w ay, th e sp irit an d detail of com
m ercial buildings, for one is en tirely foreign to th e other, and should
be k ep t so in t r e a t m e n t ; y e t th is w arning is n o t w ith o u t need, as
we m ay see by even a casual s tu d y of th e subject, an d th e inspection
of some of th e buildings a ro u n d us.
We m ay also hope to see, as our a rc h ite c tu ra l know ledge increases,
less of th e dog kennel ty p e of church building, an d m ore regard
given tow ards the obtain in g of a pleasing m ass, even in th e sim plest
The first object of a church building is, an d rig h tly so, u tilitarian .
I t should be b u ilt to accom m odate a certain nu m b er of people in
com fort, w ith ad eq u ate seating, lighting, pure air, space, and m eans
for the proper perform ance of th e prescribed ritu a l, w ith safe in
and out-goings an d a p p ro a c h e s ; b u t while doing all this


rem em brance should be given to create an d conserve some spirit

both of tra d itio n an d m ed itatio n .
Church designing gives specially rich o p p o rtu n ity of subject
whereon to play for com position.

All religion is in some m easure

historical, an d in its progress an d g row th has held sacred certain

sym bols an d em blem s, as well as dress an d ritu al, an d these have
gathered round certain ty p es of building an d m ethods of con
struction, and have in no sm all m easure influenced b o th their
plaim ing an d th e ir o rn am en tatio n ,
a church

m ay be


th e


th a t, for w hatever sect





trad itio n s before his m ind, a n d so blend th e old w ith th e new.



th e u tilitarian w ith th e sentim ental, and th e whole so conforming

w ith local clim ate and needs as to best conserve some happy
balance of th e whole.
Seating Accommodation. W herever, as is very often the case, the
old G othic church plans are repeated in our own day, we are a t once
confronted w ith the fact th a t, whereas th e old churches were
designed for assemblage and am bulation, th e m odern church is only
required for seating accom m odation.

W here procession was the

order th e side aisles w ith their colum ned arcades added m ystery
to the ceremonial, b u t, w hen this feature is repeated in modern
work, it im m ediately offers difficulty where the audience should in
all p arts of th e building be able readily b o th to see and hear the
Character of Design. In a co u n try such as A ustralia, where
national church

establishm ent does n o t exist, and where


religious sects have equal rights before the law, th e dom ination of
th e building of one denom ination has n o t to be so largely considered
as in the lands where th e E stablished C hurch has for centuries had
the w ealth and prestige of national support.
H ere, w ith a well-nigh virgin field, each denom ination m ay seek
to build as it will, and to lay down in a new country new traditions,
and, w ith m any, these trad itio n s have already been built into a
num ber of th e fine churches th a t A ustralia owns.
We cannot, however, help th e conviction th a t progress m ay be
m ade upon th e lines of designing more for our own clim ate and
national conditions th a n has heretofore been th e general rule.


architecture, distinctly tru th fu l and h ap p y in its harm ony w ith a

cold, w et clim ate, can h ardly be tran sp lan ted to the sunny skies of
tem perate conditions w ithout undergoing considerable change to
make its application a t all pleasing, if such a transplanting is really,
v d m n m d u m n y w m a h b M K b th e H g h tth m g W b e r e w n u n m n b d s d
All tru e a rt has sprung, like n a tu re s trees, from place and
special local circum stances, and so to A ustralia s actual conditions



m ay we not, in our church designing, in m ore earnest m easure bend

our powers.
Super. Area of P la n . The first consideration in church planning
is one of superficial area, and practice will show th a t, tak in g a
norm al case, ab o u t 4 ft. super, m ay be allowed per person for actual
seating, and ab o u t 7 ft. super, for th e whole auditorium , including
aisles, &c.

H av in g fixed th is and added fair accom m odation for

choir, vestries, &c., we find th a t, exclusive of land, a plain, soundlyb uilt brick church can generally be b u ilt for ab o u t 8 per sittin g
a price th a t will g reatly v ary if wood be used or if stone be su b
stituted, as also if tow ers or spires be adopted.
H aving determ ined th e broad super, area, th e question of orien ta
tion m ust be settled, and where ritu a l (as it often does) requires
the a ltar to th e east, this will g reatly influence th e placing of the
plan upon th e site.
The question, too, of d irect sun during service tim es m ust be
carefully considered, side b y side w ith th e approaches.
The seat regulates everything in th e church, an d its size,
num ber, and position should be laid dow n in th e very early stages
of the planning.
Fix the length of seat n o t too m any sittings in a row ; for
instance, n o t m ore th a n five from each aisle.
F ix the seat grouping w ith easy approaches, from aisles and
exits, to doors.
D raw a line from each and every sittin g to th e preacher and the
ritual points, and be assured th a t every sitte r m ay see and hear.
Allow for a slightly sloping floor, w hich has now been fully
established as one of th e m ost necessary devices for th e com fort of
those who use m odern churches.
F or churches such as th e A nglican and th e R om an Catholic
allow ex tra w idth in seating to p erm it of sitte r finding space for

This will, of course, m odify the whole super, area of the

Table of S izes. The following tab le m ay be found useful in



general churcli planning.

The dimensions given are normal, and

are subject to variation, according to circum stances :

A c c o m m o d a t io n , I

n c l u d in g


A is l e s ,

*7 ft. to 8 ft. super.

*4 ft. to 5 ft. super.
*32 in. to 36 in.
*21 in. to 24 in.
*17 in. to 18 in.
*13 in. to 15 in.
*33^ in. to 35 in.
*29 in. to 31 in.

For every person

D itto, seating space only
W idth of seats back to back
Length of seat for each person
H eight of seat from floor
W idth of seat
H eight of seat backs
Book boards, height from floor
Book boards, w id th . .


4 in. to

*5 in.

Dim ensions marked thus * are recommended.

Equipm ent. A p art from th e church itself as a structure, the

equipm ent and furnishing of th e building should find harm ony of
design, th e one w ith the other, for which we m ay here lay down a
few practical hints.
In deciding th e tim ber to be used in seating, pulpit (if of wood),
and furniture, it is best to ado p t the same kind of tim ber as used
in the internal doors, so th a t all woodwork w ithin the range of the
eye tow ards the floor of the building m ay be alike.
General Seating. F o r

seating, the best is A ustralian wood,

undoubtedly dry, well-figured black wood, dull French polished

b u t this is expensive.

F o r all general purposes New Zealand kauri

offers one of the very best woods a t m edium cost, either stained
and varnished, or left plain and varnished, or dull French polished.
In deciding upon the design of the seat, it has to be noted th a t
church seating is required to suit the average sittermen, women,
and c h ild re n ; the dish of th e seat, the angle of the back, w hether
cushions are to be placed upon the seat or not, w hether open








ease of

ingoing into seat a t ends, and space for the passage of persons
w ithin the seating, are all points

of vital im port, and


experim enting w ith model pieces, roughly knocked up, and of



the actual size, is th e b est w ay to arrive a t a practical conclusion

before the whole seating is ordered.

Seating. Choir


m ay


som ew hat

fu rth er

elaborated from general seating, for w hich am ple precedent is

found in th e old world churches, b u t care should be ta k e n to avoid
the u nhap p y appearance of high bookboards, and consideration
should be given to th e appearance of th e choir w hen seated.


high bookboards, a t tim es, are so set as to come d irectly in fro n t of

the face of the sitter, and look very inharm onious w hen th e choir
is placed facing th e audience.
The P u lp it.N ex t to

th e


th e

p u lp it

im portant, for all eyes tu rn in th is direction.

is th e

m ost

I ts position, its

height, and its size should all be carefully weighed in relation to

the seating, so th a t everyone, w ith ease, m ay b o th see an d hear the
preacher, and th a t the eye m ay find pleasing re st upon th e p u lp it
itself, as well as th a t th e stru c tu re should offer full convenience for
the occupier.
The size of th e p u lp it is a m a tte r m ostly of m inisterial taste,
b u t an octagonal p u lp it of a b o u t 5 ft. 9 in. diam eter is, for a
pulpit, fairly spacious, w ith han d rail 30 in. high, and bookboard
w ith norm al height of 39 in.

A p u lp it should have a com fortable

seat or bench, a glass holder for w ater, w atch holder, and small
shelves under th e bookboard for papers.
well lighted.

I t should also be specially

The approach should be easy, while some approach-

m ent space betw een th e incom ing door from th e vestry and the
pulpit itself is b est arranged so as to offer easy and graceful
The Rostrum or P latform . W here a ro stru m

is planned


preference to a pulpit, while carrying o u t generally th e above

rules, greater expanse of superficial area will be required.

rostrum , too, offers more o p p o rtu n ity for open w ork tre a tm e n t,
where good w rought iron and m etal w ork m ay often be in tro
The Sanctuary or Chancel.In th e san ctu ary and th e chancel all



eq u ip m en t m u st needs conform specially to th e ritu a l of th e church,

and, p roviding it be designed in c h a ra c ter w ith th e building and in
th e sam e style as o th e r equipm ent, save th a t it m ay be some
degrees richer, th e resu lt should be harm onious.
E n tries. In en tran ce




specially designed

eq u ip m en t should be m ade, such as settles or chairs, book cabinets,

and tables, fram ed p lan of church seating, and, if gas or electric
lig h t be used, these th in g s are b est ad m inistered from such places,
where a tte n d a n ts have easy access an d control to ta p s or m ain
sw itches.

The b o o t scraper an d th e sunk m a t should also be

included, an d


co u n try churches h a t and




um brella stan d s m a y also w ith ad v an tag e be added.

Vestries. V estries an d retirin g room s should all be equipped
w ith fu rn itu re of an ecclesiastical ch aracter, and for these a p a rt
m en ts th e ru sh -seated plain ch u rch chairs, on th e E nghsh model,
look well, a n d m ay be m a n u fa c tu red in A u stralia w ith local-grown
ru sh an d fram es of A u stralian wood.
Stores. Stores should n o t be overlooked.

I n all churches there

is need for cu p b o ard s an d p roperly planned places w here various

th ing s m a y be p u t aw ay an d locked up, and these should be
provided an d becom e p a rt of th e general arran g em en t of the
The choir v estry , for instance, should have book and music
cabin ets fitte d w ith pigeon-holed
cupboards and cupb o ard s for

subdivisions, while

stew ards

c a re ta k e rs gear should also be

th o u g h t of.
I l l u st r a t io n s.

P la te s






A nglican church w ith 464 general sittin g s an d 36 choir sittings.

The p lan (P late X X X II.) is so arranged as to suit th e ritu a l of
th e C hurch of E ngland, b y th e grouping of a spacious chancel to
th e east of th e nave and som ew hat raised therefrom .

This chancel

contains th e choir benches, w hich occupy th e n o rth and south walls,

w ith th e p u lp it a t the north -w est corner and th e reading-desk a t the





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PLA TE X X X lll.

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south-w est corner.


The com m union is again raised from chancel,

and has railed-off separation.

The incum bents v estry has a direct approach from the outside
and a door into th e chancel a t th e end of th e choir.
The choir v estry is a t the S.E. corner of the building, and
occupies the lower portion of th e spire, the belfry and bells being
above, the to ta l height of the spire being 95 ft.
The length of th e nave is 88 ft., w ith a w idth of 35 ft., w ith 4 ft.
The tran sep ts are 24 ft. wide by 15 ft. deep, the chancel w ith the
communion being 29 ft. wide and 28 ft. deep.
The height of th e walls inside from the norm al

floor level is

18 ft., with 37 ft. as a full to ta l height of open roof.

The general stru ctu re is of brick, w ith stone dressings and slate
roof constructed inside w ith open tim bering.
Plates X X X IV . and X X X V . show a design for a Presbyterian
church w ith 502 general sittings and 43 choir sittings.
The general form of auditorium is arranged in a rectangular
form, north to south, w ith very shallow transepts, the choir being
slightly raised on a platform im m ediately in front of the congrega
tion, with a pipe organ a t th e back, m anipulated by means of an
extended m anual keyboard.
In front of the choir there is a slightly raised dais, upon which
chairs and m ovable com m union table are placed.

This space,

in the case of a B ap tist Church, could be used for the pool

The general approach is through two front wing lobbies, served
by flights of steps th a t lead to th e highest level of the auditorium
floor, which has a slope of some 3 ft. 6 in. to the n o rth end.


other doors, m ainly for escape, give access from th e transepts.

The choir enters th ro u g h a door near th e back on the western
side, and files up a small flight of stairs into the choir seating.
A small m inisters vestry is provided, w ith approach to pulpit
made direct by small door in n o rth wall of auditorium , leading, by



short way, to p u lp it steps.

The north-east corner is occupied by a

vestry for small meetings.

The style of the design is Gothic, carried out mainly in plain red
brickwork, the windows being executed in hand-curved tracery in
freestone, w ith roof covering of green V erm ont slates.
The interior is tre a te d w ith open tim ber roof, lined w ith handdressed red Californian pine, dull oiled, and w ith roof principals show
ing, being ceiled a t the collar, a t height of 32 ft. from lowest point
of floor, th e height of internal walls from same point being 20 ft.
The g reat front window, 20 ft. wide, is only made possible by
reason of its position due south, as in this way it does not receive
any direct sunlight, and is m ade to form a valuable feature from
the interior, where th e stained glass shows to great advantage.
The ventilation is arranged by a complete service of hinged
hopper inlets through th e lower portion of the windows, the outlets
being in ceiling perforations, connected by close iron tubes with
ridge vents.
P late X X X V I. is for a R om an Catholic Church w ith 115 sittings.
The choir is accom m odated in a gallery a t the western


approached by a stair in S.W. corner, and has seating room for 20.
The area of the body of the church is 40 ft. by 32 ft., w ith a
san ctu ary occupying 15 ft. b y 14 ft., w ith a 12 ft. by 10 ft. vestry.
The m ain en try is by a bold w estern porch, w ith wing doors, an
escape being provided a t the end of the south wall.
This church is tre a te d in a simple Rom anesque m anner, with
16 ft. internal walls and open tim ber roof rising to 25 ft., the
sanctu ary walls being ab o u t 13 ft. 6 in. and the vestry 10 ft.
6 in. inside.
P late X X X V II. shows plans of three small churches, suitable for
nonconform ist worship in country districts.
Fig. 1 shows a plan w ithout sanctuary, a preachers rostrum ,
choir and com m union platform being substituted.

This building

contains 183 sittings, w ith seats for 20 in the choir.

The main

approach is planned to suit a corner site, and leads up a flight of


ft 9


* PLAN *

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SiBiiiiiili 1





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steps to a room y lobby, w hich screens th e in tern al doors from cold

prevailing winds, an d also offers good space for the ad m inistration.
There is a 14 ft. b y 11 ft. m in isters v e stry a t S.W . corner, and
escape doors and screening lobby a t N .W .
This building w ould be b est w ith a floor showing 2 ft. slope, walls
20 ft. high inside from low est level of floor, and roof a t angle of
50, th e m ain inside dim ensions being 56 ft. b y 34 ft.
Fig. 2 shows an o th er ty p e of plan.

This is u pon th e th e a tre

principle, w ith an a u d ito riu m 50 ft. wide an d 40 ft. deep, having

seating for 183 persons an d 20 in choir.

The general seating is

grouped around th ree sides, each row of seats being raised up 5 in.
above those in front.
This is a ty p e of p lan som etim es preferred before a rectan g u lar
grouping, especially w here th e w id th of lan d is am ple, an d a
com pact grouping aro u n d th e preach er is specially desired.
In this case th e m in isters v estry and choir

v estry

group upon

the n o rth wall, coupled w ith th e N .W . escape door.

The front has a wide b reak, w ith a large so u th window, flan k ed
on either side w ith th e en tran ce doors.
In a general style of tre a tm e n t th is w ould be b est designed for a
R om anesque finish, w ith a flat ceiling and low -pitched roof w ith
wide overhanging eaves.
Fig. 3 is a p lan form ing a sim ple rectan g u lar in terior w ith tw o
aisles, the seating accom m odation being for 281 persons, w ith 23 in
the choir.
doorw ay

The m ain appro ach

is th ro u g h


into a long entran ce lobby, a m in isters and choir v estry

being placed a t th e b ack of th e plan.

The interior of th e church is arranged in five bays, w ith b u ttressed
walls and windows designed for tre a tm e n t in th e G othic m anner.
P lates X X X V III. and X X X IX . show plans and perspective
respectively of a nonconform ist church carried o u t in a m odern
ad a p tatio n of the E nglish-G othic style.
Here th e plan (P late X X X V III.) is arranged as a large open
area, w ith tran sep ts, cen tral p u lp it spacing, and choir in th e south


tran sep t.


Some elaboration of w ork and largeness of spacing is

shown a t th e m ain entries, a large vestibule and N.W . tow er being

The seating, including choir, is for 545 persons, th e elevational
tre a tm e n t being shown in th e perspective draw ing (Plate X X X IX .)
To m ain tain the public safety, church buildings

should be

designed d istin ctly as public buildings, and it is only rig h t th a t

certain laws should be enacted for th e enforcem ent of certain fixed
requirem ents.
In some p a rts of A ustraha, under th e Health Acts, th e opening of
an y church for public w orship is forbidden w ithout th e w ritten
consent of th e public authorities, and certain requirem ents are in
force w hich have to be com plied w ith in the work.
On th e whole these requirem ents have tended tow ards decided
im pro v em en t in church planning, and, although upon first con
sideratio n some of th e requirem ents appear vexatious to


designer, y e t in actual practice th ey , on th e whole, work out well

w hen properly applied, and ten d to safer


more hygienic

buildings th a n were heretofore erected.

These requirem ents have to do chiefly w ith exits, w idth of aisles,
doors and fastenings, fire appliances, ventilation, and ease
outgoing in case of fire.






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X X X IX .


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I t may be taken as a safe policy of m odern practice th a t the
designer of the building should also be the designer of the furnishings.
The design of th e house an d th e c h a ra c te r of its fu rn itu re are so
inseparably in term ix ed an d in te rd e p e n d e n t th a t success in the one
can h ardly be estab lish ed w ith o u t th e close co -operation of th e
other, and dou b ly so w hen it is rem em bered how largely p e rm a n e n t
fittings of v arious k in d s now form an a c tu a l co n stru ctiv e p a r t of
m odern buildings, an d go so far to w a rd s th e ir eq u ip m ent.
This strong ten d en cy in th e b est m o d ern w ork to bring th e one
m ore closely in to h a rm o n y w ith th e o th er is to be em ulated, for it
is based up o n sound principles.
C ertain it is th a t such a d em an d g re a tly w idens th e responsibility
of the a rch itect, b u t, a t th e sam e tim e, it enables him to produce
in a building as a whole th a t h a rm o n y of eq u ip m en t w ith o u t w hich
no building can be said to be w holly com plete.
The building is b u ilt for its co n tain m en ts, an d th e tru e designer
certain ly m u st hav e p ra c tic a lly in rem em b ran ce th e final use and
object of every p a r t of th e stru c tu re to a tta in to an y th in g like
success in his u n d e rta k in g , and also be able to guide and oversee it
and its eq u ip m en t to th e final end.
B y furnishing we do n o t m ean fu rn itu re alone ; fu rn itu re is only
a p a rt.

F u rn ish in g should

em brace th e whole eq u ip m en t and

In th is a r t of furnishing we rem em ber a t once th e b ro ad and
g rea t difference th a t lies b etw een w h a t is req u ired in one building
as ag ain st w h a t is necessary in an o th er, so th a t an y rules th a t m ay



be here laid dow n should be sufficiently elastic to suit b o th place

and circum stance.

alm ost univ ersal


p ractice


choosing the

furnishings is n o t w ith o u t serious dan g er to th e u ltim ate use and

appearan ce of any building.


sy ste m

has, how ever, becom e so

interw o v en w ith m odern custom s th a t to lay it aside alto g eth er is

n o t fully to be recom m ended.

A t th e sam e tim e it should be

po in ted o u t how necessary keen ju d g m e n t an d tra in e d intelligence

is to so choose an d use th e stock article as to produce harm onious
The m arvellous ex pansion of m odern m achine-fed m anufactories
has w ell-nigh a lto g eth er laid aside m any of th e noblest tra d itio n s
and m eth o d s of tru e c ra ft w ork, so dear to th e lover of good
furnishing, and it is q uestionable w hether, on th e whole, it is n ot
far b e tte r to d irect our efforts m ore to th e acquirem ent of a
m oderate am o u n t of th e v ery b est c ra ft w ork th a n to crow d into our
buildings overfurnishing q u a n titie s of indifferent m aterials.
M oderation, therefore, should be th e first rule of furnishing.
T rained ta s te should be th e n ex t, w ith a careful consideration for
th e fitness of things.
Color v alues are th e n e x t g re a t consideration, and in th is women
ra th e r th a n m en often excel, as th e y m u st also necessarily excel m
arran g in g th e m a n y dom estic fitm en ts th a t m inister to th e proper
w orking of a house.

W ith color lies w ell-nigh all th e b est possi

bilities of furnishing.
T hen th ere is h o n e s t y of constru ctiv e

p u rp ose

to be considered

a q u a lity pre-em in en tly identified w ith th e b est of th e old furniture,

th a t m en now collect an d treasu re, and wise m en seek to em ulate.
One oth er im p o rta n t fact should also be ta k e n very seriously into
consideration, an d t h a t is th e g reat value and b ea u ty of our
A u stralian finishing woods.

W ith scientific c u ttin g , seasoning, and

m ark etin g th e y will be found pre-em inently suitable for th e m aking

of fu rn itu re an d fittings, for, b o th in stru ctu re, b re a d th of variety,

r ic h n e s s


hgu re

th ey

ta k e


h ig h

p la c e ,


w ith



growing know ledge of th e ir use, should prove an ever-expanding

asset in our b est furnishing w ork.

The q u estio n of seasoning m ust,

how ever, have m ore co n sid eratio n th a n has heretofore been given to
it, for how ever good th e tim b e r m ay be, th e w ork m u st prove
un satisfacto ry w ith o u t th o ro u g h ly seasoned tim b er, and th is can
only be secured b y p ro p e r c u ttin g , stack in g , an d keeping d u ring long
periods of tim e, if n o t b y some of th e p a te n t system s of seasoning,
th a t have been w orked from tim e to tim e in our m idst.
H erein is w here th e im p o rte d tim b ers gain over th e local article.
They are for th e m ost p a r t niore or less seasoned, an d therefore
offer, in th is d irection, m ore reason for th e ir use th a n our own
finishing woods.
In tex tile an d wall p a p e r design also we hav e m uch progress to
m ake, as, for all general purposes, we have a t p re se n t to rely too
largely upon th e im p o rted article, w hich often shows, for th is
country, q u ite m eaningless

o rn am en t.


th is

d irection,


choosing should have in it m ore reg ard for te x tu re an d colour, and

we should be able to set aside those o rn a m e n ta l m otifs w hich are
palpably unsu itab le.
The broad fields of d eco ratio n should prove ever increasing in
rich o p p o rtu n ity for designing an d executing, in A ustralia, w ork
entirely suitable to our own req u irem en ts, possessing, as we do, rich
fields of suggestion in th e v arious form s an d colours b o th of th e
anim al and v egetable kingdom , an d in local atm o sp here and life,
which offer a new an d e x trem ely m erito rio u s field for th e a rtist.
The furnishing of public buildings, offices, an d places of business
do n o t call specifically for re m a rk here, b u t th e rules and b road
principles laid dow n m ay find th e ir reflex in these, as well as in
the problem s of dom estic furnishing.
One overspreading c h a ra c te r should certain ly overrule such work,
and th a t is it should n o t be dom estic ; it should hold to a
realm of its own, w ith stric t u tility , solidity, an d d ig n ity as the
m ain considerations. The dom estic m ay som etim es be p r e tty ,
b u t th e public building or p riv a te office h a rd ly needs to be so.



F u rn ish in g the H o u se . To apply some guiding rules, we m ay

have in m ind an average house, and offer some detailed rem arks
upon th e various d ep artm en ts of the house, such as verandah, hall,
draw ingroom , diningroom , servery, breakfastroom , the library or
den, the billiard-room , the boudoir, bedrooms, bathroom , stores,
dom estic offices, and outbuildings.
I t m ust, however, be rem em bered th a t only general suggestions
m ay be given here, and m atters of color and style have a t all
tim es to be b ro u g h t into harm ony w ith individual taste.
The Verandah. The v erandah should be equipped w ith large, com
fortable easy chairs of various kinds, and, being p artly exposed to
outside dam p, if n o t to rain, all such equipm ent is best of an open
and easy-drying character.

F o r all general purposes, well-shaped

wicker or cane chairs w ith arm rests are best.

If the verandah be

broad, or specially bro ad a t one p a rt, as verandahs a t tim es m ay

well be, lounges or folding deck chairs m ay be added.

In speaking

of verandah equipm ent, one has often noticed the need of some
h an d y store, where the verandah equipm ent m ay be p u t away.
W ith a little th o u g h t this could well be planned, free from dust,
with m uch ad v antage to th e tidiness of th e verandah during the
w inter days.

Specially m ade, w ell-fitting canvas blinds are nearly

alw ays of g reat service for closing in th e verandah, and artificial

light should also be supplied for evening use.
The H a ll. The hall, w hether sm all or large, should also have
careful a tten tio n , for it is here the
im pressions of th e house.

visitor receives

the first

The growing tendency of m aking the

hall not m erely a passage ap artm en t, b u t an actual usable p a rt of

th e


m ay

be considered,





If of fair size, and th e house be tw o-story, the stair should open
in to the hall, and should offer an o p p o rtu n ity for m aking effect
w ith good woodwork.

The general tone of th e hall should be

quiet, ra th e r low in tone, solid ra th e r th a n gay, substantial and

dignified in general character.



To obtain this, a free use of d ark finishing woods is recom m ended,

showing n a tu ra l color and grain, dull F rench or w ax polished.
W ainscoting (if n o t too expensive) looks well here, carried to th e
top of the doors, w ith some bold, p ainted, decorative wall tre a tm e n t
F o r color scheme in th e hall, th e rich play of bronze and
leather browns, relieved b y a touch of red in th e w all decoration,
w ith a general atm osphere of quiet, solid colour, bro88m p re
dom inating, is well w orth considering.

The chairs, settle, and hall

stands should be m ade of th e sam e wood as th e doors and stairs,

and should be of th e sam e general design, m assive for th e m ost
p a rt, b u t plain, y e t good, and m ay be upholstered in leather, w ith
close m etal nailing.

The b est effect is obtained b y having the

windows of leaded glass, sho8ving a q uiet geom etrical order, w ith

b u t little color, preferably am ber for th e m ost p a rt, 8vith a slight
touch of red to harm onize w ith th e wall decoration.

All m etal

work, such as handles, door plates, &c., should be m ade of special

craft-w orked, dull-bronzed copper.
The floor m ay well receive, after proper scrapers and m ats have
been provided in th e e n try for cleaning boots, a th ick pile carpet
of brow n w ith a m argin of w axed and polished floor shelving
The Drawingroom.If one room more

th a n an other



house is in danger of being over-furnished, it is th e draw ingroom .

Im agine the average dra:vingroom w ith 50 per cent, of the things
taken away, and note th e im proved effect.

A pply this simple and

useful rule to m ost of the room s we see, an d we come to a rule

holding in itself a g reat possibility of reform .
Drawingroom s, as also diningroom s, are now often planned to
open by spacious doorw ays direct in to the hall an arrangem ent
th a t has m an y points of recom m endation for society use.

Such an

arrangem ent of planning, however, calls for special consideration in

the furnishing, as th e th ree room s, w hen throvm in to one by the
folding or ru n n in g back of th e several leaved doors, m ust show



some h arm ony of tre a tm e n t a problem

som ew hat difficult of

accom plishm ent, though n o t insurm ountable, when it is known

th a t harm ony m ay be produced even where there is m arked
dissim ilarity.
The draw ingroom , tak in g on th e ch aracter of its general use.
should show lightness, gracefulness, and, if n o t carried too far, even
p rettin ess of tre a tm e n t, all woodwork, w hether stru ctu ral or of the
furnishing, being tre a te d alike.
If th e prevailing color tone be dove grey and white, or yellow
w ith lightly con stru cted old m ahogany, inlaid furniture, some good
tre a tm e n t m ay be obtained, especially if the furniture be kept
restrain ed in w eight, and the ornam ent n o t too lavish.
Some good exam ples of w ater-color pain tin g also m ay often find
harm onious setting in the draw ingroom .
Successful draw ingroom s are m ost often those showing broken up
planning, w ith a p t creation of bay, ingle, and occasional seat, and
outlook to some b e a u ty of th e garden.
The D iningroom . Our diningroom s need hard ly take upon them
selves th e ponderous solidity of old English baronial halls, y et some
influence of th e m em ories these call up m ay, perhaps, be allowed to
our B ritish fancy when th e design of the diningroom is being

There m ay be a generous tre a tm e n t w ith native woods,

some panelled w ainscoting


tim ber

ceiling, w ith a nicely-

designed fire-place linking up th e two, and some bold carving over

th e open tiled fireplace, which is best fitted w ith w rought-iron grate
and fire-irons.
The fu rn itu re

should here


solid, showing sound, honest

stru c tu re an d good line and w e ig h t; the tab le so made as to look

well when the cloth is rem oved, w ith secret castors and with thick
and solid top.
An all-green diningroom looks well, w ith Queensland tim ber,
stain ed and waxed, and upholstering of green leather, w ith a green
The whole, a cool, refreshing setting for its use, the generosity of



the table w ith its w hite linen, its glint of glass an d flash of m etal,
th e sideboard w ith its p late and its flagons, finds in th e tone of the
room some h a p p y harm ony.
Illustration. If, as is som etim es desirable in co u n try houses, a
large com m on room be used for general purposes, as well as for
dining, some in terio r tre a tm e n t as illu strated in P la te X L . m ay be
found harm onious.
This interior shows a spacious a p a rtm e n t w ith a bow window
occupying one angle, looking thence in to th e garden beyond.
The walls are arran g ed w ith a deep frieze, h aving a m olding
below, and a wooden to p cornice receiving th e wooden ceiling beam s.
There is a m assive wooden chim ney piece and tiled fire-place in the
centre of the left-h an d wall, w ith a design carried up to the ceiling.
Two cabinets are so p lanned as to group w ith th e room, and so
detailed as to supply space for storage, so th a t th e room m ay be
usable for com m on purposes, th e fu rn itu re of th e a p artm e n t being
designed to m atch.

Such a room would look well with a painted frieze, plain, flatted
walls, polished floor margins, and plain carpet centre.
The BreaJcfastroom. The break fastro o m should, in its aspect,
welcome th e glow of eastern light, and east and n o rth is often a
good position w ith a cheerful outlook.
I t should be w ithin easy access of the kitchen, y e t entirely free
from k itchen odors.
Brow n and old gold are good w orkable colors, w ith rush-seated
chairs of m edium w eight and w ith some arm chairs in pigskin.
The walls are b est tre a te d w ith o u t p a tte rn , and m ay be covered
with coarse colored canvas in large panels, set in 3 in. by 1 in.
wood bordering.

These panels offer good background for suitable

oil paintings, fram ed so as to be a d istin ct p a rt of th e room.


floor is best covered w ith a th ick In d ia n red cork linoleum , and the
open fire-place of brow n m ajolica, and copper-m ounted, w roughtiron fittings should give a finishing to u ch to a cosy and practical
m orning ap artm en t.



The Billiard-room . E v en the

billiard-room should feel some

influence of new and ratio n al design, in tune w ith the spirit of the
house, for, while retain in g all the essential elem ents of the game,
some regard m ay well be m ade to m odern ta ste and individual
requirem ents.

W here possible, therefore,

specially designed.

th e

table should be

I t need n o t have the stock-pattern, ponderous

tu rn ed legs, all glassy w ith high polish, nor need it be always the
same color.

The table fram e m ay be solid and restrained and

w ith o u t moldings, and th e legs square, w ith good curved outline.

The whole equipm ent, too scoring boards, cue racks, cupboards,
settles, and th e rest m ay all be designed, together w ith the room,
as a whole one character and one tone.
The Library and D en.The

m en who require libraries will

generally have definite views ab o u t th em w herew ith to in stru ct the

designer, varying, and depending in a large m easure upon the
special characteristic p u rsu it of th e owner.
w ith

A w ell-lighted room,

some restful color tre a tm e n t and dignity of quietness, in

some secluded p a rt of the house, h aving direct outlet to the

garden, is generally found best.

There should be ample table and

cabinet room , w ith generous plain w all spacing.

The den is often a m odest su b stitu te for the library, and is a
very useful retirin g room for th e m an of th e house.

H ere individual

ta ste will en ter very largely, and no h ard and fast rule can there
fore be laid down for its design, save th a t th e equipm ent should be
w orked out so as to m inister in th e best m anner to the habits and
inclinations of th e owner, everything having a place, and the whole
grouped in some h arm ony of general treatm en t.
The Boudoir, th e lad y s very own room, should reflect the exact
personal ta ste of the lady herself, and here, more perhaps th a n in
th e other a p artm en ts of the house, actual personal taste m ay be
displayed, for it m ay be tak en as an established principle th a t
certain persons prefer certain colorscertain colors find response
in them , while others repel.

There is, therefore, a color harm ony

for each individual, as, also, there is suitable dress, and color






' ;



in dress, for fair or d ark , tall, p etite, or large, so these things

m ay all be considered in design, and, if th e y are considered, nearer
will th e designer be to a h a p p y h a rm o n y in th e boudoir.
The Bedroom s.-The furn ish in g of th e

bedroom s



specially directed to w ard s th e req u irem en ts of m odern hygiene, and,

as sun should d u rin g som e p a r t of th e d a y be alw ays allow ed to
fully flood th e room s, m aterials th a t are in an y w ay specially liable
to fade, should be avoided.
There should be as little furnishing as possible a re s tra in t
alm ost a m o u n tin g to a u ste rity in eq u ip m en t y e t th is m ay n o t be
a t all o ut of h a rm o n y w ith b ea u ty .
Floors are b est of woods t h a t lend them selves to w ax polishing,
such as e x tra d ry hardw ood, ja rra h , or k au ri, left w ith o u t covering
save here and th ere a w arm ru g or m a ttin g .
W alls should be tre a te d w ith w ashable d istem p er in fresh, cool
tones, or p a in te d in flat.
W indows m ay hav e roller blinds, and, w here th e sun is tro u b le
some, th e outside hinged V en etian s h u tte rs are to be recom m ended.
Inside curtain s, h anging from poles, th a t catch d u st, are highly

To ensure p riv acy , sh o rt c u rta in s m ay be used

across th e lower p o rtio n s of th e windows.

B edroom s should be well p ro v id ed w ith p e rm a n e n t w ardrobes,
and there is no reason w hy th e w ash stan d an d dressing table m ay
n ot be m ade m ore p e rm a n e n t fittin g s th a n is generally th e case.
The bed should certain ly be plain, and, as fa r as possible, of
im pervious m aterial.
The B athroom . The b a th ro o m should hav e th a t careful con
sideration w hich th e clim ate w a rra n ts, a n d be of fair size, w ith
certainly eastern

aspect, w ith

some n o rth

outlook as well, if

The walls an d floors should be of tiles, w hite p red o m inating, w ith
a touch of cool sea green or china blue, a n d w ith all corners
The b a th should n o t be encased, b u t open all ro u n d for light, air,



and cleansing, and of cast iron fired, white enamelled, and with
nickel fittings, all of these things the tiles, baths, &c.being
now m anufactured in A ustralia.

If a b ath-heater is used it is

b etter to have it placed in a special niche in the wall.

F or towel rails, both movable and fixed, and for clothes hooks,
nickel is best, screwed through the tiles into the walls w ith nickel
To obviate the use of curtains of any kind in the bathroom , the
window m ay be glazed w ith obscure glass, and the artificial light so
arranged th a t shadow cannot be cast thereupon.
A bathroom needs a seat, which is best of wood left unpainted,
or a wood rim w ith caned centre, hinged to the wall, and fitted
w ith attach m en ts for raising and supporting when in use.
For floor m ats, open rubber, cork, or wood open gratings m ay be
Soap and sponge cages should all be of open work, nickelled, and
hung to th e sides of th e bath.
The lav ato ry basin should, like th e bath, be quite open, all parts
free from casing, and all of the visible m etal m ay be nickelled.
Special tu b e outlet vents should be arranged from bathroom s,
through or near the ceiling to above the roof, and this m ust not be

for bath-heaters, for it is highly im portant th a t they

should be separately ventilated.

The Domestic Offices. All domestic offices, where culinary work
is done, or where washing-up is carried out, should have walls
m ade

as im pervious as practicable.




cem ented surfaces are the best, w ith tiles a t the back of the sink
and where splashing m ay take place.

A round ranges, tiles, or,

b ette r still, white glazed bricks, should be set.

All tables, draining boards, dressers, and every kind of woodwork
in the fittings are best left virgin for scrubbing, and for this, clean,
dry, hand-dressed k auri is recommended.
Hooks, rods, and similar fittings are best of nickel, which needs
only wiping to keep it in good appearance.

All utensil equipm ent



is best in alum inium , so arran g ed on nickel hooks from wooden

rails as to hang ag ain st th e tiled po rtio n of th e walls.
In china, glass, an d silver p an tries, glass-fronted cabinets should
form a large p a rt of th e p erm an en t equipm ent, w ith proper draw ers
and table tops of w axed or dull F ren ch polished woodwork.
The Servants Quarters. In th e se rv a n ts bedroom s the walls
should be tre a te d w ith w ashable distem p er ; th e draw ers, dressingtable, w ashstand, &c., being m ade as a p a rt of each room, and, as
far as possible, p erm an en t fittings, plain in design, b u t well fitting
and suitable.

K a u ri is a good w ood for all th is work, finished in

encaustic varnish.

The floors should be covered w ith plain, heavy

linoleum, w ith m a ttin g strip s laid over, and th e bed steads m ade of
iron, b u t very plain.
The serv an ts should, w herever possible, have th e ir own b a th ,
which should be an open one (no casing).

The walls m ay here be

cem ented to a glass face, an d the floor laid w ith 3 in. b y 3 in. red
tiles, or, if an upp er floor, w ith lead.
All equipm ent m ay be cheaper th a n for the general bathroom ,
b u t th e sam e principles of im pervious surface an d openness should
be applied to both.
For the serv an ts sittin g or dining room , a good, su b sta n tia l
furnishing of plain, stained, an d w ax-polished

k au ri

furn itu re

answers well, w ith chim ney piece, cupboards, &c., all designed
together ; walls covered w ith sa n ita ry pap er of restrain ed design,
an d w ith a floor covering of p lain linoleum .
The O utbuildings. O utbuildings should be equipped in th e same
spirit of hon est solidity as will accord w ith th e house itself,
thus preventing th e. usual sp irit of tem p o rality an d neglect to
characterize these lesser ad ju n cts of th e house.


I X.

Strong advocates should a t all times be found to press forward
the great value of tree-planting and garden-m aking in Australia.
I n th e h o t an d d u sty days, how th e eye seeks for the green
shades, th e shadow of trees, an d th e shelter of th eir over-spreading
foliage !
The stre e ts t h a t are lined w ith trees are the streets we seek.
The cooling influence of p la n ta tio n s and public garden reserves is
em in en tly for th e public h ealth and good.
A u stralia is ju stly p ro u d of h er public gardens, where m unicipali
ties vie w ith each o th er in th e use of N a tu re s rich luxuriousness
for th e delig h t an d pleasure of th e public, an d this public interest

g ardening

ca n n o t


w ith o u t

stro n g




individual, for public g ardening finds its echo and reflex in the
gardens of th e people.
To th e m an who builds, therefore, it is n a tu ra l to garden, and if
th e building be in an y w ay a d etach ed stru c tu re, he m ay, with
th o u g h t a n d some care, g ard en b o th wisely and well.
Now, th e creatin g of a g arden is second only in im portance to the
building of a house, an d th e tw o th e house as a well-balanced
stru c tu re a n d th e g ard en as a w ell-laid-out fram e should find
h arm o n y th e one w ith th e o th er ; and as th e house answers through
th e years to th e k in d ly mellowness of N a tu re s touch, so m ay the
g arden grow u p in stre n g th a n d b e a u ty to m inister to th e house
hold h er m eed of b e a u ty an d repose.
I n th in k in g of gard en design it should be rem em bered th a t a
g ard en m ay be p lan n ed as a house is planned.

I t is, in a measure,

only a difference in m aterials w ith w hich th e designer has to deal.



In the house is in an im ate m aterial, in th e g a rd e n th e possibilities

of life and grow th ; an d b o th m ay be used to answ er to th e
designers skill.
There are styles of g ardening as th ere are styles in house-build
ing, so th a t th e successful g ard en should answ er, first of all, to th e
style of th e house, an d as th e style of th e house should be a p p ro
p riate to th e locality, th e site, an d th e clim ate ovhere it is situ a ted ,
th e garden also should in th is w ay follow u p o n th e sam e lines.
One of the first th in g s to be rem em bered in our g ardens is th a t
th e y c an n o t be X a tu re .

The garden, like th e house, is artificial.

The m aterials for th e house are from N a tu re certainly, b u t n o t as

N atu re m ade th em , for th e y show th e hew ing a n d form ing of m a n s
hand, and so w ith th e garden.

There c ertain ly is grow th and fife,

b u t it is life b e n t to th e co n v en tio n al life a n d lim itatio n s of the


The n e x t step is easy.

I t is to reahze t h a t th e m ost

successful gardens are those t h a t a c t as a w ell-planned link betw een

wild n atu re an d th e building, softening th e tan g le of th e one and
toning dow n th e h ard n ess of th e o th er b y the in terp o sitio n of its
own harm onious self.
H ouse G a r d e n s . The m aking of a g ard en will be governed
by considerations of locality, size an d shape of site, levels, n a tu re
and d e p th of soils, boundaries, roads, an d right-of-w ays, as also b v
the planning of th e house w hich it serves.
In considering levels it is im p o rta n t to Avisely Aveigh th is g re at
factor in th e garden, to ta k e a n y ad v an tag e of n a tu ra l falls, or to
create neAv ones as required.
The p rep a ra tio n of th e g round for plant-groAAung is of all things
m ost im p o rta n t, an d th e g re a te r p a rt of th e w ork in m aking a
garden should be d irected to pro p erly tren ch in g an d draining
the land, an d ta k in g o u t u n su itab le m aterials, a n d to th e bringing
in of good p la n t food, so th a t th ere m ay be a lastin g fo u n d atio n
for the gard en to groAv upon, for no am o u n t of surface labour in the
future Avill com pensate for th e neglect of th is Avork a t th e beginning.



G ardens m ay often w ith ad v an tag e be divided by some broad

subdivision in to various m ore or less d istin c t sections, such, for
instance, as th e wild garden, th e k itch en garden, and th e orchard ;
or portio n s m ay be set aside for special purposes, such as th e tennis
or th e cro q u et law n, or spots so arran g ed and p lan ted w ith hedge
an d h eav y grow ths as to specially secure th e ir privacy from th e rest
of th e garden.
The associations of old w orld gardens cluster around m any more
or less artificial form s th a t m ay often be used w ith advantage in the
planning of new work.

There is th e terrace, w ith its broad gravelled

expanse, n e x t th e building, enclosed by its low p erforated w a ll; the

steps t h a t c a rry from one level to an o th er ; th e walls th a t divide
one section of garden from another, against which fru it and flower
m a y grow ; sundials, th a t w ith us m ay find m ore sun w herew ith to
p o in t th e tim e of d ay th a n those in old world gardens.

Sum m er

houses and seats th a t induce repose, an d dovecotes w herein feathered

life m ay find hom e and shelter.

T hen there is the lily pond and the

gold fish pool reflecting th e glory of th e flowers and th e changing of

a u tu m n trees.
S ta tu a ry , if well chosen, m akes

for b e a u ty in

th e


especially w hen backed, as in old Ita lia n gardens, w ith th e dark

green shading of th e cypress and th e pine.
The u ltim a te '' is th e g reatest of all considerations to be rem em
bered in p ractical gardening, and here, in a very special m anner,
should th e designer have th e skill of the h o rticu ltu rist.
W hen th e g arden is new ly set out and showing only form ation
bare soil w ith o u t g ro w th it is highly necessary th a t faith which
sees to th e


an d

k n o w le d g e , w h ic h ,


e x p e r ie n c e ,

sees in the

m in d s eye th e u ltim a te , should determ ine the place and the

distance a p a rt of trees an d plants.
T his is a q u a lity of tra in in g th a t only a certain gardening
experience can

g iv e ,

an d is highly im p o r ta n t; for n ot only m ust the

n a tu re and grow th of trees and p la n ts be thoroughly understood,

b u t th e question of aspect an d su itab ility of position m ust be



carefully weighed, so t h a t a fair an d equable e stim ate m ay be

m ade of th e p ro b ab le effect of th e g a rd e n w ith reg ard to coloring,
density, m ass, a n d sk y line, w hen all th a t has been p la n te d shall
have come to p ro p er m a tu rity in th e y ears to be.
A p art from th e p lan t-g ro w in g th e re are questio n s th a t en te r into
th e stru ctu re of ev ery g ard en w hich m ay also be briefly to u ched
upon, such as bo u n d aries, entries, p a th s, drives, m argins, drying
grounds, &c.
A nd, first, as to boundaries, it is m uch to be re g re tte d th a t we p ay
such lim ited re g a rd to th e building of our b o u n d a ry divisions th a t,
even w ith houses co sting m an y th o u sa n d s of po u n d s to build, th e
stre e t line is g enerally m ark ed b y a cheap p ick et fence or galvanized
iron enclosure.

This, we v e n tu re to th in k , could well be im proved

upon, when we rem em b er th e possibilities of brick w alhng and

w rought-iron railing, w hich m a y be m ade so m uch m ore in h arm o n y
w ith a w ell-built house th a n such cheap an d te m p o ra ry fences as
are generally em ployed, an d w hich are n o t in any w ay redeem ed
b y th e ju x ta p o sitio n of elab o rate en tran ce gates.

If th e custom

of setting aside a p ro p er sum of m oney for th e b o u n d a ry w alling

and en tran ce gates, w hen build in g is being carried out, w as m ore
often adopted, a v ery ad m irab le reform w ould be in troduced, and
one more w o rth y of th e houses we build.
B u t w hatever th e

fence, th e e n tran ce gates should be well

designed, for th ro u g h th e m all visitors to th e house pass, and

consequently th e g ate is an o b ject th a t com es u n d er close observ a
tion and use, a n d is a featu re th a t can be m ade m uch of, if h ap p ily
trea ted , eith er in itself or helped b y n a tu re w ith hedge flanking
and overarching can o p y of green.
W e grow so used to th e o rd in ary paling fencing t h a t in v ariab ly
encloses a b uilding site upon m o st of its th re e sides th a t we are
accustom ed to look u p o n such a fence as inev itab le, y e t in itself it
is d istin ctly ugly, an d we c a n n o t help th in k in g th a t some m ore
d irect effort should be m ade to p la n t it o u t, or, if n o t to p la n t
it out, to do aw ay w ith it alto g eth er.

W ith th e incom ing of some



adm irab le ta u t wire system s of open fencing now upon th e m arket,

we ca n n o t help seeing g re a t possibilities of im provem ent if som e
th in g of th e k in d could be m ore largely used to m ark boundaries
b etw een adjoining owners.

These wire fences are v ery rigid, and

so arran g ed n ear th e g round as to keep dogs from passing th r o u g h ;

th e y also offer an ad m irable division, n e x t w hich hedges m ay be
p la n te d , an d so grow n as to be seen
p roperties.

equally well from both

W here paling or galvanized-iron fencing is used, it

m ay w ith a d v a n ta g e be covered w ith open m esh wire netting,

upon w hich creepers m ay be grown.

I t will in th is w ay be m ade

to form a pleasing back g ro u n d for th e lower

portions of the

E n tries. E n trie s are b e st arran g ed

so as to induce separate

The general e n try , being th e m ost im p o rta n t, should occupy the
m ain position, an d its ap p ro ach and p a th be so planned as to
com m and th e b est view of th e house.
The tra d e sm e n s e n try should be q u ite aw ay from th e general
e n try , and th e p a th s to k itch en offices screened, or p lan ted out,
from o th er p o rtio n s of th e garden.

Such p a th s should also be

k e p t aw ay from such p o rtio n s of th e b uilding as bedroom windows,

where early calls w ould d istu rb th e occupants.
C art en tries on o rd in ary su b u rb an a llo tm en ts should n o t be
p lan n ed d irect from street, as th e road w ay so form ed is only
casually used, an d is often difficult to deal w ith, offering, as it
does, an ugly gap in th e g arden w ith o u t m uch corresponding value.
Such en tries are b est m ade, if a t all, from right-of-w ays, w ith
in te rn a l ro ad w ay s so p lan n ed as to serve fuel store and m anure and
ru b b ish bins.
P a th s. G arden p a th s should be m ade as little conspicuous as
possible, an d n o t too wide, or excessive in snakiness.

As b o th color

an d line, th e y m ay be m ade very useful in th e general design of the


I n m a te ria l th e y should, as a rule, have h ard, solid founda

tions, an d be crow ned an d side-drained, in order to carry off the


rain w ater.


T ar a sp h a lt is n o t recom m ended, it being too h ard

looking, and in harm onious in color.

G ravel p a th s look best, for all general purposes, if th e weeds are
k ep t down, while in som e positions, such as narrow w ays betw een
beds, grass p a th s m ay be used w ith ad v an tag e.

B rick p ath s, if

well laid, m ake sound p av in g to dom estic offices, while te rra -c o tta ,
stone, or slate slabbing m a y be used in s tra ig h t p ath s, especially
where th ey lead d irect from streets.
its use as p a th covering.

T hickly laid ta n is n ot w ith o u t

If co n tain ed betw een high m argins it is

dry, and, being good in color, harm onizes w ith th e green of th e

D rives. D rives should alw ays have easy g rad ien ts and safe
curves, an d be form ed generally in th e sam e w ay as light traffic
roadw ays, to p p ed w ith w ell-rolled gravel, an d side-drained w ith
glazed stonew are, brick, or stone channeling.
M argins. F o r p a th m argins, various devices hav e to be resorted
to, to p rev e n t soil en croachm ent.

These are b est d e a lt w ith b y th e

grow th of b order p lan ts, or tu rf s t r i p s ; th e use of te rra -c o tta

ornam ental edging is n o t recom m ended, it being too conspicuous
and fussy, while wood edging, th o u g h v ery useful, is inclined to look
set and h a rd in th e garden.

I n ce rta in positions, rocks or old tree

lim bs m ay w ith ad v an tag e be utilized for th is class of w ork.

D rying G rounds.In th e design of a p ractical garden, th e claim s
of the la u n d ry should n o t be forgotten, and p ro p er provision should
be m ade for th e dry in g of w ashed linen.

The p osts and lines are

inclined to prove conspicuous, if n o t skilfully arranged, and yet, in

the average garden, th ere

is h a rd ly sufficient room , nor is it

altogether desirable, to devote a special space for th is purpose alone.

In some instances m ovable posts, fittin g in to ground sockets, are
p u t up for use on w ashing days, b u t th is requires m an u al labor, and
has consequently some d isadvantages.
The b e tte r w ay, p erhaps, is to have p e rm a n e n t p osts erected,
and to use galvanized wire lines, w hich m ay easily be ta k e n dow n
when n o t in a c tu a l use.

D ry in g grounds

should be clear of



shrubs or trees, and as d ry underfoot as possible.

th e ideal drying ground covering is gravel.

F o r this reason

If over lawns, the

grass should be k e p t closely shorn.

Storage. No garden is com plete, as no house is complete, w ithout
storage room .

The tidiness of a garden greatly depends upon

having a proper place for all garden tools and im plem ents, rubbish
receptacles, p its for m anure, where everything n ot required in the
garden proper, m ay be p u t away.

A small y ard planned with

enclosed sides and close gate entrance, p lan ted out from the rest of
th e garden, large enough to contain a w eather-tight tool house,
p o ttin g shed, seedling beds, glass fram es, and storage for sticks,
pots, &c., also spaces for dead leaf soil and m anure storage, is
generally th e best for this purpose.
W atering. I t m ay be ta k e n as a truism
A ustralia can be

m ain tain ed

w ith o u t

th a t no garden in




provision for th is should be carefully th o u g h t o ut in every garden.

W h atev er th e w ater supply, it is b e tte r arranged by a thorough

of underground galvanized-iron piping,

im p o rta n t points, w ith


to all

stan d pipes and taps, ready for hose

atta c h m e n ts, w hich from them should reach every p a rt of the


In add itio n to these, m uch tim e m ay be saved by the

laying above ground, in such places as a t m argin edges, of long

h orizontal lengths of perforated piping, from which spraying m ay be carried out w ith o u t th e labour of hose-carrying.
D raining. I t should be rem em bered th a t draining is as im portant
as w atering, and full provision should be m ade, w hen th e garden
is form ed, for dealing w ith th is im p o rta n t m atter, w hich will very
largely depend upon q u ality of soil, position, m ean average rain
fall, and n a tu ra l levels of th e site, as well as upon any artificial
levels th a t m ay be created b y th e form ing of the garden.
L ight, open, sandy, gravelly and loam y soils are, to a great
ex ten t, self-draining, while clay and heav y soils hold w ater, and
te n d to sourness in the w et seasons.

The object of drainage is to

break these up, and to induce th e superfluous w ater to get away.



This is b est done b y th e sy stem atic laying below ground of agricul

tu ra l pipes.

These are of te rra -c o tta , plain, circular, an d w ith o u t

end sockets.

T hey should be laid w ith open jo in ts, so th a t the

w ater m ay en te r the pipe ru n a t an y jo in t, and so laid to falls as

to carry w ater to low est p o in ts and to n a tu ra l outfalls.
Shade H ouses. F o r certain k inds of plant-grow ing th e shade
house is necessary in our gardens.

This is b est b u ilt of such woods

as do n o t require p ain tin g , as p a in te d w oodw ork is m ore or less

out of h arm o n y w ith th e garden.

M ost of our n a tu ra l woods

sta n d outside w eath er well, and, a fte r a tim e, tu r n to silver-greys

th a t harm onize p a rtic u la rly well w ith green foliage.

T hey are

therefore very m uch b e tte r left u n p a in te d .

To build a shade house, a strong, well d iagonally b raced skeleton
fram e should be set up. T his is b est b u ilt upon ja rra h or red
gum ground stum ps, or stu m p s of a n y w ood th a t will n o t ro t w hen
b uried in th e ground.

These should be a b o u t 4 ft. a p a rt, w ith a

p late on top, w ith v ertical u p rig h ts for w alls 3 ft. 6 in. a p a rt of

4-in. b y 2-in. hardw ood, or o th er suitab le tim b er, 3-in. b y 2-in.
h orizontal rails every 2 ft. 3 in. in height, an d th e sam e system for

E v e ry th in g should be d iagonally b raced w ith 3-in. b y 1-in.,

and th e whole covered w ith 2-in. b y J-in . red C alifornian pine

b atten in g , set open |- in . a p a rt, and a t rig h t angles (n o t diagonally).
This, if left to w eather, will look well an d p ro p erly serve th e
purpose. The in tern al tab les an d shelves are b est m ade of sto u t
open b atten in g .
Sum m er H ouses. I n dealing w ith th e design of sum m er houses
and garden shelters, it is well eith er to keep to th e use of n a tu ra l,
unsaw n tim b er or to use en tirely saw n tim ber, for it is a m a tte r of
observation th a t th e one clashes som ew hat crudely w ith th e o th er
w hen used in th e sam e connection.
M here sawn tim b er is used our own eu caly p ti offer th e b est
m aterialsn o t p a in te d , b u t allow ed to go th e ir soft silver greys.
This, w ith shingled roofing, ten d s to nice color tone.
On the o th er h an d , few objects are m ore p icturesque th a n a



sum m er house b u ilt of n a tu ra l unsaw n tim ber, th e lim bs of old

trees, bark , and an y oddm ents from th e bush, p u t together with
some ta ste and ju d g m en t, an d roofed w ith straw th a tc h .

Such a

house seems a v eritable p a rt of N a tu re and of the garden.

In placing sum m er houses regard should be given to seclusion
and shelter from excessive h e a t and disagreeable winds, b u t the
placing of th e e n try should, w here possible, open out a v ista of the
g ard en s loveliness, know ing th e value of a sunlit and color picture
fram ed an d view ed from th e cool shade of th e house interior.
Conservatories. The dem and for a conservatory, attac h e d to a
house, is one often b ro u g h t w ithin th e scope of the arch itects
w ork ; b u t, w hether a tta c h e d to a house or designed as a separate
building, th e h o rtic u ltu rist should alw ays be consulted, to d e ter
m ine p o in ts of light, aspect, and equipm ent.

The perm anent

upkeeping an d m ainten an ce of such buildings should be a t the

o u tse t carefully weighed, as few things are m ore unsatisfactory
th a n a neglected conservatory.
B o th in conservatories and hot-house stru ctures, where much
glass has to be used, and th e building is specially subject to the
actio n of d irect h eat, careful a tte n tio n m u st be given in the con
stru ctio n , to c o u n teract th e m oist h e a t of th e interior and the more
often d ry h e a t an d w et of the exterior.
F o r all general w oodw ork red C alifornian pine is, perhaps, best,
for th is wood, th o u g h soft, is a good lasting wood for exposed and
outside positions.
P u tty , in th e glazing, should, as far as possible, be avoided, as it
perishes rapidly.

F o r th is purpose some of th e system s of m etal

glazing b ars are th e best.

These are devices of m etal to carry the

sheets of glass w ith o u t p u tty , as also to carry aw ay the inside

F o r roofs th e b est glass is wired p la te i.e., glass in which wire
n ettin g is im bedded in th e centre of th e sheet, m aking it strong, to
resist hailstones.
Pools. The creating of artificial pools of w ater is often the




^5Bibfi ri(JnuRE




K IT C M E H O \;D T

CVtf rm^ Wili irriihfri











m eans of in tro d u cin g a pleasing featu re in to th e garden.


pools m ay be eith e r of large or sm all e x te n t, an d m ay be su p p le

m ented b y rockeries or fo u n tain s.
No g rea t d e p th of w ater is necessary to give effect in a pool.

few inches will give all th e b e a u ty of m irro r reflections, b u t if a

pool is to be used for golden carp or a q u a tic p la n ts, som e g rea ter
d ep th is necessary.
Pools need careful building, aw ay from th e influence of large
tree-roots or u n su itab le soil, t h a t m ay cause fractu re in th e fo u n d a

T hey are best form ed of good concrete, rend ered h a rd and

sm ooth inside w ith P o rtla n d cem ent an d san d w orked w ith a steel
trow el to glass face.
Rooteries.G-athering to g e th e r stu m p s a n d ro o ts of old trees,
dead tree-ferns, or rocks, a n d se ttin g th e m up as m ounds or bluffs
in th e garden, o ften m akes for pleasing effect, as th e crannies, if
filled w ith soil, offer suitab le positions for m a n y creeping p la n ts,
and shelter for m osses a n d lichen.
Seats. No g ard en is com plete w ith o u t some p e rm a n e n t seating,
an d m any are th e ty p e s identified w ith old gardens, m ade e ith er of
stone, wood, or iron.

F o r our gardens, p erhaps, th e n a tu ra l w oods

are best, so co n stru cted as to offer a m ax im u m of ease to th e

average person.

The stra ig h t b ack an d level seat has long a n d

ancient usage for its p recedent, b u t, for com fort, perh aps th e curved
back an d seat offers th e b est results, especially w hen supplem ented
w ith arm rests.
Seats are b e st designed w ith open railings, so as to be k e p t as d ry
as possible.

T hey should be in positions, for th e m o st p a rt, slightly

raised from th e su rro u n d in g levels, an d hav e wood foot g ratings in

G arden P l a n s . P la te X L I. shows th e p lan of a m oderate-sized
villa garden, upon la n d h av in g a frontage of 132 ft. to th e m ain
road, w ith a d e p th along a side stre e t of 198 ft., an d w ith a right-ofw ay a t th e rear.



The building is placed some 55 ft. from th e m ain road, and is

also k e p t well back from th e side street.

This gives good oppor

tu n ities for fro n t display, and generous green setting for the house,
which is of red brick w ith tiled roof a tre a tm e n t requiring the
cool fram ing of N a tu re s greenery to show it to th e best advantage.
The principal entrance is from th e S.E. angle, where the boundary
walling of low brickw ork w ith ironw ork on top m eets in a wroughtiron gatew ay.
This gatew ay is flanked b y two high pencil cedars, which rise
high above th e pittosporum hedge th a t encloses the S. and E.
The fro n t p a th gradually winds and rises to the verandah steps,
which are screened from the street by a close pine hedge, having
shaped end pieces rising above the general level, and a seat in
th e centre.
B y this arrangem ent of entering, the visitor obtains a good first
im pression of th e house, from a favorable p oint of view, and the
house is grouped so as to look specially well from this position.
I t will be noted th a t there is considerable fall from back to
front, and th a t th e garden is broadly subdivided into the kitchen
garden a t the S.W . and a sheltered garden a t the N.W . corner,
where sum m er shade and seclusion is obtained, w ithin the circularly
p lan ted torulosa hedge, and under the shade of the elm tree.
There are also paved courts one for th e house proper, where
trees in tu b s could be p lanted, and the kitchen court, which is used
for lau n d ry and general purposes, and offers a link betw een the
w orking p a rt of the house and th e outbuildings.
The plan as a whole, if carefully studied, will be found to offer
several useful suggestions for a villa garden of m oderate dimensions.
P la te X L II. shows another garden design.

In this case the land

has a frontage of 55 ft. to a public road b y a depth of 183 ft.,

surrounded on three sides b y adjoining owners.

The house, which

is of tw o stories, faces east, and is set back about 45 ft.

The land

has a som ew hat ab ru p t fall from th e house itself to the S.W. corner.


T W O iT O R Y

M 0U 3C :









This design, as a whole, well shows w hat variation of mass and

surface can be planned into a garden contained w ithin a long and
narrow allotm ent of land.

The m ain en try here is straight, and in

a direct line from the front gate, along the terra-co tta p ath , to the
entrance door.
The front garden is screened from the road by a high, close,
torulosa hedge, and the tradesm ens en try a t the IST.E. corner has a
path, screened from the general garden by a p riv et hedge.


green front lawns are shaped to curves, and run up to the house,
being flanked by broad beds, containing large shrubs, w ith borders
of flowering plants.
No climbers are allowed upon the building itself, which is of red
brick, w ith green slate roof.
Trellis screens cu t off the front from the back garden on either
side, the tradesm ens p a th being confined to an easy w ay from the
street along the n o rth side of the house to the back door and the
trellis gate.
The trelhs screens are covered w ith creepers, as also are the
whole of the boundary fences, which arrangem ent tends to a more
expansive and less shut-in appearance in the garden.
To the im m ediate south of the house, near and tow ards the back,
a wild garden is planted, so arranged as to present a complete little
garden in itself, hidden by th e high wire screen covered with
creeper, and by the bluff and rockery, from the back garden, and
having a deep winding p a th around th e tangle of the undergrow th.
A bay window of th e house overlooks this wild spot, and a door
opening off leads down a flight of steps to th e lily pond an oval' shaped concrete pool, overshadowed w ith wis.taria and bridged by
an old log.
The m ain portion of th e back garden is specially levelled and
turfed for croquet, w ith garden beds around, and a high-set loop to
the N.W . corner, from which to view the game, having an old tree
stum p in centre covered w ith chm bing roses.
A row of cedars along the back boundary serves to cast afternoon



shade from the western sun across the lawnsa feature much
needed when the lawns have afternoon use.
The outbuildings are arranged upon the highest portion of the
land a t th e back and along the northern boundary, and these, and
the laundry and fuel, are served by a ta n path, which breaks down
by broad steps to the lawn.
A central sum m er house, sheltered from the north, is set in the
sloping bank which surrounds the lawn on the east and north sides,
and opposite is a sundial well open from all shadow.
From a careful stu d y of the a rt of A ustralian gardening, we may
conclude th a t the gardens of m oderate size, which are likely to give
m ost satisfaction, are those m ainly planted in such a way as to
m aintain perm anence of character.
formed, thoroughly prepared, and

These should therefore be well

so planted with perm anent

shrubs and trees, and laid with grass, as to offer, ap art from flowergrowing, a pleasing and stable work.
A garden m ainly planted for flower-growing is most difficult to
sustain during the great heat of summer, and calls for far more
continuous attention, expense, and effort th an can generally be
given to it.

F or this reason a more or less sheltered garden, where

both n atu ral and artificial moisture is conserved, and where shade
and shelter is provided, offers the best atm osphere for a pleasing
garden, where sufficient flowers m ay grow to give th a t variety and
b eau ty of color which the background

of perm anent planting

does so m uch to heighten and sustain.

The house itself is a great shelter for the garden, and its four
sides offer four differing conditions for plant growth, and if the
house, w ith the w eather of years, tends to decay, there is the
com pensating life and vital renewal in the garden, where the song
birds love to dwell, and where the sweet odors of the flowers come
and go w ith the seasons of the changing years.

P art

C o n sist in g o f

II. C o n s t r u c t i o n .




( I n c l u s i v e ).




S o i l s .The

soil upon which a building is to be erected should

always be carefully exam ined to determ ine its nature before the
foundations are designed or p u t in.
The points to note m ay be laid down as the following :
{a.) U niform ity of quality.
(b.) D ensity of structure.
(c.) W eight-bearing capacity.
{d.) Porousness.
(e.) N atu ral or artificial foundation.
I t m ust be rem em bered th a t earth is elastic, capable of being
affected by added weight, is also charged w ith m oisture and air,
and is capable of being variously affected by openness of its surface
to atm ospheric influences, or, on the contrary, protection of its
surface by building.
A building therefore affects the soil upon which it is built, firstly
by its weight, and secondly by its interference w ith its density of
contained moisture.
Good Soils.The best soils for building are

those th a t


uniform i.e., of the same n ature throughout, as nothing interferes

so much w ith the stab ility of a foundation as inequality of soil.
In this class m ay be placed rock (if sound), gravel, sand (if

These soils have the further advantage of not holding

Bad Soils.Clay, if deep enough below the n atu ral surface to be
away from atm ospheric influence, is generally considered a reason
ably safe foundation.

W here, however, the clay is close to the



surface, it is altern ately swollen b y the absorption of moisture,

and shrunk, and baked, and cracked by the drying action of sun
heat, and thus becomes m ost unreliable.
One of the w orst foundations is where the clay is found mixed,
as sometimes occurs, w ith large stone boulders.

This is the acme

of inequality, and calls for very special treatm ent.

Soils on low-lying lands, near tidal rivers, are often

of a

treacherous nature, being charged w ith varying quantities of water.

Yet, as warehouses and commercial buildings have often to be
erected upon such soils, some scientific way of dealing w ith them
has to be devised.
B ad

F o u n d a t i o n s .W here

bad foundations


m et with,

certain special m eans have to be adopted to secure the stability of

the sub-structure.

These means often enter som ewhat more within

the range of the civil engineers th a n of the architects practice, and

m ay consist of one or other of the following :Pile driving, deep
sinking, reinforcing, or rafting.
Pile D riving.W here stability is obtainable a t a low depth
beneath the surface, wooden piles are sometimes driven in, cut off
horizontally fair, and laid w ith heavy tim bering, upon which the
walls are built.
D eef S in k in g .A nother m ethod is to sink the trenches through

unreliable m aterial, which is tem porarily shored up and

sheathed with tim bering as the work proceeds.

W hen a solid

bottom is reached a good depth and width of concrete is thrown

in and levelled, upon which the walls are raised in the usual way.
Reinforcing.Since the introduction of reinforced concrete as a
constructive factor, bad foundations are often dealt with by
building a wide-spreading netw ork of reinforced concrete under all
walls, as w idespread as is consistent w ith the weight borne and the
nature of the soil requires.

This netw ork consists of properly

placed steel bars bedded in concrete.

Rafting, w hich is occasionally resorted to, consists in practically


floating the building upon the surface of the unstable soil.



m ay be done in several ways, such as upon heavy red gum plan k

ing or by broad concrete reinforcing.

orm al

F o u n d a t i o n s .A

norm al foundation for walling is

generally m ade by excavating the soil to a suitable depth, which is

term ed excavating trenches.

These trenches are afterw ards

partially filled with concrete, upon which the walls are supported.
Trenches.Trenches are cu t out dead level and of the exact
w idth of the concrete.

In the case of ground w ith surface falls,

the trenches m ay be s te p p e d i.e., carried along for a certain

distance and then dropped a t right angles down to a lower level.
Such level, in the case of brick walls, should be equal to brick
courses and not more th a n about three courses in depth.
Trenches should be clean cut and kep t free from falling earth or
w ater when the concrete is p u t in.
In the case of rock foundation or very hard, sound soils the
concrete m ay be dispensed with, and the brick footings of walls
laid in a t once, or a course of large flat stones be substituted for

In any case the foundation trenches m ust be taken out

to form a level bed.

Co n c r e t e


C o n c r e t e M i x i n g . Concrete

is a conglomerate

m ixture, generally consisting of cem ent or lime, broken stone, and

sand, designed to form a continuous and homogenous mass when set.
Setting. The settingi.e., the drying and hardeningof concrete
depends chiefly upon the n ature of the cem enting m aterial used.
Generally speaking, cem ent concrete sets quicker and harder th a n
lime concrete.
Sand .Sand for concrete should be entirely free from salt or
loam, and should consist of coarse, sharp grit.
Cement.Cement for foundation concrete should be P o rtlan d ,
tested before use.
L im e.Lime should be fresh b u rn t and so slaked i.e., mixed



w ith w ater

th a t its active properties of expansion m ay be com

pletely exhausted.

Lime if not properly slaked is liable to blow

i.e., slake when it is in the work, and cause disintegration.


M etal is a term applied in a general way to stone used

in concrete.

This stone should be specially hard, such as granite

or bluestone, broken to specified gauges, usually in the case of

foundation concrete from l^-in. to 2^-in. gauge, according to the
class of work in which the concrete is used.

Should hard stone

n ot be available, clean gravel, clinker, broken bricks, or other

substances of a like n atu re m ay be substituted.
Concrete Recipes.-The following are recipes for foundation
concrete :
Cement Concrete. One p a rt of P o rtlan d cem ent to two p arts of
san d ; three p arts of hard broken bluestone m etal, 2 |-in . gauge.
One p a rt of P o rtlan d cement, two p arts of sand, four p arts of
coarse bluestone screenings.
Lim e Concrete.One p a rt of well-slaked, fresh-burnt lim e ; four
p a rts of thoroughly clean gravel and sand, free from loam or salt.
One p a rt of approved ground hydraulic lime, two parts of sand,
two p a rts of coarse granite screenings.
Method of Concrete-Making.The process of making concrete
m ust be rigidly directed tow ards cleanliness.

No loam or dirt

m u st come into contact w ith the m aterial, for cem ent and lime will
n o t adhere where these substances exist.
The ingredients, therefore, should always be m ixed upon a close
wooden floor.
The cem ent, sand, and other dry m aterials should be equally
m easured in gauge boxes.

These are m easures of wood w ithout

bottom s or tops, consisting of boarded sides w ith handles.

A fter thoroughly m ixing the whole dry, w ater should be added
evenly and gently through a spray nozzle hose or watering can, the
whole, meanwhile, being well turned over and m ixed together.
The same m ethod is adopted where ground limes are substituted
for cement.



Where ordinary lime is used it is first slaked in a wooden mixing

box, from which it is run out in liquid form on to the other
Concrete should be throw n into trenches from a height, spread,
and gently ram m ed into position, levelled, and allowed to set
before walls are commenced.
Floor and other Concrete.For floor concrete, concrete lintels, &c.,
see chapter on Concrete Construction (Chapter X II.)
B r ic k s . To



various m anufacturing processes

adopted in the m aking of bricks is not w ithin the scope of this

Bricks vary according to the class of m aterial used, as also in
the mode of their m anufacture.


for general structural

purposes are best m ade from clay reef, under hydrauhc pressure,
and b u rn t in H offm ann kilns.
H and-m ade

bricks, as



m achine-m ade

more liable to show less density of structure


th a n


A good brick should be heavy in weight, close in structure, true
and square, w ith sharp, well-kept arrises, and should be reasonably

F or all visible face work bricks should be selected

of good and uniform color.

The standard size for bricks in A ustralia is 9 in. by

in. by

3 in., w ith a frog on one sidei.e., a shallow sinkingto form key

for m ortar.
Special Made B ricks. In addition to ordinary bricks special
bricks are also m anufactured for various purposesfirst, those of
special color, and, secondly, those for special purposes.

Of the

first class there are white, black, chocolate, special red, and other
colored bricks.

Of the second class are special m ade bricks of

various kinds, such as radiating arch bricks, coping bricks, splays,

squints, also molded bricks required for use in varying ordinarv
plain brickwork.



Illustration of B ricks. P late X L III. illustrates bricks of different

kinds, made, shaped, and molded for various purposes.
No. 1 is the ordinary brick of commerce, which is made with a
fair hard surface on the four sides.

The bottom of the brick is

plain, and m ay be less sm oothly finished th a n the four sides.

to p has a shallow sinking called a frog.


This is always laid

upperm ost in the walling, and, being filled w ith m ortar, creates a
key or hold.
No 2 is a king closer, a special made brick, chiefly applied in
the m aking of bond in reveals.

An illustration of its application is

shown in P late X LV L, fig. 4.

Nos. 3, 4, and 5 are rough splays, m ostly used to project and
carry horizontal cem ent moldings.
No. 6 is a squint brick, used a t external angles th a t are not right
Nos. 7 and 8 are splays used chiefly in plinth courses.
Nos. 9 and 10 are base or plinth molds.
Nos. 11 and 12 are two different kinds of bricks to be set on
edge for copings or top finishing of walls.
Nos. 13 and 14 are for splayed and molded jam bs respectively.
Nos. 15 and 16 are bull-nosedi.e., quarter round-cornered
bricks, m uch used for external vertical angles.
Nos. 17 and 18 are top m ember molds, suitable for cornices.
Nos. 19 to 29, inclusive, are various forms of molds for general
use in cornices, string courses, &c.
Nos. 30, 31, 32 are necking molds, or, reversed, m ay be used for
base molds.
No. 33 is a hood mold, suitable to stand over door or window
No. 34 is a form of brick used one on top of the other to form
vertical columns.
No. 35, when b u ilt one upon the top of the other, forms a vertical
V -shaped projection.
St of s and Returns.In conjunction with these

molded and


O rd in a ry D r i c h .


K in g

- J).



b 10.







o 4.

C lo s e r.


" 19.

" 29


^ 24.

K z :


" 27
\Z I

k 26.

" 29.

^ 90.

::9 2 .




DDICKO or W I O C D W /1D 0,
T he.^neral over-all meaourements of each brick are
excepfng only Prick /I? 55._______________________



bcncjEicAL Pl^:)
m O W LM G riE G T AMD.






bonCTDlCAL PL A /10
O/lOW l/lG FIDOT A /ID .

The OmTricK VaJl.

io in Double TJemiah -DoncL

D B C K W D PK iflritniG n dcfid .


FIG. 1 .
D td etc a ed Do t d .
Do/ id

F IG . 4 .
B e v e a i _ VI T a e e .e

FIG. 2 .
C o iO /ilA L

B d ic k
E )Q /1 D .



: / %




special bricks, it is invariably necessary to use certain special made

stops and internal and external angle bricks, which are made en
suite to suit each type of molding.
E ach brick also has its fellow bonder, one being a s tre tc h e r
and the other a header, working together to break joint.
Mortars .S and.The sand used in m o rtar m ust always be
clean, sharp, and free from loam or salt.
W here the greatest strength is required cem ent m o rtar is used.
Cement Mortar should be com pounded of one p a rt of P o rtlan d
cem ent to three p arts of sa n d ; this m ust be mixed dry, w ater
added, and the m ortar used fresh, as it sets quickly.
Lim e Mortar should have one p a rt of fresh-burnt lime, thoroughly
slaked in a wooden m ixing box, run through a fine sieve, and mixed
with two and a half p arts of sand, well knocked up, and left in
large heaps fully ten days before use.
T echnical T erms . The following are common term s used in
brick lay in g :
Course is a row of bricks laid horizontally.
Stretchers are bricks laid lengthwise to face of wall.
Headers are bricks laid endwise to face of wall.
Bats are portions of whole bricks.
Queen Closers are bricks 9 in. by 3 in. by

in. used to make

bond (see P late X L V I., fig. 4), usually in two pieces.

K ing Closers are bricks w ith one side cut to splay to form bond
(see Plate X LV I., fig. 4).
Rough Cutting is used where bricks are required to be cut with
the trowel, chisel, or brick ham m er, for projections to take cement
cornices, and in m any other similar cases.
Gauging consists in cutting and rubbing
special purposes, such as in arches.

to shape bricks for

G eneral W alling Methods . In carrying up brickwork the

following points should be carefully noted :



Ilonzontals. All work to be kept horizontally true.

Verticah. All angles and faces tru ly vertical.
W ork all over the building should be carried up, as far as
possible, sim ultaneously.

No portion of the work should be allowed

to rise more th an about :1b in. above any other portion of the
Wet Bricks.All bricks should be charged with moisture before

In dry w eather bricks should be hosed or dipped in water,

otherwise the dry nature of the brick will (|uickly absorb the
moisture from the m ortar and nullify its adhesive properties.
Frostji Weather. No brickwork should be carried out in frosty

To})S of unfinished walls should be protected with boards

from the action of frost.

Frost acting upon m ortar tends to

expand the m oisture in it and thus brings about disintegration of

the particles, and consequent rottenness.
Hot Weather. Excessive hot w eather is bad for brickwork.


best conditions for good work are iu winter, when the atmosphere
is dam p.


slow setting




is always to


aimed at.
B o n d .

Bond is the proper arrangem ent of bricks in walling.

There are various kinds of bonding, some directed tow ards the
secnrem ent of special strength, and others to show good face
For the purpose of learning how to bond brickwork the student
would do well to obtain a set of wood model bricks, half full size.
A good bond should avoid straig h t jointingbe., one joint directly
above the joint im m ediately below it.

All bricks should, as far

as possible, break bondi.e., lap one over the other.

The bonds in general use are live in num berviz., English,
Flem ish, S tretcher, Colonial, and Garden W all bonds.

1hey are

illustrated on Plates X LIV ., XLV., and X LV I.

English Bond consists of one course of stretchers and one course
of headers.

This bond is shown on Plate X LIV .

The walls here



^ a ll PIqTq



-C o n cre/e.

FIG. 1. 3jn.^ternal

FIG. Z.Sin.Infema] pip


V a il.

v ith P Jin th .


I^m pP roof





FIG. 5.14" ^ a m a l
"Z20%mai VbJl.

TIG. 6 .


P L A T E X L V lll.

Upper floor,
firep lace

Ornoho.nuQ d"-D'
TrjmminQ Jo/^T.

Tnmmo^r Jo/^t

Dnch on M



FIG. 1.
riG .5 .
Doffo-d Lido,o;ohouj',



Flat. JT

9 ^mbflfArct^


OuMbce Drain


FIG. 0 .
Chut^djj Dndaot



D n ck dob-.



with D/atd Hdarfh)

Ground F lo o r

Tuck g

FIG. 2 .
VbnooD Joinia
in DricKworK.




draw n are from one to three bricks in thickness, each showing an

external angle, called a quoin, and a fair stop end.
Flemish Bond has one stretcher and one header alternating upon
the face in each course.
In walls exceeding one brick in thickness the usual custom is to
build the internal faces in English bond.


is shown in

P late XLV.
W here double Flem ish bond is requiredi.e., same appearance on
both faces, this m ay be secured by repeats.

I t will be seen,

however, th a t in the case of brick and a half work, considerable

cutting has to be resorted to.
This bond gives a pleasing face appearance, and is specially
suited to the use of superior facing bricks.
Stretcher Bond is th a t which is used in any kind of half-brick

This bond consists solely of stretchers laid to break joint

in each course.

(Plate X LV I., fig. I.)

Colonial Bond is an arrangem ent of three courses of stretchers

and one course of headers.

In this walling care should be tak e n to

arrange half bond in centre course of stretchers.

(Plate X L V I.,

A g. 2 .)

This bond shows elem ents of constructive weakness when applied

to thick walls, the num ber

of internal straig h t joints


Garden Wall Bond is often applied in one brick thick walling

where joints are struck on both faces.

and one header in each



of three

course (see P late X L V L ,

Ag: 3^
H oof-iron Bond.W alling m ay be strengthened by the inlaying
of hoop-iron bond.

This is best done w ith long lengths of 1 in.

wide 18 B.W . gauge, galvanized hoop iron, laid one strand to each
half-brick in the thickness of the walls, for two or three courses, at
heights of about 6 ft.

The strands should continue for full length

of walls and be turned up and down a t ends and crossed and laced
a t angles.



Bar-iron B ond.W here foundations are inclined to be unstable,

the brickw ork, especially in foundations or over openings, m ay be
tied together w ith bond iron, laid the same as hoop iron, consisting
of 3-in. b y |-in . flats and ditto.

These would, however, be laid in

single courses only, one row to each half-brick of thickness of the

Hollow W alls.E x tern al walls, wherever possible, are best built

This m ethod ensures dryness in the internal faces, and






tem perature of the

In p a rty walls betw een adjoining owners. Building Acts often
forbid this m ethod, w ith the result th a t, where such walls are
exposed to driving rains, serious saturation m ay take place, unless
the outside faces are specially coated or protected.
Hollow walls are generally built solid at their foundations, up to
the underside of the ground floor plate, where they divide into
two distinct thicknesses, either equally or unequally, a cavity of

in. to 2^ in. being left between.

See Plate X LV IL,

figs. 3 and 4.
As a general rule, should the thickness of the wall as a whole
consist of more th a n two half-bricks, the greater thickness is best
k ep t upon the inside of the work, so as to take the weight of
floors, &c.
The two thicknesses of a hollow wall are bonded together with

These generally consist of galvanized wire bent to shapes, or

of w rought or cast galvanized iron ties, some

e x a m p le s

of which

are shown on P late X L V III., fig. 1.

These ties are laid a t rig h t angles across the cavity at distances
of abo u t 30 in. a p a rt in every fourth course diagonally.


should be taken to keep the cavity and ties free from falling m ortar
as the w ork proceeds.
Jointing.The thickness of jointing in brickwork depends, in a
measure, upon the kind of bonds
the m ortar, and the class of work.

u sed j

the coarseness of sand in



F or general walling a |-in . thick bed jo in t m ay be taken as satis

E xternal joints m ay be left fair after plastering, or finished in
various ways for visible faces, such as struck, struck and cut, ruled
cu t and struck, down struck and cut, beaded, keyed, or tuckpointed, as shown in P late X L V III., fig. 2.
Footings.Footings are the first courses a t the base of a wall.
They should be spread out wider th a n th e general walling, so as to
increase the area of bearing.
No definite rule can be laid down for th e spread of footings, b u t
a safe rule is to allow one course projecting 2|- in. on either side of
th e wall for every half-brick of its thickness.

This usually secures

a spread of double the w idth of th e wall, w hatever its thickness

m ay be.
Considerations of base courses, wall plate offsets, &c. (see P late
X L V II.), wall in m any cases alter this rule.
Damp C o u rs e s .All brick walls, being of an absorbent nature,
are liable to gather m oisture from the soil, which, rising in the wall,
leads to satu ratio n of plaster, floor tim bers, &c.
guarded against.

This has to be

D am p courses are therefore inserted through the

full thickness of all walls ju st above th e ground level.

In the case where the wooden ground floor is a t a norm al level
above the ground, the underside level of wall plate (see the various
figures on P late X L V II.) offers a suitable position

for the

dam p

A dam p course is a layer of im pervious m aterial, and m ay consist
of any of the following ;
H ot ta r and sand spread |-in . thick.
Roofing slates set and bedded in cement.
Mineral asphalt.
Felt, various p a t e n t m anufactured dam p course m aterials, sheet
lead, or hollow vitrified stoneware.
In hollow walls a good rule is to introduce a second dam p course



through th e inner lining of th e wall, to prevent any moisture rising

from the bottom of the cavity.
P r o j e c t io n s .Oversailings.Projections in brickwork are of
various kinds.

The sim plest is fair oversailingth a t is, one course

slightly projecting or standing over the next course immediately

below it.
Corbelling Out is another term applied generally to roughly-cut
In cem ent cornices, string courses, chim ney caps, and in m any
other positions rough corbelling is used, supplem ented, in the case
of very wide projections, w ith slate or stone cores to carry over
hangs too great for brickwork.
Projections, such as oriel windows, are often carried out upon
concrete tied back into the brickwork.
O p en in g s.Doorways and window spaces are generally referred
to in the trad e as openings, the outside vertical faces being
called reveals i.e., the p a rts seen ; and the inside vertical
building the jam b , generally occupied by th e frame and wooden
jam b lining (see P late X LV I., fig. 4).
L i n t e l s . Openings are bridged over at the top by lintels or

A lintel is a horizontal beam, generally of stone, b ut

sometimes of concrete, used to carry the weight above the opening.

W here steel is used the beam is generally spoken of as a girder.
A r c h e s .


The arch is the m ost common device used for bridging

The work of the arch is to receive the weight above the

opening, and to tran sm it it to the side piers.

d o e s b y its w e d g e -lik e
v o u s so ir t o

c h a r a cter

v o u s so ir , a n d

o f tr a n s m ittin g

so fin a lly t o

This a true arch

th e w e ig h t fr o m

t h e h a u n c h or s o lid b e a r in g

point (see P late X L IX ., fig. 2).

This figure clearly shows the technical term s for the various parts
of an arch.






Ig n o z f.

O i^m ental.










/T Z A



Drop or

(2/ -

H q o ila f e r a l.

o rO C en W .

D e p re o o e d .

4 0 2 n fh 2 d




Bam panf.

^ \

S im jg h f.

[ Ka^.-itona-

Opan. ------Abufmant

ha u rK h



FIG. 2




; ' O'

P L A T E L.


n r r / 7 fv 7


Thichdr Watb in b h g ^

n G .z .

14" F laf Gauged

. A rc h .


M G . ,5 .
14" O c Q m c n ld l

A rch

Deliaving Arch

n G .4 .

Oemi Arch in
OAaif-DricK ringo

h o o d h o ld .

MG. O.

FIG. 6 .
Pom fcd or Gothic
. A rch .


. InverfGd A rch
. in Foondalion.

ddickafcad .





Arches are of various kinds according to the work required of


Arch forms have also been greatly influenced by various

styles of architecture.
P late X L IX ., fig. 1, shows the various basic forms of the arch,
their names, and the m anner of their setting out.
Brick arches are either rough or gauged.

A rough arch

m ay be formed of uncut bricks set to radiate, or the bricks m ay be

roughly cut.

W hen all the bricks are cu t and rubbed and all joints

are of the same thickness it is called a gauged arch.

Plate L. shows the various kinds of brick arches in common
Fig. 1 shows a simple, rough, internal relieving arch, designed to
bridge over and relieve the wood lintel of a door or window opening.
Fig. 2 shows a flat gauged arch, such as would be used over an
external door or window, and in front of fig. 1 as shown in the
Fig. 3 is another gauged arch, th e rise or cam ber being the
segment of a circle.

This form of arch is term ed a segm ental

Fig. 4 is a ' ' semi-circular arch built in three half-brick rings.

This is a specially strong arch, and is used in heavy work.
Fig, 5 is an in v ert.

This is a form of arch applied in various

ways to distribute the weight of walling or piers, as far as possible,

over a common foundation.
Fig. 6 is a pointed Gothic arch in brickwork, w ith projecting hood
mold over.
Arch Supports.E x tern al fiat or cam ber arches to openings up
to about 4 ft. span m ay be carried on w rought-iron bars shaped to
the rise of the arch, which is called a cam ber.

The b ar varies

w ith the work required of it, b u t for an ordinary 3 ft. opening and
in. thick face arch, a 2^ in. by |-in . flat iron cam ber bar, built
in and turned down a t ends into the work, is sufficient.
O ther arches require tem porary wood centering to support them .
This is struck away when arches have set.



S i l l s . Brick sills are not recom m ended for w eather tightness

in the same degree as stone sills (see Masonry).
W here brick is used the top requires to be cemented, and an
upstanding iron bar or cem ent rebate formed for wood sill to sit
W here stone is used, it is set by the bricklayer a t the ends only,
the jo in t u n derneath being left free, and pointed up at completion
of the work, otherwise the danger of slightly unequal settlem ent in
the wall m ay fracture the sill through its centre.
F ir e - p la c e s . The norm al fire-place is built as P late X L V IIL ,
fig. 3, th e various technical term s being here given.

The size and

finish of opening depends entirely upon circum stances.

Fire-place openings are of four kinds :Open hearths, where the
opening is b u ilt fair and the fire is contained w ithin detached iron
fire g ra te s; brick hobs for holding w ood; openings where grates
are b u ilt in ; large openings fitted w ith range or stove.
On first or upper floors the general work around a fire-place
depends upon th e num ber of dues (if any) from below.
h earth also has to be carried.


This la tte r m ay be done in two

ways, either b y building a trim m er arch, or by nailing cleats to the

sides of th e door joists, bridging w ith galvanized corrugated iron,
and dlling in w ith concrete to carry a tile or slate dnish (see Plate
X L V IIL , dg. 4).
Smoke dues from the lower doors pass up a t the sides of upper
dre-piaces, and are contained in th e chim ney-breasts.

In this way

the whole of the dues of each group of dre-places, w hether one

b e lo w th e

o th er

or b a ck

gradually gathered


to g e th e r ,

F L U E S . E a c h



fr o m

a d jo in in g

te r m in a te d

d r e -p la c e

a p a r tm e n ts, are

in the chimney.

m u st h a v e

s m o k e flu e , T v ld c lis lio u ld b e s k ilk d ly g a t li w e d


ow n

sep a ra te

o v e r v r it li a l i e n d t o

one side to check down d rau g h t9 in. by 9 m. inside size is

generally sufficient for ordinary dre-places, and 14 in. by 9 m. for
kitchen dues.


Smoke flues require to be


pargetedi.e., rendered sm ooth

inside w ith a tough coating to catch and hold soot.

This is best

made w ith a m ixture of brickdust, lime, and cowdung.

V e n t F lu e s . The bricklayer is required to build in and form
various ven t flues.

The sim plest forms consist of wall faces of

perforated te rra -c o tta or galvanized cast iron 9 in. by 6 in. or 9 in.

by 3 in., b uilt into the work fair w ith outside faces.

A sm ooth,

cem ent rendered, upsloping cavity passing through the wall acts as
an air duct.
Such vents are used for ventilating under wooden ground floors,
near the ceilings of rooms, &c.
Vertical flues carried up in the walls m ay be b uilt like smoke
flues, sm oothly rendered inside in c e m e n t; or galvanized sheet
iron round piping m ay be b uilt in to the work for this purpose.
Chim neys. Smoke flues are term in ated in chim ney stacks.
These should contain the flue, or flues, grouped in such a way as
to suit best th e external appearance of the building, and so
upstanding as to be carried high enough

above all adjoining

roofs to prevent down draughts.

The brick divisions betw een flues are generally a half-brick
in th ic k n e ss; this, in case of high, w ind-swept stacks is best
increased on certain sides.
A chim ney is generally treated in some more or less ornam ental
way w ith breaks, molds, &c., to which terra-co tta pots m ay well be
added if the locality be subject to high winds, for pots, if well made,
tend to counteract the danger of down draughts.
B u ild in g I n . The bricklayer in the course of his work has to
build in frames, thresholds, sills, tem plets, cores, guides, fixing
bricks, lintels, & c .
In hollow walls frames are best secured by having cleats nailed
on the sides fitting into the cavity.
In solid walls frames are secured by 1-in. by f-in. galvanized



w rought-iron clips, clasping over the top of the frames and the
outside face of the brickwork, or by built-in galvanized hoop iron,
nailed to the sides.
Stone thresholds, sills, and tem plets are best set in cem ent
m ortar.
B r ic k w o r k


S to n e

D r e s s i n g s . Buildings

classed as

brick buildings are seldom entirely complete w ithout the addition

of stone or cem ent dressings, and the m asons or plasterers work
has to be allowed for side by side w ith the brickwork.
Dressed stone is of all forms of building generally found to be
the m ost expensive, and its use is therefore in m any cases lim ited
and confined to w hat are technically known as dressings such
parts as sills, quoins, columns,

copings, and the like.

A nother class of building prevails where rough stone is abundant

and stone for fine working is scarce or too expensive.

In this case

the order is a t tim es reversed, the special finishing p a rts such as

sills, arches, quoins, &c., being built in brickwork.
Brickw ork is also largely used as a backing for stone walls.
B r ic k w o r k


C em en t D r e s s in g s .

For the

purpose of

giving ex tra imperviousness to brickwork, or for changing its general

external character, walls m ay be stuccoed (see Plasterer).

In this

class of work th e joints are left rough, in the same way as for
internal plastering.
W here cem ent dressings, flush bands, or surface rough-casting is
to be done, the work so to be treated requires generally to be set
in three-quarters of an inch.
Cement moldings are carried out in brick, stone, or slate over
sailings and rough-cut projections, and have to be allowed for in
bricklaying, as also do the various pressed cem ent or ornam ental
features th a t m ay be a final p a rt of the design.
C o p in g s . Copings

are the top finishings of external exposed



walls, such as parapets, gable ends, &c., where th ey require to be

protected against the down-soaking of rain-w ater.
Copings are often of stone, b u t m ay be of simple hard cem ent
top surface w eathering, or the brickw ork m ay be finished w ith
overs ailing brickwork, rendered in cem ent.
Sometimes the finishing course is set with specially hard bricks
on edge in cem ent, the second course being slightly oversailed on
either side, as shown in P late X L V IIL , fig. 5.
P o in tin g . The joints of visible face brickwork m ay be finished
in different ways as the work proceeds (see Jointing), or pointed
down after.

Pointing m ay consist of ordinary pointing or tuck-

In ordinary pointing the joints are first raked out and a fte r
wards stopped-in with cem ent or specially colored m ortar, and
finished by any of the m ethods before mentioned.
In tuck-pointing the brickwork is generally colored first, the
joints being stopped-in flush w ith colored m ortar, upon which a
raised p u tty joint is lined out.
The whole process savors of artificiality, and is n o t recom m ended
for first-class work.
O pen B ric k D r a in s . Surface drainage is often carried off by
open brick drains.

These should be of specially hard and im per

vious bricks set and jointed in cem ent m ortar, centre bricks being
laid to falls (generally about I J in. in 10 ft.), and the side bricks
tilted tow ards centre. (Plate X L V IIL , fig. 6.)
Such a drain m ay be bedded on sand, b u t in good work a J-in.
bed of cem ent concrete is best.
Where drain receives down pipes, wastes,


necessary to build sm all brick enclosures w ith

it is often

vertical sides.

These are called sinks, or cesses.

F u r n a c e W o rk .Brickw ork coming in contact w ith fire, as in
furnaces, ovens, smoke stacks, and similar factory work, is best



carried out in bricks made of fire-clay, a m aterial specially resistant

to the dam aging action of excessive heat, the joints being formed of
fire-clay used as m ortar.
If ordinary bricks be used, lime m ortar and lime grouting should
be employed, as cem ent does not so well w ithstand the direct
action of fire.
(h.KANiNG D ow n .T he final process in brickwork is to strike
scaffold and clean dow n.

This is done by gradually w ith

draw ing the scaffolding, brushing down the work, stopping and
making good put-log holes, and washing down the visible faces with
w ater.

A wash of dilute m uriatic acid m ay be employed to remove

m ortar or other stains from the bricks, b u t it should be used with

care, as its action tends to cause the m ortar to crumble.

W hen the

stain is m oved the acid should be well washed off with a full supply
of clean water.
Bricklayer's Memoranda.
Bricks are sold a t per thousand.
Brickwork is m easured by the rod, which consists of
272 ft. super. I ^ bricks thick (this is stan d ard work).
408 ft. super. 1 brick thick.
dOG ft. cube.
A rod of o rdinary brickwork contains about
d,hOO bricks.
Ij yards of sand.
5 bags of lime.
Weighs about lb tons.



T h e U se o f S to n e . Stone is an ideal building m aterial, and,
being a n atu ral product found in m ost p arts of the world, has been
used from tim e im m em orial in im p o rtan t buildings.
W ith the n ature of the stone used the character of the work
built has varied, and these factors have brought down from history
endless interesting exam ples of work in this m ost classic of all
The nature, character, and suitab ility for use of n atu ral stone
varies considerably, and actual use, and th e experience of tim e, are
required to enable th e designer to decide upon the m ost suitable
and reliable stone for the work to be p u t in hand.
Cost of labor is always a considerable item in the working of
stone, and this cost increasing in ratio with the size, the hardness
of the m aterial, and the completeness of finish p u t upon it. it will
be found in practice th a t the best class of stonew ork is only used
in the higher classes of building, and even th en the m ost highly
worked stones are reserved for the visible faces and special features
or ornam ent.
The suitability of any stone depends in a very im p o rtan t degree
upon the position the stone is required to occupy in the building,
and the use required of it.

F o r instance, a stone m ay make good

general walling, yet m ay be unsuitable for steps, door thresholds,

and the like.

Or, on the other hand, a stone m ay be highly

suitable, by its hardness and durability, for the la tte r work, and
yet prove too expensive in the working, or too unyielding, for
application in ornam ental or molded features.
This phase of m asonry has led to the division of work finish into



classes, from which has arisen most of the technical term s used in
the craft.
Leaving aside the purely geological description of A ustralian
rocks, the following m ay be taken as a practical division of our
building stones, viz. :G ranite, trachyte,

bluestone, ironstone,

sandstone, limestone, m arble, and slate.

Of these the denser kinds of sandstone and limestone, suitable
for the best class of work, are referred to in the trade as free
Effect of Weather. In selecting building stone full consideration
m ust be given to its suitability to w ithstand climatic conditions,
for, though sound in the quarry, it m ay rapidly deteriorate when
exposed to the im pure air of cities or the effect of dam p or frost.
In the short history of A ustralian building there are not w anting
striking exam ples of grave deterioration in very highly finished
stone buildings from such causes.
Some stones are really im proved by exposure to the outer air,
and harden uj) on the face upon being built in, while others quickly
Natural Bed. In stratified rock th e natu ral bed is the first
thing the mason looks for, for all stones should be laid upon their
n a tu ra l bedi.e., horizontal w ith their stratification.

Any other

position of the stone in the wall would cause its surface to shale
S t o n e - C u t t i n g . In

the carrying out of stone work, it will a t

once be seen th a t a stone building m ust show different kinds of

stonew ork in various parts of its construction.
Lhe highest class of stonew orki.e., all cube stone, technically
called a s h la r is not always sustained throughout the whole
structu re, and even if it is, variation of surface working is neces
In ordinary walbng, therefore, the greater area of the wall may
be built with the stone as the quarry, in an ordinary way, is able

/larQ/n .





J o in t

rimpicked. ^
'and Draft, w


'and Toolzd




r iG .5

F l G .a .

riG A

ro c L J r= liy iK ]

..I ,,

. 1. ':


to produce it.


The characteristics of the stone being seized upon

and its rapid dressing accomplished, it finds its place in the wall,
in some kind of bond th a t best suits its capabilities.

Thus, some

stones are round or very irregular, others show sharp shallng


E ach class of m aterial, therefore, has to be tre ated in

such a way as to suit its own character.

All angles of a building, door and window openings, and the
like, m ust be worked fair and fram ed with dressed work of some
kind. If the infilling be not of ashlar, some kind of rubble is
generally substituted.
Masonry in walling is generally b u ilt fair on the face to an
average thickness, and backed up w ith more or less unw orked
stone, w ith through s to n e s a t intervals in each course.
In m any cases a brick backing is built, and the stonew ork gauged
in height to work in with brick courses.

In either case the

through stones are a necessary p a rt of the bond, unless a hollow

wall be made, when the two m ay be separated and bonded only
with tie-irons.
Cube S to n e .P late L I., figs. 1 and 2, shows the various face
workings of cube stone.
This class of p reparation is carried out in some suitable place
near the building, the various stones being afterw ards lifted and
set in the work.
Rock or Pitch Facing consists of form ing a fair edge all round
the stone and roughly spalling off therefrom , leaving the surface in
its n a tu ra l state.
Picking is done with a m asons pick.

This is a rapid m ethod of

bringing a soft stone to a fair face.

There is picking and fine

Drafting consists in forming a frame m argin round the stone.
This m ay be plain or tooled.
Plain Facing is bringing the stone to one even and sm ooth



Vermiculating is generally confined to the finishing of quoins.


consists of irregular insinkings below the general surface of the

Furrowing is fair sunk tooling in parallel lines.
Dahhing or Sparrow-Piching is lightly punching the surface after
it has been plain faced.
P lain Sinkin g is forming a fair fram ed depression in the stone.
In addition to


surface finishings the

joints m ay be

cham fered or rebated, either all round or along the horizontal

joints only.
Beds and Joints are prepared w ith more or less sm ooth finish
according to the class of work.

In ashlar th ey are either sawn,

axed, or punched fair.

W a l l i n g . F o r

various kinds of walling see P late L II.

The character of the work in walling varies considerably, the

sim plest kind being classed as rubble.
Rubble m ay be either uncoursed or coursed, random or squared.
Uncoursed Rubble consists of stones built, bonded, wedged, and
m ortared together w ithout regard to horizontal coursing.

This is

done where stone is n atu rally of very irregular shape, the strength
of the wall having to depend very largely upon m ortar.
Coursed Rubble is where rubble is used, b u t a t certain heights, or
courses, th e work is horizontally levelled up.
Two kinds of coursed rubble are shown in P late L II., figs. 1 and 2,
and there are others.
Fig. 1 shows a good practical type of wall m uch used in some
p a rts of the Commonwealth, the base course and quoins being of
brick, w ith infilling of coursed work equal in height to four courses
of brickw ork.

The stones, being of differing shapes and sizes, are

b u ilt in to break joint, w ith through stones about every 5 ft. centres
in each course diagonally.

This is squared rubble built in courses.

Should very irregular stone be used the work would be described

as random rubble b u ilt in courses.


F IG . 1.

^ 1 0 . 2 . D eQ olorG ooroedPobbfe
. j ^ ^ . P o c k f a c ^ . Quoms.

D rafted Marc

Plain h e a d Wal/int

P ockfaozd D a o a .


P la in A ohlarW allin.O .


D a b b e d e>
D r a fte d t i a

Cham far Jointad.

^m icu /a t(zd

FIG .A .

C h a m fa r-J o jn fe d

A a h la r.

O & c fio n






is s h o w n in h g . 2.

w here th e stones in each course are all th e full height of


W here th ere is no b rick backing, th e courses are som e

tim es irreg u lar in height.

In th is figure a m olded base is show n w ith ru b b ed m argin d ra ft
an d v ertically tooled panels.

The e x tern al angle of th e wall is

finished w ith a p lain m argin d raft, th e rubble being n a tu ra l faced.

Ashlar is a com m on term , m eaning th e highest finished m asonry.
I t is en tirely d istin ct from rubble.
A shlar m ay refer to v/alling or p a rts of walling w orked in a great
v ariety of ways, b u t it is alw ays o u t of cube stone.
P lain A shlar (fig. 3) shows a w all in p lain ru b b ed ashlar, where
the courses are regular, th e stones showing a lte rn a te headers and
stretchers in each course.
This wall is in face w ork, th e w all being backed up w ith brick
(see section).

T hrough stones are necessary, a b o u t 5 ft. a p a rt in

each course.
The quoins or angle stones are rock-faced, and w orked w ith
m argin drafts, th e base course being th e sam e, b u t m olded on top.
Chamfer-jointed A shlar is show n in fig. 4.
The general w alling here has a ru b b ed face, th e jo ints being
w orked w ith cham fers th a t in tersect and m itre an d form all round
V joints.

A som ew hat sim ilar class of w ork is som etim es w orked

w ith re b a te d or channelled joints, eith er all ro u n d th e stone or in

horizontals only (see P la te L IIL , fig. 1).
In P late L IT , fig. 4, th e quoins, after being ru b b ed , are dabbed
or sparrow -picked in panels.

The base course is m olded on top,

and has verm iculated panelling.

The section shows th e wall as stone rig h t th ro u g h , and th e
m ethod of cross-bonding.
W here possible, th e base stones are b est rig h t th ro u g h th e full
thickness of th e wall.
S e ttin g

O ut

M a s o n r y . All

m asons w ork


to be



specially planned and set out by skilled artisans, for, unlike brick
work, the m aterial offers great variations of treatm ent, both in
size of stone and arrangem ent of setting.
In this the stu d en t would do well to system atically study the old
examples, which reveal m ethods of building th a t have withstood
the wear of the ages.
Classic architecture specially shows the treatm en t of regularity.
for which see Greek, R om an, and old Italian work.


of the


period in



dem onstrates the a rt of m asonry w ith irregular m aterial.


this m anner, especially, full opportunity is taken to use stone in all

varieties of height and size.

The deep recessing of heavy walling,

the beau ty of m olded and enriched doorways, the through-piercing

of traceried windows, the over-arching of flying buttress, the
stately uprising of pier arcades, and the crowning glory of vaulted
roofs all revealing the work of a great masonic age.
F u rth er, stone building, com pared w ith brick building, is slow.
I t m ay therefore th e more deliberately be set out and arranged,
and th e o pportunity, th a t v ariation of m aterial gives, be fully
availed of for original treatm en t.
Surface Appearance. P late L IIL , figs. 1 and 2, shows the setting
o u t of two simple types, one Renaissance the other Gothic.


plate also gives o p p o rtu n ity for illustrating a large num ber of
technical term s.
In the Renaissance m asonry, fig. 1, the corner of a three-story
building in the Ita lia n m anner is shown.

F irst there is a rock

faced and b a tte re d base, finishing with a molded base course,

which acts as a sill to the ground floor windows.

These windows

are recessed and finished around w ith a d raft m argin and cavetto
mold. The semicircular arch is rad iated into the general walling
of rock-faced ashlar, and finished w ith a bold keystone.
N ext conies a m olded string or sill course for the first floor

H ere the work is of rebated jointed ashlar, smooth

rubbed, the window being fram ed w ith a molded architrave, over-

P L A T E Till.

M G .O

Olockino I C o o r j x z

Apzx.DTorQ. WdofherinQ


C o rricd .


Ordinary Oldne Dill.









Qock fa c ^



Draffed Jl,

C o p in g .


oa yiM o ldi

M A D m D V .D c r n iU '
o n O W G

i a W

M R 301D Y

A 'i E R D I Y -

- 0 G U - G W

p \D D



shaded a t top w ith a m olded canopy, supported on two molded

and carved consoles, w ith sunk panel between.

On top of this

second story comes a molded lower cornice, w ith projecting dentals ;

this is called a denticular cornice.
The th ird (top) story is b u ilt of plain rubbed, regular ashlar, the
window being fram ed w ith molded architrave.

This architrave,

being built of small stones, is rad iated a t th e head and secret

joggled a t th e back.
The wall is finished w ith a bold crowning cornice, in three course
work, consisting of molds, dentals, and projecting m utules, a
blocking course crowning all.
The setting out of an early English Gothic gable is shown in
fig. 2.

This gives an o p p o rtu n ity for illustratin g the m ethod of

jointing in this class of work, together w ith certain technical term s

peculiar to the Gothic.
Here we see th e use of irregular stone, which gives th a t variation
so characteristic of Gothic art.

All the special p arts are worked to

sm ooth rubbed face, such as windows, copings, b u ttress tops, &c.,

the general walling being of squared rubble.

The base course is in

large stones set to b a tte r and finished w ith a m olded string course.
There are two angle buttresses w ith w ater table w eathered tops set
a t a steep angle.

The window is of finely worked stone, filled w ith

tracery, the jointing of w hich is clearly shown around the tracery.

There is first of all the molded and steeply w eathered sill, the
quoins, and th e arch, the la tte r being finished w ith a projecting
label mold.
For the purpose of receiving the leaded stained glass, w ith which
this class of window is filled, a raglet, or channel, is cut in the
stone all round.

(See Mullion detail.)

This raglet follows all round

the tracery and receives the glass, which is b en t or built into it.
The finish of the wall here shown is term ed a gable a stone

This is cover finished, w ith a wide stone coping in long

lengths so worked as to throw off w ater, projecting mold and

throating underneath.

(See detail.)



To hold this coping in position there is the footstone, and,

higher up, th e kneeler, th e whole being finished with a shaped
apex stone.
Rods. Long wooden rods, upon which the vertical joints are
m arked, are used for setting out m asonry, a sim ilar method being
adopted in im p o rtan t work for the horizontal jointing.


tions, recessings, piers, and all variations from plain building are
set out on tem pletsi.e., p attern s of the actual size of the finished

These m ay be of th in boarding, nailed together and cut to

shape, or of sheet m etal.

Tem plets.F o r

all m olded work, and especially in Gothic

m asonry, a large, sm ooth, floor-like table is provided, upon which

the full-sized details are drawn.

These are then reproduced on

zinc, th e contours being sharply cut out for the use of the working
From the tem plet the actual stones are m arked, and worked to

In the case, for exam ple, of an ordinary molded

cornice, the stone is worked fair a t th e ends, the tem plet laid on,
and the outline taken.

Thus, having molded contours m arked at

either end, the m ason proceeds to work the stone fair in between
from end to end.

In this w ay the molding is produced.

carving, the necessary stone in the rough is

generally b u ilt in, the carving being executed in position, towards

the end of the work.
Carving should always be first modelled in clay and criticised
before being carved.

This gives practical opportunity of judging

of its effect before the unalterable work in the final m aterial is


r t if ic ia l

o in t in g

. In

addition to the general m ethod of

m o rtar jointing, there are various devices for specially securing

large stones together. (See P lates LIV. and LV.) These are so
planned as to resist the various th ru sts and strains to which the
work m ay be subjected.


no. 2.

riG .o .

Jq g ^ (2 /
J o i n t ',

Tabling J o in f.

r iG .6 .

B ed

S late Jo g g le.

C em ent Joggle

MG. 6 .


Dowel led J o in t.

IT e b a te d

J o in t.






FIG .l.

netal Cramp
run in CemenL

FIG. Z .

Olale Cramp.

Lead PloQ.

Arch doggie

FIG . 6

D addle JoinF
to Cornice,.

F IG .O .

Pqg Dolf

tVADlOCD JO nD ^C O /nrC T 10D '-^nA D m B Y t



Such joints are m ade in some cases in the stone itself, and in
others the introduction of some binding substance is resorted to,
such as m etal or slate.
In m etal jointing, or in using m etal in any position in stone
work, the danger of iron oxidization m ust be strongly urged.


iron in contact w ith stone and dam p will lead to oxidization,

oxidization to expansion, and expansion to the bursting of the

R aw iron should therefore be k ep t aw ay from stone as

much as possible, and when used, as in railings, &c., some in ter

position of slightly elastic m aterial, such as m astic or lead, is
Cement Joggle.The sim plest form of special jointing in m asonry
is the cem ent joggle.

(Plate LIV ., fig. 1.)

This is made by

hollowing out small channels a t the end of ab u ttin g stones, the

channels corresponding the one to the other.

W hen set these

channels come opposite each other, and are filled w ith liquid
cement, th u s forming a corrective against any lateral (sideways)
Joggling and Tabling.O ther joints doing som ew hat sim ilar
work arefig. 2, joggle jo in t;' fig. 3, tabling j o i n t ; and
fig. 4, slate joggle.
Dowels are common devices in stone.

They are best of copper

(as not being subject to serious oxidization), galvanized iron, or

Fig. 5 shows a double-dowelled jo in t.
Fig. 6 is a form of upstanding dowel, very largely used in
thresholds to receive solid wood frames. An ordinary dowel is
made of cu t lengths of galvanized iron tubing.
Rebated Joint.Fig. 7 shows a rebated j o i n t ; this is often
used in wide stair landings.
Cram'ps of various shapes are constantly used in good work, the
common form being shown in P late TV., fig. 1 ; this is of flat
wrought iron, forged and turn ed down at ends and galvanized.
For this, a cavity is cu t half in each stone, and the cram p is then



laid in position and cem ented or leaded in.

w ithstanding tensile strain.

This is a device for

A slate cram p to do sim ilar work is shown in fig. 2.

This is

dovetail-shaped and close fitting, the slate being sawn.

Fig. 3 shows a cram p created by m olten lead being poured into
a prepared cavity, half in each stone, w ith pour-hole a t top.
Arch Joggle. A common form of arch joggle is shown in fig. 4.
This enables an ordinary wall opening to be spanned by a flat,
arch-like form, in small stones, the joggle holding the one stone by
the other.

This is a device also much used in terra-cotta.


this joggle the sides of each stone are best cut to radiating lines.
Rag Bolt. Iro n rag bolts are specially used to connect iron to
stone, such as in the case of an iron stanchion being seated upon a
stone base.

The end of the bolt is opened out and left rough, so

th a t the cem enting m aterial m ay get a good hold, the threaded

end of the bo lt being outstanding to pass through and be bolted
on to the general ironwork (see fig. 5).
J o W . Cornice tops require to be very specially
protected against the soaking action of the weather.
fore, are worked
ouside edge.

They, th ere

and w e a th e re d i.e., sloped tow ards the

To prevent rain w ater from soaking through the

joints, saddle jointing is worked (fig. G).

This consists in leaving

the stone rounded and a t full height along each cross joint, thus
throw ing the w ater off.

to n e

S ta ir s .

-T h o u g h necessarily differing in constructive

detail, the general lines of setting out wood, stone, and iron sta ir
cases have m uch in common.
Stone stairs are m ostly used in public or semi-public buildings
where excess of traffic and fire resistance has to be combined.
P late LVL, figs. 1 and 2, show various forms of steps.
The tread and rise should be carefully worked out to give
easy going, and landings should be arranged a t reasonable intervals
so as not to m ake flights too long.



V-Tread. -->
D i a ^ m a h o w ir ^ O e c t l o n o .
f h r o O ib n e , O fe p o of variouo.
k in d o .


FIG. 1.
J o in t,
Dquaro. oto^p
with mo/dad



u jith o p io u a d

^^^tMhyoxd and
- PdbaTed Joint.



rlG .Z .

Dlafe or liarbJo
.O fe p o .

i: ^ # 1 % ) DoJt

Method of
toO T em

supporting outar
e>dp,e. of Landing

o n d Q /n a /if


OTops pinpQdJ^
3"into WalldfJ



Bsropecflve View


of P arb v!)Tone QToir.




The sim plest form of step is the square step left rough on under
sides resting 1 | in. on the step next below.

This resting m ay be

alternated to a rebated joint, or th e step m ay be worked w ith a

rounded or molded nosing. W here the sofht shows fair from below,
steps are best worked on the rake and w ith splayed and reb ated
joints, as shown in fig. 1.
Marble and slate being generally worked as slab m aterial, the
steps in these m ediums m ay have the treads worked separately,
and th% risers set and dowelled on.
The steps, as also landing stones, of stone stairs require the ends
to be housed or pinned into the walls, the outer portions being
supported by underbuilding or girders.
A common form of open stone stair is w hat is called a dying
stair i.e., one where the landings are rigid and the steps rebated
jointed and pinned a t ends into walls ; the outer ends m ay then
hang over or fly w ithout fu rth er support.

(See stair draw n in

perspective, P late LV I., fig. 3.)

Balusters and H andrails.The balusters of stone stairs are best
of m etal, such as w rought or cast iron or bronze.
Newels requiring to be massive m ay be of ornam ental cast work.
In the stair shown on fig. 3 the balusters are of square bar
w rought iron, curved out a t the ends to stan d over beyond treads
to give as m uch w idth in stair as possible.

These bars are forged,

flattened, holed, and secured to the end of each step w ith rag bolts
and nuts.

The baluster tops are riv etted to a continuous flat upon

which the molded wood handrail sits.

Many variations of this balustrading m ay be adopted, the more
common m ethod being to have ornam ental cast-iron balusters sunk
directly into the top of steps.

Copper bronze handrailing is also

specially suited to this class of stair.

Fig. 4 shows balusters and handrail in detail.
H o is tin g a n d S e t t in g S to n e .The m odern tendency w ith
stonework is to have stone dressed a t or near the quarry.

By this



m eans the cartage of w aste is avoided, and m achinery m ay be the

more readily utilized where there is a continuous dem and, as is the
case w ith constantly worked quarries.
The raising of stone into position offers more difficulties th an the
upcarrying of bricks by m eans of the hod.
Stone, being heavy and often of great size, requires hoisting

This is now commonly supplied in jobs of norm al size by

a universal crane.

In extensive jobs travelling cranes are used.

Lewis Bolts.F o r the same reason, the question of weight, the

larger stones require to be upheld during the process of setting.
This is generally done by some form of the Lewis bolt (Plate
L I.)

On th is plate four different forms are shown.

A wedge-

shaped hole is sunk in the top of the stone to be raised, the bolt
inserted, and the stone lifted and conveyed into position.
Lewiss or Lewis bolts all have the tendency to tighten and

g r ip

the more th ey are pulled.

Fig. 3 shows the old form of Lewis bolt, where three pieces
of shaped iron are held together by a cross pin.
out th e cross pin, the

c e n tr e

the whole to be released.

Fig. 4 is another form.

Upon taking

piece m ay be removed, thus enabling

B y th e down driving of the centre

portion the two side wedges m ay be updraw n from the collar.

Fig. 5 is th e form of bolt for use under w ater, the up-pulling
of th e left-hand wedge releasing the bolt.
Fig. 6 shows a simple form of shaped clutch.
Pincer or Clutch. Pig. 7 shows the ordinary wrought-iron
pincers or clutch, working on a centre pin (like scissors).


are shaped to grip the stone a t the sides, and, being shackled up
a t the top through the ring ends, create a firm grip hold.

I t wdl,

however, a t once be seen th a t pincers cannot carry a stone

exactly into position like a Lewis.

The pincer can carry a stone

to the w a ll; a b ar m ust th en be used to prise it into position.

A c t u a l B u ild in g . Brick Backing. One of the first questions



to decide in stone building is w hether the walls are to have a

brick backing or not.

In large city buildings the brick back is

generally p u t in as offering economy of stone and certain other

F ixings. If all stone be used, the building in of fixings for
woodwork of every kind such as skirtings, door and window
linings, &c., m ust be tho u g h t out, as plugs m ay not be so readily
secured in stone as in brick walls.

These fixings m ay be made

betw een built-in tw in bricks or through built-in coke breeze

bricks or similar devices.
Foundations.The general principles laid down in Chapter X.
for foundations of brick walls apply equally to stone walling.
F oundations are best sta rte d w ith a course of very large flat
stones well flush bedded and w ith as few joints as possible, set
in cem ent.
M ortar.For m ortars see chapter on brickwork.
I t is highly im p o rtan t th a t m o rtar for stonew ork should be
good, and the joints well filled, for here, more th a n in brickwork,
the jo in ts are often unequal in thickness.

E specially im p o rtan t

is this in rubble work, where m uch depends upon the adhesive

power of the m o rtar used.
For all high-class stonew ork cem ent

m o rtar should be used.

In face ashlar work the outer joints are generally set w ith tow,
which stops the liquid grouting from defacing the face w o rk ;
when set the tow is w ithdraw n and th e joints pointed up in
cem ent, tuckpointed, or stopped w ith p u tty or mastic.
Ruhhle ]\ all B uilding. In building rubble walling much will
depend upon the skill of the actual w orkm an handling the stone,
and care should be taken to well break joint, tig h tly wedge, and
to avoid any centre inhlling w ith spalls.

Coursing up a t intervals

(though not always done) is highly to be recom m ended in all

Cube Stone Setting. The highest finished stone m ay be set with
ex tra hne joints, which should be allowed for.
The great



im portance of tru e bedding, especially if the stones are of great

size, should here be pointed out, as, should the superincum bent
w eight be directed on one point rath er th a n upon the whole bed of
the stone, serious fracture is liable to take place.

For this reason,

in finely jointed work the beds should be true, and especially the
lower beds, which, on account of not being readily seen upon direct
inspection, are liable to be neglected.

im p o rtan t p a rts


stonew ork require



tem porarily cased w ith wood to pro tect them from injury as the


The same m ust be w ithdraw n from the top

downwards as final cleaning down is done.

S to n e w o r k f o r O r d in a r y

B r ic k B u ild in g .The m asons

work for an ordinary brick building comes more often w ithin the
scope of the designer th a n an all stone building, especially in those
parts of the Com m onwealth where brick is readily available.


may, therefore, be desirable to refer briefly to the stonework

generally used, such as sills, thresholds, lintels, cores, tem plets,
S ills.W indow sills are best of hard, impervious stone.


ordinary-sized windows th ey should be a t least two courses of

brickw ork deep.

If projection is required, they m ay be worked as

shown in P late B ill., fig. 3i.e., rebated a t top to offer a check to

w ater liable to soak under wood sill, w eathered on top, projecting
2 in., and th ro a te d out underneath to enable the w ater to drip off
instead of running down the face of the wall.

Such sills should be

9 in. longer th a n openings, worked fair, and bedded a t ends, and

left free underneath till the end of the job, when the brickwork has
settled. The jo in t m ay then be pointed up.
Thresholds to outside doors should also be of the hardest stone
available, full thickness of walls, a t least two courses of brickwork
deep, 9 in. longer th an openings, and slightly w eathered outwards.
These usually require to be m etal dowelled a t ends to take
upstanding solid wood frames.


27 7

Lintels. If openings are spanned by stone lintels, the thickness

of the stone should be from the face rig h t back to th e wood fram e
(if any), the bearing a t each end being 7 in.

The dep th of stone

will depend upon the opening to be spanned and the w eight

bearing capacity of the stone.

Stone lintels are best relieved by

arches built over them .

Templets are pieces of stone b u ilt into walls to take the ends of
rolled steel joists, girders, roof principals, or sim ilar special weights.
They, too, should be of h ard stone, worked on top to a fine face
and of sufficient thickness and size to spread the weight upon the
general walling.

W here girders rest upon stone tem plets, they are

best set on a sheet of heavy le a d ; this secures equal and easy

Cores.For projecting outside stucco cornices, stone cores are
often required, especially where


exceed the

lim it

possible w ith brick projection.

Such cores m ay be carried out in slate (if available).

F or stucco

finishings bluestone offers a b e tte r key th a n slate, while for shallow


overhangs roofing slates set in cem ent offer a handy

T e c h n ic a l T erm s. The stu d en t is referred to



masonry plates for technical term s used in this craft.

The term s are very num erous, m any of them having special
references to Classic, and others (the more numerous) to Gothic




C o n c r e te G e n e r a l l y . The use

of concrete

as a structural

building m aterial has its origin in the very earliest of classic ages,
some of the best work being still ex ta n t in old R om an edifices.
In modern practice in districts where suitable conglomerate is
more readily


th an

either stone or brick, concrete

structures are sometimes erected, the concrete taking the place of

the more commonly used m aterial.
Concrete is used in different ways : As a simple monolithic mass,
by being m ade into blocks which are afterw ards built into the work ;
or as reinforced concretei.e., steel framework encased in concrete.
A part from this type of practice, concrete is useful in ordinary
building w ork, for fire-proofing in floors, for the overcarrying of
lintels and projecting overhead masses such as bays, oriels, &c., and
in m any other ways.
The rem arks which

app ear

in Chapter X., w ith regard to concrete

in foundations, apply equally to concrete as referred to in this


The principle of mixing and application is the same, save

th a t, w ith the

v a r ia tio n

of work and position, the size of the basic

m aterial differs.
M o n o lith ic C o n c r e te . Monolithic concrete consists of the use
of concrete for walls, & c ., in place of brick or stone. This is usually
done by erecting suitable close-boarded boxings or incasements in
position, into which the concrete m aterial, in a plastic state, is cast,
ram m ed, and allowed to harden, after which the woodwork is

This mode of construction calls for some ingenuity in




arranging the woodwork in the m ost effective and economical

manner, especially w ith regard to its repeated use during the
progress of the work.

No one system can here be laid down as a

guide, though certain p aten t as well as a num ber of general systems

are known to be in use.
For this class of work the concrete will greatly depend upon the
local m aterial available, and m ay consist of any clean, hard, broken
stone, scoria, gravel, b u rn t clay, &c., mixed w ith sharp sand,
and bound with P ortland cem ent or good lime.
C o n c re te in B lo c k s . Walls are sometimes built of concrete
blocks in much the same way as w ith blocks of stone, save th a t the
blocks are made of regular sizes.

Such blocks are usually cast

solid in molds, allowed to harden, and afterw ards built into the
walling with m ortar.

A nother system is where hollow interlocking

blocks are made, by machinery, for the purpose, and b uilt in in the
same manner as the solid blocks.

These have the advantage of

leaving the internal parts of the walls hollowa proceeding which

tends, in some degree, to equalize the internal tem perature of the
Coke C o n c re te in L in te ls , &c.A practical use for concrete in
ordinary brick building is made by building the lintels in coke


This m aterial, if carefully made, is light in weight, and

over considerable distances.

I t further has the advantage

of offering secure fixing for woodwork an advantage not available

so readily in concrete having stone as a basis of its composition.
In addition to bridging over openings, coke concrete is useful in
encasing steel joists, in forming cores for columns, in carrying
outjutting, projecting structural features, and in other ways.


concrete for such purposes is best made with coke broken to a 1-in.
gauge, washed free from dust, and mixed w ith good P ortland
cement in the proportion of one p a rt of cement to three p arts of

The concrete should be laid in position, in proper wood



casing or cradling, and arranged to give full bearings upon the

walls so as to carry the weight.
F ixing B ricks. Coke concrete fixing bricks are also of great
advantage for fixing joinery.

These should be the full width of the

walls, of the size of ordinary bricks used, made separately, set about
18 inches a p a rt centres, and b uilt in w ith the ordinary work.


bricks m ay be made of clean, washed coke, broken to a |-in . gauge,

and m ixed with P ortlan d cem ent and sand in the proportion of
tw o parts of coke to one p a rt of sand and one p a rt of P ortland
F lo o r

C o n c r e t e . Floors

next the ground, where impervious

surfaces are required, are often laid in concrete and finished in


Concrete is also used as a foundation for tiles, mineral

asphalts, and other im pervious floor coverings.

In upper floors where fire-proofing is required, the most common
m ethod employed,


from reinforcing, is carried out by means

of rolled steel joists, set a t certain fixed distances apart, bridged

over w ith close-set sheets of galvanized corrugated iron, curved
upw ards from below and resting upon the lower flange of the joists,
and w ith the joists


the iron close-rivetted.

U pon the top of this

decking the concrete is laid, being levelled off fair a t top, usually to
a thickness of about 4 in. a t the crown of the iron, the distance
a p a rt of the joists, the cam ber of the iron, and the thickness of the
concrete being regulated by the weight-bearing capacity of the
floor required.
Concrete for floors varies with circumstances, b u t a good working
com pound is m ade w ith one p a rt of P ortland cement, two and a
half p arts of sand, and five and a half

p a r ts

of bluestone or granite

R e in f o r c e d

C o n c r e te .Reinforced

concrete m ust be con

sidered as among one of the m ost im portant factors in modern




This m ethod of construction, which is also known as ferro

concrete, arm oured concrete, and concrete steel, consists of the
application of a principle first applied by Monier in 1867, and which
has since been highly developed and extensively practised, especially
in engineering and building works of a perm anent character.
By Moniers discoveries it was found th a t concrete could be
strengthened to an alm ost unlim ited degree by being arm oured or
reinforced with steel, which fact has been, by test and actual build
ing, applied under a great num ber of p a te n t and standard systems,
too num erous to m ention in detail here.
In its sim plest form, w ire-netting em bedded in concrete supplies
an object lesson of its application.

In this way such articles as

sinks and tanks m ay be efficiently made of m aterial not more th an

1 in. to I m. thick, and bath s from 1 | in. to 2 | in. thick.


too, of considerable diam eter, are m ade from | in. thick and
upwards, whilst circular tanks up to 15 ft. diam eter only require to
be 3 in. thick.
This m aterial is applied to the m aking

of alm ost any article

required in or about a building, including walls, floors, roofs,

stairs, landings, pavings, pipes, and even posts.
In engineering work it has been successfully applied to all kinds
of work, from reservoirs to railw ay sleepers and telegraph poles.
Reinforced concrete is a monolithic system of construction, not
an assemblage of parts, b u t a united whole, of which the steel is
designed to take the stresses which the concrete itself would be
unable to take, and to so bed in and cover the steel as to render it
free from the action of

the atm osphere, and, as far

as possible,

impervious to the destructive action of heat in the case of fire.

This com bination of steel and concrete m ay be applied in m any
different ways, varying w ith the class of building, the nature of the
foundation, and the character of the conglom erates used.
In its application it is a t once seen how space is saved, both upon
the ground and w ithin the floors and walls of a building, by the
reduction allov/ed when the various p arts are of reinforced concrete.



the usual floor in this m edium being only about 3 in. or 4 in. thick,
w ith all other p arts proportionately reduced from the sizes usually
allowed in the older system of building with brick and stone walls
and wood or steel and wood floors.
Such a building is practically indestructible, and offers valuable
impervious surfaces b oth inside and outside for any finish th a t may
be p u t upon it.
The large am ount of tem porary casing and centring required to
hold the concrete in position as the work proceeds is an im portant
item in the cost, and leads somewhat tow ards the repetition of
parts in such a way th a t the same tim berings m ay be used and
repeatedly re-used in the same work.
Objection has been taken by some authorities to the non-artistic
character of reinforced concrete as a building m aterial, chiefly on
account of its monolithic character, which is so much at variance
w ith the trad itio n al idea of stru ctu ral stone and brick walling,
combined with lack of tex tu re in th a t m aterial itself, which leads
som ew hat to deadness and coldness in wall surfaces.

I t is, how

ever, to be hoped th a t these objections may, in a measure, be

overcome b y the advantages offered by the m aterial for modelling
and molding the ornam ental p arts of the structure, and for the
application of ceramic and other color surface treatm ents to the
I t has also to be rem em bered th a t no one system or type of
building can ever be of universal application, the application
of a system being largely influenced by place, available m aterial,
and circum stance ; and w hat is true of other systems is true of
reinforced concrete.

I t has its place, and a very im portant place,

in buildings of a perm anent character.

Different System s. The system s used for reinforced concrete are
now very num erous, and a great m any books have been w ritten
upon the subject and tests

made which the student seeking

inform ation should study, and it should be understood th a t in no

system of construction is the im portance of exhaustive calculation.


R d in fo rczd C o n crd tc WaH/ng

I--------- 11^------- 1 ---Columno

C ona\


o rn c n
Ocale o t



Ground Plan



hitzrmddiati 5&om;>cirruino r/ooriC)lao:))

Hoor Okub




test, and




m aterial

and com petent

w orkm anship so necessary as in this class of work, which depends,

in such an overwhelming degree, upon each p a rt being equally
The system s in use differ chiefly in the m ethod adopted for
reinforcing, which consists, in some cases, of the exclusive use
of round rod steel and wire, laid in, connected, and bent to various
shapes, as required.

O ther system s are carried out w ith wire-

netting or expanded steel, and yet others have

special m ade

indented bars, trussed bars, stirrups, and other contrivances for

overcoming the various difficulties m et w ith in the work.


are also various p aten t bars and system s designed specially to

m eet the requirem ents of reinforcing.
P late L V II. shows a simple factory building, illustrating the
application of reinforced concrete.
The building here shown (fig. 1) is three stories in height, w ith
brick p a rty and front walling.

The two other outer walls and th e

whole of the internal floors, supports, &c., are in concrete.

Fig. 2 is an internal enlarged perspective view, showing the
general construction of the interior, from which it will be seen
th a t the upper floors are supported upon a series of columns.
These columns carry up, one above the other, from the bottom
to the top of the building, and support upon each floor the m ain
cross beams, which again carry interm ediate longitudinal beams,
which in their tu rn support the floor slabs, the whole being
regulated and reinforced in accord w ith
capacity required for each floor.



P late L V III. illustrates in detail three system s of reinforcing

applied to the support of ordinary floors.
Fig. 1 shows the application of the K ahn b ar system, which
consists of specially shaped steel bars, designed in various sizes, and
applied to the columns, beams, and slabs.

I t is claimed for this

system th a t the special form of stirrup upon the b ar is scientifically

designed to effectively take up the tensile stresses in the work.



Fig. 2 shows the H ennerbique system, where the chief work is

done b y m eans of rod steel, detachable stirrups of special p attern
being used in the beams.
Fig. 3 shows a com bination of stru ctu ral steel w ith reinforcement.
H ere rolled steel joists are used as uprights and as beams.


are covered upon exposed surfaces w ith expanded steel, w ith which
m aterial the floors are also laid, the whole being infilled and cased
w ith concrete in the usual way.
P artitio n s m ay be m ade by the inlaying of vertical steel rods in
the centre of their thicknesses, extending the whole height, and
kep t in position w ith wire, being afterw ards encased in concrete.
Concrete for reinforcing m ust of necessity differ according to the
thickness of the work required.
A t all tim es only the very best tested P o rtlan d cement should be
used, together w ith clean, sharp sand and broken stone, gravel,
clinker, or sim ilar h ard aggregate.
Concrete, if properly made, tends to improve w ith age, and from
reliable te st it has been shown th a t concrete compounded of one
p a rt of cement, tw o and a half p arts of sand, five p arts of bluestone
screenings, will show in two years a strength in compression of 6,500
lbs. per square inch, and is a good all-round working m ixture for
ordinary reinforced structures.


n o . 1.

P e rc p e e ilv e

O K e J th a h o w i n p -tfje
B p p lic a T io n of' K A A ^ O Y o ia i


~IQ. 2 . ^ PeropGeffve
DKeJth ohovinQ applicairo/;


^ P e ro p e e ilv e .
TIG . O .
O K cIth ohow inQ
n p p lic a iio n o f K ,o . ubiemDd
T x p a n d a d file e l.


T e r r a - C o t t a . The


XI I I .


m anufacture of architectural te rra -c o tta from

clay earths has now been well established

in A ustralia, the

necessary n atu ral products being found in abundance in various

parts of the Commonwealth.
A good deal of interesting h istory centres round th e m anufacture
of ceramics of all kinds, and the Old W orld potteries have been,
and are, rich fields of interest for this constructive and decorative
T erra-cotta is b u rn t clay used for constructive purposes.


general color is b rig h t light red ; b u t other colors, such as buff,

pink, &c., are readily produced in certain of our districts.
Terra-cotta m ay be used as face work to outside walls, and for
dressing and decorative features generally.

I t is highly lasting,

and, if properly made, perm anent in color.

Of all m aterials, it

works best in conjunction w ith brickwork, w ith which it supplies

th a t pleasing relief th a t a larger m aterial can give a m aterial, too,
upon the same line of color, and capable of decoration.
Terra-cotta is generally backed up w ith brick or other perm anent
walling, and should be designed w ith full knowledge both of its
capabilities and its lim itations.
The first thing to rem em ber is th a t terra-co tta is made from
molded clay, the first process being to model the work in plastic,
from which plaster of Paris molds are taken ; the final m aterial
is then pressed into the molds, slowly air-dried, and afterw ards
fired in a kiln.



In all these processes there is a certain am ount of risk, and

skilled labor a t every stage is required to regulatefirst, the size
of each piece ; second, to secure, as far as m ay be, uniform ity
of thickness, so th a t shrinkage m ay be e q u a l; and thirdly, skilful
firing, so as to avoid fracture.
In setting terra-co tta, it m ay be chipped, rubbed, and fitted, and
is best backed up solidly on the reverse side w ith cement m ortar.
As terra-co tta is hollowed and left rough a t the back to regulate
uniform thickness of the mass, this can be readily done, and good
key is obtainable.
P ointing is best done w ith colored m ortar.
F o r ordinary all-round work, each piece of terra-cotta is best
k ep t w ithin ab o u t 18 in. by 18 in.
The a rt of locking and infitting enters largely into the design of
Band Course Design.

L IX ., fig. 1, shows a band course in

terra-co tta, each piece being equal to three courses of brickwork,

in. thickness over all, w ith about I j in. of solid face
The decorative portions are confined to sets of three, plain slabs
in sets of coupled threes being set between.

This character of

tre atm e n t keeps down the cost of the work, as only four molds are
required, and the work repeats.
The top and bottom courses of the band are set with terra-cotta
molds, equal in depth to one course of the brickwork.

In this

position ordinary molded bricks are often placed.

Terra-cotta lends itself specially to this kind of outside surface
treatm en t, and decorative diapers, bands, and panels m ay be worked
out in a similar way.
A nything th a t can be done in stone of small size can be done
equally well in terra-cotta, the laws of jointing being similar (see

There is, however, this difference, th at, whereas stone

is solid and self-sufficient for support, terra-cotta needs filling,

backing, and hanging.


nP F




2 'k




c l(2 v a fio n

D e c iio n

rIG .Z . Defaii of a
projecjing oriGl in
Terra - Cotfa

T03KA-COTTA 0 \]L .


T e r r a -C o t t a

L u m b e r .


A m aterial of useful service in the

building of partitio n s, the incasing of girders, and other stru c tu ra l

steel work, is te rra -c o tta lum ber ; this m aterial is m anufactured
from clay e a rth m ixed w ith saw dust.

I t is usually m ade hollow,

and being light in w eight com pared w ith ord in ary brickw ork, is
often used in upper floor partitio n s.
usually a b o u t 12 in. x 6 in. x

The stock size of blocks is


Oriel W indow D esign. An upper-storied, projecting oriel window

in terra -c o tta is shown in P la te L IX ., fig. 2.

H ere the whole of the

external work is constructed of terra-co tta, being in w orkable pieces

fitting together, back-filled w ith cem ent, and hooked, cem ented,
and jointed together.
The overhang below is carried on a lig h t tee steel fram e bu ilt into
the solid wall below, and w ith cantilever pieces directly under
outside corners, laced across to form a reinforcem ent for concrete
filling, which acts as a core for th e work.

This core is outside

lined w ith enriched terra-co tta, th e wide w eathered sill resting on


U pon th e sill th e m ullions are built, in three height pieces,

shaped outside as th ree-q u arter colum ns, and having rebatings for
iron casem ent fram es.

Above is a lintel w ith rad iatin g joints,

surm ounted b y a cornice.

The roof is co nstructed of tim ber, covered w ith shaped tiles, hung
and wired to b atten s. All around, n e x t th e wall, the terra -c o tta is
tailed into brick courses to break bond.
F a i e n c e . F a ie n c e is o f t h e

s a v e t h a t i t is u s u a l l y g l a z e d

sa m e g en e r a l n a tu r e a s te r r a -c o tta ,
a n d c o lo r e d m s in g le or in v a r y in g

tin ts .

The first process in th e m anu factu re of faience is the m aking of

w hat is technically know n as th e


or b iscu it.

This is first

m ade and b u rn t sim ilarly to te rra -c o tta, the colors and glazes being
produced b y subsequent added colorings and firings.
Faience is used b o th for outside and inside purposes, and is
specially suited to com bine w ith glazed tiles for wall surface decora




Some very beautiful effects m ay be obtained in this medium,

the effect of modelled work being greatly enhanced by the per

m anent glaze and the richness of reflecting light and color.
effects are m ost lasting, and show practically no wear.


They are

also peculiar in th a t they v ary with every phase of reflected light

or the position of the spectator.
P late LX . shows a sheet of faience details.
In faience work absolute accuracy of line should not be expected.
The ch aracter of the work is such th a t slight irregularities m ust
occur, and these, together w ith the guttering and varied density of
colored glazing, create certain effects peculiar to the m aterial.
Faience is set in a sim ilar way to terra-cotta.
T i l e s . Tiles

are m anufactured from clay earths, and are made

in A ustralia in a great variety of sizes, colors, shapes, and qualities.

Tiles, unlike terra-co tta or faience, are made from dust, clay
earth in the form of dust being pressed into m etal dies, forming the
body of th e tile, which is th en air-dried and baked.
Floor Tiles. Tiles for floors should be thicker and harder than
those for walls ; they also require to be unglazed.
either plain or encaustic.

Floor tiles are

Plain tiles are of one color throughout.

Encaustic tiles show inlay pattern in two or more colors.


p atte rn is made by the insetting of different clays, which, when

baked, produce each its own peculiar color.
Wall Tiles. Tiles for walls are invariably glazed, the body or
biscuit being
afterw ards.

m ade first and the glazed outer surface put on

W all tiles should have lock backs to form key for

Majolica Tiles are also used upon wall surfaces.

They are

similar in general m ake to ordinary glazed tiles, save th a t they

show raised or embossed decorative face treatm ent.

To work and fit in with tile work, a large

num ber of specially shaped tiles are now m anufactured for rounded
internal and external angles, stops, moldings, &c.


t TTMi :T


D afe-P anel
C op.

P la in

Dhaf!-. o

Mojronal - TalDlof

D03Q .


C a lo s f r a d a




Majolica Fenders, or fire-place curbs, are strips and angles of

molded or ornam ental glazed ware, to take the place of m etal
fenders for fire-places.
Tile-laying. Tile-laying is one of the skilled trades.

F or this

work a m ortar com pounded of slow-setting P o rtlan d cem ent and

reasonably fine, sharp, clean sand is required.

Tiles m ay be cut

w ith a chisel and ground upon a stone w ith sand and w ater to a
sm ooth face.

In cutting glazed tiles the glaze has to be skilfully

chipped along the line of fracture before the body is dealt with.
Some tiles m ay

be cu t in the

same way as glass,

w ith a

Tile Beds.Floor tiles should be laid on a good bed of fine
cem ent concrete.
Wall tiles m ay be laid directly on to brick or stone work, or
the surface m ay be first rendered in cem ent to receive them .


tiles should be soaked in w ater before use.

Floor Tile-laying. Floor tiles are sometimes laid to falls, as in
bathroom s, dairies, &c.

In such cases the beds have to be arranged

accordingly, a fall of about 1 in. in 10 ft. being sufficient, but,

w hether to falls or level, th ey should be laid on concrete, which
should be first of all well w etted, so th a t it m ay not suck out the
m oisture from the subsequent work.

A rendering of cem ent and

sand, three to one, should then be laid in and levelled smooth.

Upon this rendering the tiles are fitted, m atched, and laid w ith
close joints.

In this process the tiles should upstand about one-

eighth of an inch above the final level required.

They should then

be beaten down into th e cem ent the full one-eighth of an inch.

The next process is to grout the joints by running in liquid cement,
the top surfaces being afterw ards overlaid and rubbed clean w ith
saw dust, which absorbs the superfluous grout.
Wall Tile Setting.Long wooden battens, called screeds, require
to be tem porarily laid down, from which to work the true planes in
tile-setting, as in plastering.

These screeds are tacked a t suitable

distances ap art, so th a t a straig h t edge or rule working upon the



top surfaces determ ines an even plane, thus avoiding hollows or

W all tiles are first well spread or b u ttered w ith cement, and then
pressed into position.

E ach tile should be fully charged with

w ater, though not so as to show w ater on the surface.

This prevents

the porous body of th e tile from absorbing the moisture out of the
cem ent too quickly.

The m ortar should be used somewhat stiff,

and well pressed to the hollow, locked back of the tile.

Majolica Setting. In setting majolica work such as fenders,
moldings, &c., the work is often hung upon large-headed galvanized
roofing nails, or galvanized iron wall h o o k s; these form a key, and
fitting into the hollow, rough backing, enable the cement to obtain
a firm hold upon the
Ch im n e y P

o t s .

w ork.

C h i m n e y p o t s a r e m a n u f a c t u r e d in t e r r a - c o t t a

i n a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f s iz e s , s h a p e s , a n d p a t t e r n s ; t h e y a r e s p e c ia ll y
s u i t e d a s a f in is h t o c h i m n e y s i n d o m e s t i c b r ic k a r c h it e c t u r e .

P o ts should be selected of suitable sizes for flue covering, and, as

the ordinary pot is generally round and the flue square, the work
should be gathered over from square to round, so as not to leave
any sharp obstruction where a sweeping machine m ay prise off the
p ot or shake th e work.
Setting. Chimney pots require to be deeply bedded and set in
cem ent m ortar, the outside surfaces being steeply weathered or
flaunched off to the outside edge of the chimney.
S a n it a r y W

a r e .

Glazed p o ttery

w are,

if kept free from the

danger of fracture, offers the very best m aterial possible for all

fitm ents,

such as baths,

sinks, W.C. pans, urinals,

lavatories, and basins.

W hen applied to baths, the high cost is often prohibitive, b ut for
all other of the purposes nam ed glazed pottery ware m ay well be
Soundness should always be looked for in pottery, which should


ring when struck.


The glaze, too, should be perfect, and free from

crazing (small cracks), as it m ust be rem em bered th a t only the

glazed surface is impervious, the body being absorbent.
In the design of these fitm ents, self-cleansing should be looked
for, and such inner shape and freedom from sudden corners secured
as to ensure clear flushing when in use.
The old m ethod of casing w ith wood should be entirely abandoned
in favour of complete openness on all sides, non-rustable m etal
being used where supports are required.
V e n t s . For

terra-co tta vents, see V entilation.


S tructural


S t e e l . The





stru ctu ral steel

is usually

applied to beams, stanchions, &c., used for weight-bearing in floors,

walls, &c.
Some of the more common forms of structural steel are illustrated
on P late L X I.
In the field of steel m anufacturing the m ost complete information,
w ith lists of stocks, tables of tests, calculations of weights, &c., are
supplied in book form by the leading m anufacturers of England and
America, and through their agents are made directly available in
A ustralia.

The best of such books should be referred to by the

student, as th ey offer, in a very exhaustive form, valuable data to

work upon in carrying out actual work in structural steel, and
doubly so when it is rem em bered th a t, in using steel, use is being
made of a m anufactured, not a n atu ral article.

The designers

attention, therefore, requires to be directed towards the best and

m ost practical application of the stock m anufactured article.
Steel Standard. The steel in common use is th a t known as
Siem ens-M artin steel, and should be guaranteed to have an ultim ate

strength of from 28 to 32 tons per square inch.

Beam s.Steel beam s are of various kinds, the most common
being the rolled steel joist (R.S.J.), which is rolled in a very great
variety of sizes and weights, and has become the most common
commercial article in the m arket for overhead weight-carrying in
perm anent structures.

This, together w ith other forms of the beam

and girder, are shown in P late L X L , fig. 1.

W hen acting as a beam , the ordinary R .S .J. m ay be sufficient



of itself, or it m ay require to be strengthened w ith top and bottom

plates, as shown in the figure.

Girders are often w hat is called

built u p th a t is, m ade up of separate parts, m ainly consisting

of R .S .J. and plates, or plates, angles, &c., riv etted together (see
fig. 1).
B ritish stru ctu ral steel is m anufactured in accordance w ith w hat
is known as B ritish S tan d ard S ections i.e., certain generally
recognized sections of given form, strength, and weight are m anu
factured and stocked by the leading m anufacturers.
These standards include sections for railw ay and bridge work and
ship-building, as well as for the general purposes of building con

This standardizing aims a t securing a uniform ity of

productive value among all the leading m anufacturers of B ritish


The B ritish standards include a sufficient num ber of sizes

in the stan d ard lists to ensure a satisfactory g raduation for all

practical purposes, w hilst a t the same tim e th ey reduce, as far as
possible, the num ber of rolls which the steel-m akers find it necessary
to hold in stock.
On page 302 will be found a list of B ritish stan d ard beams (rolled
steel joists) m ost usually in dem and in the A ustralian m arket, and
gives the safe d istributed load each j oist will carry.

As a rule in a

building the depth of a steel beam should a t least equal onetw entieth of the span, so as to avoid any undesirable am ount of
deflectioni.e., sagging of the beam in th e centre.
above the zig-zag line in th e table secure this.

The figures

W here loads are

unequally distributed th ey have to be calculated for separately.

' In ordering stru ctu ral steel it is desirable th a t all m aterials be
ordered by weight per lineal foot, in com bination w ith the over-all
A merican steel beam s will be found to differ som ewhat in size
and weight of rollings from the B ritish standard, as the larger
producers of A m erican stru ctu ral steel have th eir own range of
standards, suited to the norm al requirem ents of their own trade.

lO ^

0 5 (M O

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R .O .J o i a f B.O J o i a f o
wiLh pJeifeo

Beam Dox
G ird e r.


x3/(Z(?/L .O tiffiner

P la it G ird er

Box -G ird er.

FlG.l. Difierenf formoof-GirciciS

r iG .5 r ^ ^
C ap D aoe a n d
Connecilon id r

SeGdlono fh ro C om m on fdrrno
o f vBldnchiono

flnpt<L I Teg



|JA z< 2/

\ZodO tm i

FIG 4 . P iveF A e a d o




Uprights. Cast-iron columns are sometimes used to



independent beams.

W here steel is em ployed the uprights are

called stanchions.

These are m ade in a v ariety of different

ways to suit the work required of them , several typical forms being
illustrated in P late L X L , fig. 2.
An illustration is also shown in the same figure of an H section
stanchion, with base cap and interm ediate connections, a type of
upright often used to take the weight of several floors, one above
the other, in warehouse or factory work.
Connections. The

(Plate L X L , fig. 3.)

connections in stru ctu ral steel are highly

im portant, and should be so arranged as to give full efficiency by

the simplest, strongest, and m ost direct m ethods.

The work, too,

requires to be done, as far as possible, in the engineering shop, and

in such a way as to be the m ost easily assembled upon the site and
readily and cheaply fixed.
I t is im p o rtan t th a t the ends of all beam s used as stanchions
should be m achined true and square, so as to give even and fair
Connections are usually m ade by rivetting, of which the various
kinds are shown in P late L X I., fig. 4.

The size of the rivets and

their distance apart, the finish of the heads, and w hether hand or
machine riv ettin g is to be employed, should all be m entioned in
the specification, as also w hether the holes are to be drilled or
punched. W here smooth fair bearings are required countersunk
flush rivetting is necessary.
For secondary connections bolts and screw nuts are sometimes
used in place of rivets.
For m aking connections and for stiffening, angle and tee steel is
m ostly used, as such forms lend themselves m ost readily to the
work required.
Several of the common forms in which steel is m anufactured for
various purposes are shown in P late L X L , fig. 5.
Protection and Preservation.All structural steel work should be
cleaned from ru st and painted with red oxide p ain t in every part,



both in the shop and after it has been fixed.

The damaging effect

of fire upon steel is well known, as under intense heat steel will
readily buckle and tw ist, and not only destroy its own

e ffic ie n c y ,

b u t in its fall te a r down and destroy other p arts of a structure.


guard against this stru ctu ral steel is sometimes cased in with inter
locking terra-co tta m ade for the purpose, or otherwise cased in
asbestic m aterial.

Such methods, however, add considerably to

the cost of the work, and are not commonly used.

Where hre-proofing is required some form of reinforcing is now
usually em ployed (see C hapter X II.)

Steel R oofs.U pon the lower portion of Plate LXIX. a variety

of types of steel roof principals are shown for spans of from 30 to
Such principals require to be designed to carry the weight of the
roof covering, the purlins, and the principal itself, together with the
load likely to be added by wind pressure.
In the construction of principals, the m ain forces of compression
and tension have chiefly to be allowed for, and it should be noted
th a t in the plate the

c o m p r e s s io n

members are shown by thick

lines, and the members taking up the tension strains by thin

In P la te L X II. a steel principal for a span of 30 ft., with
principals 9 ft. ap art, is shown in detail, the

p a r ts

and connections

being very fully illustrated by enlarged drawings, which should be

carefully followed.
I t will be noticed th a t the


covering is of corrugated iron,

which is secured to wooden purlins, spaced a t suitable distances

ap a rt and secured to the rafters with angle pieces.

The principal is

constructed of tee steel rafters, connected a t apex, and held

with plates and stiffened w ith tension and tie rods.
tee stru t on either side.

There is one

The enlarged details show how the various

p a r ts a re fo r g e d , c u t, fitte d , b o lte d , a n d r iv e tte d to g e th e r .

Pig. 1 shows the general elevation of the principal, with section

through wood purlins and brick wall.

Pig. 2 is the enlarged detail



' Iron .



FIG. 1.

'o rzd J
lU' 3 o /t.

Two Wc^^ocr<zw.



Gal. iron

L .Q .a d r i a o h i n p

oolddred to ri^<z
C,dm^5<zd mto
C orru g ation s


Otdef. Tdd


jz mPod.






Q tzdU
d tr u t

He Rod.

FIG .5.

FIG. 6.

F IG 2 .

Lzff-handQ-ci Thread.
QighT'TTand<zjd Thread.

F lG .a .
126 0

I. 2

Ip .

F IG . 6 .


Ocaie of Feef for Koof Principal

Ocale of Fcef f5r Defbiled Pa Mb







O t l l l ro o t

^ S

f m

y'/z(jL 53?/
Plat 53.



Q od.

7/e Qod.

itdQl Tee. Principal.

tfz Tkl Pod
W ftiatO pan .--------

\i&a4-9'Pronc Tdmpbfo,.


Ip T/<z Qod.

J/e e / TaciD tru ^ o



/" 77e Qod.

p T o n o io n
Q od.

Jo iB T e f

J o iB T a rR .
lp'GLC>^zt Platny.

4^2 ^4-^Jz"

OPm! 7zz Princ


Tdjioion Poa
^ T /d ,P o c /

i3 u 3p d n

-Ti<L R o d

3i d n

Tdn^ion Pod. Otruto.


J o iH f 0 tT C .

Ocale o

t - T

t - T '

t T d o A ^ -fo r



OcaJc qT FccP ib r dcfeiiled parto.







of the wall seating, fig. 3 being the plan of same, showing how the
bottom plate is rag-bolted down into a stone tem plet.

Fig. 4 is the

detail of the meeting of the two rafters a t the apex, fig. 5 being the
section through the same.

Figs. 6 and 7 show the junction of a

stru t with the tie and tension rods, and how they m eet and are
bolted together.

Fig. 8 shows the m ethod adopted, by means of a

screwed coupling joint, for tightening up the tie-roda device

which is sometimes placed in tie-rods likely to require length
adjustm ent.
P late L X III. illustrates another type of steel principal, which
m ay be used for roofs having a clear span of from 40 to 80 or even
100 ft. if proper increased sizes be added to the metal.
a roof suitable to a 40-ft. span, with corrugated iron
tim ber purlins, the principals being 9 ft. apart.
p arapet g u tter is shown.

Fig. 1 shows
c o v e r in g


In this case a

B y following the enlarged details it will

be seen how the various joints and connections of p arts are

As steel roofs are usually adopted for

la r g e

spans, and specially

for extensive roof area, they are the more readily acted upon by
wind pressure.

They, therefore, require, both for this reason as

well as on account of the nature of the m aterial itself, to be carefully

Bracing in an elastic, non-rigid m aterial like steel is in the very
highest degree im portant.
In addition to the principals, which, of themselves, constitute a
braced weight-carrying f r a m e o r k , a steel roof is usually stiffened,
and the whole roof made rigid, by the introduction of some form of
lateral bracing.
S teel

E scape

S t a i r s . Steel

fire escape stairs are extensively

employed in large business and public buildings, especially in

positions where they m ay be a r r a n g e d to offer an emergency means
of escape.
These stairs are usually made of steel.

A design, w ith some



details of such a stair, is shown on Plate LX IV .

The perspective

shown is of a one-flight stair only, b u t the principle here illustrated

m ay be extended to more com plicated stairs and overhead escape
The diagram shows the strings, landing, and treads of boiler

The treads and landings are usually bob punchedth a t is,

dented upwards from below with a round-headed punch at intervals,

so as to offer a rough surface to the tread.

The enlarged drawing

shown upon the upper p a rt of the plate should be carefully studied

for details of p arts and how they are p u t together.
Cast I ron . Cast iron is used for columns, railings, gates, and to
a large ex ten t in verandah and balcony columns, also for shoes and
heads in heavy tim ber roofing, and in many other ways.

Its dis

advantage is its brittleness and its serious liability to fracture

under a sudden and heavy blow.
Any num ber of castings may, however, be made from the same
p attern in cast iron, which gives facility for the ready repetition of
the various p arts of any work produced in this medium.
Castings are produced from patterns, which are duplicate
copies of the articles required, usually made of wood in parts to suit
the work, and of sizes to allow for shrinkage.
These " p a tte r n s " are laid in sand tightly ram m ed to the shape
of the p attern.

This is called " molding."

The molds are so

arranged th a t the p attern m ay be withdrawn, leaving the true

impression in the hard, sm ooth sand.

Vent holes for the steam are

left, and pouring gutters provided.

The m olten m etal is poured

into the gutters and allowed to

cool, after which the sand is

removed, the rough burrs a t the junction of the molds chipped off,
and the casting made ready for use.
F or work such as furnace fire-boxes, cast iron withstands excessive
h eat m uch b etter th an wrought iron or steel, and is therefore to be
preferred when next to fire.
W ro u g h t

I ron .Architectural wrought iron is one of the


D gIGii I
C W Io n
o tA o D d r^




o/8thid- Landing to



V o T c

(^/ee/. T. O u p p o rt
to L a n d in p .
4-p^ t1 U pn gh to
2 - - ; ^ - ^ c r a D e e t i o n 'f h r o I r e itild o

L andiri
hnok Cidxjif^ .


_ tzdAnok

d b m 'i Q D d i q g


G % r]iE 2 1 :k :)C (]i:K 2

G r a ir .




inediseval crafts, with which much interesting Old W orld crafts

manship is associated, and of which there has been a considerable
revival in m odern times.
This kind of ironwork is applied to building of the highest class,
and, being all hand wrought, m ay be designed and executed in such
a way as to give greatly added value to any work of which it
forms a part, such as in railings, gates, grilles, guards, hinges, door
knockers, bell pulls, internal furniture, &c.
The strength, together with the m alleability and ductility of iron,
renders it specially serviceable and suitable for use in work of this
description, and when it is conventionally treated, and so shaped and
w rought as to display the m arks of the ham m er and the mode of
its production, few m aterials, if any, can vie with it in th a t subtle
blending of utility with

b ea u ty

th a t constitutes true applied art.




Generally. The craft of tim ber-w orking for building purposes is

classed either as c a rp e n try or joinery, cabinet-m aking being
an allied craft which deals more especially w ith furniture.
The line of dem arcation betw een carp en try and joinery is not
easily definable, as the scope of the one trespasses a t tim es very
closely upon the province of the other.

C arpentry should, however,

be understood to include all those more stru ctu ral portions of the
woodwork of a building, carried out for th e m ost p a rt upon the
actual stru ctu re itself, such as floors, roofs, tim ber framing, wood
p artitio n s, and stru ctu ral work generally, while joinery embraces
all the sh o p -m ad e woodwork, such as windows, doors, frames,
fittings, stairs, linings, panellings, moldings, fitm ents, &c., and their
fixing and finishing upon the actu al work.
Wrought and Unwrought.A broad division is always made in a
building betw een the w roughti.e., planed and the unw rought
tim ber, and a covering clause m ay be inserted in specifiying some
w h at as follows : All work exposed to

v ie w



w rought to one

even and sm ooth surface th ro u g h o u t.

Speaking generally, the s tr u c tu r a l tim bers are invariably left
rough from the saw, b u t in the case of


tim ber roofing or

ex})Osed rafter ends such tim bers are w rought in the usual way.

T i m b e r s .

S tru ctu ral tim bers require to be of

a different n atu re from finishing tim b e rs and this brings us to a




workable division of the available tim bers in th e A ustralian m arket

stru ctu ra l tim b e rs and finishing tim b ers.
In speaking of tim b er it should be rem em bered th a t a division
m ust be m ade betw een w hat m ay be described as tim ber in
theory and tim ber in p ractice.
To enter in to th e g reat v ariety of tim bers to be found in various
p a rts of A ustralia is not necessarily to find such a v a rie ty actually

upon th e w orking m arket.

D oubtless as tim e goes on

our tim ber resources will be more largely developed and more
scientifically cut, seasoned, and m ade available.

F o r our present

purpose it is, however, more practical to deal w ith those tim bers
th a t are com m only available, b o th local and im ported.
be enum erated

These m ay

som ew hat as follow s: S tru c tu ra l tim b e rs

Oregon, hardw oods, jarrah , red gum, M urray pine. Pacific pine, &c.
Of these Oregon is th e best (im ported) stru c tu ra l tim ber


I t is excellent for all general purposes and reliable for first-

class work.
The^ hardw oods are num erous, and are suitable for rough and
cheap work, where tw isting
m atter.


shrinking does n o t seriously

T hey require, however, to be k e p t o u t of the ground,

otherwise their decay is rapid.

G enerally speaking, the red A us

tra lia n tim bers are the m ost durable.

J a rra h is a well-known W estern A ustralian tim ber, used for
stru ctu ral as well as for finishing purposes.

I t is heavy and dense

and stands exposure well.

R ed gum is hard ly suitable for stru c tu ra l work, its use being
chiefly confined to work in or near the ground, such as stum ps,
plates, fence posts, &c.

I n such positions it lasts well.

B oth M urray and Pacific pine are used in lim ited degree for
the cheaper class of work, in districts where it is easily made
O ther stru ctu ral tim bers are

em ployed in


p arts


A ustralia, b u t these are chiefly confined to local ra th er th a n to

general use.



in is h in g

o o d s .

T h e f o l lo w i n g i s a l i s t o f f i n i s h in g w o o d s :
R em arks.

T im b e r .

Red Californian Pine (Redwood)

Red Deal

Excellent for all outside finishing purposes,

such as barges, half-timbering, &c. Good,
though soft, for joinery.
For all general frames, joinery, &c. (requires

Baltic flooring, lining, and weather

Kauri (New Zealand)
Hoop Pine (Queensland) ..
W hite Pine (New Zealand)
Clear Pine
Silky Oak
Huon Pine
Colonial Beech
Jarrah, &c.

All excellent finishing woods if dry and well


Oak . .
Ash ..
W alnut, &c.
T he P

Universally used.
For joinery, flooring, doors, linings, &c. One
of the most valuable for joinery purposes.
Doors and joinery, &c. Takes stains well.
Shelving, &c.
For highest class painted joinery.

Suitable for

r e p a r a t io n


T im



. Tim ber




for all general building

purposes is now held in stock, or cu t b y th e leading tim ber

m erchan ts in to sizes to su it th e trade.
In selecting care should be exercised
tim b er th a t

is well grown, free from

( le c a y s ) , la r g e ,



lo o s e

k iu h a ,

to w a r d s

choosing only

sapwood (which readily

crack s,

g in n

ife h r s , o r s i m i h #

im perfections tim bers, too th a t have been scientifically cut from

th e log so as to shrink fairly, and so dried as to be straight, true,
an d w orkable.
I t is well, a t th e outset, to rem em ber th a t each class of tim ber
h a s its

ow n

liin it o f u s e fu ln e s s ,



d ie

v a r io u s d e v ic e s


carp e n try and joinery are constantly being exercised tow ards using

d ass

o f tin ib e r


b e s t s u its


n a tiu e

a iid c h a r a c te r .


exam ple, some tim bers cut to good bulk and are solid for weight-



bearing ; others m ay be h ad in long lengths, w ith tenacious quality,

for spanning across in floors and roofs ; y e t others are short in
grain, and are only obtainable in contracted w idths or lim ited
lengths, and these m ay be suitable for joinery or finishing purposes,
so th a t, w hatever th e n atu re of the wood, if it be b u t sound and
of good quality, it m ay find its use in some p a rt of builders work.
I t is interesting to note how this sort of thing is constantly
influencing constructive m ethods.

A door, for instance, m ay n ot be

m ade of one board ; hence the device of fram ing and panelling.

beam is only obtainable in a certain length, hence the need for

scarfing, and so right through.

The end grain shrinking of certain

tim bers, the buckling tendency of others, as well as the degree of

external finish obtainable, is b o th m aking and changing present day
work in no small degree, so th a t both in the design of woodwork
and in its practical execution m uch skill needs to be exercised.
S h o p w o r k . The

form er m ethod of builders m aking their own

joinery tends strongly to become obsolete, for the m anner now

adopted of having


class of work m ade in large joinery

establishm ents attach ed to the yards of tim ber m erchants gives

rise to th e free use of m achinery, and produces quicker if n ot more
substantial work th a n by th e older h and m ethods of former days.
Joinery then, as is so specially tru e of an ever-increasing num ber of
things in the m odern building, tends m ore and more to become an
ordinary purchasable q u an tity .

Large stocks of ready-m ade doors,

windows, verandah posts, pickets, architraves, skirtings, moldings,

&c., are now held, and m ay be draw n upon for ordinary work ; the
b etter class of work only being made specially to design.
In joinery finishing, as in all finishing, the n ature of the finish
required should be specially defined, as a p ainted finish is much
more roughly executed th an work for a polished finish, the
la tter requiring secret tenoning, secret naihng, hand-dressing, and
sand-paper finishing, whereas w ith the former a good, sound, clean
finish, w ith nails well punched in, will be found sufficient.



T he P

r e s e r v a t io n


T im


Tim ber requires not only to

be specially selected so as to be suitable for the work required in

th e various positions where it m ay be used, b u t it m ust also be
preserved from d ry and w et rot.

D ry ro t occurs where tim ber is

k ep t w ithout air ; the free circulation of air, therefore, is essential for

th e preservation of all stru c tu ra l tim bers.

W et ro t occurs the most

readily in th e im ported ])ine tim bers, and these require to be kept

out of th e ground and well painted, only tim ber capable of w ith
standin g w et being allowed in exposed positions.
To place tim ber actu ally in the ground or a t the junction of the
ground w ith th e air, is th e m ost severe test, and leads rapidly to the
decay of all tim bers

save a very few, of which arered gum,

ja rrah , H u o n pine, and a few others.


o in t s


ix in g s .

In carp en try

th e m aking of suitable

joints and connections betw een the various tim bers is of the greatest
im portance, and such jointing should be so m anaged as to throw as
little w ork upon th e actu al nailing as possible.
The nam es of th e com m on joints in carp entry are housing,
halving, notching, b ird s-m outhing, cogging, m ortising and tenon
ing, scarfing, checking, heel-jointm g, &c.
(P late L X V ., hg. 1 ) is where the end of one piece of
tim b er is sunk in its en tirety in to another piece set a t rig h t angles.
Halving in its various form s is shown in P late LX V L, figs. 1, 2,
and 3 , an d P la te L X V ., fig. 5 .

H alving is m ostly used in the

laying and connection of plates.

Two form s of notching are shown on P late L X V I.,
figs. 4 and 5.

These show notching applied to joists resting upon

plates, as in a floor.
A nother form of
m outh " (P late L X V ., hg. 2 ).

notching is the

This, in various forms, is applied to

rafters resting upon wall jilates.

Cogging is a more elaborate kind of notching.
fig. G.;

" b ir d 's

(Plate L X V L ,



riG .5.

FIG .6 .
M ortice,.




MorticG&Tenon DIob-Tenon



T ijo h -T fen o n .

A o o o ed .


n . 7 .

DirdomoG^h Join-T
0f Principal Daffer a f fooT of Paf%r.
and Tic D cam .

''J o i n f a r fDr

J01/1TO i/i 0\GPmTGY



0 / e . G / n ^ h P lato.

L X V l.

btooi rioh Platao^


TIG. 9 .

lohGd Joint ID
T e o ia f C o m p rs a ^ io jT


oar-fed Joinf id
re s io f Gompmsoion

0 /0 0 / Hbh P latos

F IG ./.

)c a j% d
T e ,n 5 io n a lG lT a in


I G .I O

D eam .


A o iC h irg

Wall Plato

O S Q in Q
g T Q iid d im i




r?' ? 'i '


> ' v J



Mortising and Tenoning is carried out in various ways, the

simplest form being the stub tenon.

(Plate LX V ., fig. 3.)


is where an upright piece of tim bersay a s t u d is tenoned

into a plate.

The upright end is squared and cut away, all save a

portion of the centre called the te n o n ; a hole, the m ortise,

corresponding to the tenon, is then sunk in the plate to receive the

This is m ortising and tenoning.

tenon is shown in fig. 6.

A simple mortise and

O ther forms are the tu sk te n o n (Plate

LXV., fig. 4), used in the trim m ing of joists.

to supply a seating.

In this the tenon has

The long end, passing right through the

mortise, is wedged up w ith key upon the other side.

See its appli

cation to upper floor fire-place in Chapter X ., P late X L V IIL , fig. 4.

Other forms of the m ortise and tenon, b u t as applied to joinery,
are shown on Plates L X X X . and L X X X I. (doors).
In cabinet work, and occasionally in joinery, w hat is known as
fox-tail w edging or secret te n o n in g is apphed to m ortising.
This consists in m aking the m ortise dovetailed shape, and inserting
wedges in the ends of the tenon before it is driven home.

This is

to prevent the tenon from showing through the work, such as to

door styles, &c., and is used in the best class of work where visible
tenons are otherwise commonly used.
Scarfing is necessary where tim bers cannot be obtained of
sufficient length for the purpose.

Scarfing is the joining of tim bers

in the direction of their length, and is shown in P late LXV., figs.

7, 8, and 9.
Checking is a term applied in a general way to various connec
tions of tim bers, one fitting into the other, such as a t the junction
of a stru t w ith fence post and sole plate.
1 and 2.)

(See P late L X X V L, figs.

This check gives to the work a rigidity, independent of

the nailing, and is very generally used throughout carpentry.


c&c. Various

kinds of

joints for


principal rafters with the ends of tie-beams are used.


consist of either plain checking or checking and tenoning, and are

designed to resist shearing.

A common form is shown in Plate



L X V ., fig. 7.

O ther roof joints are shown on sheets illustrating

roof principal details.

F ix in g s.W ire nails of various lengths and thicknesses, sold by
weight, are com m only em ployed for fixings in carpenters work.
Finishing nails (brads) are used in joinery and for small, neat work,
also for secret nailing in floors, &c.

Screws are used where special

stren g th and clean finish are required ; th ey are of various lengths

and thicknesses, and are sold by the gross.

Brass screws are

em ployed in such w ork as wooden wash troughs, washable table

tops, and w herever w ater comes into direct contact with the fixings.
Coach and han d rail screws are employed for special work.


and n u ts are used to pierce and connect tim bers where special
stren g th is required.

F o r these holes are bored, the bolts inserted,

and th e n u ts tightened up.

Forgings in straps of various kinds are

largely used in roof principal work.

These are m ostly made out of

flat iron, forged and cu t to shapes, and bolted in position.


are som etim es used in roof principals to form end seatings, or to act
as ra fte r and king heads a t apex of principals.

Glue is more

com m only used in joinery th a n in carp en try and for inside work ;
it should be clean, applied hot, and th e work cram ped up to allow
of close setting.
T im b e r

S tru ctu r es.

Wood Frame B uild ing .A very large

percentage of A u stralian building is b u ilt in tim ber, especially in

districts where native woods are readily obtained, and even where
the im ported tim bers have to be em ployed the cost of such
building is so m uch less th a n brick or stone as to lead to its ready
F o r th e best class of dom estic building, where the work has to
receive in tern al plaster, th e stru c tu ra l tim bers m ust be dry, o ther
wise serious fractu re is certain to occur ; to alleviate this, wood
fining or stam ped steel m ay be su b stitu ted for plaster.

In store or

facto ry building this tendency tow ards shrinkage is not, as a rule, so

serious a disadvantage.


4"' 2 Qafte^rC)
Dattdns> for.

CorrujQat(icl !r

4^ 2" C ollar 77<%

4''"Z>~Top Platd
Fllldt P/<ZCdO.
"v*"Oz '/linQJoioto /&" c . r o c
H "^/ r a - 3 c i o .


/(3"c. toe.


nnQld Jtuc/4^4

/ T


4-"2" Wrmin



4-Z"^-^^PIoor J o i o t !Q" c.TO .P.

^/ \6 "*5Otumpo.

WOOD' rB A lIt DUlin/lG




There are several ways of constructing a frame building, b u t th a t

shown on Plate L X V ll. is one of the most common.

Following the

line of the ground plan of the walls, stum ps are sunk in the ground
under the walls.

These m ust be of jarrah , red gum, or such

tim bers as will not readily rot.

W here white ants are likely to be

]>resent, the stum ps should be of such m aterials as will not readily

be attacked by these term ites, and the stum ps should be coated
with an t exterm inator and protected on the top with galvanized
sheet iron a n t stopsi.e., inverted sheet m etal plates covering the
stum ps and projecting well over same.
tim ber fair cut off a t top.

Stum ps are often of unsawn

Brick or stone piers m ay also be

substituted, or a dw arf wall may be used instead of the pier

In the diagram the stum ps are shown of b-in. by 5-in. sawn
tim ber, sunk 24 in. in the ground and resting upon G-in. by l|-in .
sole plates.

This sole ])late is not always necessary,

in good soils

the stum ps m ay be sunk and driven home w ith a heavy maul.

Stum ps are generally placed a t distances of ab o u t 4 ft. ap art, the
same system being ajiplied to supports under doors as under walls.
Upon the top of the stum ps the bottom plate (of similar tim ber)
is laid ; this is halved a t joints and angles, and well spiked to
stum ps, similar pieces of tim ber being placed under door joists,
called bearers.
The door joists are laid upon the top of these, and for domestic
work, are sufdcient if of 4 in. by 2 in. hardwood, spaced 18 in.
a p a rt centres, and well skew-nailed.

On top of the joists, and

im m ediately above the bottom ]>late, the verm in ])late is laid.

I'he work of this plate is to receive the lower ends of uprights, which
are called s tu d s ; these are either
housed and skew-nailed.
18 in. a p a rt centres.

m ortised and tenoned or

For w eatherboards studs require to be

F or galvanized iron covering w ithout inside

lining, a greater distance a p a rt m ay be adopted, as 24 in. or 30 in.

The studs rise the full height of walls, and are covered with the
top plate, into which they m ay be housed or tenoned.


: 0


plate, like th e bottom plate, is also halved a t



fram ing needs careful bracing, which is highly im p o rtan t in all

fram e work.

This m ay be


w ith

cross lacings

of sto u t

galvanized hoop-iron, pulling one against the other, or by wood

braces cu t in to stu d s and top and b o tto m plates, and set a t raking
angle across each section of the studding, as seen in the diagram .
A com mon ridge roof for galvanized iron covering is shown.

consists of ceiling joists spaced 18 in. a p a rt centres for

plastering, w ith rafters a t 36 in. a p a rt centres (which is sufficient

for iron), and collar ties nailed to sides.
the ridge, from which is suspended a

The rafters are scribed to

hanger, which relieves the

ceiling joists across the centre of wide ap artm ents.

of this beam fillet pieces are nailed to receive joists.

Upon the side

Such a beam

often rests upon end walls, and is m ade deep enough to do the
w ork w ith o u t being suspended.

B atten s are nailed horizontally at

intervals to receive th e roof iron ; these should be ab o u t 30 in.

a p a rt centres, b u t differ som ew hat, being m ade to suit sizes of iron

The fascia is nailed to th e ends of projecting rafters, and

the spouting mold laid on.

The stu d s in this case are covered on the outside w ith common
feather-edged w eatherboards, w ith 1^ in. lap, nailed through the
thick p a rt of th e outer boards, to pinch, not to nail, the thin p a rt
of the under boards, the boards being set to gauge, to show truly
horizontal and fair from outside w hen finished.

W eatherboards are

also m ade w ith rounded edges, and w ith rebatings, &c.


m ostly used, such as th e im ported B altic and common hardwood, are

here shown.

H ardw ood w eatherboards require more lap th an the

im ported, as th e y shrink more.

Angles are finished fair up against

vertical stops, which are generally ab o u t 2 | in. by 1^ in.


openings, such as doors and windows, horizontal stops are also

form ed by th e linings or frames.

W here w hite ants are prevalent,

the space under the floor is best left quite open ; in other cases,
especially where sloping ground is m et with, the space below the
verm in plate m ay be filled in w ith rough boarded sheeting,



which should be of tim ber not affected by ground dam p.


ordinary level work, the bottom of the w eatherboards m ay be

finished down on to a sto u t plinth as shown.
Openings. In wooden fram ing the door and wooden openings
have to be arranged by trim m ing. This is usually done by increasing
by one inch the thickness of the tim bers around the three sides of
the opening, and trim m ing in head and sill pieces.

In this way

door and window frames do not require to be as solid as where

placed in brick or stone walls, as th ey receive from the rough wood
work some general support.

For a large wood frame building refer

to woolsheds (Plates X X IV . and X X V .)

T emporary Carpen try .A certain percentage of carpenters
work m ay be classed as tem porary, as it is directed tow ards the
m aking and m aintaining of certain things, not necessarily a p er
m anent p a rt of the building itself, such as scaffolds, tem porary
ladders, hoists, casings, centres, hoardings, overways, shores, &c.
Scaffolds are of various kinds, the m ost common being made up
of scaffold poles lashed together w ith cords, supporting short
horizontal lengths of square tim ber, called p u t logs, which rest in the
walling and support the scaffolding boards.
Scaffolds are sometimes carried out with light steel bracketing hung
to walls as the work proceeds.

In some cases the scaffolding is

carried up entirely on the inside of the b u ild in g ; b u t w hatever its

character its stagings should be ample and secure.
The various trades also have their own scaffolding, suited to their
work, which is known technically as p lan t.
Hoists are of various kinds, from the common hand winch to the
universal steam crane or traveller.

The la tte r is found necessary in

large stone jobs and has to be carried on sto u t baulk tim bering at
such height as to get above the lifting required.
Casings.All stonework, such as plinth, sills, steps, as well as
any specially finished work in cornices, wood sills, and especially
sharp arrises, &c., requires to be cased up w ith rough wood casing to



protect them from injury as the work proceeds.

These are gradually

rem oved from top to bottom at completion of the work.

In concrete work casings have to be made to receive the concrete,
which, in large jobs of reinforcing, m ay involve very considerable
labour and ingenuity for the proper support of the masses in
Centres.All arches other th an the ordinary brick arches of flat
rise, which are generally supported on iron bars, require tem porary
wood centres to support the voussoirs during building.


centres are m ade of rough boarding, cu t to contour in duplicate,

kept ap art, and open b attened on top, with fillet pieces upon which
the stone or brick rests.

These are propped up tem porarily in

position, in such a w ay th a t they m ay be struck when the arch is

Overways are to p rotect the footpaths and street channels from
injury during the cartage of m aterial.

These are generally regulated

by municipal and shire councils.

Hoardings are tem porary screens mostly used in city buildings,
and m ay extend over the footpaths, which have to be m aintained for
the use of the public.

Such hoardings and enclosures have to be

constructed and lighted as directed by the city building authorities.

Floors. W ooden floors differ in character according to the work
required of them .

In domestic work a floor m ay be very lightly

constructed, while in warehouses, where heavy weights have to be

carried, together with wheel and working trafhc, the floors require
to be strongly constructed and heavily boarded.
Of yet another character are dancing flooors, which require to be
both strong and elastic.

Such floors, when upon ground levels, are

best kep t free from walls, and, as far as possible, independent, so

th a t vibration m ay not be conveyed to the structure.
Ground Floors m ay be classed separately from upper floors,
as they have more under support.

A ground floor is carried only

partially upon the walls, as within the area of the apartm ent
sleeper piers, sleeper walls, or stum ps are set and bearers laid at



Ordinary Ground

4"'l4"OI^Qp(zr Pi^r

tlernnq bono, <brruftirig

Ordinary FlraT Floor (OinQle Floor)
Wood r/oor



Outoid(L Wall.


OscTion fhro' Dooble Floor.



right angles to receive the joists.

shows an ordinary house floor.)


(See P late LX V IIL, fig. 1, which

At the walls a set-ofE is built, upon which the wall plate, which
is generally about

in. by 1 | in. jarrah or red gum, is laid.

Bearers span the ap artm en t a t distances of about 4 ft. 6 in. centres.

These are best also of red gum or jarrah , or other tim ber not
affected by dam p.

The joists m ay be 4 in. or 5 in. by 2 in., of

hardwood, spaced 18 in. a p a rt centres, and skew-nailed to plates

and bearers.

The boards or flooring are laid w ith tongued and

grooved boards, laid, by preference, in the direction of the longest

way of the apartm ent.

These m ay be of various woods, th ick

nesses, and kinds, the m ost common being tongued and grooved
kauri, red or white deal, jarrah, hardwood, &c., generally in sizes
such as 6-in. by |-in ., 6-in. by 1^-in., 4-in. by |-in ., 4-in. by 1^-in., &c.
Flooring boards should be laid in long lengths, with splayed heading
joints, each board being closely cram ped up with floor dogs, and
bradded at each intersection of the joists.

In ordinary flooring two

oval wire nails are allowed to each board a t the intersection of

joists, the boards being laid groove-wise to the workman.


nails should be well punched in, and the floors cleaned off by
planing a t completion.
In floors for polishing or dancing the boards are secret nailed
i.e., nailed to the joists near the tongues, the order of laying being
reversed, by laying tongue-wise to the workm an, the surface being
afterw ards traversed offth a t is, planed dead level and true all
Around fire-place hearths the boards are m itred to form margin.
Upper Floors.U pper floors in ordinary work usually bridge
from wall to wall.

This is called single flooring.

Where the

distance is too great for one span, the ordinary joists require to be
supported by rolled steel joists or wood beams.
constructed as shown in P late L X V IIL , fig. 2.

U pper floors are

Here the joists are

shown deeper th an for ground floors, and resting on a brick wall

upon two rows of stout hoop-iron.

A t upper floor levels the wall



thickness is often reduced as the building rises.

This creates a

set off, upon which the joists rest, and upon which a hoop or
flat iron p late m ay be laid to receive th e joist ends.

The joists are

here 10 in. by 2 in. and 18 in. ap art.

Herring-Bone Strutting. To stiffen the joints, and to keep them
in up rig h t position, herring-bone stru ttin g is fitted and nailed in a
row betw een joists across th e a p a rtm e n t; this consists of 2-in. by
1-in. stuff diagonally cut, fitted, and nailed as shown.

H oop-iron

is som etim es used for this purpose, laced over and under the joists
Double Floors. W here floor spans are excessive, the general way
is to su p p o rt th e joists on rolled steel joists, into which the joists
m ay fit and leave a fair soffit, or th e rolled steel joists m ay he
placed entirely u n d ern eath the joists, the joists resting thus upon
th e upper flange (see fig. 3).

This is called double flooring.

Floor T rim m in g .W here openings are form ed in floors, the

tim bers require to be increased 1 in. in thickness, and the openings
trim m ed as shown in C hapter X ., P la te X L V III., fig. 4.
Pugging.W ooden floors are strong conductors of sound, and to
obviate th is upper floors are often pugged.

Pugging is coarse

hair m o rtar laid upon rough boarding, set on fillets nailed to the
sides of joists betw een

th e

ceiling and

th e



deadening the sound, pugging tends to endanger b y decay the life

of the tim ber, which is best left free from packing of any kind.
Fireproof Floors. F o r fire-resisting floors, see C hapter X II.
W o o d P a r t i t i o n s . Tim ber partitions, either for plastering or
for lining, are usually constructed in th e same w ay as described for
the walls of a wood fram e buildingi.e., w ith top and bottom plate
and uprig h t braced studs and trim m ed openings.

Such partitions

are usually carried upon th e floors ; if upon the upper floor of a

brick building, and th e y require to be self-supporting, a rolled steel
joist m ay be placed u n derneath to take the weight.
R o o f s . Generally.A very im p o rtan t p a rt of carpentry practice-



is directed tow ards roof construction, which branch of building

is now greatly supplem ented b y the introduction into modern work
of reinforced concrete and steel construction.
While both concrete and steel, as constructive factors, are likely
to be increasingly used for large and perm anent commercial work,
the great proportion of all-round domestic and general roof con
struction requires to be carried out in tim ber.

The traditions, too,

of old tim e carpentry one of the noblest of all the crafts are still
too strongly influenced w ith the grandeur of the mediaeval open
roofs th a t grace m any of the historic buildings of the old world
to allow such adm irable principles of construction to easily die ; for
such examples m ust ever rem ain to show th a t a roof m ay be made
more than simply u tilitarian it m ay be m ade both beautiful and
Roofs are touched upon in Roof Coverings, and reference should
be made to th a t chapter and to the illustrations accompanying it,
and especially to Plates L X X X V I., L X X X V IL , and L X X X V IIL ,
showing the various p arts of an ordinary roof, so th a t from the
outset some understanding m ay be arrived a t as to the general
term s used in roof work.

Special atten tio n is also directed to

P late L X IX ., where some 17 types of roof principals are shown.

I t should be clearly understood th a t it is only for wide spans th a t

principals are required.

The greater proportion of ordinary

domestic rooflng is carried out w ith common rafter roofing only.

In designing a roof for any given building, consideration m ust be
given first of all to the following points : Q uality and weight of
roof covering, span between supports, angle of pitch, wind pressure.
Character and weight of ceiling (if any), &c.
Should the supporting walls not be a t excessive distances ap a rt,
with a fair num ber of cross walls between, thus leaving open spans
of not more th a n about 18 ft., as is the case in an ordinary house, a
common rafter roof will be found sufficient, especially if the
tim bers be strengthened by stru ttin g off the intervening walls, and
the rafters well cross tied.

On the other hand, in open spaced













These consist of wood or iron trussed supports,

spanning from wall to wall, a t distances varying from about 8

to 12 ft. a p a rt, so designed and set up as to support the com
m on rafters, purlins, or b a tte n s required to hold the actual roof
The form er case would be illu strated b y the house roof showing
on P la te L X V II.
The la tte r case w ould be seen in the nave roof of an ordinary
church building.
In roof construction th e law of forces should be understood and
allowed for in the strength, size, and position of the various parts,
the object of roof bracing being to overcome the forces of com
pression an d tension set up in the work, together w ith the force of
torsio n i.e., buckling or bendingth a t m ay take place under wind
pressure or th e w eight of the roof covering.
To stu d y these laws the stu d e n t should m ake himself acquainted
w ith th e b est books dealing w ith applied mechanics, w ith the test
streng th s of local m aterials, and w ith the average wind velocity
readings of the d istrict in which his building is to be erected.
Common Rafter R oofs.U nder the term common rafter roofs
are included all sloping roofs th a t
principals for th e ir support.

do n o t depend

upon roof

These are of various kinds, the

sim plest being the lean-to (P late L X IX ., fig. 1), which consists
of single rafters set to slope, supported a t each end by walls.
Among ridge roofs th e rafters m ay have joists as in fig. 2, or collar
beam and joists as in fig. 3, or if over wide spans m ay have both
collars and stru ts (fig. 4).
A simple, com m on rafter ridge roof, for corrugated iron covering
and wood or p laster ceiling, is illu strated in P late L X V II., and
described w ith wood fram e buildings.
F o r all ordinary dom estic buildings
usually adopted.

this is the type of roof

F o r tiles, slates, or shingle covering the rafters

require to be ab o u t 18 in. a p a rt centres, as also the ceiling

M G .l .
--to ft.


Ig a n -it)R o 0 r


izft. -


C ollaP beam C. P PO0T.

Common J^affer

wi-fh a tr e io
F 1 G .4 .

K in Q P o s t PriDcipai

R ic^cP oef

Q ueen P o s T P r in a p a


ColiaP b e a m

r iG . 5 .

Lammapzd nb
^ r o 40-ft.

F IG .5 .

FIG . 6 .

Two P rin c ip o lo o u ilM ^ o r A a llo v i f h C oved C e ilin g s

O wamrn<Lr
J O '/ D

40 ft:


Aammer'D(zam Doef

20 - to

F 1 G .O . t ]M r f -D

A a n s o r d Bof
F IG . 3

oo ft-

Otory # ------- 20 'to 2>G'ft-


O aw -To0ihPoet



'-r %,3%'




joists for plaster.

W here

corrugated iron



is used,

rafters m ay be placed 36 in. ap a rt centres and horizontal battens

laid to receive iron.
Ridges, hips, and valleys are form ed w ith deep tim bers a t
the junctional
and nailed.

meeting of the

rafters, to which they are cut

Eaves are formed by the ends of rafters, and m ay

be finished in several different ways.

(See diagram in Roof Cover

ings/' Chapter X V I.)

Principal Roofs.A principal roof is any kind of sloping roof
supported by trusses or principals.

Such roofs above the

principal are similar in all general particulars to common rafter

In principal roofs the truss is designed to carry the purlins,
which run a t rig h t angles upon the top of the truss ; these in
their tu rn take the common rafters, or if the roof be corrugated
iron covered, the purlins alone m ay suffice, being placed closer
together for this purpose.
There are a large num ber of roof principals, some of the chief
types of which are diagram m atically illustrated on P late L X IX .
W here roofs are hipped half-trusses are used.
K ing Post Roof. A king post roof is shown in P late L X X .
This form of roof is suitable for spans of from 20 to 30 ft., and is
illustrated very fully in detail on the plate.
The name of this principal, or tru ss, as it is commonly called,
is taken from the vertical centre or king post, which is designed
to hold up the centre of the tie-beam , the attach m en t being
by means of a stirrup iron pierced through near the top, and
fitted with an arrangem ent of m etal tw in wedges called cotters,
having top and bottom pieces of iron called gibs for the wedge
to work against in tightening up the work.
In this principal all the tim bers are checked and tenoned, and
a t vital points strapped


bolted together w ith 8vrought

On one side is shown a p arap et wall w ith a box gutter, and on



the other side an ordinary eaves finish, all the special parts of which
are shown by enlarged details upon the same plate.
Queen Post Roof.A queen post roof principal is illustrated in
detail on P late L X X I.

This principal is suitable for wide spans,

the one shown being for a 40-ft. span with trusses 10 ft. apart.
Here, unlike the
queen posts.

king post, two posts are arranged, called

The figure shows the arrangem ent of the various

parts, and the scantlings required for ordinary slate roof covering ;
some enlarged details being given of the junction of the queen post
head, purlins, and rafters, also the tie-beam attachm ents.


figure shows the fixing of ordinary ceiling joists and plastering to

the tie-beam , for the purpose of forming a ceiling.
Roofs for Coved Ceilings.W here it is necessary to raise the
general ceiling level of an ap artm en t above the walls, this may be
done, in a common rafter roof, by the omission of the ceiling joists,
and the insertion of collar beams at the height required, the
exposed slope of rafters and collars being then lined to form the
W hen a similar arrangem ent is required in a large building, such
as an assembly hall, the roof principals have to be designed so as
to make possible this type of finish.

P late L X IX ., figs. 5 and 6,

show two ways of carrying out such a problem.

m oderately pitched roof, having the


Fig. 5 shows a

diagonally braced

across, and w ith a low-set collar beam, which together form a coved
A nother type of principal for a half-open roof is shown in the
next figure (fig. 6).

Here the general roof pitch is higher, and the

ceiling more expansive.

The rafters and collar are connected to

each other and to the wall with lam inated rib tim beringbe., timber
in several thicknesses, fitted to circular sweeps, which follow the
line of the principal and come down the walls to rest


ornam ental corbels.

Such a ceiling m ay be lined in various ways by exposing the
purlins, or by the introduction of joists, so arranged as to carry


^ Cl


(0 C






close boarding, the lam ination of the truss and portion of the collar
only rem aining visible beneath the lining.

This makes a suitable

roof for church work, b u t in wide spans the principals require a

cross tie-red to relieve the tendency of the feet of the principal
rafters to kick out over the walls.
Roofs w ith coved wooden ceilings are, in practice, usually found
to give very satisfactory acoustic results for assembly halls and
similar open buildings, and are designed in a great num ber of
differing ways.

Care, however, should always be tak en to tie in, as

well as possible, the legs of the principals.

is shown in P late L X V I., fig. 10.

A detail of lam inating

Saw-tooth Roofs. Mellow, shadowless roof lighting over extensive

floor areas is often specially required over such buildings as woolrooms, factories, store sheds, &c., and this requirem ent is m et by
the saw -tooth form of roofing (Plate L X IX ., fig. 7).

This type

of roof is arranged to carry a vertical or slightly sloping light upon

one of its sides, generally facing south ; the whole of the construc
tion being directed to secure a well-diffused neutral and properly
reflected light.

These roofs are usually covered w ith galvanized

corrugated iron, with principals fram ed up a t intervals and carried

on wooden story posts or steel or cast-iron uprights. '* The purlins
to take the iron are run in long lengths from end to end of building
upon the top of the trusses, and the iron secured directly to the
purlins. The lights m ay be continuous or intervening between
closed-in spaces.
Hammer Beam Roofs. The ham m er beam roof (Plate L X IX .,
fig. 8) is a form of roof th a t has become a stan d ard for im portant
Gothic work.

One of the m ost beautiful examples of this type of

roof is to be found in old St. Stephens Hall, W estm inster (London),

which should be referred to for characteristic detail. The distinctive
feature of this type of principal is the introduction of the ham m er
beam , a cantilever-like form projecting inwards from the face of
the walls, taking the place of the usual tie-beams.
Open Timber Roofs.Much dignity and beauty is created in



college halls, churches, and ecclesiastical buildings by the adaptation

of some form of the open tim ber roof.

In these roofs the structural

tim bers are wrought and allowed to show from below, revealing the
general construction and framing, consequent upon which ornamental
moldings, carving, and ironwork are often introduced to relieve the
plainness of the stru ctu ral timbers.
M ansards. The M ansard roof (Plate L X IX ., fig. 9) is a distinctive
type of high roof which originated in France and has much vogue
for a certain style of Renaissance building.

Its towering mass gives

a certain dignity to a high building, and affords space in the roof

for rooms.
Combined Wood and Iron Roofs.For notes on iron roofs reference
should be m ade to Chapter X IV .Steel and Iron in Construction.
In roofs where the principals themselves are of steel a certain
am ount of carpenters work is sometimes introduced, such as


common rafters,



&c. ; and in

other ways steel m ay be introduced m conjunction w ith timber,

where the principal rafters of a truss are wood and the tying and
bracing is of steel.
M etal tie-rods are of common application in wooden principals, as
also king bolts in place of king posts.

In some principals

im proved connections are made by introducing cast-iron shoe pieces

to end of principal rafters resting upon the walls, or when king bolts
are used a cast-iron king head m ay be adopted to take the ends of
the principal rafters and the top of the hanging king bolt.

In any

case a certain am ount of sm iths work is always to be found in

heavy roof construction, where strappings and boltings form a very
im p o rtan t part of the constructive carpentry.
In m etal work provision should be made, as far as possible,
for tightening up the work, so th a t when the tim ber shrinks the
various p arts m ay be overhauled and brought to their proper
T r im m in g . I n constructing a roof the various tim bers require to

be trim m ed around all openings such as chimneys, trap doors.



nars>Q.iHe:i TiIq.5


ZO Ouao<z,Z)m(if




Face Piece


ohele x>n

go 'o e-rmrm

Defail Of

barQe Doard^




fc u f
A a l-f-n G v a iio n


to follow hne
o f D a /^e
4-' '/z"

I2"2 " b a r p e
b 2 ~ /io ld .


O G G non.


lo in fe d

A alf'P lan o n

lin.(2/ A-A .

O caJe/ o f







This is done in a similar way to


See page 332.

Roof Lights.W here ap artm ents are lighted from the roof space,
provision is made for trim m ing around the openings, and also for
carrying the added weight of the light, which, in addition to heavy
weight of glass, requires to be stoutly constructed and well flashed.
The sk y lig h t (Plate L X X X V ., Chapter X V I.) is one of the
simplest forms of roof lights.

This consists of an upstanding frame

holding a sash filled with glass, which m ay be either hung or fixed.

A dorm er is another form of light, and is also shown in Plate
LX X X V .

Dorm ers m ay be a t the eaves or higher up the roof

slopes, and are of a great variation of design.

U sually they are

fram ed in tim ber and have sashes in solid frames.

A lantern is a form of roof light used for lighting the internal
parts of a building from the roof, and is much adopted in large
business premises, shops, &c.
A lantern usually consists of a framework wholly or partially
filled with glass, upstanding above the general roof slope.


m ay be square, rectangular, or domical.

Gables and Half-timbering. In domestic buildings where gables
are used it is usual to carry the gab ling out beyond the external
face of the walling, and to finish w ith barge b o a rd s or half
tim bering of some kind.
Such a gable is shown in the perspective sketch (Plate L X X X V .,
C hapter X VI.), and fully illustrated in detail on P late L X X II.
H alf-tim bering is a very ancient form of old English building
some of the best examples dating back to E lizabethan days, and
showing fine constructive form and picturesque detail. The old work
was usually built w ith solid skeleton-framed tim berings through the
full thickness of the walls, infilled between w ith brickwork or

In m odern practice where half-tim bering is used fair

face woodwork is generally made to stand upon the outside face of

rough framing.

This is the case in the diagram (Plate L X X II ),

where the gable is filled in with half-tim bering.

In this class of



w ork g reat care requires to be ta k e n to p rev en t the indriving of

rain, one w ay of preventing w hich is shown in the detail.

In a

gable of this kind all the available tim bers should be extended to
su p p o rt the barge board, such as the ridge and wall p la te s ; short
supplem en tary pieces, called jack pieces, are also carried out to
tak e the w eight of the projecting half-tim bering.
This half-tim bering consists of a skeleton fram e of rough tim ber,
corresponding to and a t back of th e visible half-tim bering.


fram ing (see d etail a t " IB " ) is first lined over w ith galvanized sheet

A b a tte n is th e n interposed, and th e whole lathed over.

ground is th e n fixed in fro n t to receive th e final covering pieces, the

plastering being laid betw een.

In th is way th e w ater is prevented

from entering, and a key is secured a t back of the covering pieces

for the plaster.

There are oth er ways of carrying out this class of

work, b u t th is has th e approval of tried practice.

Barge boards

are th e boards th a t finish th e roof ends, such as to lean-to ends or

gable ends.

The one shown on th e p late is 12 in. by 2 in., and has

a m old on top, upon which the final row of tiles rests.

The p ro

jecting wall p late is strengthened to carry th e barge by sto u t

brackets, one on either side.

In large gables in front of purlin

roofs th e purlins are som etim es carried out to receive the b a rg e .,

B arges m ay also be cut to shape, molded, and finished w ith finial
posts or in oth er ways.

G reat v a rie ty m ay also be given to the

finish of th e half-tim bering.

S h o r in g a n d U n d e r p in n in g . In dealing w ith old buildings
where stru c tu ra l alteratio n s or repairs have to be carried out,
shoring is often found necessary.
Shoring is a term applied to the tem p o rary supports used for
carrying or steadying walls, or other stru c tu ra l p arts of a building,


follows along certain


or less


p rin

ciples of com m on practice, for which reference should be made

to P lates L X X III. and L X X IV .

H ere are seen the types of

com m on shores which m ay be classed as " underpinning shores,


of Girder


Ei fm

^ o / e P /o /e d

M e v a tD n

O G cnon

O r % j2 r r % n n jr % 3 CDrKDns



O D e - jm y a jw




r iG .o

W e^e3

r iG .4 .
^ I b u r -lm
Q a K in Q v 3 n o r

nooh Iron

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R a K in a O h o rB O

O n O R l/IG





r i G .o .

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Dog Iron Opi




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OpiKm%----------- \


D e c ile ] " /le e d k

O lO H A G


raking shores, and horizontal shores.


These differ widely

in length, scantling, and character, according to their position and

the work required of them .

Shores, too, are also greatly influenced

by the contained space in which the shore m ust w orka very great
consideration where clear space is lim ited, or where the shore has
to be erected upon a street frontage or lim ited adjoining property.
Oregon tim ber is m ost suitable for shoring, w ith ground sills of
some dense, hard tim ber capable of w ithstanding crushing.
D ry hardw ood is generally considered best for wedges, very
slightly tapered, so as not to jum p back when driven.

Shores.P late





common example of underpinning shoring where an old dwellinghouse is being converted into a shop.
The first work, in such a job, is to tem porarily shore up around the
u])per window openings and to p u t in straining pieces so as to make
as much as possible one mass of the superstructure. W hen this has
been done, needles are inserted through the strongest p a rt of the
wall in the centre of the piers.
steel joisting, as steel

These needles are best of rolled

requires a sm aller hole th a n wood.


needles stand over both in front and back of the wall (see section),
and are supported a t either end by sto u t vertical shores, resting
upon continuous sole plates secured w ith cleat pieces to prevent

Fox wedgesi.e., wedges in duplicate are inserted a t the

top ends of the shores, and driven home to tighten up under the
needles and take the weight.
The support of the upper flooring depends upon the direction of
overhead joists, also w hether there is a basem ent or not, as all
shores m ust be taken down, in every case, to solid, firm bearing.
In this case the shore is taken through the ground floor to the
ground. These shores have, along the top, a continuous plate to
receive the joists, lying a t right angles to the front wall.
After firmly shoring up and supporting the work, in the way
illustrated, the u n derneath walling m ay be removed, the jam bs
built up fair w ith brick or stone in cem ent m ortar, and a girder, of



sufficient stren g th to tak e the overhead weights, hoisted and set in

position, and all m ade good around to the old work.

The shores

m ay th e n be carefully rem oved by driving back the fox wedges and

g radually allowing th e new w ork to tak e its bearings.
The aforesaid illu strates th e general principal of underpinning
which is applied in a large num ber of different ways, especially
where basem ents are created to old buildings, or where a new
building w ith a basem en t comes against an old building w ithout a
basem ent.

I n such a case the old wall has to be underpinned.

This is done b y excavating the ground in small sections, and

building up solid w alling under the old wall.

This is repeated

altern a te ly rig h t along th e wall, w hen a re tu rn is m ade to deal with

the in te rle ft spaces, which are tre a te d in the same w ay till the
whole wall is underpinned w ith new walling.

W hile this class of

w ork is being carried out it is custom ary, should the wall be an

outer wall, to stead y it w ith a raking shore (see P la te L X X III.)
R aking Shores are used for bulging walls or for walls th a t require
steadying during underpinning.

T hey v ary w ith the height of the

building, th e num ber of th e floors to be supported, and


position of th e ex act spots of weakness requiring strengthening.

P late L X X III. shows three kinds of raking shores the one,
three, and four-legged shores th e enlarged details of which, with
technical term s of p arts, are shown on the lower portion (Plate
L X X IV .)
P la te L X X III., fig. 2, illu strates the one-legged raking shore,
giving general su p p o rt to a leaning wall of a one-story building.
This shore consists of a wide wall plank placed firmly against the
wall and secured w ith wall hooks.

Through this plank a needle is

m ortised (P late L X X IV ., fig. 1), and pierced putlog-wise into the


This needle is rebated, and th e head of the leg is notched

o ut to receive it, a cleat being placed above the needle for the
purpose of stiffening the union.
The leg of the shore is cu t top and b ottom , to rake a t the
required angle, th e foot resting upon a sill or sole plate (Plate



L X X IV ., fig. 2), which is levered tig h tly into position w ith a

crowbar and side dog spiked and back-cleated in position.
R aking shores are placed a t such distances along the length of a
wall as the n ature of the work requires.
P late L X X III., fig. 3, shows a three-legged raking shore with
needles inserted a t unequal heights ap art, and the foot of the shore
correspondingly fu rth er aw ay from the foot of the wall th an the
one-legged shore (fig. 2).

The feet of the three shores, which are

closely bound together w ith hoop iron, here

m eet

together, and

rest upon a lam inated silli.e., a two thickness sole plate. Overhead
board stru ttin g is secured to both sides of the legs to stiffen up the
whole construction.
The four-legged raking shore (fig. 4) is constructed in the same
general way as the three-legged shore, save th a t the top outside
leg has to be arranged in two lengths a t varying angles, the
connection being used as a p oint from which to tig hten up by fox

This shore gives support to a

fiv e -s to r y

building, and

requires considerable spread and space for its effective use.

Horizontal Shores.W here two buildings come side by side over
a lim ited intervening open space, as in P late L X X IV ., fig. 3, a
bulging outside wall m ay be steadied b y a horizontal or flying

This type of shore is n o t dependable upon the ground a t

all, b u t consists of a long horizontal beam straining across the

opening and resting upon central needles.

This beam is fox

wedged a t the ends and has top stru ts giving support to the
highest needles, a pair of lower stru ts stiffening the whole and
assisting in the support of the horizontal beam.
H .B . Shoring and underpinning is work th a t m ay only be
u ndertaken w ith safety by experienced workmen, acting under
skilled supervision, as both the safety of life and public convenience
is often involved in this class of work, the stresses and strains of
which have to be m ost carefully calculated and counteracting
support applied.
Old stone rubble walls are among the m ost difficult to underpin,



owing to the looseness of their adhesive (|uality.


brickw ork

stren g th


of good

cem ent


m o rtar



F or this reason,



often very great,


and m ay


m ade use of in such positions as under windows when walls

are being underpinned, where the walling m ay often be strong
enough to carry itself betw een the needles.

W hen


does n o t exist or is weak, lengthw ise su p p o rt m ust be given or

the work tak en dow n as required betw een th e needlings.
Shores in public streets are alw ays under the sujiervision of
public au thorities, and have to conform to w idths of footpaths
and o th er conditions.

They require also to be properly lighted

and m aintained.
V erandahs


B a l c o n i e s . The

verandah, as a highly useful

and constuctive feature, m ust alw ays be of the very greatest im por
tance in A ustralian architecture. This useful ad ju n ct of our domestic,
as well

as of our sem i-public

buildings, gives

rise to great

diversity of tre a tm e n t and consequent v ariatio n in the mode of

In stre e t veran d ah s over })ublic footpaths th e construction is
generally regulated by public authorities.

I t is therefore with

the altog eth er p riv ate v erandah we have here to do, such a
type, for instance, as th a t illu strated in P late L X X V .
This figure shows an 8 ft. wide wood veran d ah w ith tile-laid
floor set on concrete and laid to a 2-in. fall to outer edge, having a
stone curb resting upon shallow brick walling.

The posts, which

in th is case should be ab o u t 8 ft. ap art, are tu rn ed in a lathe


p a tte rn w ith sq uare-cut sinkings



m olds

dowel led w ith

m itred


iron into


the base, and pro


E ach

stone curb,




to p is forked over a b-in. by 3-in. continuous head beam , to

w hich it is bolted.
The head beam receives th e rafters, w hich rest a t the top on
th e outside wall plate, and being nailed to th e sides of the general


L^<?x)id fi
/"/' D a m n s



""A" T e.G Kaun

Lminq nailad to


2"'-2 D zd Mold
9-y Mzad5aarr,

Fridzd Rail

Z'2 Dpindiz

D ra ch a t
pousQxd in)


Cap mold

6 '- s

Turn<zd Root.

jn gvaflon

12' x f OfOnd Curb



C o rth tiiliQp

Ocale of

D n T A lL o F W O o D

V E B A /lD A n



roof rafters, form an integral p a rt of the m ain roof, b u t a t a

slightly flatter angle.
In this verandah a frieze rail is shown housed a t ends into
posts and receiving the square spindle pieces.

B rackets are placed

a t angles of post and rail, to b oth of which th ey are housed.


eaves are here shown as simple cased-in eaves, and the under side
of rafters is lined w ith 4-in. by |-in . T. and G. and V -jointed
lining boards, secured horizontally.
This figure shows only the

ordinary principle

of domestic

verandah construction, the details of which m ay be very greatly


Posts are sometimes left square.


frieze rail and

spindles m ay be dispensed w ith altogether, the eaves m ay show

open rafter ends, the posts m ay be grouped in pairs or triplets, and
in m any other ways the design m ay be varied w ithout destroying
the basic principle of construction here illustrated.
Where balconies are superim posed over verandahs, the posts m ay
be made continuous for the full height of b oth verandah and

Turning, however, m ust not be specified, as a lathe

would not be long enough to take the work ; effect in this case
could be obtained by square sinkings.

If desired, the posts m ay

be in two heights, sto u tly secured to an interposing plate.

A balcony floor m ay be formed by sto u t bearers, resting in the
wall a t one end and upon the head beam a t the other, receiving
joists same as to ordinary flooring, the flooring boards being laid to
fall and a t right angles to the walls, w ith rounded and projecting
ends into eaves spouting.

Such flooring should be in ex tra narrow

widths of tim ber, capable of w ithstanding outside w eather, and

should have all the joints run in thick white lead.

This description

applies equally to a wooden verandah floor, save th a t, in such a

case, the joists need only to be of shallow depth, as th ey m ay receive
half-way support from stum ps placed m idway across the verandah,
the posts of the verandah in such a case being carried on stum ps,
with a sto u t front bearer on top running the length of the verandah,
over which the posts m ay be halved or forked and bolted.



The roof of a balcony m ay be form ed exactly as shown on

v eran d a h roof (P late L X X V .)

H andrailing, generally of molded

wood, is housed in to posts, and b alu strad in g either of wood or iron


If wood be used, the w ork is best specially k ep t up from

actu al floor, as tenoning in to the floor leads often to soakage and


I n wood b alustrading, therefore, a b e tte r plan is to form a

bo tto m rail a few inches above the floor, into which balusters may
be housed.
A ty p e of balcony and v eran d ah th a t finds some favor in certain
districts is co n stru cted b y projecting the usual first floor joists right
throug h th e o uter wall, and allowing them to stan d over canti
lever wise for a few feet, upon which a shallow balcony is built in
th e usual way.
sh o rt space

A wider v eran d ah is formed underneath, and the

betw een th e

veran d ah is roofed over.

projections of the

balcony and the

This m akes a v ariation of projection

along the fro n t of th e building.

Ironw ork is often su b stitu te d in p a rt for woodwork in verandah
an d balcony construction, o rnam ental cast-iron posts, frieze orna
m ents, b rackets, handrails, &c., being cast and m ade for the

These all have lug attach m en ts, and are screwed or

bolted in position

W here th e roof is covered with iron in place of

wood, tee and angle steel and flats are m ostly employed, a very
light lattice girder being carried along the front from post to post,
to give eave support.
F o r o th er references to v eran d ah s see Shops, C hapter VI.
F e n cin g


G a t e s . Fence

enclosures around buildings are

generally w ire, close, or picket.

W ire Fencing, of w hich there are several adm irable systems,
is now increasingly used.

These consist of posts or steel uprights

set a t distances of ab o u t 9 ft. ap art, having a num ber of wires

horizo n tally strain ed

through, w ith m etal

stiffeners interlaced

vertically betw een th e posts, the horizontal wires being closer

to g eth er as th e y approach the ground, so as to keep out dogs.

Gal. hoop iron.

o - r Pioha.t.5 ^

Top Pa^

ftrri^Pai/ ^
two out of
fW .

aj. hoop Iron



L :,n G . .

1 IG. L. ChdcPdd^
in Otruto.

PicKef Fance.

P a liH Q



Cold Platd.
2 '^'%" Wrotlron
Otrap hinQ<2 .r>r,





U .-

FIG ' i

OtrainmCi O il!.

S . :! T'Qevaflon af"CarTGafed R-





This type of fence, while m aintaining a boundary, gives free air

and openness.
Close Fencing

is generally covered w ith split gum


galvanized corrugated iron, or lapped vertical boarding, the general

principle of skeleton fram ing being the same for each.
Such fram ing consists of posts (Plate L X X V I., fig. 1)for
example, 5 in. by 3 in., w ith checked-in stru ts and sole plate sunk
in the ground to depths according to the n atu re of the soil
(generally ab o u t 30 inches), firmly ram m ed and k ep t vertical.
These posts are sunk a t distances of about 8 ft. 9 in. apart, so as to
allow of the use of 18 ft. horizontal rails.

Three rails should be used

in a fence of 6 ft. in height or over ; there are arris rails, two

out of 4 in. by 4 in., or rails of ordinary scantlingsay, 3 in. by
2 in.

The rails are checked in flush w ith one side of the post, the

end joints of the lengths being placed to break joints.

A plinth is

laid next the ground, nailed to the sides of posts, and, to prevent
tw isting, is best also attach ed to the bottom rail.
is now ready for the covering.

The framework

Fencing posts and plinth should always be of tim ber such as

red gum or jarrah , which will w ithstand ground dam p.


rails are usually of hardwood.

Such a fence m ay be covered w ith 5 or 6-ft. split palings, which
are slightly feather-edged, set vertically to lap 1 | in., and nailed
w ith one long th in round wire nail to each rail, so as to pinch (not
nail through) th e next paling.
palings when shrinking.

This prevents the splitting of the

Palings are strengthened by rows of galvanized hoop iron, bent

to fit into the shape of the palings, and nailed w ith th in galvanized
clout-headed nails.

W here iron is used for covering, it is generally

of 24-gauge corrugated iron, set vertically on top of a wood plinth,

with a

tw o-corrugation side lap,





corrugation with galvanized spring-head nails, or secured with

galvanized screws and washers to the rails.

In corrugated iron

fencing, th e iron m ay be kep t up som ewhat above the line of the



to p

rail, and, to

p rev en t

clim bing,

m ay be cu t in

pyram id

F o r close fencing, 6 in. b y 1 in. lapped v ertical boards, w ith
a lte rn atin g shaped tops, are som etim es used.
F o r rough work, 5 or 6 ft. 3-in. b y 1-in. rough sawn, point
pickets, set close, are used.

This gives a close fence, which opens

som ew hat w hen th e pickets shrink.

In close fencing, th e tim b ers th ro u g h o u t are usually unw rought.
Picket Fencing. T h e m is very considerable v ariety in picket
P ic k e t fencing is generally used to inclose th e street boundaries
of house p roperties and is generally of w rought tim ber.

P late

L X X V I., fig. 2, shows a simple picket fence consisting of posts

sim ilar to those described for paling fencing, two rails, which are
generally sufficient for pickets, and a p lin th , w hich is regulated in
d e p th according to the fall of the ground.

I n this fence 3-in. by

I-in. an d 4 ft. 6 in. long pickets are shown, set 2 in. ap art, and
secured b y tw o nails to each rail.
V ariety is given to th is class of fencing b y a num ber of variations.
The posts m ay be ornam ented, cut, sunk, or tu rn ed and m ade to
u p sta n d above th e general level of pickets.

The pickets m ay be

c u t to shapes, of w hich th ere are a g reat num ber of stock p attern s.

T hey m ay also be set to sweep lines or in te rp a tte rn e d w ith sm aller
or sho rter pickets. Som etim es a m olded capping is added as a finish.
P ick et fences are generally p ain ted , or, if of suitable tim ber, m ay
be well oiled or varnished.
Cart (rates. The sim plest form of gates for fencing is th a t
fram ed up in skeleton, consisting of styles, rails, and stru ts covered
on one side w ith fencing m aterial, such as iron or palings.
C art gates require to be of good w idth, to suit vehicles likely to
pass through them .

The posts are best square and stout, being, as

th e corner posts in fencing should be, sto u ter th a n th e general fencing


Such posts should be stru tte d and soled four ways, and

have a heav y strain in g sill piece betw een th e posts a t the ground

Poundad Top

Oquare Cat Topjo



62U QQ.batad

m, 2QC5




planted, y?

four wo. o

, i__

2 DottomPait.

lyuuuni hrun.
P ail\\

L J F lG .l.


. E lev a fio n . .O ecfioa.

OcATr. or

? -

; ft.T .

6""6"/Wb Ohapad Tbpaplanfad on

w ot IronDtti.

3 '2

T o p Q a il.


hung with
Qatp dingQ.

4-''<-2 QabatQ.d.

plonfoa or

ij n2-r

^rd tru T

r Pichat.



U E lG .O ."

. Elevation.



. OocEon

D m i l E or

. Elevafion





level (see P late L X X V L , fig. 3). In this figure a pair of gates is

shown b uilt up w ith a skeleton fram e consisting of styled top and
bottom rails and braces.

The gates are flush on the one side, being

covered between the styles w ith 6-in. by 1-in. tongued and grooved
and V-jointed boarding running right down to the bottom .


is a capping on the top to throw off w ater, and the gates are hung
in p airi.e., in two leaves, w ith reb ated m eeting styles, the support
being given by long forged iron strap hinges bolted through top and
bottom , having straps on both sides of the gates, and w ith hook
and eye attach m en ts hanging the same to the posts.

Such gates

require a stop for one leaf a t the sill or a bolt upon the gate itself.
Securem ent m ay be m ade w ith pad-bolt and padlock.
for keeping gates

from falling-to

Some fittings

when open should

also be

Wicket Gates are som etim es m ade through other gates to act as
pass doors, especially where gates are large, as in stable gates.
Small Gates. A sheet of designs for single entrance gates is
given on P late L X X V II.

Such gates are either fixed a t sides of

entrance drive gates or to form a foot en try through the front

picket fencing.
The sim plest form of gate of this type is the picket gate.
This consists of a strong stru tte d skeleton frame, covered on the
outside w ith open pickets to m atch the

fen cin g ; hung w ith

American gate hinges and fitted w ith Am erican latch, w ith battens
nailed to the sides of the gate posts to act as stops.
In designing gates, th e tendency of the side posts to draw out
should be allowed for, especially where strained wire is used in the

In any case the stops upon the posts should be wide and

ample, and the latch should have full play, so as to allow of post
Gates m ay be from 3 ft. to 3 ft. 6 in. wide and of height to suit
the adjoining fencing.

As they are exposed to outside w eather

they should be of m aterial capable of w ithstanding the weather.

For this purpose the posts are best of red or blue gum or jarrah.



The gate m ay be fram ed up of ja rra h or (if not too soft) redwood.

If red deal or m ild Oregon be used th e gate m ust be well painted
and all jo in ts ru n in w ith thick w hite lead.
Fig. 1 shows a fram ed and sheathed gate fram ed up like a door,
w ith skeleton fram e and stru t, th e top rail being sweeped and
capped and of sufficient d ep th to display the nam e of the house.
There is a shallow, open panel below.

The lower portion of the

gate is close sheathed w ith 4-in. b y |-in . tongued and grooved

and V -jointed b o th sides boarding, finished fair outside w ith m itred

The gate is hung w ith e x tra heavy A m erican hinges of

th e ty p e th a t allow th e gate to be self-closing, the latch being of

specially m ade w rought iron.

The stops to this gate are m ade of

sh o rt lengths of angle iron screwed to th e posts.

The section shown will m ake clear th e cross construction.


side posts are 6-in. by 6-in., w ith tu rn e d ornam ental tops.

Fig. 2 shows an o th e r tre a tm e n t of a sheathed gate.

This gate

has an outside visible stru t, th e spandrels being filled in w ith

boarding an d th e shallow to p panel fitted w ith tu rned spindles.
This gate is w ith o u t capping, th e styles being carried up above the
top rail.

The hanging is done b y m eans of stra p hook and eye

hinges, th e lower hinge having double pins for the purpose of selfclosing.

In th is case a N orfolk latch is shown, th e stops being of

angle iron an d th e posts sq uare-cut and sunk.

Fig. 3 is a sem i-picket gate, w ith an open frame, m ortised and
pinned w ith blackw ood pins.

H ere the hanging style is u pstand

ing, an d shaped an d fitted w ith a w rought-iron suspender bolted

throug h th e tw o styles.

There are tw o tu rn ed horizontal spindles

near th e to p of th e gate, a square space being left a t the side for

th e handle of a w rought-iron latch.

I n this gate wood stops are

p lan ted on to square posts, the section showing the general cross
Fig. 4 shows an o th er ch aracter of design.

In this case the gate

is form ed m ainly of sto u t rectangular fram ing, w ith m ortised and

pinned joints.

An u p stan d in g panel a t the top is reserved for a


C)c]LX]ns, ]{wic)U0cj

(Giuajoint) G fo o v e d &>.
YJoinW .

M m

B o ff

T if/h fifp ri IPioLKZfied lR)r%;,[K2d

^T onQ oed. 5>D6aoled

M lf r e and.




A o u o in s



Tongued DeJbalG Doff

&Dead0d and Ovolo.
P IO )

. T .


^Ino&r/^/bn Mold.
P a n z i.^
flo ld w o ri^ onOtui<z>.

FIG. 5 .

F I G .2 1 % ^





repousse name plate, the lower portion of the gate being closed in
w ith plain panelling.

H ere strap hinges are shown, and plain

posts w ith projecting capping.

J o i n e r y . Joinery

is the craft th a t deals w ith the wood finishings

of a building, and, though closely allied to carpentry and adopting

m any of its methods, has to do more w ith th a t highly finished
w ork th a t requires shop execution, such as the m aking of doors,
windows, linings, fram ings, panellings, &c.

Staircasing is a p a rt of

joinery, b u t is usually executed by special w orkm en skilled in th a t

class of work.

The same is also true of shop and office fitting.

Cabinet work, too, is another close ally which, w ith an ever-growing

tendency to m ake the furniture of a building a p a rt of its natu ral
environm ent, has m uch to do w ith m odern practice.
Joints.P late L X X V III. shows enlarged details of the leading
joints and connections used in joinery, and should be carefully
studied by the stu d en t so as to u n derstand the various m ethods
and forms of jointings and moldings adopted, and their technical
term s.

The m ortise and tenon are described in carpentry, as also

other joints common to the com bined trades.

The plate illustrates such common term s as glue-jointed, T. and
G. and V-jointed, rebated, T. and G. and beaded, dovetailed, & c.;
also common term s used in fram ing up doors and panelling, such
as flash-panelled and beaded,

insertion m olded and panelled,

bolection molded, &c.


o o r s .The

first tho u g h t in door construction should be directed

to the fact th a t no door m ay be m ade of one piece of wood.

A ttention, therefore, should be so directed as to use, cut, fit,
and contrive the various pieces in such a w ay th a t they m ay
m ake a true and satisfactory fram ing, directed to

w ithstand

the wear and te a r th a t th e door is likely to encounter.


this connection, given the size of the door opening, the first
consideration is one of suitable tim ber, and w hether the door is for
outside or inside use, and w hat is the n ature of th e finish.



Outside doors coming in direct contact w ith rain and weather

need to present, as far as m ay be, a sm ooth surface to the outside,
free as possible from sinkings or m oldings where the w ater may
lodge, sink in, and cause decay.
As by far the larger num ber of doors are made of deal, and
deals are of lipiited stock, w idth, and thickness, the various
parts of such doors are arranged so as to cut out of the bulk
tim ber w ith due economy, and even where doors are made of
redwood, or other tim bers not so confined to lim ited size, the
traditio n s and usages of the older system are constantly influencing
door construction in the size of scantlings.
Side by side w ith the question of door construction is the design
of the woodwork to which the door has to be hung, and into which
the door requires to be set.

This work is of two kinds.

F irst

there are solid frames for outside doors, and linings (called
jam b linings) for internal doors.
A fter glancing a t P late L X X IX ., depicting common forms of
doors, P late L X X X ., showing details of four-panelled internal doors,
and P late L X X X I., w ith details of joints in doors, we will proceed
to consider door frames.
Fram es. Fram es for ordinary external doors are made of solid
scantlings, usually about 3 in. or 4 in. thick, and of sufficient width
to suit walling and plaster.

F or all ordinary purposes a 5J-in.

by 3-in. fram e is sufficient, with an increase to 5 |-in . by 4-in. if

moldings are required on the frame.
In its sim plest form the fram e consists of two side posts tenoned
on top, w ith a head or lintel piece on top, usually rebated all round
to receive the door.

Such a frame requires to be firmly secured to

the walling, and also to the sill or threshold.

If in stonework, this

m ay be done by attach ed m etal cram ps or hoop-iron built into the

m asonry.

If in hollow brickwork, wood cleats of corresponding

w idth to the cavity are nailed on.

In any case, a frame should be

dowelled w ith galvanized iron into the stone threshold, or stub

tenoned a t the foot if the threshold be of wood.




F I Q A ramed
and DiDced Igd^ed Disced

M G .a ig d g e d


'W ^ -


Main EnTrance
Door with Didaligh t and FanPlan: F I Q . l .

T ra m s-

2 /O ' -

FIG .7^4 Pbnsllgd FIG.5.4 PanQllcd

Daad &Do 'f. insgrfion molded

Fmifyd Rail

'D P im im d v n g O ty k o

F IG .S .4 PanGlled
Inogjilon molded^

^ Casejnenf FIG. Z.. Oheafhed

GoThic-hsadgd door




A superior type of frame is shown in P late L X X IX ., fig. 1; here

the frame is furnished w ith three legs or uprights, a cross sill piece,
to take sidelight sash, and a molded transom , which is a cross
beam betw een the door and th e fa n lig h t; here th e frame is shown
molded, the description of which in specification

would read

solid rebated and stop m olded frame, w ith molded transom and
sill piece.
In wood frame buildings the frame is usually supplied by an
ex tra thick stud head piece lined w ith th in stuff, upon which the
stops are nailed.

Circular head fram es are usually cut out of solid

in two or more thicknesses, glued and screwed together to form

a firm lam ination, worked to exact contours required.
shows a door w ith a G othic-headed frame,
classed as circular.

Fig. 2

which would be

In shallow segm ents the visible portion

of the frame m ay be worked fair to curve, and the top left

Fram es, where th ey come nex t plastered walls, are m ade to
stand in front of walling to finishing line of plaster (see the
enlarged plan of fig. 1).

The frame in this way stops the plaster,

the join t being covered by the architrave.

The outside ju nction of a fram e w ith the walling is best covered
w ith a small wood slip, as m o rtar stopping does n o t adhere well to
both walling and woodwork.

In hollow walls the slip is sometimes

extended to stop end of cavity.

Jamb TAnings.As the thickness of internal walls differs, so do
the linings required differ in w idth w ith them .

In half-brick walls

the lining consists of a plain board set up plum b against each

jam b, and fram ed into a corresponding headpiece.

Upon these,

shallow pieces called stops are p lanted ; these are usually about
in. by -|-in., and are used to stop the door.
In wide openings skeleton jam b linings are used, such as are
shown in detail of four-panelled door (Plate L X X X .)

The plan

and section shows the lining, which consists of parallel pieces

usually about 2 i-in. by l|- in . frame, together w ith short cross



pieces, and covered w ith a wide stop.

In elaborate w ork through

th ic k walls th e jam b is som etim es panelled and m olded.

Ja m b linings are usually fixed to plugs driven into the joints of
w alling.

In th e best class of w ork th ey should be fixed to built-in

fixing concrete bricks.

The w ork of th e lining is to hold the door, and, w ith the aid of
th e stop, to fair line th e opening.
hedged and Braced Doors. The sim plest

type of door is the

ledged and b raced door (P late L X X IX ., fig. 3), which consists of

T. and G. flooring or lining, laid parallel and ledged and braced a t
the back w ith plain boarding, clenched nailed on.

Such a door is

best w ith V -joints, say 6-in. by 1-in. flooring, or 4-in. by |-in .

lining, w ith 4-in. by 1-in. top ledge and braces, 6-in. by 1-in. middle
ledge, an d 7-in. b y 1-in. b o tto m ledge.

Such a door is only suit

able for w ooden outbuildings and sim ilar positions.

Fram e Ledged and Braeed Door (P late L X X IX ., fig. 4), is a
superior class of outside door having a skeleton fram e, say, |-in .
thick, w ith 5-in. by |- in . wide styles and braces, 9-in. m iddle rail,
an d 10-in. b o tto m rail, all m ortised and tenoned together.


styles an d head are reb ated to receive 4-in. by |-in . T. and G.

and V -jointed lining, which covers over the braces and middle
and b o tto m rails, w hich consequently only show a t the back of
th e door.

This class of door is often used for wide openings in

pair, in which case the m eeting styles require to be rebated.

The tenons for th is ty p e of door are shown in detail by P late
L X X X L , fig. 1.
I t will be specially no ted how th a t th e m iddle and bottom rail
tenons are called bare-faced tenons.
W M c-A W gff Dow. A som ew hat sim ilar door is
show n in P la te L X X IIL , fig. 2.

This door m ay, if required, be made

to look th e sam e on b o th sides b y b o th outside and inside sh eath

ing, th e m iddle an d b o tto m rails being sandw iched in betw een the
sh e ath in g and tenoned in to th e styles, a type of tenon th a t is used
w hen th e rail is of less thickness th a n th e style into which it is









9'pyPLocK rail.







O eeM on

In^zrtion mold.

Dtop plan fzd on


^ jQ n

i; 9

fe 3 O



O c a l(^ o t '

T eeL :


4 - P A O IL IL E D lA T tB A R L D Q O R




K 'S s f

? s # i'


m ortised.


The tenon is bare one sidei.e., fair w ith the surface

of the rail.
Ordinary Four-panelled Door. The four-panelled, stock-patterned,
internal insertion m olded door is the m ost universally used of all
doors, and is purchasable ready m ade in sizes as follows ; 6 ft. 6 in.
by 2 ft. 6 in. by I J i n . - l | in. ; 6 ft. 8 in. by 2 ft. 8 in. by


- l i in. ; 6 ft. 10 in. by 2 ft. 10 in. by I J i n . - l | in. ; 7 ft. by 3

ft. by I f in.-2 in.
This class of door is shown in P late L X X IX ., fig. 5.
The construction of a well-made panelled door is fully illustrated
on P late L X X X ., the tenoning being shown to enlarged size by
P late L X X X I., fig. 2.
By reference to P late L X X X . it will be seen th a t a panelled
door is made up of a fram e infilled w ith grooved-in panels.


fram e is m ortised and tenoned together in every p art, and is

cram ped up and sh u t around the panels, the ju nction of the panels
and the fram e being infilled w ith moldings, called, if below the
surface of the styles, insertion molds (Plate L X X V IIL , fig. 1);
if projecting above, bolection molds (fig. 2).
around the panels is divided into various parts.

This fram ework

The two side

pieces running from top to bottom are called styles.

There is

the hanging style, upon th e side the door is hung, and the outer

These styles receive the various cross rails the top rail, the

middle or lock rail, and the b ottom or lower rail.

In the case of

ex tra panels, as in P late L X X IX ., fig. 6, a frieze rail m ay be

Central upright pieces divide th e panels; these are called
m untings, and are tenoned into the rails. All the styles, rails,
and m untings are in th eir tu rn plough-grooved out, in order to
receive the panels, which are thinner th a n any other p a rt of the
Mortising and tenoning for this class of work is invariably done
by m achinery, th e various tenons being best arranged as shown in
Plate L X X X I., fig. 2, before referred to.



M ortise holes are c u t and splayed slightly tow ards their outer
edges, so as to allow of insertion of wedges.

On the b o tto m rail

tw o single tenons are shown, with haunching betw een, to stop

d ay lig h t showing should th e door shrink.

In the lock rail there

are tw o double tenons, w ith haunching so arranged as to receive

m ortise lock w ith o u t c u ttin g aw ay too m uch of the door substance.
The to p rail has a single tenon and haunch.

The various p arts are

p u t together, all ten o n s glued, panels left free, and the whole
closely cram ped up, and th e various
wedges dipped in glue.

tenons end wedged with

F ram ed doors should alw ays be m ade a t the com m encem ent of
building operations, and loosely p u t to gether and set aside for

J u s t before being required, th e jo in ts should be glued

up, tenons wedged, an d th e whole cram ped up, m itres of molds cut
and shot and set true, and th e door fair cleaned off, ready for
delivery an d use.
A no th er form of th e four-panelled door is shown in P late L X X IX .,
fig. G.

H ere a bro ad cen tral panel is m ade, surm ounted by a long,

shallow to p panel.

Several variatio n s of th is ty p e of door m ay be

adopted where doors are specially m ade, th e general principle of

constru ctio n being th e sam e as for the ord in ary four-panelled door
described above.
D etails show ing how th e panels are inserted and molds applied
are seen in P la te L X X V IIL , figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Bead and B utt Doors. A serviceable door for plain outside
positions is m ade on th e flush-panelled principlei.e., fram ed up in
panels, b u t w ith th e ])anels reb atin g and showing quite flush w ith
th e outside of th e styles and rails, so as to give no lodgm ent for
w ater.
Such a door is either bead b u tt (P late L X X IX ., fig. 7), which
is w hen th e bead a t th e jo in t of th e panels and styles runs vertically
only, or bead flush, w hen th e bead runs all round the panels.
The inside of such a door m ay be w ith o u t moldings, in which case
it is described as square fram ed inside, or it m ay be insertion


Top Rail

Top Rail


lo c k Rail

jo in td d Kaun

IqcK R a il.

DoHbm Rail

PIG. 2.
4 Panelled Door

Dotfom Daii.

Framed s-Jgclged Door



molded, like ordinary four-panelled doors.


The panel insertion for

this door is shown in detail by P late L X X V III., fig. 4.

Casement Doors.A type of door useful in providing b oth light
and access to apartm en ts opening upon verandahs is the casem ent
door (Plate LXXTX., fig. 8). These m ay be single or in pair.
The figure shows a pair of doors w ith rebated and beaded m eeting

I t should be noted th a t here the styles are dim inishing.

This is done to give ex tra expanse for glazing, the style being
bevelled from its w idth a t the lower panels to its narrow w idth
next the glass.

Glass in these doors is secured w ith wood beads

or slips, and m ay be in leaded glass, strengthened w ith round iron


If sheet glass be used molded and rebated cross sash bars

should be placed across the openings to divide up the space, o ther

wise the concussion of the door would ten d to fracture so large a
sheet of glass as would be required for the whole opening.
Of sim ilar character is the num erous variety of doors classed
as half-glass doors, so very largely used in commercial building,
as well as in passages and positions where light is required to pass
through the door.
M ain Entrayice Doors. The door or doors serving the m ain entry
of a building are usually designed w ith regard to the special
im portance of such a position, and require to tak e upon themselves
some dignity and su itab ility in accord w ith the character and style
of the building served.

In commercial buildings the outside

enclosure is not infrequently occupied by an iron collapsible or

hinged gate, a t the back of which the doors are arranged.
im portan t buildings such





of large size and

elaborately molded, for though the principle of panelled door

construction rem ains very m uch the same, y et alm ost every p a rt
of a door m ay be varied and differently treated.

The moldings

m ay be elaborated and even carved, the panels m ay be raised,

bevelled, or enriched, and moldings and cu t woodwork of various
kinds m ay be attach ed to the rails.
greatly elaborated, and

The frame, too, m ay be

especially the transom .




too, are n o t infrequent.

These are ornam ental, pedim ental, or

other decorative form s, crow ning th e door or the door and fan
A sim ple house m ain entrance door, w ith sidelights and fanlight,
is given in P la te L X X IX ., fig. 1.

H ere a 7-ft. by 3-ft. half-glass

door is h u n g in a m olded fram e (described under fram es).


is one sidelight m ade up below of fram ing to m atch the door, a

m olded sill and sash above.

The fanlights consist of sashes made

in th e usual w ay as described in windows, are secured w ithin

th e re b a te of th e ir fram e, and m ay be hung either top, bottom , or
a t the side.

D om estic fro n t e n try doors more often have two

Space, too, m ay be required for le tte r plate, bells, &c.,

an d th e design m ay be greatly varied to suit special circum

The glass for such a door is b est in lead, and m ay be of semiobscure, fancy, or colored glass.

The fanlight glass m ay well be

occupied by eith er th e num ber or the nam e of the house to facilitate

identification a t night.
F ly W ire Doors.E x te rn a l doors often require to be supple
m ented b y fly wire doors.

These are m ade to open the opposite

w ay to th e ord in ary door, and m ay be hung upon the same side

and to th e sam e fram e.

A fly wire door is best m ade of 1^ in. or

1 in. thick stuff, w ith fram ing exactly the same as the ordinary
door, b u t lig h ter in general w idth, and w ith the panels left out.
The panels are th e n covered w ith w ell-stretched galvanized iron or
brass fly wire, close tack ed down, and covered all round w ith light
wood slips, m itred a t angles.

Such doors are best fitted w ith a

spring, to ensure th e ir close fitting, and m ay also be hung with

loose, p in -b u tt hinges, so th a t th e y m ay be

r e a d ily

tak en off and

stored during w inter m onths.

T rap Doors.D oors of various kinds are used to give access
th ro u g h floors to cellars,

& c .,

also thro u g h ceilings to roof space ;

these are b est k e p t as lig h t as possible and so hinged as to be stable

w hen used and n o t liable to fall w ithout w arning.

Floor tra p s are


m ade to flooring lodged on the underside.


To m ake a close job of

hanging, the boards m ay be clam ped th a t is, grooved a t ends

into a cross strip of tim ber, th u s showing side grain all round.
this way b u tts m ay be used instead of tee hinges.
best fitted w ith flush sunk ring and flush bolt.


Such traps are

Ceiling traps m ay

be made, sim ilarly fitted into a trim m ed, lined, and


Trap doors through roof covering require to be covered with lead
or sheet iron, which renders them both awkward and heavy.
are sometimes made to slide on rollers.


If hinged, strong w rought-

iron stays, for keeping the top open, should be fixed, and special
provision m ade a t all tim es for keeping out the

w e a th e r .

W ith regard to all tra p doors some effort should always be made
to provide light to them , and this can generally be done if atten tio n
be directed to such a need in the planning.
Ironmongery jar Doors.H inges.O rdinary fram ed and panelled
doors are usually hung w ith b u tts i.e., b u tt hinges.

F or any

of the stock p a tte rn doors a pair (or, better, three) 4-in. iron b u tts
are used, sunk into the door and fram e or lining and countersunk
screw ed .

There are num erous other kinds of b utts, such


brass b u tts, brass bushed b u tts {i.e., w ith steel bearings),

two-way b u t t s (th a t allow a door to work both ways),

" lo o s e

slip pin b u tts, gun-m etal ornam ental b u tts for polished work,
and others.
For lodged doors and gates tee hinges are used, while for fram ed
doors and gates of ex tra w idth w rought-iron strap hinges are best
(Plate L X X V I., fig. 3).

In church or ecclesiastical work the

ornam ental w rought-iron

L X X IX ., fig. 2).



m ay




W here traffic is considerable doors are often hung to swing.

These are fitted w ith sunk, floor spring hinges, which clutch the
door by means of a m etal plate, the concussion of such doors being
often relieved by straps.
ZocA;.s. Common locks for ordinary internal doors are either rim


locks or m ortise locks, and act both to catch and to lock.

A rim

lock is m ade to fit upon th e outside of th e door, the m ortise lock

being sunk w ithin th e thickness of th e door.
rim and m ortise latches.

D ead locks are usually of heavy p a tte rn

and act as bolts only (not catches).

for o u ter doors.
the inside.

In addition there are

D raw back locks m ay be used

These have a handle or draw back bolt action on

P anic locks, only adjustable from inside and released

by draw back action, are used for public assem bly buildings. Locks
are described by th eir length and m ake.
F urn itu re.D oor handles are usually allowed for as separate


th e







com m only applied to handles or handles and finger plates, key

hole escutcheons, le tte r plates, knobs, &c.

There are a very great

v ariety of every kind of such articles purchasable in the m arket

read y for fixing.
B olts. In add itio n to locks, bolts are usually fitted to outside
doors. Of these th ere is a v ariety.

The tow er bolt is a simple

bolt, w orking th ro u g h m etal guides.

In the barrel bolt the

bolt w orks along a closed-in barrel.

The m onkey-tailed b o lt

has a specially long end or tail, and is often used to bolt the top of
a door.

T hen th ere are flush bolts th a t sink flush into the

body of th e w oodw ork;

and double-action b o lts in m etal

casings, reaching from to p to b o tto m of a door, and adjusted by a

cen tral knob handle.

These la tte r are used chiefly for escape

doors in public buildings, and are som etim es called espaniollettes.

B olts are described by th eir kind and length.
W i n d o w s . W indow s

m ay be divided in to two broad classes

box fram e windows and solid fram e windows.

B ox Fram e W indow s. The constructive details of a box frame
window are show n on P la te L X X X II.

From this it will be seen

th a t a box fram e window, or, as it is com m only term ed, a doublehung w indow , consists of sashes sliding in grooves held and lifted
by w eights and cords working in a hollow box or frame.



h rthi.


-C ord.




Top Paii

woo QaU

Top Oash

mdfinp fPan

D ottom O aoh.


B o tto m r a n

Wood QiU.

Wood O/fl-





lie v a iio n L


l"d>p/ay<z<d Zining>5. ddO tvff

rin sid d U ninp_____ 3aac/p

O G G fio n

p>ullQ(jOtjptd. Z'dd5h..


Z ./m n g

P lan

O c a l o T .
12' 9' 6" i


Fixing Cl(zx3t.
TeeT .

D o x -r s A iiL w n o M D m i i D



The frame consists of a sill, which should be of tim ber capable of

w ithstanding the weather, w eath ered on top and rebated over
stone sill underneath.

The sash fram e consists of pulley styles,

outside lining, inside lining, rough backing,


beads to keep the sashes ap art, and slips to separate the


A bead around the inside lining keeps the sashes in

position, and there is a head-piece to take up w ith pulley style a t

the top.

All these p arts are fram ed together and to sill, the pulley

styles being tongued into the inside and outside linings, the parting
slips ploughed in, and the backing nailed on.

In this example,

which is fixed in a hollow brick wall, cleats are secured to backing,

and built into a cavity for fixing the fram e to the walling.
The sashes are made in pairs, and are described by their th ic k
ness, such as i|- in ., l|- in ., 2-in., &c.

They consist of m ortised

side pieces, into which the cross rails tenon in very much the same
way as a door is fram ed.

The top or upper sash has the top and

tw o sides equal ; the m eeting rail, being som ew hat less in depth, is
rebated or splayed to meet with the corresponding rail from
the lower sash, and to m ake a close joint.

The side pieces

of the upper sash are usually extended downwards and molded ;

these are called horns.

The bottom or lower sash has a

bottom rail deeper th a n any other rail in the window, which

is splayed or rebated to fit over the wooden sill.

Grooves are

sunk in the sides of sashes into which sash cords are firmly

These cords are on either side, and are passed over and

through m etal axle pulleys sunk into the pulley styles.


cords are attach ed to long, round cast-iron weights, which work up

and down in the box frame.

These weights require to correspond

with the weight of each sash when glazed complete, for which
purpose the sashes are scale weighed and the weights adjusted to

In very large windows or where ex tra heavy glass,

such as plate glass, is used, the weights require to be of lead.

Steel ribbons may, in such cases, be em ployed in place of cords.

hinged pocket piece should be arranged in each pulley style,



through which the weight m ay be reached in case of repairs being

Solid Frame W indows.All windows other th a n box frame
windows m ay be classed as solid fram e windows.

These are of

various kinds, th e general principle of which is th a t a solid frame

is m ade to receive th e glass direct, or to hold the sash containing
the glass.

In shop front windows the solid fram e is made to hold

the glass direct, which is adjusted in beads only (see Shops )

This class of practice is, however, lim ited, and is only possible
where lights are fixed ; when windows require to be opened, a sash
is interposed and fitted into a rebated frame.
Casement W indows.D etails of a solid fram e casem ent window
are shown in P late L X X X III.

This diagram illustrates in detail

the usual application of a solid fram e window with sashes.


plan shows a 5J-in. by 4-in. solid, rebated, and ovolo-molded frame,

w ith 5J-in. by 3-in. reb ated and molded mullions and 5^-in. by 4-in.
d itto transom , and 7-in. by 4-in. w eathered and rebated sill, which
are all m ortised and tenoned together, and secured to brickwork
w ith iron cram ps screwed to th e sides of th e frame and built into


This fram e receives the sashes,

which are made

separately and rebated, molded, m ortised and tenoned together.

In this case th e sashes are filled w ith leaded glass, so require to
be fitted w ith beads or slips.

W here sheet glass is used the

rebate only is m ade and left for glass and p u tty .

The fanlight

sashes are made in the same way as the lower (casement) sashes.
Casem ent windows in exposed positions, subject to the action of
driving rains, require to be specially designed and very carefully
fitted, as th ey do not offer the same am ount of general protection
against the w eather as the box frame window.

Care should be

tak en to have the frame deeply rebated, a groove ploughed out to

check capillary attractio n of w ater drops, a d r ip a t the transom
to prevent m oisture entering over the top> of the casement sash, and
the fan so hung as not to let in the rain.

Sills should be carefully

looked to, and should be steep and w ith full check.

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Casement sashes are hung in a sim ilar way to doors, usually to

open out, the fans being hung either top, bottom , side, or on pivots
from a centre.
This diagram also makes clear the principle of sashes in solid
frames generally, which is variably applied in single or m any light
windows of all shapes and sizes.

A frame m ay contain one sash

only, and be pivot hung, in which case the stops require to be

planted on, or the fram e m ay be circular segm ent headed


square, the general construction rem aining very m uch the same.
In high-class stone buildings m etal casem ent fram es and sashes
specially m anufactured for the purpose are often u s e d ; these
occupy the m inim um of space, and allow for a m axim um of glass
area in the opening.
Window Boards and L inings.The inside finish of a window near
the sill is usually m ade w ith a window board.

These are

boards tongued into the wood sills, projecting beyond the inside
wall covering, and finished w ith rounded or m olded edges and a
small bed mold.
On P late L X X X III. the window is w hat is term ed flush w ith
inside of wall, consequently, the window board is shallow and only
of sufficient w idth to project slightly beyond the architrave.


P late L X X X II. the window is set in the centre of the wall, which
arrangem ent creates a recess inside, which requires to be lined.
This is done with a splayed window lining tongued into the inside
box frame.

Linings are either set a t rig h t angles to the window,

in which case th ey are called square linings, or splayed as shown

in the figure, when th ey are known as splayed jam b linings.
Patent W indows.Several p a te n t windows have been placed
upon the m arket, directed chiefly to overcome th e various dis
advantages of ordinary windows, and specially to add facilities for

cleaning the glass w ithout reaching to the outside of the a p a rt

m ent, or for ventilating w ithout draughts. Some of these are only
suitable for in stitutional buildings, others being directed more for
domestic use.



Frameless W indows.In public buildings, especially in ecclesi

astical work, windows m ay be arranged a t tim es w ithout frames.
This is done by inserting leaded lights into a groove or
stone or cem ent jam bs or mullions.

r a g le t"


In this way, strengthened by

cross bars, narrow lights are able to carry w ithout being set in

F or this class of work, where ventilating hoppers are

required, th ey are m ade w ith very light m etal frames to hold the

p a r ts,

which m ay consist of a hinged glass lid, hung with

pulleys, and adjustable hanging balance weights.



W indows. O rdinary



require to be fitted w ith some suitable fastening fixed a t the

m eeting rails, also w ith a pair of ring lifts, attached to the inside
of th e b o tto m

r a il,

for lifting the bottom sash.

In heavy windows

the top sash outside m ay also be fitted upon underside of m eeting

rail w ith ring lifts.

In window fittings a very large num ber of

purchasable devices are directed to secure lockm ent of the sash

when it is p a rtly open, and specially secure it

from outside

P ivot-hung windows require m etal pivot attachm ents, with pins
upon th e sash, working in m etal sockets sunk in the frame.
These windows are usually secured w ith spring shooting bolts and
F an lig h ts are usually hung w ith b u tts , and fitted w ith m etal
fanlight openers, which act both as lock and stay, and of which
there is a very great variety.

The simplest way is to attach a

short length of chain to the side of the fram e and the top of the
sa sh ,






c lo s e

w ith

cord s

w o r k in g




Casements are hung w ith b u tts, and m ay be fitted

w ith casem ent hooks and eyes or casem ent stays attached to sills.
The locking of these is usually done by means of a casement
fastener, adjusted to fram e and sash a t hand height, which acts as
b oth handle and lock.
a n d s p e c ia lly to

w in d o w s

w ith

su n n y

a sp e ct,

w in d o w s fa c in g w e s t a n d n o r th , n o t p r o te c te d b y



verandahs, outside V enetian sh u tters are sometimes fixed.


consist of a skeleton frame, sim ilar to a door, hung usually in

pairs, to a lining a t reveals of window openings, and having
rebated m eeting styles.

A suitable sh u tter for an ordinary window

is made with IJ-in. stuff, having 3-in. styles and top rail, 4-in.
interm ediate, and 5-in. b o tto m rails, th e infilling being of light
rounded edged louvres, l|- in . by f-in., set f-in. apart, a t an angle
of 60, and machine housed into the style.
These shu tters require to be hung w ith sto u t parliam entary
hinges, to throw sh u tte r out and fiat back against the wall, and
should be fitted w ith locking bolt and ad justable wall stays.
S t a i r - B u i l d i n g . W ooden

stair-building is a craft by itself,

usually carried out by staircase hands, craftsm en specially skilled

in this class of work,
A stair is a device for giving w alking access to floors which lie
one above the other, and in principle is always the same, consisting
of steps grouped together one above the other.

(See Stone Stair,

C hapter X L , P late LVL, fig. 3, and Iro n Escape Stair, Plate

L X IV .)
Staircases differ greatly in form, size, design, and finish, accord
ing to the position th ey occupy, the range varying from ordinary
outside steps, or plain back stairs, to the elaborately detailed m ain
stairs of halls.
A wooden stair in its sim plest form consists of tw o strings
i.e., tw o deep boards set up edgewise and parallel, a t a given
w idth apart, a t a raking angle, into which cross treads, or treads
and risers, are housed (see details, P late L X X X IV ., figs. 1 and 2).
A string, if next a wall, is called a wall s tr in g ; if upon the
outside, an outer strin g .
Outside open riser stairs, or steps as th ey are generally term ed,
usually consist of plain strings, say about 12-in. by 2-in., having
10-in. by 2-in. round-nosed treads, housed in w ith a rise of
7 in. and a going of 8 in.

The strings are secured a t foot into



a ground sill, an d a t top in to a landing or walling.

A simple

handrail and u p rig h ts or newel posts are fixed if the flight is a t all

Such a sta ir is usually a tta c h e d to wood fram e

buildings, w hen th e y are b u ilt up above ground level, and well

illu strates th e sim plest form of stair.
Setting O ut. In settin g out a staircase regard m ust chiefly be
given to ease of going consistent w ith th e space available.


h eight from floor to floor is tak en , landings, ease of access, lighting,

head room , &c., provided for, and steps, b o th as regards their

and rise, w orked out.

a b o u t 11 in. w ith a rise of

F o r general work a tre ad of

in. gives an easy going, and some

prop o rtio n ate ra tio of this kind is best kept.

F lights of more th a n

ab o u t fourteen risers should be avoided and easy landings in tro

duced a t intervals.
W here space is confined w inders are used, b u t these are not
recom m ended.

Reference should be m ade to P la te L X X X IV . for details and

p articu lars of technical term s connected w ith staircase building.
Fig. 1 on th is p late shows a sim ple dog-legged sta iri.e., a stair in
which th e flights to u ch each other.

W here there is space betw een

th e flights, as in fig. 2, it is called a well.

of th e term g o in g (fig. 3).

N ote the explanation

The going is th e subdivision of the

flight in to so m an y equal p a rts, and represents the space allowed

for th e tread s in th e settin g out.
p ro ject beyond th e going.

The nosings of the trea d usually

I n open riser stairs the going m ay be

reduced as is done in outside wooden steps.

Fig. 2 shows the

settin g o u t of an open newel or well sta ir where greater w idth is


Such a well, besides giving m ore space in th e stair,

enables lig h t from an upper window to shine down the stair more
freely th a n in th e dog-legged type.
Staircases are som etim es b u ilt entirely upon uprights, a t other
tim es being w ith o u t in tern al su p p o rt save from floors, landings,
and walls.

There are also circular stairs, or stairs circular in some

of th eir parts.


; Quartor
! Landing



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a ll o tn n g



b a .

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riG.l. pqgieQged Orair.

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O T A I K 3 \O L D C T A llD


Strings and Steps.Strings are of two kinds,

open or cu t.




A close string consists of long lengths of tim ber

(which m ay he molded, capped, or enriched) into which the treads

and risers are housed, glued, and wedged, as shown in P late
L X X X IV ., figs. d and 5.

N ote here how th e treads are worked

and rebated into the risers, the nosings being rounded and fitted
with a small under mold.

The treads and risers are strengthened

and held together along their length on the under side w ith blocks
glued on a t intervals.
An open string is shown in fig. 3.

This string is cut out to

receive the treads, upon th e top of which they rest.

Such a string

is applied to the outer string of stairs only.

Strings require to be firmly fram ed top and bottom , usually into
newel posts.
Circular strings are formed of lam inated boarding, ben t and
w eathered round a drum i.e., a shaped, built-up block or p a tte rn
kept for the purpose.
Wall strings m ay be m olded or ram ped to continue the line and
contour of skirtings from floor to floor if desired.
Treads out of solid are sometimes used for semi-fireproof stairs,
for which purpose slowly burning tim bers are employed.
Carriages. In wide stairs a rough scantling is placed from top to
bottom of each flight along the central under side of the steps to
stiffen and to carry them . This piece of tim ber is called a carriage.
Newels.U pstanding vertical posts are placed a t the ends of
flights to receive handrails.

These are called newels, and m ay

be square, molded, carved, or turned.

Newels are sometimes

made continuous from floor to floor, or cut short and molded

near the landings or upper floors, in which case the visible lower
ends are term ed drops.
Handrails are usually molded in various ways, or, in plain work,

In place of newels a t the tu rn of a stair, handrails

are sometimes curved and continued, in which case they are said
to be w reathed.



Tlie norm al height of handrails is 2 ft. 0 in. from edge of tread.

Upon landings or re tu rn s on level upp er floors this should be
increased to 3 ft. or more.

W here h andrails die into walls w ithout

newels, a wooden w all-block requires to be allowed for in the

Balusters. Tiie infilling pieces under the h andrail ate called
balu sters.

These m ay be square, tu rn ed , or finished in various

L andings. The wells and landings of stairs are usually trim m ed
in the sam e w ay as floors, joists being fram ed in and floored, all
visible p a rts being w rought or lined.
Soffits. The under sides of stairs are som etim es invisible, owing
to th e spaces under th em being enclosed down to the flooring


is called s p a n d ril framing.

W hen the actual

soffit of a sta ir is lined it m ay be lath ed and plastered, wood lined,

panelled, or covered w ith em bossed m etal.
W h at should be aim ed a t in staircase building is am ple spacing,
ease of going, good lighting, and rig id ity of construction.
L t n f n g s .

Linings usually consist of boarding, cu t and dressed

for th e purpose.

W here lining is laid over the whole area of a

roof, im m ediately u nder the roof covering, rough boards are usually
em ployed. This is called rough lining, and is generally of 9-in.
wide spruce or Pacific pine.

Inside linings of good class work,

such as ceilings of halls or ap a rtm e n ts, soffits of stairs, &c., is

usually carried o ut

w ith hand-dressed

I an d G. and V -jointed

boarding, th e stock sizes of w hich are 4-in. by

or |-in .


should be close-fitted and fixed w ith finishing nails well punched

in, th e end joints being splayed to p rev en t day light sighting when
A com m on

kind of lining in use

is the

lining, such as b-in. by g-in., l-m ., or f-in.

im ported

B altic

T. and G. and beaded

lining boards.
F in ish in g linings a lw a y s reipiire sm all m o ld s at all angles to



m ake a clean finish, and should have fixings ab o u t every 18 in., or

not more th an 2d in. apart.
P a n e l l i n g .

Panelling is m ade up m uch in the same way as

door panelling (see Doors), save th a t for positions such as w ains

co tin g round apartm ents, spandrils of wooden stairs, ceil
ings, soffits, &c.

I t is only finished fair on one side, and conse

quently the fram ew ork is less in thickness th a n in door work.

Size and shape of panels and class of molds and finish are made to
suit the work.

To give the full appearance of thickness, the panels

are sometim es rebated a t the back of the frame, or the panels m ay

be lapped and screwed entirely a t the back of the frames.


arrangem ents leave a deeper front recess for the panels, which adds
to the boldness of the effect.
Panels are som etim es m ade of T. and (%. and V -jointed boarding
or in parti-colored woods.
In office or bank fittings, panelling for screens is usually fair on
both sides, like doors, and requires to be strengthened by uprights
or rails.
C a s i n g s .

R ough

beams, rolled

steel joists, pipes, &c., are

usually cased in, frequently w ith wood.

These m ay consist of

plain boarding w ith ovolo-molded and T. and G. edges, secured a t

distances of ab o u t every 24 in. to firring pieces i.e., rough
b a tte n cradling.
M o l d s . Moldings

are usually run by m achinery, which m ay

now be easily set to any contour.

If moldings are large, they are

best built u p th a t is, m ade in two or more widths, and secured

to rough backing.

In designing moldings care should be tak en to

secure the best effect, and the proper projection and shadow for
the molding in the position it is to occupy, w hether near the eye,
or a t a distance or h e ig h t; also th a t the molds should be in
keeping with the style of architecture adopted.
Picture molds are usually of wood, w ith a top rounded member



to receive the m etal cord holders.

These molds are usually secured

to walls through wood plugs ; specially heavy pictures, however,

require m etal rods and specially secure fixings.
A mold is said to be p lanted on when it is added separately
to the work.

W hen it is worked upon the actual m aterial to

which it is applied, it is stuck on.

Molds are usually m itred a t external angles, and scribed at
internal angles th a t is, the contour of the one piece is cut out to
fit against the other piece running a t right angles.
G rounds are continuous b atten s to which joinery is fixed.


narrow skirting or around architraves in plastered walls, the

plaster is allowed to finish up against a splayed ground, which is
afterw ards covered w ith the finished woodwork.

Grounds are

fixed w ith plugs to walls.

A r c h i t r a v e s . An

architrave ground is shown in Plate LX X X .,

and a skirting ground in P late L X V III.

Plugs are rough-cut, tapered pieces of wood driven or built
into joints of walling, afterw ards sawn off fair, and are used in the
fixing of joiners w o rk ; they should be about every 18 in. apart
Jo in ers work is usually p u t together w ith glue and finishing

F or special work screws are used, which, in the case of

polished finishings, m ay be m ade of brass or nickel in cups.

A rchitraves are plain or molded lengths of woodwork, secured
as frames around the doors and windows, to cover the joint between
the frames or lining and the walling.

The stock sizes of molded

wood architraves are 4-in. by |-in ., 5-in. by l|- in ., and 6-in. by


These are sometimes set up on skirting blocks (Plate

L X X X .)i.e., shaped pieces designed to stop the skirting and to

act as a pedestal for the architrave.

Square block ornam ental

corners are also sometimes used a t the top angles of architraves.

The term architrave is applied equally to wood, stone, plaster,
or brick finishing around doors or windows.

S k i r t i n g s . Skirtings



of continuous boards, usually

molded, set around an ap artm en t a t the lower portion of the wall,

nex t the floor.

The stock sizes of skirtings are 7-in. by |-in ., 9-in.

by |-in ., and 11-in. by |-in .

Skirtings are sometimes ex tra deep

and on receding planes in height, when they are called doublefaced skirtings, in addition to which molds m ay be added on top,
when they are term ed D .F. and molded on top skirtings.


skirtings of this la tte r character are fixed to soldiers i.e.,

shaped up rig h t pieces upstanding against the walls, plugged and
secured to walling a t distances of about 18 in. to 24 in. ap art.
These take the place of the grounds used in narrow skirtings.
F i t t i n g s .

W hen the stru ctu ral p a rt of a building approaches

completion, the fittings require to be fixed and the joiners work of

finishing carried out.

In business premises, shops, offices, and

banks fittings of an extensive and elaborate character are often

re q u ire d ; these v ary greatly according to the conditions and
requirem ents and the am ount of floor space and light available.
These m ay n o t be specially touched upon here ; some m ention
may, however, be m ade of a few common problem s th a t have to
be allowed for in the carrying out of ordinary work.
In fittings of every kind only the highest q u ality and driest
tim ber should be used and hand-dressed throughout.

In fancy and

special woods the various p arts should be skilfully m atched and

the best hgurings reserved for the panelling.

E ven w ith dry

tim ber fittings are best cu t out and allowed to stand to season
before being finally p u t together, so as to secure close and sound

For polished finishes the hard, dense-grain woods are best,

and these require to be specially prepared for the finish, and

preserved clean and free from damage.

Any nailings m ust be

secret, and fixings m ade as far as possible invisible.


are best left loose, counter tops b u tto n ed down (not screwed),
and guard rails placed against fram ing liable to be kicked or



A R C H IT E C T U R E .

The process of wear th a t tak es place in fram ing near the floor
from th e sweeping and cleaning of th e floors calls for some
atte n tio n .

Glass, too, should be p u t in so as to avoid concussion,

and especially in d ra u g h ty positions, or in or near doors likely to


In such positions lead lights are liable to bulge, and over

large sheets to fractu re, unless arranged, sized, and guarded w ith
E le v a to r and sta ir

screen s

are b est left w ithout glass


panelled, finished w ith wire or open m etal work.

Cupboards, Wardrobes, the. C upboards, w ardrobes, stores, &c.,
w ith wooden fronts are usually m ade with an inside skeleton
fram e fair lined on th e outside or fitted w ith panelled fram ing to
m atch th e doors.

In such fittings a false floor should be p u t in a

few inches above th e ord in ary floor, so th a t floor

s w e e p in g s

m ay

n o t be sw ept in to the a p a rtm e n t.

In w ardrobes the ceilings should be strong and of wood, to take
to p hanging.
In p a n try cabinets, draw ers and in tern al shelving are usually

Such cabinets, if carried up above table height, are best

con stru cted w ith glass fronts.


M e ta l b a t h s , a n d e s p e c ia lly g a lv a n iz e d

sheet-iron b ath s, are usually cased w ith woodwork.

e v e r p o s s ib le , to


a v o id e d .

This is, where-

A fa r m o r e h y g ie n i c w a y is t o h a v e

such sa n ita ry fittings q uite open on every side for the free circula
tio n of air.

W here casing is used the b a th is usually fixed in a

corner an d a skeleton fram e and cradling fitted up.

The top

edge of th e b a th is th e n covered w ith rounded-edged boarding,

and th e sides an d shower enclosure lined w ith lining boards or
I n th e sam e w ay spaces under sinks or lav ato ry basins are some
tim es enclosed and fitted w ith doors.
T opg

D m W w g'

if o f w o o d , are b e s t m a d e in o n e

w idth of k au ri boarding from 1 in. to i f in. thick.

c le a n s u p w e ll, a n d is s u it a b le fo r s c r u b b in g .

This tim ber

S u c h ta b le s

r e q u ir e



to be channel-grooved to drain to the sink, th e space around the

sink to have rounded edges and to be bedded in w hite or red lead.
W here against walls, such tables or sink tops should have wood
skirtings, or, b etter still, tiled lined m argins flashed with lead
close copper-tacked to the woodwork.
Wooden Wash Troughs are also made of wide kauri boarding
supported on fram ed bearers and legs.

The height to top should

be from 34 in. to 36 in., th e whole in two or more divisions about

20 in. wide a t top, 15 in. a t bottom , and 16 in. deep ; the front
sloping inwards, and the divisions being each about 24 in. wide.

suitable thickness of tim ber is I | in., w ith the divisions and ends
housed to front and back, and the bottom screwed on w ith brass

The back and front should project and be through bolted

with |-in . galvanized iron rod bolts, and all joints should be set
in thick white lead, and w ater should be k ep t in troughs con



im ported in various

stock widths, the m ost common of which is 12-in., there being

also 14-in., 16-in., and 18-in. widths.

Shelving is usually of white

pine, yellow pine, A m erican pine, or kauri, and is fitted up on

bearers fixed to walls and supported between on fram ed wooden
cantilever brackets or m etal brackets m ade for the purpose.
Chimney-pieces.Chimney-pieces, or m antelpieces, as they are
sometimes called, are now usually made of wood, to frame or to enrich
the space above the fire-place.

These are usually purchased ready

made, and fixed in position.

A b e tte r m ethod is to design them

specially to suit each ap artm en t, and to finish and decorate them

in harm ony w ith the other woodwork of the a p artm en t in which
they are placed.
A wooden chimney-piece is shown in the interior (Chapter V III.,
Plate XL.)
Grilles.-Wood ornam ental grilles are used as overhead infillings
to interior lintelled or arched openings, and are of a great varia
tion of design.

These, too, should be designed and decorated in



harm o n y w ith th e surrounding work.

Such a grille form s p a rt of

th e in te rio r design illu stra te d in C hapter V III., P la te X L ., and

acts as an overhead screen betw een th e m ain a p a rtm e n t and angle
bow window.



R e q u ir e m e n t s




R oof

C o v e r i n g s . The


question of roof coverings requires careful consideration in archi

tectu ral work.
There is, first of all, the im p o rtan t practical consideration of
keeping out the w eather and protecting the building, as well as
m ay be, not only from the rain, b u t also from h eat and the changes
of tem perature.
The ideal covering is the one th a t secures for the building a
reasonable uniform ity of inside tem perature, not violently affected
either by heat or cold.
The Msthetic.W hilst
aesthetic appearance






of a roof covering





ends the

should not be for

tex tu re,



The alm ost invariable decision among English-speaking peoples
is in favor of some form of sloping roof, th e flat, though
having much to recom m end it, being an E astern form th a t is
.adopted b u t rarely in our midst.
Pitch or Slope.The pitch or angle of slope of a roof has to be
decided consequent upon position, w hether specially exposed to
heavy rains or not, and upon the character and capabilities of the
covering adopted.

For instance, a galvanized iron roof, having

b ut very few joints, and those tig h tly fastened down, m ay (should
the question of internal h eat not be a vital one) be placed a t a
very low pitch, whereas wood shingles, being uneven, small, and




m any-iointed, require a very steep slope to render them effective.

In a v arying degree this is tru e of tiles and slates, while the danger
of th e asp h alt flat is th a t it is specially liable to crack from
too g re a t an exposed expanse of som ew hat rigid surface in con
ta c t w ith th e outside elem ents, and no buffer air space lies betw een
th e outside air an d th e ap artm en ts.
Nam es of Coverings. The roof coverings in general use are tiles,
slates, galvanized corru g ated iron, and wood shingles, and for large
flat roofs felt or a s p h a l t ; for small flats, galvanized sheet iron.
I n addition, certain specially m an u factu red m aterials, such as
continuous felts or papers, asbestos tiles, m etal tiles, &c., are used
for certain classes of buildings.
Roof D iagram . F ro m a careful stu d y of P la te L X X X V ., which
is a perspective sketch showing technical term s applied to roofs,
an idea m ay be obtained of th e leading p a rts of a roof and the
technical term s ad o p ted w hen speaking of roof coverings.


diagram has been specially d raw n so as to allow of th e leading

general lines being clearly understood.

H ere we see how a roof

m ay be set up, th e application of such term s as the following being


shown, v iz .; E av es ridge valley gable-ended roof

hipped roof lean-to roof, w ith such subsidiary term s as fla tpen t
sk ylig h t dorm er louvred v e n t tube v e n t chim ney

p a r a p e t;

togeth er w ith such a tta c h e d p a rts as eaves spouting cistern head

rain -w ater dow n pip e box g u tte r

barge board, &c. , these

term s being of com m on application and use in all general roofing.

L a te r o n it w ill b e s h o w n

h o w th e s e v a r io u s p a r ts a re

c o n str u c te d

an d finished.


R ooFS. The

in d is p e n s a b le

o b t a in in g t h e fu ll b e n e fit o f th e r o o f c o v e r in g

n e c e s s ity


a s a c a tc h m e n t a rea

for ra in w ater for dom estic purposes has bro u g ht into being the
large percentage of galvanized corrugated iron roofs th a t are seen
th ro u g h o u t th e

co u n try .

w a te r tig h tn e s s ,

This m aterial has th e advantage of

and cheapness.

E asily handled and fixed,










it offers at once th e soundest and cheapest all-round roof covering

obtainable for common use.
Msthetic Aspect of Iron Roof Covering. In aesthetic qualities,
however, it is seriously defective, and in spite of red and white
coloring, w ith which it is sometimes coated, its t h i n appearance
greatly detracts from its effect as a satisfactory roof m aterial for
buildings of any architectural pretensions.
Non-Resistance. I t is also defective in power to resist changes
of tem perature, heat and

cold b o th


readily through

Imported Iro n .G alvanized corrugated iron for general roofing
purposes is im ported in various gauges and sizes.

The most

commonly used is th a t showing 3-in. corrugations in sheets 5, 6, 7,

8, 9, 10 ft. in length, w ith a w idth of about 27 in., the gauge
{i.e., thickness)





B irm ingham



(B.W .G.)
How to Lay Roof Iro n . This iron should be fitted w ith twocorrugation side lap, and from 5 to 8-in. end lap, according to the
flatness of pitch and exposure of aspect.
C orrugated iron is secured either by special spring-headed nails
or by screws and washers m ade for th e purpose.

These fixings are

pierced through each altern ate corrugation to underside wood

battenings or purlins, spaced about 30 in. a p a rt centres.


P late L X X X V L , fig. 1.)

W here wider spans th a n this exist the sheets are best riv etted
. One rigid rule should be stringently enforced w ith all galvanized
roof iron work.

E very nail or iron fitm ent used in connection w ith

it should be galvanized.
I n Hurricane Zones.In districts



hurricanes or

excessively high winds roof iron should be furth er secured w ith

long, tough wood b atten s laid along horizontal joints outside and
bolted rig h t through the roof tim bers to the inside.
prevent individual sheets being to rn off.

This is to



Galvanized Roofing Tables.

A p p r o x im a t e N u m b e r o f S h e e t s o p O r d in a r y
Co rr u g a ted






Ca se




(w e i g h i n g

24 B.W.G.



















C o v e r in g C a p a c it y P e r S q u a r e

26 B.W.G.,

24 B.W.G.,



usually allowed




. Su p e r ) o f a T on o f t h e above


About 22 squares.

Single Lap
Lap and Half
Double Lap
Single Lap
Double Lap

N a ils.If spring-headed nails

G a l v a n iz e d

1 0 C W T .)







used, one packet (100 nails) is


S h in g lin g . Shingling consists in covering a roof w ith small

wood slabs called shingles ; these are either split or sawn.
For shingling certain kinds of splitting gums are used, such as
blue gum, Tasm anian pepperm int gum (this being one of the most
la stin g ); sawn jarrah, and sawn, feather-edged Californian red pine
are also used.
To te st pepperm int gum, dry and place in water, when the wood
im m ediately sinks.
Shingles are laid and left plain or satu rated with oil, treated
w ith creosote or

s p e c ia l-m a d e


Shingles should only be laid

upon steeply p i t c h e d roofs.

The general use of this m aterial is m uch restricted on account
of th e danger from fire, such a m aterial being prohibited within
city areas.

I t is, however, very picturesque, and, after weathering,

looks particularly well among rural scenery.

^ ^ 2g . _ ^ h i n g l e s

d iffe r


s iz e ,

th o se


s p littin g


b e in g

20^10" Counts:)
0 /o tQ 3 c a n tr z -

r 3attor)

or wiring

/6 (T/oC



F I G .J .

T ilino

5pouf/n^ .


C .fb C

Caihna J r

I G .l.

MG. 2.

C o P ru g a f^

M o g lin g





A sp h a lt

r l u .o .

Covgrlngfo Pani' FIG. 7 A ophalf CcNQfinQ

M )O P




generally about 15 in. by 4 | in., though th ey are sometimes used

much longer and wider.

Im p o rted redwood shingles are generally

about 15^ in. in length, and v ary from 4 in. to 12 in. in width.
These are cu t to feather edge.
Lap and Laying. The lap in shingling varies w ith the m aterial
used and the angle or pitch of roof slope.

Split shingles require

more cover, because th ey are less in surface th a n sawn shingles.

For split shingling 3-in. by 1-in. hardw ood b atten s are gener
ally used, and shingles set to from 4J in. to 6 in. lap and nailed
each with two ordinary wire nails, the shaping being done w ith a
tom ahaw k.
Shingles are fixed sim ilarly to slates (see P late L X X X V L , fig. 2).
Sawn shingles m ay all be gauged to one even w idth and the whole
laid to break joints in the same w ay as slating.

This is, however,

b u t seldom done, the ordinary m ethod being to have the m aterial

of varying widths, and to m ake broken joints as the work proceeds.
H ip and Ridge Covers.Shingles are generally roughly cut a t
hips and covered with close-nailed boarding, th e hips being closecovered in the same way.
W ith large sawn shingles the hips m ay be cut tru e to m itre and
underflashed w ith zinc soakers in the same way as slating.


L X X X V III., fig. 3 .)
Wall Shingling.Shingling is also used for covering roof gables,
lining outside surfaces of projecting bays, and for other similar

Gum shingles, if left virgin, m ay be depended upon to

w eather in soft greys, or ja rra h shingles m ay be k ept to their red

. color by being constantly well oiled.
S late

R o o f i n g . Qualities

and Sizes. The roofing slates used

in A ustralia are m ostly im ported from Wales, America, or the

Continent of Europe, only a lim ited q u a n tity of local slates
being used.
The general commercial sizes and colors of the various kinds
m ay be set down as follows :


Welsh. Pink,
Chiefly 20

blue, and piir^de.

by 12
by 12
by 11
by 12.
by 10, Countesses,
b y 10
by 0
by 8.

Am erican. Blue and green.

20 b y 10
24 by 12.
Continental. Blue, pink, and green.
Chiefly 20 by 10.
Au.stralian.24 by 12
10 by 8.

An old practice is to describe by nam e the size of slates, such as

duchesses, 24 in. by 12 in. ; countesses, 20 in. by 10 in. ; ladies,
14 in. by 12 in. ; doubles, 12 in. by 8 in., &c., b u t as slates of the
same nam e v ary in different localities, it is b etter to describe a
slate by size only, and add color and locality of quarry.
Quality of Good Slates.Roofing slates should be com pact in
texture, practically non-absorbent, and capable of giving forth a
ringing sound when struck.

They should be hard and rough, not

greasy, those giving a sharp fracture when cu t being the best.

These qualities, together w ith uniform ity, permanence of color,
and freedom from barsi.e., disfiguring cross linesbeing the best.
Sorting, Dressing, and Grading.The first process in dealing with
roof slates is sorting, dressing, and grading.

The slates are picked

over, any rough edges squared off, and two holes for nailing
punched, either by machine or by hand, through each slate.
slates are then graded into thicknesses.


This is accomplished by

grading the slates into groups or classes, such as thick, medium,

and thin.

This ensures fiat laying in the final work, equal th ick

ness slates being laid in groups togetherviz., thick at bottom

(near eaves), medium in centre, and th in a t top (near ridges).
JSlails. Two wide, fiat-headed slating nails to each slate are

These are either f i in. or 1 | in. in length, and of non-

rusting m aterial, such as copper, zinc, compo., or galvanized steel.

Fo r diagram showing how slates are laid see Plate L X X X V I.,
fig. 3.


i n

are laid in horizontal courses from the

eaves upwards, w ith close-butting side joints in every case, each



slate centrally bonding and breaking joint, one directly above the
other, the top slate leaving a certain portion of the slate below
revealed, which is called th e gauge.
The lap is the all-im portant point in slating.

This is the actual

cover all th e joints have when the roofing is com pleted, and should
be from
to 3 inches.
In preparing the roof for slating 2-in. by 1-in. long deal batten s
are required, fixed in parallel rows according to size of slate and

The slates are secured to these by means of two slating

nails passing through each slate.

The rule is to commence slating from the bottom by a double
course, slightly projecting into spouting or gutter.

This course

should be set up above the general line b y a tiltin g fillet, so as to

shoot the w ater clear off.

F rom the eaves th e laying is carried on

upwards, course upon course, to finish a t th e ridging w ith a short

course, th e lap being sustained throughout.
H iy s.H ips are either m itred i.e., only slate showing or plain
and covered w ith galvanized iron capping, or they m ay be covered
with tile hipping.
M itred hips are those in which the slates are cu t close and fair
to the m itre of the h i p ; these do not

require capping.


m itreing, hip boarding from 6 in. to 9 in. is laid, upon which th in

zinc soakers are secured.

The soakers cover the actual m itre, and

are interposed betw een the slates, so as to throw the w ater to the
In m itred hips the slates require to be in pieces as large as
possible, each piece being screwed w ith galvanized iron screws.
O rdinary hips are roughly cut and afterw ards covered w ith
hipping, generally of galvanized sheet iron, the same as the ridging.
Valleys. The internal angles or valleys are formed by fair c u t
ting to a true-line the intersecting slopes, leaving space between for
w ater to pass down th e valley guttering.
fig. 1.)

(See P late L X X X V IL ,

Rendering. In very exposed, wet positions slating m ay be inside



rendered in hair m ortar, com pounded of four p arts of sand to one

p a rt of lime, w ith a proportion of long cowhair interm ixed.


the inside the top and b ottom joints m ay be pointed up after the
slates are laid, or each course m ay be headed in m ortar, course by
course, as the work proceeds.
Circular and S'pecial WorJc.In circular-ended roofs, round tu rret
tops, &c., th e slates require to be specially small and carefully cut.
This class of work m ust be laid on close boarding, the smaller
slates being screwed into position.
B ands or p a tte rn s of varying colored or shaped slates are some
tim es laid into roof coverings, b u t this is a m annerism not to be
recom mended, a plain, simple roof of good color, with m itred hips,
giving th e best possible results.
Cleaning Doww. Should slating become stained with m ortar.
&c., clean down w ith dilute m uriatic acid and full q u an tity of
clean w ater.

slating is m easured by the

100 ft. superi.e., a square of 10 ft. by 10 ft.



By setting out to

scale upon paper a surface of this size, w ith slates and gauge
required, the num ber of slates per square m ay be readily estim ated,
also the q u a n tity of nails, two being allowed to each slate.
Slates are sold a t per thousand.
T il e

R o o e i n g . From

tim e immemorial tiles have been used as

a roof covering, and if well m ade this branch of ceramic manufactu re supplies one of th e m ost practical and perm anent roof coverings known.
Xiles.Roofing tiles are made of terra-co tta, either plain or of
shape so as to fit one into the other in laying.
The tile in m ost general use in A ustralia is of the Marseilles
pattern , either im ported from Marseilles or locally m anufactured.
This is a shaped and interlocking tile, averaging about 1 6| in. by
10 in., w ith a w eight of about 5 | lbs., which, upon being fully
satu rated w ith w ater, m ay increase to about 6^ lbs.



They have th e advantage of being self-ventilating, which is a t

once apparent from the inside of a roof, th e space being lighted
through the interstices of the covering, whereas in all other roof
coverings this ventilating q u ality is absent.
Tiles m ay be excessive in weight, especially when charged with
m oisture, and the fact th a t th ey are more absorbent th a n other
roofing m aterial requires to be tak en into consideration in building
the roof tim bers ; though their absorbent character m ay be useful
in reducing tem perature by rapid evaporation in sum m er w eather
after light showers.
Flat T iles.English tiles are m ostly of the flat p a tte rn , 14 in.
by 6 in. or 12 in. by 6 in., w ith two hanging clips or holes for oak


These make a close and even-surfaced covering

com pared with which the Marseilles p a tte rn looks heavy, and, upon
one-story buildings especially, clumsy.
ventilating in them .

There is, however, no

Quality of Good Tiles. Tiles for roof covering should be sound






dense in structure,


non-absorbent, and of good and uniform color and not over

Tile Accessones.F or use in conjunction with tiles specially-m ade
terra-co tta ridging, plain and ornam ental cresting, and interlocking
hipping is made locally, as also molded, shaped, and ornam ental
finials, &c. ; these are used for the com pletion of p arts of the roof
not coverable by the ordinary tiles.
Tile Cutting. Tiles m ay be chisel cut and rubbed to shapes as
required for valleys, hips, m itres, &c.
Actual L aying.Marseilles p a tte rn tiles are easily laid, each tile
close up side by side and to straig h t horizontal lines.
L X X X V I., fig. 4 .)


The gauge is fixed by the form of the tile, one tile locking into
the other.
Two deal b atten s are required, one 2 in. by 1 in. and one 1 in.
by 1 in.

U pon these the tiles rest, being wired on w ith wire



passing th ro u g h a pierced eye m ade in the back of the tile.


th is purpose 18-gauge copper or galvanized steel wire is used.

Should th e roof be boarded th e tiles m ay be wired through holes
bored in th e covering, or staples m ay be driven into the boarding
to tak e th e wire.
Valleys . Thfi valleys of tiled roofs are laid w ith sheet metal
sim ilarly to those of slated roofs.
Laying Special P arts. H ips are covered w ith te rra-co tta hipping,
ridges w ith plain or orn am en tal cresting.

These special parts are

bedded in hair m o rta r m ade of four p arts of sand to one of lime

m ixed w ith cow hair.
P ointing. The outer jo in ts of hips, ridges, overhanging gables,
&c., are p o in ted up in colored m o rtar com pounded of P o rtla n d
cem ent and sand, three to one, w ith
coloring m a tte r added.

V enetian


M easurem ent. Roofing contracts are generally tak en

or other


square, tiles of the M arseilles p a tte rn requiring ab o u t 113 tiles to

th e square, w ith 1 | lbs. of wire.
Hanging T iles. F o r lining external half-tim bering gables, &c.,
flat hanging tiles are som etim es em ployed.

These have either

plain, square ends, or ends ornam ented to various cut-out shapes.

H anging tiles are generally holed, and m ay be secured w ith slating
nails to b atten s, or hung w ith wood pegs.

Clips are sometimes

form ed on th e ends of th e actu al tiles for hanging purposes, and wire


H an g in g tiles are set to gauge in the same way as slating.

Cleaning D ow n.-Clean down tiling a t com pletion w ith dilute

m u riatic acid and pure w ater.
P l u m b e r s W o r k i n R o o f C o v e r i n g s . P lum bers

work forms

an im p o rta n t p a rt of roofing of w hatever kind, and the careful

execution of th is po rtio n of the v/ork is of the highest im portance,
for upon it th e w eathertightness of th e sm aller p a rts depends.


is n ot sufficient to have a good general roof covering ; the accessory

w ork m u st be well done.


Tube, and

<Till&f Piec&.
C^ilino Joist.

Caihng Joist


B o x G o f i e r b e j V e e n iw o

dy" Fascia

FIG. 1.

DpoolinQ and Laveo 10

GnfrgQalOd Iron Doof .
^ adApro
\trof Iron

Co.!ling J
fall to Gutter.

box GuHor .


q g a irs T a . .
P a fa p o f. . -

Down Pip

Jilting Fillat.

FIG. 2
Plain foon died Opoollng
fo opon oaves.

GatOhQot iron

CaiUng J o io t.

Oexdlon Thfo.


B id g in g

CisiOrh D.V.
H oad.

M U .O .

b lle y



WODK TO R o o r o . .




Galvanized Sheet Iron W ork. Sheet-m etal work enters largely

into the average job of roofing, the com m onest m aterial used being
galvanized sheet-iron for ridges, hips, valleys, spoutings, and down

These are made up for the m ost p a rt m m anufacturing

plum bers shops, and m ay be purchased as stock articles a t so

much per foot lineal.
G utters are generally made upon the works, as th ey differ w ith
each job.
All galvanized iron work of this kind should be made of special
flat iron of some well-known m anufacturers brand.

The th ick

ness gauges are from 26 for common, 24 for ordinary, and 22 or

20 for special work.
All bending should be done in such w ay as to avoid as m uch as

dam aging

the galvanized surface of th e



where in th e heavy irons this m ay tak e place th e scaling should

be touched over and covered w ith solder.
Various devices are em ployed to stiffen iron.

I t it well known

th a t sheet iron, which in th e sheet m ay be very limp, gains vastly

in rigidity when worked up.

This is th e reason for corrugating.

In addition to ordinary bending or shaping, th e edges of sheet

metal m ay be fu rth er strengthened by tu rn in g or welting, or by
the in-running of stiffening wire.
In fitting together, good length laps should be given, say about
4 in. in spouting and down pipes, 6 in. in ridging, hips, and
valleys, and 7 in. or 8 in. in gutters.

W here possible these laps to

be double riv etted and double soldered.

- Eaves Spouting.The spouting in m ost common use is known as
O.G. spouting (Plate L X X X V II., fig. I), th e stock sizes of which
are3-in., 4 in., 4^-in., 5-in., and 6-in., in 6-ft. lengths.

This is

fixed w ith long galvanized iron screws, pierced through near the top,
and inserted into th e wood fascia or rafter beyond.

These screws

are encircled w ith round, ben t pieces of sheet iron called distance
tubes, to keep the back and front of spouting a p a rt when screw
is tightened up.

These are fixed about every 36 in. apart.




actual practice screws often draw out, owing to excessive

dryness of th e wood.

The spouting is, therefore, b etter further

stren g th en ed by strap s of galvanized hoop iron

riv etted


soldered on to th e front of th e spouting, and bro ught over or under

and nailed to th e woodwork.
P lain round spouting (P late L X X X V If., fig. 2) m ay be m ade in
heavy gauge iron, and kep t in position w ith w rought-iron eave
hooks, as shown in th e figure.
Cast-iron m olded spou tin g is now used to a very lim ited degree.
W here em ployed it should be well painted periodically with oxide
of iron paint.
Spouting requires to be set to slight falls tow ards down pipes,
th e ru n s to w hich should not, as a general rule, total more than
40 ft. lineal of spouting.
Down F if e s .D ow n pipes are used to convey the rain water
from spoutings or g u tters to th e ground, whence it is carried off
by surface channels or underground pipe drains.

This pijiing

is m ade of sheet iron, and is stocked in a sim ilar w ay to spouting ;

the stock sizes being 2-in.,

3-in., dCin-, and 4-in., 26 and

24 gauge galvanized plain iron being m ostly used.

F or special

work, and especially for th e lengths near th e ground th a t m ay he

su b ject to knocks, th e gauge is best increased to the 20-gauge
riv e tte d quality .
Dow n piping usually requires angles, shoes, and elbows to render
it com plete ; these are usually purchasable from stock, or made
by th e plum ber by cutting, fitting, and soldering common jiiping
The best work, however, is done with special curved fiends, which
are now m an u factu red for all general purposes.

Down pipes are

secured to brick walls w ith galvanized w rought iron, half-round

wall hooks d riven in to joints of brickw ork to clip pipe ; where
a tta c h e d to w eatherboard sheet m etal clips are soldered on.
im p o rtan t p erm an en t buildings square
used, having cast on lug connections.


cast-iron down piping is

Such piping m ay be set in

a chase in th e outside brickw ork flush with wall facings.



Down Pipe Strainers.Strainers of galvanized wire worked to a

conical shape are fixed to th e top ingoing of down pipes to prevent
choking by leaves or bird-nest building.
Cistern Heads.A t g u tter outlets, or wherever there

is an

excessive outgoing of rain w ater, such as a t th e junction of two

down pipes, the w ater m ay be collected
(Plate L X X X V IL , fig. 3).

into a cistern head

These are m ade in various stock sizes

and shapes out of sheet m etal, or m ay be made to detail.

In old

English work th e rain w ater down pipe heads were often m ade a
special feature, and some pleasing exam ples in lead are to be found
among the old work.
Gutters.In roof design internal gutters should be as much
avoided as possible, because, owing to th eir com parative inacces
sibility and liability to choke upon sudden emergency (however well
constructed th ey m ay be), th ey are a common source of danger in
the wet seasons.
W hen the style of architecture requires parapets, gutters have
of course to be arranged, as also when roof slopes m eet in the
internal p arts of wide area roofs.
These gu tters are best form ed in th e b o x or parallel-sided
m anner.

If th e ordinary tapering g u tter be su b stitu ted it has the

serious disadvantage of having to spread over an ever-widening

area of the roof, increasing w ith the length of the run, thus
exposing wide surfaces of m etal to the variable action of the
tem perature.
In A ustralia lead should be avoided as a g u tte r lining m aterial, as
the great changes of tem perature render it specially liable to creep
and crack. The b etter m aterial is galvanized sheet iron of heavy
gauge, carefully bent, rivetted, and soldered a t the junction of
sheets and left as free as possible (unnailed).
G utters require a fall of about 1 | in. in every 10 ft., and should
be kept free from falling leaves or debris, or from snow upon the
high or south lands where snow prevails.
G utters of various kinds are shown on P late L X X X V IL



Box Gutters.Fig. 4 illustrates a section through a box g u tter

i.e., one w ith parallel sides.

These sides m ust be kept well up, as

all the fall is m ade in the bottom of the gutter.

g u tte r a t outfall should not be less th a n 4 in.

The depth of

The size of such a

g u tter will depend upon its length and the catchm ent area of roof
it serves.
This figure shows the sheet-iron lining bent, shaped, and worked
over th e g u tter sides on to the boarding, well under roof covering.
Fig. 5 shows a box g u tter next a parapet wall.

Here the same

general principle prevails, save th a t on the left side the iron lining
upstands against th e brick wall, where it is lead apron flashed
Ta'pering Gutters.Fig. 6 shows a section through an ordinary
tapering g u tter betw een the two internal slopes of a roof.

In this

ty p e of g u tter a certain w idth a t outlet is allowed for and a given

fall determ ined.

The gutter in working out widens in the ratio of

these, and m ay be very wide indeed a t its head, especially between

low -pitched roofs.

The bottom is supported on bearers nailed to

sides of rafters a t varying heights, the g u tter being formed of close

boarding and side tilting fillets, over which the sheet metal is
Valley Gutters are parallel sided, and m ay be constructed as
shown in fig. 8.

Valley gutters m ay also be formed of stock

galvanized sheet-iron ridge capping, reversed.

Chimney Gutters.W here a roof slope meets a right angle up
standing surface such as a chim ney stack (Plate L X X X V III.,
fig. 1), a g u tter is usually form ed as shown.

This portion against

which th e g u tter abuts is called the back of the chimney.


gu tters



com paratively small, th ey m ay be of lead

throughout, w ith fall from centre of stack two ways, the roof
covering being brought alm ost close up against the wall.
Metal Flats. Occasionally small portions of roofs are laid in as
fiats, such as roofs of bays and small projections, ap art from
the roof proper, also shelter pents overhanging outside doors.


F T K }..:).


n iG .;2 L

]30ffi(]ri of EPoef iZdicAviiTg

jMkDnzcwTR]! jTiacfwig 3b

OoakGro 6,

\vb1 i or % ra p 0 f .


MOTL b/c/e o/'

na:DhQjd uuith^
L ooda^ m

O action .

HQ abovQ. flaohing To a Vanr

DexiTion ihro'^imngy'
showing Goffer af bach
6 Apron ib lower oid&.


riG .4.



This form of roof covering is not desirable for the whole area of
a roof, though it offers a workable covering for small areas.
Metal flats are made of sheet m etal, either in copper, zinc, sheet
iron, or lead, the la tte r only being recom m ended in a cold, equable

For all-round purposes galvanized sheet iron m ay be

The same rules th a t ap p ly to the construction of sheet

m etal gutters should here be observedi.e., th a t the sheets should

not be over large, and th a t th ey should be arranged together and
worked to shape so as to be left as free as possible for expansion
and contraction under the changes of tem perature.
P late L X X X V L , fig. 5, shows a p en t roof, such as is sometimes
used as a shelter over an external doorway, in galvanized sheet

The woodwork is arranged w ith slight fall and on close


Rolls (fig. 6) are arranged a t intervals to suit the size

of sheet m etal used. These are secured to the boarding in the

direction of the fall and a t rig h t angles to eaves.
The iron is first tu rn ed up against th e wall, upstanding a t the
side of the roll, and well lapped in the direction of its length. This
lap m ay be riv etted and soldered if desired.
The rolls and upstanding edges of sheets are covered with a
roll piece cover, rounded on top, so bent as to spring over and
clinch tig h tly in position, being secured on top w ith galvanized
screws and lead washers.
Small spouting m ay be fixed a t eaves, or dripping e a v e s m ay
be formed by securing a th in wood slip along the edge, around
which the m etal is w orked and tu rn e d fair around on the underside.
The upstanding iron n ex t wall is overflashed w ith sheet lead in
the usual way.
F lats are sometimes arranged w ith falls in two or more directions,
when the rolls have to be arranged accordingly, sometimes a t right
The lining of vertical sides of roof tu rre ts and sim ilar work m ay
be carried out in the same w ay by plain areas of sheet metal,
having the joints covered w ith m etal rolls.



M etal Ridges and H ip s. F o r all general purposes galvanized

sheet iron is used for ridge an d hip covering in roofs, the exception
being in tiled roofs, where te rra -c o tta is em ployed.
S tock ridging is b ent up as P la te L X X X V II., fig. 7, and is
stocked in lengths, th e w idths being 12 in., 14 in., 15 in., 16 in.,
a n d 18 in.

These are end lapped and secured in position w ith

galvanized screw or spring-head nails, either near th e outside edges

or th ro u g h th e top.

I t m ay also be strengthened by sto u t gal

vanized hoop-iron pass-over clips secured to woodwork.

I n very

exposed positions, w hen used on galvanized corrugated iron roofing,

th e strip s of lead m ay be soldered along th e underside edges of
th e ridging an d dressed close into corrugations, th u s preventing
indriving of rain.
Flashing consists of sheet m etal cu t and dressed so as to render
w a te rtig h t th e ju n ctio n of roof coverings w ith walls, the cutting
aro u n d tu b e vents, the m eeting of iron hips and ridges, and any
o ther p a rts of a roof covering requiring to be overdressed.
Sheet Lead is th e m aterial m ostly em ployed, as it

is both

m alleable and non-corrosive ; it requires, however, in all cases to

be left free for expansion, and m ust be secured by such m eans as
render th is freedom possible.
F o r all ordinary w ork 4 lbs. or 5 lbs. (per foot super) milled lead
is em ployed.
Sheet Iro n and Z m c. G alvanized sheet iron or zinc m ay also be
used for certain classes of work.

These m aterials, however, lack

th e q u a lity of lead.
Horizontal Cover Flashings. k direct cover flashing is shown in
P late L X X X V III., fig. 2.

This is a t th e ju n ction of a slate lean-

to roof, an d shows a strip of lead b u ilt into th e wall and dressed

dow n over th e roof covering.
Sim ilar flashing is seen on th e lower side of chim ney stack
(fig. 1).
Stepped Flashing is shown in fig. 3.

This type of flashing is

used where roof slopes c u t against walls.

In this figure a slate



roof is shown where pieces of iinderflashing called soakers are

inserted under the slates to u pstand against the wall.


soakers are overflashed with stepped cover pieces secured to joints

of brickwork.
Raking Flashing.In very flat-pitched lean-to roofs, top courses
of brickw ork m ay be built parallel to pitch of covering, and flashing
(w ithout steps) built in.

This is called raking flashing.


the roof, in such a case, be covered w ith corrugated iron the iron
m ay be flattened out and a rig h t angle bend m ade to upstand
against the wall, overflashed in the usual way.
Junction G afs. The ju nction of iron ridges w ith hips requires
to be overflashed w ith lead.

These are called lead junction caps.

See fig. 4.
Flashing around Vents.W here pipes u pstand

through ridge

th ey are usually flashed as shown in fig. 5-i.e., by

means of a collar-like apron-piece of lead, dressed to upstand

around th e lower portion of the pipe, over which the upper length
of the pipe is made to fit.
Indressing and F inishing. W here flashings are used on unequal
surfaces, such as over Marseilles tiles or corrugated iron, the lead
should be neatly and closely dressed into all interstices, and always
of full w idth to afford good cover.
Apron flashings are som etim es b u ilt into brick walls as the work

In the case of stepped flashing this is n ot possible.

The m ortar joints require to be raked out, and the lead inserted
and secured.

This m ay be done either w ith wedges form ed of

sm all pieces of sheet lead or b y galvanized iron wall hooks.

In stone walls, ragletsi.e., joint-like channelsare cut to receive
the lead.
All wall joints of flashings require to be stopped in and pointed
in cem ent m ortar.
A sphalt F lats . P late L X X X V I., fig. 7, illustrates an asphaltcovered flat roof.

This m aterial is best laid on concrete in some



such m anner as show n in diagram , which shows a reinforced

concrete ceiling, form ing th e roof.

This concrete requires to be

laid to falls, and w ith channels so form ed as to a c t as rain w ater


V ery g reat care has to he tak en in this class of work, and

e x p e r ie n c e


show n th e value of so arranging th e


covering th a t it is laid as a c a rp e t w ith o u t adhesion to the



asp h a lt


u p stan d


an d


parapets, so as to be left free for expansion, the jo in t being apronflashed w ith lead.
F la t roofs co n stru cted in this w ay have th eir value in producing
an open usable area upon th e to p of a building.

G reat care,

however, m u st be ta k e n in this form of co n struction.

very best

m aterial

an d

th e

highest skilled


Only the
should be

em ployed, otherw ise th e resu lt of leakages m ay prove disastrous.

N a tu ra l rock asp h alts are best, or those w ith tru e bitum inous

O rd in a ry ta r asp h a lt should n o t be used.

A som ew hat cheaper kind of flat is som etim es form ed on b oard

ing b y lam in ated layers of co ntinuous felt paper sa tu ra te d with
bitum en p ain t, upon which a sp h alt is laid.
S p e c ia l

M anufactured

C o v e r i n g s . There

are placed upon

the A u stralian m a rk e t from tim e to tim e specially m anufactured

m aterials, for use as roof coverings other th a n slate, tiles, and

These consist of such m aterials as continuous felts, satu rated

papers, &c., laid in strip s upon boarding, lapped, and secured with
m astics

an d



R igid



ornam ental

stam p ed sheet m etal tiles, and num erous other means of roof
covering, are also used.
In ad d itio n to th e ord in ary outside


c o v e r in g ,


additio n al m eans are em ployed in high-class work, to make the

roof as non-resisting as

p o s s ib le .

All roof coverings have some

disadv an tag e as well as advantage, and these tra its m ay, in a



co u n teracted b y undercovering.

To keep o u t lieat th e

s im p le s t

device is to close


the roof

O il


top of the rafters, which m ay be covered w ith non-conducting

felt, or felt or non-conducting paper m ay be laid on w ire-netting

directly on top of rafters.
N on-conductors are also laid on top of ceilings, such as d ry sea
weed, saw dust, or the winnowings from w heat-threshing machines ;
a small adm ixture of lime will form the la tte r into a valuable
p u g g in g .

The outside white coating of the actual roof m aterial by non

conducting paints is also of value in hot districts, especially for
galvanized iron roofing.
The free passage of air through the roof m ust also be considered and
allowed for, not only to prevent d ry ro t in the tim bering, b u t also
to move the inner air, and to allow of the beneficial influence of
wind currents.

F or this see V entilation, C hapter X V II.




V e n t il a t io n

is th e science of supplying pure air and of carrying

off v itia te d air from buildings.

I t also has to do w ith air supply

to stru c tu ra l tim b ers to p rev en t d ry and w et rot, and also with

th e various problem s of cooling and w arm ing ap artm e n t air, so
in tim a te ly associated w ith th e h ealth of those who use m odern
V e n tilatio n is often surrounded w ith m an y difficulties, which
find m uch added com plexity w hen buildings, as in close-packed
cities, are su rrounded and sh u t in b y other structures.
To o b tain a co n stan t b u t gradual

changing of air

w ithout

d ra u g h t is th e problem of ven tilatio n .

V e n t i l a t i o n o f S t e u c t u r e s .

Under Floors. All the stru ctu ral

p a rts of a building should be v en tilated , and especially should air

be circulated u nder wooden floors and am ong roof tim bers, as,
should th e air rem ain dead, or th e tim bers be too closely built into
walls, either d ry or w et ro t is certain to set in, and this m ay
destroy th e b est of tim b e r in a few years.
In v e n tila tin g und er floors, ornam ental, galvanized, cast-iron or
te rra -c o tta v en tilato rs m ade for th e purpose are usually b u ilt in
flush w ith th e outside surfaces of th e walls, a t distances of about
S ft. a p a rt, an d holes are left in underfloor dividing walls for the
free circulation of air.

These v ents should be so arranged as to

create cross d rau g h ts and free-w ay curren ts of air, y e t so protected

P L A T E L X X X IX .


Tube r Icfon^la,
Oe ction.

sAelfioclo oTOelter
VenlTlailbn oTCeili


D ia g e a m


Wire n e s h .D

F I 0 .4
I Tp* '

= ]

5 InoidG


3 .


F ace

Two meffiodo. f' InierVenfilallOD


F/bjo ^hut

= = ^ ^ P / ^'

H ap

ohu-r 'Flap


W nr.



J o i o ts



a t back by galvanized wire as to prev en t ra ts or mice from

entering the building.
Face vents are usually made to stock sizes, such as 9-in. by 3-in.
or 9-in. by 6-in.

In im p o rtan t stone buildings they are usually

specially designed and made.

I n Roofs. Closed-in roofs should always be v entilated separately
from the apartm ents below them .

W here Marseilles tiles are used,

w ithout close boarding under them , this form of covering offers

good ventilation.

Slates and iron, however, being closer, require

to have louvred or cowl vents from the roof space.

These should

be so arranged as to do the work w ithout allowing indriving of

rain or the incoming of birds.

F or this reason louvred vents

should have the blades set a t steep angles such as is shown in

P late L X X X IX ., fig. 1.
should be added.

On very exposed sides, back iron bafflers

Cowl pipe vents should also be arranged w ith

outlets for indriving rain around the sides, and all should be
protected a t the back w ith galvanized bird wire.
V e n t il a t io n


D w e l l in g

A p a r t m e n t s .

The ventilation of

dwelling ap artm ents m ust always be carried out chiefly by means

of the windows, and these should be so arranged in position, size,
and character th a t th ey m ay be used to perflate th e whole of the
apartm en ts which they serve.

In this connection fanlights are

often of the greatest value, especially where they are carried well
up to the ceiling, for in this way th ey are able to clear the heated,
v itiated air, which rises n atu rally to

th e



m ust,

' however, be rem em bered th a t no means of ventilation which m ay

be provided, be it by window or special apparatus, is of any value
unless these means be p u t in m otion by the people using the
apartm ent.

This is too often the serious fault in lack of ventila

tion, as both n atu ral and m echanical m eans of ventilation usually

require to have opening and closing apparatus, which m ay be
readily throw n out of use by careless persons.
The value of fire-places, and especially open fire-places, should



n o t be overlooked in ventilation.

These, w hen in use, create good

air m ovem ent w hilst th e process of com bustion is proceeding.


m ust, however, be rem em bered th a t a fire m ust be fed w ith air,

and as it will draw it from th e m ost available place, unless the
fire-place be well arran g ed or th e fire fed w ith direct air from
outside, serious d rau g h ts m ay be created.
The chim ney b rea st in a room should alw ays be tak en advantage
of to build a sep arate o u tlet flue from near th e ceiling, carried right
up th e stack, w ith a su itable open air o u tlet near the top.


flues are b est of ro u n d galvanized sheet-iron pipe buried in the


W here a p a rtm e n ts are w ith o u t fire-places and building is

of several stories, such ven ts m ay be carried up in the thickness of

th e walls to outlets above th e roof.
The com m on form of o u tlet v e n t is fitted near the ceilings of
a p a rtm e n ts and passes th ro u g h th e outer walls.

These should be

carefully m ade com plete in them selves, not com m unicating in any
w ay w ith th e wall or roof space, w ith sm ooth sides, full opening,
an d w ith a slight dip outside to p rev en t direct indriving of w eather.
Such v ents are b est m ade of sheet m etal, finished on outside w ith
a p e rfo rated face or m etal baffler, an d on inside w ith a fixed or,
b e tte r still, a m ovable valve to suit th e in tern al finish of the
ap a rtm e n t.

(See P la te L X X X IX ., fig. 2.)

Fig. 3 on the same

plate shows a sim ilar o u tlet finished outside w ith a cowl.

W here o u tlet tu b e v en ts are placed in th e ceilings of ap artm en ts
th ey should in every case pass rig h t th ro u g h the roof space and
be finished w ith ex h au st cowls above th e roof covering.
P la te L X X X IX ., fig. 4.)
In inlet v e n tila tio n in


p riv ate a p a rtm e n ts the windows are

usually depended on, th o u g h if desired some form of hopper-faced

inlet m ay be used, of w hich tw o exam ples are given in P late
L X X X IX ., figs. 5 an d 6.
V e n t i l a t i o n o f P u b l i c B u i l d i n g s . The

ventilation of public

buildings is often regulated by enactm en ts of public authorities.



and when dealing w ith this class of work the designer requires to
carry out the work in accordance w ith such regulations.

As these

differ som ew hat in the various S tates, it is not expedient here to

lay down actual details for this class of v e n tila tio n ; sufficient to
say th a t such cases offer difficulties quite a p a rt from the ordinary
problem s of dom estic ventilation.
In large halls the inlet and outlet ventilation should both be
well distributed around the walls, the inlets being either through
walls or windows, ju st above th e heads of the people and so
arranged by hoppers as not to cause direct draught, and fitted w ith
closing valves.
O utlet vents, in or near ceilings, should be well divided, and these
are best arranged each w ith separate and direct outlet, unless
m echanical power be used, when the outlet m ay be carried along
close-sided ducts and exhausted by m echanical m eans such as
fans, &c.
In buildings where large num bers of people congregate only a t
certain times, all m eans of ventilation should be k ep t in m otion,
not only while the building is in use, b u t also a t all other times,
so th a t the air in the building is always fresh.
In public institu tio n s such as hospitals and asylum s, the free
distribution of inlets and outlets should also be carried out, sup
plemented, in the case of wards, w ith special perflation vents under
the beds as in P late L X X X IX ., fig. 7.

a r m in g


C o o l i n g .

The problems of w arm ing and cool

ing the air of buildings enter closely into the question of ventila

For w arm ing large buildings, if not by open fires, radiation

by hot w ater is the m ost usual.

This consists of a centrally placed

boiler apparatus, supplying hot w ater to the various ap artm ents

by means of insulated pipes, which give out the heat a t stacks of
open pipes called radiators, wherein the w ater circulates, and
to and from which it is regulated by a valve attach ed to each



R adiation Heating is also carried out w ith electric currents by

wires connected to rad iato rs, a ra d ia to r being an ap p aratus in
w hich th e c u rre n t is consum ed in specially-m ade lamps, designed
to throw out the heat.
R ad iatio n is directed to w arm th e air actu ally w ithin an a p a rt
m ent.

On th e oth er hand, certain system s of stove and hot air

heating are designed to supply b o th fresh and w arm ed air to the

aj)artm ents.
In hot and d u sty w eather th e problem of cooling a building often
p resents serious difficulties, and no building which in its structure
has n o t been designed to w ithstand these elem ents can by artificial
m eans only be expected to successfully com bat them .
W ell-insulated roof coverings, properly shaded, thick, or hollow
walls, v erandahs

and balconies, outside V enetian sh u tters and

blinds, and properly tree-p lan ted surroundings, all ten d to counter
ac t these evils.

A p a rt from refrigeration m uch m ay be done, if

cost is n o t a very im p o rta n t consideration, by using w ater sprays

for cooling.

G iven a good supply of cool w ater, the inlet for fresh

air m ay be arranged to pass through a cham ber where very fine

sprays of w ater are throw n out to cool, and wash, and lower the
tem p eratu re of th e air.

I t m ay then, by forced draught, be con

veyed along ducts and d istrib u ted to the various inlets throughout
th e a p a rtm e n ts of the building.

In a sm all w ay this system m ay

be supplied w ith a fine w ater spray playing over a porous te rra

c o tta cone a t th e p o in t of inlet.

W arm ing m ay also in w inter be

carried o u t som ew hat on th e same principle by gas-jets


asbestic cones a t th e p o in t of inlet directed to the warm ing of the

incom ing air.
To m ove th e air of ap artm en ts, and to give the sense of cooling
b y fanning, electric fans are of th e very greatest value for sum m er

The laying-on of electric cu rren t also m akes possible ready

means of m echanical m ovem ent for draw ing in or forcing out air,
so necessary w hen th e outside atm osphere is too stag n an t to act
upon th e ordinary m eans of ventilation.




P l u m b i n g . Generally.The

practice of plum bing divides itself

into three m ain divisions or branches general plum bing, san itary
plumbing, and m anufacturing plum bingw ith gas-fitting and hot
w ater engineering as close adjuncts.
W ith heavy dem ands for certain kinds of goods, the shop of

m anufacturing

plum ber



m ore


more a

speciality, separated in a m easure from th e w ork of the general

plum ber, who actually carries out th e work upon th e building.
The san itary plum ber also occupies a separate place, as his
work, dealing as it does w ith san itary fittings, is of such a special
and responsible ch aracter th a t such w orkm en are usually licensed
by boards and authorities carrying out sewerage system s in the
various cities.
A sound knowledge of metals, their qualities, th e best and most
approved way to work, connect, and fix them , is the first essential
in plumbing,


w ith

some knowledge of the laws of

hydraulics, ventilation, and hygiene.

. The m aterials m ostly used in plum bing consist of black and
galvanized iron piping (welded tubing), and galvanized sheet iron,
composition, lead, brass, and copper piping, sheet iron, zinc, and
copper, brass being invariably used for taps and unions.
In brass or copper pipe, the pipe is described by its overall
diam eter to the outside of the m etal.

In other pipes, such as iron

tubing, lead, or composition, the clear diam eter of the bore only
is taken.

F o r example, a w ater pipe is described by the actual

clear way w ithin the pipe, such as ^-in., |-in ., 1-in. diam eter, &c.,



w hereas a brass gaspipe or a copper h o t w ater pipe is tak en by

th e d iam eter rig h t across to th e outside of th e m etal.
Gauge. The sheet m etals are know n usually by gauges.


is usually num b ered to denote thickness, lead being described a t

so m uch per lb. per superficial f o o t ; copper is also som etim es
sim ilarly described, and a t other tim es b o th brass and sheet copper
are described by gauge.
There are several gauges used in th e m etal m anufacturing world,
th e one in m ost com m on use for p lum bers sheet m etals and wire
being th e B irm ingham wire gauge, B.W.G-. or gauge.
is a sta n d a rd of thickness.


A gauge m ay be purchased ju st as

a tw o-foot rule is purchased, and consists of a m etal disc w ith the

sta n d a rd cuts notched o u t and m arked a t th e edges, into which
th e m etal for testin g is placed.
Im ports and Local M anufactures.All m etal pipes other th a n
those of sheet iron or m ild steel are usually im ported, together w ith
th e necessary connections an d fittings.

S heet-m etal pipes, on the

o ther hand, are m an u factu red locally from im ported m etal, as also
are such oth er sh eet-m etal goods as eaves spouting, down pipes,
cowls, ven tilato rs, ridgings, hipping, gutters, roof flat coverings,
sinks, b ath s, wastes, &c.

This class of work is b en t and shaped

chiefly b y m achinery, an d should be lapped, rivetted, and double

soldered a t jo in ts an d junctions.
Galvanized Corrugated Iro n

Bending. The

universal use


galvanized co rru g ated iron

for roofing, outside wall covering,

fencing, &c., is well know n.

W hen used for tan k s or curved p arts

of roofs th e iron is b e n t b y m achinery m ade for the purpose.

Yents.F o r cowls, vents, &c., used for ordinary ventilation, see
c h a p te r on V en tilatio n (C hapter X V II.)
P ip e Connections. The following are th e usual joints m ade in
Stonew are drain pipes . .
Cast-iron drain pipes . .


G asket and cem ent

G asket and lead caulking

S h eet iron
S h eet iron to ca st iron

. Soldered
. . M olten lead, lig h tly caulked

W rought iron
W rought iron to lead ..
W rought iron to sheet iron
Lead pipe
Lead pipe to sheet iron
Copper pipe
Brass pipe
Earthenware to m etal ..


Screw joints
Brass sleeve with lead caulking
Brass sleeves
W iped joints
Brass sleeves
Brazed, hard soldered, or screwed
Brazed, hard soldered, or screwed
Bitum en.

Solders.Solders are used to m ake joints and connections in

pipes and m etals th roughout the plum bing and sheet m etal trades.
The process consists in thoroughly cleaning th e connecting p arts
and painting them over w ith a flux, after which the solder in a
m olten state is ru n on by m eans of a heated soldering iron.
The following is a list of solders and their fluxes in common
use :
Soft solder
Hard solder
For brass
For lead

Two parts tin, one part lead

Two parts copper, one part zinc
Two parts brass, one part zinc
One part tin, tw o parts lead.


Tinned iron ..
Brass and copper

Spirits of salts
R esin or spirits of salts
Sal ammoniac or spirits of salts.

R o o f P l u m b i n g . F or all classes of plum bing connected w ith

roofs, see Roof Coverings (Chapter X V I.)
S a n it a t io n


S a n i t a r y P l u m b i n g .

Liquid Wastes Generally.

The question of san itatio n and san itary plum bing is am ongst
the m ost im p o rtan t th a t can occupy th e a tte n tio n of the designer,
and in all buildings should, from th e outset, be carefully worked
out and allowed for.
S anitation has to do w ith the rem oval of all waste products
from the building, and this should be done in

as scientific,

expeditious, and cleanly a way as possible, both w ith regard to the

healthiness of the premises dealt w ith as well as to the general
health of the surrounding com m unity.



In outlying districts

and in isolated premises

the sanitary

arrangem ents often leave m uch to be desired, b u t even in such

cases m uch more m ay usually be done th a n is attem p ted to render
such premises more habitable from a sanitarian point of view.
A scientific general system of deep drainage is the best known
m ethod of dealing w ith wastes.

Such systems have now been

applied to th e larger cities, and are gradually being extended to the

sm aller cities and towns.

The application of the bacterial tan k

system of sewerage disposal is also doing m uch to lessen the danger

from lack of sanitation in large houses or lim ited communities.
The first work of the sanitarian should be to properly construct
all the in tern al fittings in such a way as to make them as far as
possible im pervious and self-cleansing.

For this purpose all baths

and sinks should be open and uncased and of lasting m aterial,

easily cleansed, and impervious to perforation or ready decay.
All wastes should be of thick m etal, such as galvanized welded
tubing or, b e tte r still, of lead, and all should be discharged into
open air drains if a proper underground system of sewerage is not

I n such a case, as in every case of sanitation, the fittings

should be grouped together as far as possible near each other,

and one upon the top of the other if the building be two or
more stories in height.

I t should if possible be arranged upon one

side, so as to facilitate

one clear outfall run

for the main

discharge, w hether it be above or under ground.

All open drains, especially the wastes, should be as short w ithin
the building as possible, and left visible, being trapped im mediately
under the fitting, and discharging w ith open ends im mediately
outside th e wall.
All trap s should have cleansing screws fitted to them and it
should be rem em bered th a t a tra p requires to be flushed out with
clean w ater after it has been used, otherwise the foul water
stands in the seal of the tra p and causes offence till it is driven
out by the nex t discharge.
O utside open drains should be laid to sufficient falls and with



Oa^ Pipe

A g r I>rain Pipco

O cu m
In k t Pi


l a t i t u d i n a l O eetlo n


O ep d lc T a n k

P lan .
E P f c p y ic E .a

1.0. Jnop(2GfionOpeniD^ CononLttzrcjpIV Inle^'V enL

VR Ven-f'Pipe.

C rG Q D O & G tio n

D r jA lD o f R O E p T lC T M K

PL m iB IN G .


easy bends, and of im pervious m aterial w ith close joints.


ultim ate disposal of the wastes should also be looked to, and if not
discharging into street channels should find some suitable outfall
where the discharge m ay be rendered innocuous.
Pans and Other Closets.Closets, other th a n w ater closets, should
always be placed aw ay from dwelling premises.

Of these the m ost

san itary is the now well-recognized double pan system , where a

heavy gauge regulation pan w ith proper handles has to be provided.
This is periodically rem oved and cleansed.

W ith these closets the

space for the p an should be closed, floored, and covered with

upstanding sheet iron, w ith guides for the pan to slide in upon, and
the seat well fitting down over top of pan, so as to leave as small a
space as possible between.
O ther system s have brick-lined cesspools, &c., b u t these are not
to be recommended.
Refuse Disposal.I t is now fully recognized th a t house refuse is
best destroyed by fire, and for this purpose public incinerators are
b etter th a n open tips, which become, too often, breeding grounds
for verm in and filth germs.
Bacterial T ank Sewerage.F or country houses or small com
m unities th e bacterial (septic) system of sewage disposal offers,
if properly applied, a valuable scientific system of sewage disposal.
The principle underlying the use of this ta n k is the fact th a t, if
ordinary sewage be left in a darkened closed ta n k for a tim e, a
scum is form ed upon the top of the liquid by the action of micro
organisms which feed upon th e subsequent sewage discharged
into the tank, leaving only a com paratively innocuous w ater effluent
from the tank.
Such a tan k for a country house is shown in detail on P late
XC., and is arranged to receive the sewage from the house in
exactly the same way as an ordinary underground city reticulation
scheme would receive it, all the fittings and pipes about the house
being made and fitted in the same way as is required for a firstclass city connection.



Deep-drainage Connections.Deep drainage is now adopted by

law in m any of our larger cities, and the stu dent is specially
referred to the by-laws and printed regulations issued by the
various authorities for the rules which govern connections within
such areas.
As these laws differ in the various S tates, no one system can be
here laid down in jireference to any other, for all work carried
out w ithin jirescribed areas has to be executed in strict accordance
with fixed rules and under th e direct supervision of public officers
em ployed for the purpose, and also, in most cases, by plumbers
and w orkm en specially licensed as being com petent to execute and
carry out such work.
As a general guide, however, some of the principles usually
adopted in deep-drainage work may here be briefly described and
reference m ade to P late XCL, which illustrates a deep-drainage
system to a large one-story house where the wastes are connected
to the public sewers.
Deep drainage consists in discharging all wastes from lavatories,
baths, sinks, w ater closets, &c., through pipes into the public

In some system s the n atu ral rain-w ater from roofs, &c., is

also allowed to pass into the drain ; in other systems this is strictly
forbidden, and the rain-w ater has to be carried off separately,
usually by open street channels.
U nderground drain pipes are usually of glazed stoneware or
cement, socketed for the purpose, and laid with gasket and cement
joints in, as far as possible, straig h t runs.

If 4-in. drain pipes are

used th ey are usually laid to a fall of 1 in 40, and if G-in. 1 in 60.

4-in. and G-in. pipes are the sizes mostly employed, and each have
their own special bends, elbows, junction inspection openings, &c.
Where ground is unstable, or near large trees, the pipes should be
cased in with cem ent concrete ; where passing under buildings, the
drains should be laid

in cast-iron pipes if of 4-in. weighing

IG lbs. per foot, if of G-in. 2G| lbs. per foot lineal, with all con
nections to m atch, jointed in gasket and caulked with lead.



DT. Doundarjj Trap.

IV Induclmnr.
G.T QuJljj Trap.
VP. Ydnt.Pipd. ^

.y. P d u c t WniP
Ondergrou/iD Pipiza
sbov/n by dotted lines





j. Wafer Clooer.

Q. Wafer uoc>ef
9. Igvaiory Dasin.
/a >aifi







6. Pantru
7. jbavdfoiv Doom.
//. Wafer Clor>er.







7t =4E5E

W a tzA V - r x ia l /


P L B /1


DiaprGim ah ovihg
C o m m o n

p g o f e m

T r a p p i n p i n


O o m S iQ e





Traps are used to disconnect all fittings from the drain, and to
disconnect the drain from the public sewer.
Traps are of various p attern s, according to th eir position and
make, the one general principle prevailing thro u g h them allviz.,
a w ater seal.
This principle is illu strated in P late XCI., fig. 1.
Traps should be arranged w ith w ater seals
diam eter of the outlet pipe and



equal to half the

th an 2 | inches.

W hen of lead th ey should be of draw n lead.

Traps are m ade for certain special purposes in m etal or stone
ware, as required.

The common kinds are boundary, gully, silt,

grease, P.S., and W.C. trap s.

The term disco n n ector is applied

to traps combining both trap p in g and ventilating.

E very p a rt of a drainage system requires to be flushed w ith
water, and for this purpose a full supply of w ater is always made
available a t the head of every fitting, th e W .C.s and urinals
having flushing cisterns and all san itary fittings and gullies being
supplied with full-way taps.
V entilation is another im p o rtan t factor in drainage.

E very p a rt

of a drain m ust be subject to a free current of air by inlets at certain

points and by high outlet pipes carried above eaves, so as to
command free d raught to cause upcasts.

Traps, too, require to be

so arranged and back-vented as to prevent syphonagei.e., leaving

the trap dry.
W astes from upper floors or where passing down walls from
fittings, are usually of welded or cast galvanized iron, with screwed
'joints set in white lead, or of lead w ith wiped joints.

U pper floor

W.C. pipes are called soil pipes and are usually of special glass
enamel inside cast iron, w ith gasket joints caulked in lead, or less
often in draw n lead.
Vent pipes are usually of heavy gauge galvanized sheet iron
fitted w ith cowls, or open ends guarded w ith galvanized wire.
The size, qualities, and mode of connecting all pipes, both in
regard to w ater supply and m ethod of discharge, are generally fixed



by law, an d cannot, therefore, be specially enum erated here.

I t is

well, how ever, to p o in t o u t th a t in an y w ell-thought-out system

allow ance should be m ade, firstly, to discharge all w astes by easy
an d direct flow, all corners or dead ends being by all means
avoided ; secondly, b y th e use of lasting m aterial and well-made


jo in ts and tra p s above ground




accessible all ro u n d ; th ird ly , every length of pipe, w hether above

or below ground, should be v en tilated , and all runs and tra p s m ade
free and g et-at-able for periodical inspection, or clearance in case
of fouling or choking.
In P la te X C I. is shown th e sewerage connections to th e house
illu stra te d in detail in C hapter V., P la te IX .

B y following the

block plan, P la te X C I., it will be seen how th e various pipes are

arranged, th e list of fittings and th e list of abbreviations m aking
clear th e connections.
In th is case th e public sewer is to the S.E. of th e site, to which
all th e drains to th e various fittings converge into one connection
a t th e b o u n d ary trap .

a t e r

u p p l y

. In

laying dow n rules for w ater supply, the

vary in g conditions of service have to be tak en into consideration.

On th e one h a n d th ere is th e p erm an en t high pressure supply
o btain ab le in all cities and m an y large tow ns, and on the other
th e local an d often only m edium pressure service obtainable in
c o u n try d istricts from creeks, dam s, or wells.
House Service. All system s
com m on.

of pipe



much in

F o r th e purposes of illustration, therefore a typical

w ater service to a sm all su b u rb an house having a high pressure

m ain service is here described.
The M a m . M ain w ater pipes are laid under roadw ays and are
owned b y


autho rities.

These m ay not, as a rule, be

ta p p e d save u n d er supervision and b y duly licensed persons.

P ip e . W a te r pipes are b est of galvanized iron welded tubing
w ith sta n d a rd screwed join ts an d connections, all arranged so as



to give the liest service to each outlet point, and kept well away
from the influence of frost where frost is likely to occur.
The stan d ard dimensions of iron pipes are ^-in., f-in., 1-im, 1j-in.,
I |-in., 2-in., and d-in. interior diam eter, sold a t per 100 feet.
Bends should be so arranged as to reduce w ater friction as
much as jiossible, sipiare bends not being so desirable as rounded
Lead ]>ipes are not recommended, and are now generally ab an
doned. They creepi.e., get out of shape and w ith age become
brittle and are liable to b u rst under a high pressure system.
Tn deciding upon the size of pipes to be used, the corrosion
which will occur m ust be allowed for in the diam eter of the pipe,
and the possible reduction of pipe bore after years of use estim ated.
Connections to M a in .As a rule the owner of a jiroperty is
responsible for the work of connection from the actual street
main, even though such connection be under the footpath.


a main consist of a brass ferule

stop tap

and union next the m ain pipe and a short attach ed section of lead
pipe leading to a fu rther brass union connection from the lead to
the iron pipe.

This lead pipe is used as being more elastic when

subject to vibration or subsidence of soil.

U nder the footpath

(generally twelve inches from the building line) a stop ta p is fixed

contained in an iron box w ith movable cover.
sup])ly to the premises may be shut off.

H ere the whole

Meter.A w ater m eter is generally required by the authorities,

and is best fixed as near the inside line of boundary as possible ;
the m eter lieing of a regulation p attern .
Service.One equal-diam etered pipe should be m aintained from
the street to the end of the system w ithin the premises.


may be, m the case of an ordinary 7-roomed house and garden, a

|-m . diam eter pipe w ith equal branches to principal points, such
as roof tank, b ath

and wash troughs, and




garden, diminishing to Uin. for sink and W.C. and secondary




T a f s . In all high pressure system s th e ta p s m ust have screwdow n valves.

equal to

T hey should have, in each case, full-way bores

th e pipe serving them , and should be of the bib or

stop p a tte rn according to position.

These tap s are generally of

Position of P ip es. W ater pipes are best kept, as far as possible,
outside a building, an d m ay be suidc a t shallow depths in the

W here pipes come inside th e y are a tta c h e d to walls w ith

light w rought-iron wall hooks.

Stock P a rts. In w ater supply, pipes and m ost of the connections
are purchasable as stock articles, and only require to be handled
and fitted.
STORAGE T a n k s . Inside

T a n ks. W hen w ater is stored on the

roofs or w ithin th e general area of a building, for sewerage or other

purposes, galvanized p late


ta n k s


usually employed.

A nother m ethod is to have a lined ta n k i.e., a wooden box lined

w ith sheet iron or lead.

In any case such tan k s should have m etal

tra y s all round, w ith w arning overflow pipes leading to the open
air in case of overflow.
R ain-W ater T a n k s.Im p o rte d



som etim es used for outside rain-w ater storage.

iron tan k s


These are, however,

n o t usually galvanized, and co n stan tly need a tte n tio n to save them
from decay b y rust.
The following d a ta will be found useful in calculating


cap acity and w eight of w ater in tanks.

In square ta n k s m u ltip ly length, b read th , and depth together in

This m ultiplied by (ij will give th e contents in gallons.


ta n k s

m ultiply

th e d iam eter

into itself


deduct one-fifth from th e product, th e n m ultiply the rem ainder

by th e d epth, and th e resu lt by 6:^ will give the contents in
I t should be rem em bered th a t a cube foot of w ater contains

gallons and weighs about 62 lbs.



The following table gives th e approxim ate capacity of circular

tanks of various diam eters and heights ;
H e ig h t



D ia m e t e r .

4 ft.

5 ft.

6 ft.

7 ft.

8 ft.






3 ft. G in.




3 ft. 9 in.




4 ft.






3 ft. 3 in..........................

4 ft. 4 in.


4 ft. 6 in..........................


5 ft.


6 ft....................................


Outside tanks, when above ground, are usually m ade of galvan

ized iron.

A well-made-up ta n k




of this

class has 24-gauge

w ith 22-gauge sheet-iron bottom , and

24-gauge sheet iron m ovable conical top.

F or the top inflowing of

rain-w ater some provision is best m ade for screening off leaves and
debris, while a t the bottom the draw-off ta p should be soldered
slightly above the lowest level, so as not to disturb the sedim ent.
A t the extrem e bottom of the ta n k a large sludge cock should be
fixed, to facilitate periodical cleansing.
Underground T a n k s.W here rain-w ater is collected and stored,
underground circular tan k s of brick, sm oothly and hardly rendered
inside in cem ent, are usually built.

These should be well puddled

around w ith clay and b u ilt w ith a concrete floor and brick domical
top, and should have a small, close cover. From such tanks the
w ater is best lifted by m eans of a suction and force pum p, w ith a
supply pipe near the b ottom of th e tan k , so arranged with a
movable jo in t as to lift out of the sludge if required.



U n d erg ro u n d ta n k s are also m ade of o rdinary or reinforced


H ot W ater S u p p l y . H o t w ater circulating supply is carried

o u t eith er b y th e use of th e o rd in ary fire of a kitchen range or
from boilers specially fired for th e purpose.
The com m on system for dom estic use is th e cylinder system,
where h o t w ater from a k itch en boiler is carried to such points as
b ath s, lavatories, sinks, &c.
Such a system consists of a more or less modified arrangem ent
such as is show n on P la te X C II.
I n principle such a h o t w ater system is simple, working as it
does upon th e w ell-established facts, first th a t w ater rises to the
level of its source of supply, and second th a t w ater rises when
heated .
This rise of h eated w ater is th e cause of the circulation which
ta k es place in th e pipes.

Im m ed iately th e w ater is heated a t the

boiler th e h eated m olecules rise in a v ertical direction and are

replaced a t th e b o tto m b y th e colder m olecules ; th e tendency of
th e h o t w ater, therefore, is a t all tim es to rise in the pipes and to
find its w ay from th e boiler to th e h o t w ater storage in the
cylinder, and to be draw n off th ro u g h th e ta p s a t th e various
fittings, th e supply of cold w ater being renew ed from the cistern
placed a t th e highest p o in t of th e system .
B y following closely th e d iagram (P late X C II.), it will be seen
how such a system works.

This diagram shows th e h o t w ater

service to a sm all hotel, th e draw ings of w hich are shown in

P la te X X II., C hapter V I.

H ere h o t w ater is supplied from the

k itch en range to p a n try and scullery sinks on th e ground floor,

and to b ath , la v a to ry basin, and housem aids sink on the first
The cold w ater is supplied from a cistern in th e roof, the inlet
from service pipe being b y m eans of a ball valve.

The cold w ater

omK from f^/n^f Floor



M u r n Pipe

{FlowPipe IS aboee c b x to ^
Ce/hng -see Long.O ecPon^

K IT C A m

T/ ow Pipe



erv/cc Pipd

Cold WakrOupply


y^Flgw P ip e


a _____
K iT c n m

\O C O ilZ P Y

fo Pantnj
%ll'I. 4rA/ov
Flow to
Pantry FunK


^P ^ppvrn from Pantrj/dinF. K

Cold popph

11A'l j^t//cAi5upplp CmnfA|

ijllj , \ ^ o t Water Cu/mcter

i i nF hw fr o m E roder
ii/o O u h n c /^ r

^ Ratomfi
^ Cylinder
A to lk iik r.







then passes down and enters the lower portion of the cylinder. The
cylinder is a reservoir of hot w ater.

Through th e cylinder the hot

w ater is taken by a short retu rn pipe to the lower portion of

kitchen range boiler.

The boiler is m ade of tw in cheeks connected

together w ith tubes, so arranged as to offer the greatest heating

surface to the fire.
From th e highest point of the boiler a flow pipe is tak en into the

From the crown of the cylinder the flow pipe is carried

up vertically above the level of the cold supply and bent over and
left open above the roof.

F rom this m ain flow pipe branch flow

pipes are tak en to all the draw-off taps of the service.

To make clear the principle of flow and re tu rn it should be
explained th a t w ater will flow (but only sluggishly) w ithin the one
pipe, b u t to secure an efficient service re tu rn pipes, having, if placed
horizontally, a slight fall tow ards th e boiler, should be p u t in.
This is made clear by the arrangem ent of pipes shown in longi
tudinal section.

W hen the hot w ater has traversed the system it

passes into the m ain re tu rn pipe, which connects into the cold
w ater supply a t a point im m ediately outside the cylinder, and from
thence returns through th e cylinder to th e boiler.
To ensure a quick supply, a short flow pipe is usually connected
from the flow from boiler and jointed to th e flow rising from the
crown of the cylinder m arked quick supply branch (see cross
Flow pipes, where laid horizontally, should all be fixed w ith a
slight rise from the boiler, and all bends th roughout should be as
easy as possible.
In hot w ater supply the best work is carried out in copper
throughout, w ith brazed joints, all h o t pipes and the cyhnder
being carefully insulated by packing w ith hair-felt or asbestos
cement. To make a n eat external appearance the work is
sometimes enclosed in wood casing or in galvanized sheet iron, b u t
in any case all should be readily available for inspection.
The size of pipes is usually 1 in. to baths, |-in . to sinks, and i-in .



diam eter to lav ato ry basins ; these should term inate in full-way
brass or nickel tap s w ith insulated handles.
B ath H ea ters .H eaters served either by wood or gas are
comm only used for supplying direct hot w ater to baths.
Gas Heaters consist usually of a series of copper coils connected
w ith a cold w ater supply, which is brought into the closest contact
possible on all sides w ith gas h eatin g ; or the heating m ay be
effected b y m eans of a fine w ater spray being discharged on copper
sheeting heated b y gas.

F rom the heating surfaces the hot w ater

is directly ejected into th e b a th below by means of an open-ended

The best of these heaters are m ade of copper, w ith close cover
casings and ven t dues, and have safety arrangem ents for lighting
th e gas from outside th e case, by means, usually, of a small pilot
An adm irable arrangem ent, which is contained in some heaters,
is where th e w ater and the gas are tu rn ed on sim ultaneously by
m eans of a combined handle, th u s assuring additional safety, as,
should th e gas be tu rn ed on w ithout th e coils being charged with
w ater, the m etal of th e ap p aratu s is liable to be quickly b u rn t out
and destroyed.
Wood Heaters, or as th ey are generally term ed, chip heaters,
are designed to be used where gas is not available.

W ith these

the w ater is heated b y wood contained in a m etal dre-box, the

w ater jackets being a t th e top, w ith cold w ater inlet and hot w ater
outlet, d tte d m uch th e same w ay as to gas heaters.
I t is of th e highest im portance th a t b a th heaters should have
direct vent dues from them carried well up into the open air, and
th a t th ey should be d tte d aw ay from direct contact w ith wood
work or indam m able m aterial.



K a d i a t i o n .F o r

heating purposes some system of

hot w ater rad iatio n is often adopted.

This consists of arranging



all the heating of a building from one central fire, and converting
the heat into hot water, which is conveyed by means of insulated

R adiators consist of stacks of open coils (uninsulated),

which throw out or radiate the heat into the apartm ents.
The firing is done by means of specially constructed cast-iron
sectional boilers placed in some convenient position a t a point
below the lowest pipe service, usually in a sub-basem ent where a
rise of 1 in. in 10 ft. can be obtained for the pipes.

From the

boilers wrought-iron pipes w ith screw joints are conveyed as flow

and return pipes to as m any rad iato r points as are required.
R adiators for ap a rtm e n t heating are usually placed where they
can the m ost readily in tercept cold incoming air, such as under
windows, near doors, and in passages, entries, &c.
The principle is also applied for heating in kitchen serveries,
linen rooms, and in m any other ways.
In this system th e work is usually carried on by means of w hat
is known as the two-pipe low pressure system , which consists of a
cold w ater supply from a ta n k placed above the highest point
leading to th e heater and from th e heater by m eans of m ain flow
and return pipes.

From these, branches are tak en to the various

radiators, which are controlled by means of valves, thus m aking

each radiato r independent of any other.
A somewhat sim ilar system m ay be em ployed to supply hot
water for various purposes in institu tio n al or large residential
buildings where large quantities are required.





P O WE R .

T he question of power is of ever-growing im portance in modern

building, and some knowledge of th e broad principles of power
production and supply should be understood.

We say broad

principles, for the question of detail in such m atters m ust always

be left more or less in the hands of engineers specially qualified to
deal w ith such m atters.
Pow er plants, of themselves, usually require to be properly
housed, and this phase of practice furnishes a certain class of work
for th e designer, while for general purposes such as lighting,
ventilating, machine-driving, heating, elevator work, &c., power
supply of various kinds is often used in general building.
There are four m ain sources of energy in common usenamely,
hydraulic, steam , gas and oil engines, and electricaland these in
order we will briefly touch upon.

y d r a u l i c s . In

hydraulics energy is created by w ater delivered

under pressure in such a way as to set in m otion the necessary

m echanical m achinery to perform the actual useful work required.
The usual m ethod in m ost cities is to use the energy generated at
a central pow er station, which is reticulated, by means of main
pipes, in a sim ilar way to the gas and w ater services.
is n ot done th e hydraulic power

\ \ here this

m ay be generated from the

ordinary w ater supply by m eans of a gas engine, pump, &c.

elem ents of hydraulic


power consist of (1) The prime mover,

applies power to

(2) the

accum ulator

pu m p ;

(3) the



accum ulator or pressure reservoir ; (4) the reticulation (the p ip e s);

(5) the mechanism for converting the power received into useful
The m ost common application of hydraulics in building work is
to be found in the elevator.
W ith the ordinary elevator the practice is to balance the cage by
means of weights, and to apply th e hydraulic pressure to a cylinder
containing a moving piston w ith
elevator ropes ru n attached.

the wheels

over which the

The la tte r are usually arranged to

m ultiply the travel of the piston, so as to avoid the necessity of

having a cylinder as long as th e height of the cage travel.

By this

means the cage m ay be m ade to travel three or four tim es as fast

as the piston, while the cylinder needs to be only one-third or onequarter the length of the cages stroke.

The hand rope operates

the valve which controls the m otion of the piston.

S team . The steam engine converts th e energy of steam into
m echanical motion. Steam engines m ay be generally divided into
two m ain classes, viz. :
(1) Those which operate on a reciprocating motion, as th a t of
a piston in a cylinder.
(2) Those of a turbine type, which provide a direct rotating
The former are in m ost general use, and depend on the admission
of steam into a cylinder on one or altern ate sides of a piston,
im parting to the la tte r a to-and-fro motion, which is tran sm itted
by well-known m echanical means, arranged in such a way as to
give ro tatio n to a shaft through which the required power can be

The control of the steam , its admission behind the piston,

and its eventual release, are obtained by means of valves connected

w ith and worked by the engine itself.
The turbine class of engine is one which is n o t used to any great
extent in small powers, such as are likely to be met w ith in
architectural practice, and m ay be om itted here.



The essential p arts of a steam p la n t in the conversion of heat

energy are as follow :
(a) Fuel, com bustion of which im parts h eat to water.
(b) The boiler or steam generator, which supplies, through
suitable piping, steam to
(c) The engine.
In a com plete and well-equipped steam p lan t the following also
m ay be considered :
The superheater, in

conjunction w ith


boiler, having a

function of raising th e tem perature of the steam w ithout increasing

its pressure, and generally resulting in a considerable economy of
The condenser, to condense the exhaust steam from the engine,
giving a vacuum a t the exhaust outlet, and th u s the equivalent of
an increase in steam pressure.
A uxiliary ap p aratu s also has to be considered, and m ay include
fuel conveyors and stoking m achinery, boiler feed pumps, feed
w ater heaters, and other devices.
The efficiency of a steam p lan t depends on the design of the
various p o rtio n s ; th e general

arrangem ent and la y - o u t; the

insulation to p rev en t rad iatio n of h eat from pipes, &c. ; the

su itab ility for work ; and regulation of its action.


Oi l .Gas and oil engines are called internal com bus

tion engines, since th ey depend for their action upon the com
bustion of gas or vaporized oil, and convert the heat so obtained
into m echanical motion.
Briefly, the essential p arts of such an engine are :
(1) A cylinder, in which a piston moves to and fro.
(2) Valves, for the control of the cycle of operations.
(3) Means for ignition of th e explosive m ixture.
(4) M echanism for tran sm ittin g the power obtained in the
cylinder to be im parted to a ro ta ry m otion on the
shaft, from which pov/er is to be taken.



The mode of operation m ay be briefly stated :

Assuming the engine abo u t to sta rt, the first thing is to obtain
the fuel for the power which is to be developed.

The piston being

a t the end of the cylinder a t the com m encem ent of its stroke, the
engine m ust be sta rte d by hand, or other outside method, and as
the piston moves along the cylinder, a charge of gas and air is
draw n into the resulting space.

As the engine is still moved

round, the piston returns and compresses the charge of gas to a

considerable pressure ; and ju st as the piston is about to commence
its second stroke the m ixture is ignited, usually electrically, and
the piston receives an outw ard impulse from the resulting explosion
and sta rts the engine.

The next retu rn of the piston expels the

b u rn t gas, and a new charge is draw n in, to be compressed on the

next return, fired, and expelled, the engine continuing the opera
tion in this sequence by the m om entum stored in the flywheel a t
the impulse, to be returned by the flywheel in the compression of
the charge, and in im parting a steady m otion to the engine.


it will be seen th a t only every second stroke in a single cylinder

engine can be a working stroke, the altern ate one being necessary
to obtain the charge.
Owing to the great heat involved, gas engines of any consider
able power are built w ith a w ater jacket, through which w ater
is circulated in order to keep the cylinder a t a possible working
tem perature.
In the case of an oil engine the cycle of operation is the
same, except th a t the oil is vaporized and used in the form of a
Gas and oil engines afford a very convenient form of motor,
requiring very little auxiliary apparatus and not m uch attendance ;
no certified driver is required, as in the case of steam boilers and
Producer Gas.This is a cheap form of gas which has been
developed to a practical degree, and is obtained by the com bustion
of cheap fuel in a closed producer, and by passing steam through



the same a gas is evolved weak in units com pared to illum inating
gas and vaporized oil, b u t capable of developing considerable
power in suitably designed engines.

The engine is of similar

design to the ordinary gas and oil engine described above.


l e c t r ic a l


. P robably

th e m ost universal system of

tran sm ittin g energy is by m eans of electricity, the developm ent of

which in recent years has given an unsurpassed means of providing
light and power in a m ost useful, cheap, convenient, and efficient
form, owing to the convenience of tapping the supply mains of the
m any corporations supplying this form of energy, and of obtaining
it practically a t any point w ithin the netw ork of such reticulation.
The general principles of electric lighting and arrangem ent of same
are dealt w ith later on in this chapter, b u t here it is proposed to
give th e outline of th e elem ents entering into an electric installation
w ithout specially touching upon the principles of their operation.
In th e first place it will be necessary to obtain an idea as to the
m eaning of the term s em ployed and their value.
To generate electricity commercially it is necessary to provide
several d istinct elements.
F irst, a prim e m over in the shape of a steam or gas engine to
provide power to drive.
Second, a dynam o or generator. This receives mechanical energy
from th e engine, and transform s it into electrical energy.
Third, conductors, usually copper wires, for transm itting the
energy to th e point where it is to be applied.
F o u rth , application of energy so received, which is either dissi
pated in light, as in arc and incandescent glow lamps, &c., or it is
absorbed b y an electric m otor, this being simply a contrivance for
re-transform ing

th e


energy which it



mechanical motion.
There are other adjuncts in m any electrical plants, such as
transform ers and accum ulators, together w ith the switch-gear and
other ap p aratu s for controlling and measuring the supply.



The (juestion will, ])crhaps, be askedHow is it th a t electricity,

requiring the services of a prim e mover in the first place, can show
any advantage over the use of th a t prime mover direct
m echanical energy ?


W hile it m ust not be tak en th a t as a general

rule electricity for power purposes should always be the best to

employ, there are m any reasons inherent to its nature which make
electricity one of the best means of general power transm ission, as
well as one of the m ost efficient and economical.


general convenience and ease of control, ease of conversion and

transm ission, absence of shafting, belting, and other transm itting
agencies (an electric m otor can generally be applied directly to its
work w ithout belts), cleanliness, and general efficiency all combine
towards the result stated.
Electrical energy is tran sm itted by a current under pressure.
In electricity we have units of m easurem ent corresponding to
the hydraulic units of gallons per m inute and feet of head, the
standard of m easurem ent being the ampere, the volt, the w att,
and the kilow att.
For commercial



electrical energy is usually

purchased and sold in units of 1,000 w a tt hours each, generally

known as Board of Trade units or k.w. hours.
Direct and Alternating Current System s.Electrical system s m ay
be generally classed under

two main types viz.,

direct and

In the direct current system s the flow of current

m ay be considered as a continuous flow in one direction, while the

alternating current is a reciprocating or alternating flowi.e., the
direction of the current is altered in the wire, first in one way, and
then reversed, the rate of reversion being term ed the frequency or

Applying again the hydraulic analogy, supposing in

one end of the w ater pipe there is a piston which is moved back
and forth, the w ater in the pipe is given a reciprocating flow, and
will im part a similar m otion to a piston in the other end of the

This is analagous to th e altern atin g current, and electrically

the reversals are so rapid as to be im perceptible in a lamp viewed



by the ordinary observer.

The rates of frequency most in use are

25, 40, 50, or 60 cycles per second.

The altern atin g current has m any advantages over direct current
in certain work, and m ay still furth er be divided into single phase
and polyphase systems.

The single phase is th a t which has just

been described as an altern atin g current system, while in polyphase

system s several of such reversals take place in sections, depending
upon the num ber of phases employed.

F or instance, in a two-

phase system there would be four wires, consisting of two distinct

altern atin g current circuits generated by the one machine, and in
three-phase there are three such wires and a similar num ber of
Relative Application of Direct and A .C . System s.The relative
application of direct or alternating current to the work which is
under consideration will, of course, be determ ined in regard to the
particu lar

n atu re of the work and the nature of the power


A consideration in determ ining this

will generally

be found in the system of distribution adopted by the power


supplying electrical energy

generally, though





not always, the individual system



will be

General experience among engineers has

shown th a t for ordinary city distribution, where a considerable

am ount of electrical energy is required within a lim ited area,
the direct current, three-wdre system is the m ost suitable, while
for suburban distribution and transm ission over distances the
altern atin g current system is usually adopted.
In the same way the voltages to be used will be determ ined by
practical considerations.


E l e c t r ic L i g h t i n g . The



question of the supply of electric

energy and the fitting up of lighting installations to buildings is

highly technical, and requires, at all times, expert oversight and
trained labor.



Some uniform ity of practice is now adopted by tfie leading

municipal and



supplying electric energy

throughout the Commonwealth, w ith the result th a t stan d ard rules

for wiring are so laid down as to secure certain definite conditions,
which m ust be made to exist in the wiring service before energy
is supplied to the building.
In seeking inform ation, therefore, upon

lighting, where the

energy is supplied from services outside the building, a copy of

these rules should be obtained from the corporation supplying the
energy, and a detailed specification of th e work required draw n up
by a com petent electrician in accordance both with such rules and
also with the requirem ents of the fire insurance companies.
The actual production of energy is, as a rule, outside the range
of the building altogether, though in isolated instances, such as
m anufacturing premises, mines, &c., where rem oved from corpora
tion supplies, separate electric light and energy plants are run.
These for the m ost p a rt are, however, not w ithin the scope of
ordinary building practice, and need not be specially touched upon
All electric energy is carried by m eans of wires, and these m ust
be protected by every means from direct co n tact w ith each other,
and also from friction and the action of dam p.

I t is also to be

understood th a t the size of wire employed has to be proportionate

to the electric current

which it has to carry.

For all such

inform ation the stu d en t should refer to the stan d ard general rules
for wiring, for the utilization of electrical energy before referred
Lam ps.The nature of th e illum ination to be obtained will
determ ine the question of considering any special form of lighting,
such as w hether the lam ps shall be of the arc or incandescent type,
and in the case of special industries such as photographic and
lithographic requirem ents, the question of the n ature and quality
of the light will be considered, and lam ps chosen to suit the work.
For example, the N ernst lamps, giving a soft white light, are



frequently preferred for jewellers shops, the m ercury vapor lamp

for photography.

In cases where electric energy is expensive the

installation of high efficiency lam ps

m ay

well be considered.

Lam p renewals are som etim es u n dertaken by the current supply

For th e installation of glow lam ps the candle power of each
lam p should be given 8, 12, 16, and 32 C.P. being those mostly
Fitm ents. A very large and ever-increasing v ariety of apparatus
of all kinds is now stocked by electrical supply firms, such as
lamps, brackets, m ovable lamps, &c., and these m ay be priced,
specified, and selected as required.
Technical Term s. The following is a brief glossary of some of
the leading technical term s used in electric lighting.
Blocks {or Patera), Small pieces of shaped and prepared wood
used for fixing fittings to walls, ceilings, &c.
Cable.A num ber of wires tw isted together, forming a flexible
conductor ; these m ay consist of a single conductor or two or more
conductors under the same covering and insulation.

In the latter

case they are called two or th r e e -w ir e core c a b le s as the case

m ay be.
Casifigs. The protective coverings used to case in the conductors

Casings are of three leading kinds wood, split steel tube,

and welded tub in g w ith screwed joints.

Ceiling Roses are small non-conducting devices used to receive
flexible wires in ceiling lamps.
Circuit. k term applied to the continuous wires or cables feeding
a lam p or group of lamps.

A circuit usually begins and ends at

a switch or distributing board.


s p e c ia lly

p repared

w ir e s or c a b le s

u s e d for

the conveyance of current.

D W nW m g'

B o W g . A

n o n -c o n d u c tin g


n o n -c o m b u s tib le

panel upon which is m ounted the necessary fittings for splitting up

th e supply for distribution to two or more points.


Fittings. k

common term referring to




brackets, special lamps, shades, r e d a c to r s, fitm ents, & c., used in

Flexible W ire.An insulated conductor consisting of a num ber
of fine wires stranded together, by which lam ps are suspended.
Fuses {or Cut-outs ).Devices designed to fuse should the
current be too great for the circuit
Lam p Holders. Metal fitm ents for holding lam ps or lam ps and
shades of various kinds.
Meter.- -All instrum ent for reading currents or energy consumed
by the service.
Service lAnes.The lines outside the building owned by the
authorities supplying the e n e r g y .
Switches. A device by which the co n tin u ity of the circuit into
which it is connected is m echanically in terru p ted and made a t will.
A switch m ay control one or more poles.
Wall Plugs. F ittin g s designed to receive flexible wire a tta c h
ments, such as movable fans, lamps, &c.
O r d in a ry

W irin g

S y ste m .

The first point of consideration

in an ordinary wiring system

for lighting

main safety fuse or fuses.

These fuses consist of devices for

a building is the

autom atically disconnecting the supply current from the m ain to

the building in case of accident and are usually supplied and fixed
by the supply authorities.
The next point is the meter, which measures the current con
sumed, to which the m ain supply cables are connected.

This is

also furnished and fixed by the supply authorities.

From the meter cables are carried to the next p ointthe main
distributing board or boards, upon which are placed the m ain
switches for controlling the current.
From these boards the wiring is taken, in the m ost direct and
convenient way, to the various points and switches throughout
the buildinor.



The principle of this system is shown in P late X C IIL , fig. 1,

which illustrates a common m ethod of dealing w ith a small system.
U nder the rules th e lights have to be grouped in lim ited numbers,
only a certain num ber being allowed upon any given circuit.
The diagram shows how the energy is distributedfirst, incom
ing a t the main, it passes through the m ain safety fuse, thence
through the m eter to th e double-pole switch, and so to the sub
circuit fuses.

From each of these fuses a circuit, consisting of a

leading wire from one pole, w ith a given num ber of branches off
to the various switches controlling the lights, thence to the lamp,
and from lamp to retu rn leading wire, which connects a t the board
to the other pole of the sub-circuit fuse, is carried.
This sub-circuit arrangem ent, of leading wire carrying so ma-ny
lamps, is repeated till the whole of the service work is accom
plished, the connections each tim e being made upon the board
through fresh sub-circuit fuses, the general rule being th a t every
subdivision requires a s e p a r a te fuse.
The common m ethod adopted in carrying out the work is to
commence w ith the points a t the greatest distance from the dis
trib u tin g board on each floor, and to arrange these in groups up to
th e lim it of load allowed, and to then run back with the double
wire to th e safety fuses on the distributing board and so repeat till
the whole of the points are connected.
The gauge and q uality of the wire and covering used is regulated
by the conditions of supply, and is generally size No. 18 or No. 16
S.W .G., com m only term ed house wire.
F o r convenience of handling and picking up, a good plan is to
use wires of tw o different colors, say a red wire for the positive
and a black wire for th e negative or retu rn wiring.
The wires m ust always be protected from damage, and laid
either in wood casing or m etal tubing made for the purpose, the
wood casing being mostly used in situations where the conductor
runs are visible, and the m etal tubing where runs are under
plaster or in other hidden positions.

In dam p situations the





Pm,3^ Duftono,

L.e.ading wim with branchdo off To

Prdos Duttons.

FIG. 2 .
D L IL O .

J . CdH.

E > atfe.nj.


Q d tu rn Wirz fr o m L a m p o b a c k to D f ^ t z M ain O w iixdi. >

^Luact/w wire from fdranch Ci 'cuit Ful

i^ r v ic z .
Mam Fuod


/Id rhiz


flam owitc.

Circuit F

do vrrd

O/nQ k Polz Pwitchoo

F IC j. 1 .


( Wire5 Izadirmto
) othzr L/^hfmg Circuit^ .



wires should be enclosed in galvanized welded tubing w ith screwed


Metal casing is to be preferred to wood in all good


The subsequent convenience in th e picking up of wires

should always be specially considered in the laying of all wiring

systems, and the circuits should be labelled for identification.
In large buildings, as in the case of offices or fiats in different
occupancy, it is necessary to instal cables enclosed in galvanized
welded tubing w ith screwed joints to the several floors and suites,
where th ey m ay be connected to m eters as required, and the
wires distributed in the usual way, either for light or power.
By this m ethod no m aster m eter is required, each te n a n t having
his own meter.
In this class of work a good workable system is to carry a pair
of wires from each

ap a rtm e n t to some central point upon each

floor, where the cables term inate, so as to facilitate any change of

occupancy or m eterage th a t m ay subsequently occur.
Gtas L i g h t i n g a n d F i t t i n g . M a in P ip e.F o r general p u r p o se s
of supply, where coal gas is used, black iron piping is best, as it

does not corrode so

readily as galvanized iron.

be of the quality

known as welded tu b in g , which m ay be

This pipe should

purchased w ith all th e necessary screw connections, such as elbows,

tees, diminishing and equal sockets, stop ends, &c. ; these are
screwed and fitted tog eth er w ith red lead.
Meter, ffic.As coal gas (unlike acetylene) is always m anufactured
a t a distance, and supplied to the consumer through street mains,
the first requisite of the supply is a m eter to register the q u an tity
of gas consumed.

This m eter is supplied by the gas company,

and is fitted up and set under th e control of their servants.

The m eter should be fitted up in a place easy of access for
reading, and m ust be a t th e lowest point of the system, all pipes
being laid w ith a fall tow ards the meter, so as to allow any
condensation in the pipes to find its way back to the meter, where
it m ay be draw n off.



For th e same reason, pipes should be laid w ithout hollows or

syphons, as w ater condensing in these would stop the passage of
Stoj) Cock, &c. A stop cock, w ith reversible handle, is first
fitted on the m ain side of the m eter ; this enables the supply to be
shut off or tu rn ed on from the m eter.

The im m ediate connection

from the main, and to the service from the meter, often requires
sharp turns ; for this reason, flexible lead pipes w ith brass con
nections m ay be used.

F or the purpose of illustrating an ordinary

system of gas-fitting, the gas supply to an ordinary villa, with

outside workshop, m ay be here described.
Gas S e r v ic e


V i l l a . Beginning

from the meter, a 1-in. or

|-in . rising m ain is carried up the wall to ceiling, and thence along
on top of joists over the various apartm ents, and connected with
i-in. branches to centre lights, and f-in. down walls to bracket

The pipes down walls should be of brass, as it is rigid and

thin, and lays well under plaster.

Compo. pipe should be avoided,

as it has m any disadvantages, and is not allowed in good work ; it

is liable to sag betw een fixed points, to fracture at the joints
through changes of tem perature, and is also peculiarly liable to
dam age through nails being inadvertently driven into it when the
pipes are buried in plastered walls.
Pipes are secured to walls w ith iron wall hooks fixed to plugs in
joints of the brickw ork.

Pipes over the ceiling require to be

carefully laid, and secured to wood cradling laid to true and

continuous falls.
In carrying the supply pipe to the workshop, the pipe, being
an outside

one, is specially liable to cold

air condensation,

it should therefore have a t its lowest point a small continuation

piece w ith t a p for drawing off moisture.
As incandescent fittings are now alm ost universally adopted, it is
essential th a t a good and uniform pressure should obtain a t all
points, so as to ensure an even and full gas supply ; the pipes,



throughout the system, should not, therefore, be reduced in size to

any appreciable extent.
Fittings.Gas fittings are either secured to walls as brackets,
or hung to ceilings as p endants.
A wall bracket requires a right angle elbow a t end of the supply
pipe, into which a short threaded piece of tube called a drop
screw is inserted.

This projects well out beyond the wall face,

and is encircled by a wooden fixing block plugged to the wall.

The gas bracket tube is screwed into this drop screw, and the
bracket collar fastened to b lo c k ; in this way the weight of the
fitting is received by the wooden block.
A ceiling p endant is secured by a hanging blocki.e., a block of
wood bridging across top of joists, through which a pipe passes.
The supply is tak en off the supply pipe by an elbow or tee piece,
turned down, into which a short length of pipe, called a hanging
rod, is threaded and passed through th e ceiling.

This rod has a

back n u t upon the top of the hanging beam which holds the rod in

The connection to the p en d an t fitting is th e n made, the

block taking the actual weight of the fitting, and th e hanging rod
making the gas tu b e connection.
Large System s. O ther system s of gasfitting are carried out m uch
upon these lines, save th a t in more extensive systems, as in office
buildings, the pipes require to be larger, and several separate
meters and services m ay be fitted in th e one building.
Stoves, (&c.W here gas is used for cooking and heating purposes,
such as for cooking stoves, b a th heaters, &c., a generous supply
pipe should be carried direct to fitting, according to

norm al

pressure required, a f-in. pipe being generally found sufficient for

ordinary purposes.
Test.All pipes should be so laid as to be as far as possible
get-at-able should repairs be required, and the whole system care
fully tested before being passed for use.
A c e t y l e n e . In country districts, or in positions away from the



supply of coal gas, an economical and practical illum inant is

secured by the use of acetylene, which produces a white light of
strong actinic value.
This gas is produced in small or large q uantities by the contact
of calcium carbide w ith w ater.

This carbide is m anufactured from

lime and coke under enorm ous h eat generated by the electric arc,
and is im ported, chiefly from America and Sweden, in m etal drum s
ready for use.
The m anufacture of gas for an ordinary house installation is
carried on by m eans of a m etal generator, which usually con
sists of a w ater tan k , a carbide holder, and a gasometer.
The process of m aking the gas consists in satu rating the carbide
w ith w ater.
Generators.The m ost approved generators are arranged to drop
granulated carbide autom atically, in small, regulated quantities, into
the w ater, and produce a lim ited q u a n tity of gas a t one tim e as


for consum ption.

This secures safety


economy, and the process is repeated and continued as long as the

lights are burning and the gas consumed.
A generator should be placed in some convenient outhouse or in
the basem ent of the building, to which w ater is made available.
A w ell-ventilated a p artm en t with im pervious floors is best.


generator should be set up slightly above the floor, and have air
freely circulating all around the apparatus.
require to

These generators

be recharged w ith carbide from tim e to time, to

have th e w ater renewed, and the by-products of lime taken

Pi'pes. The pipes m ay be of the same kind as for ordinary gas,
save th a t, owing to acetylene having more n atu ral pressure th an
coal gas, th e diam eter of the pipes m ay be reduced some 20 per

The joints, too, should be specially well made (those in

iron pipes being m ade w ith white lead), as this gas is very pene
tratin g .
Burners, &c. The burners for this gas are specially made with



lava tips and ex tra small perforations, the common kind being
classed to consume

and 1 cubic foot of gas per hour.

In addition to lighting, acetylene m ay be used for cooking and

W ood Gas.Gas, both for lighting and gas-engine power, m ay
be generated from m any of our local woodsgum, pepperm int,

A p lan t to produce this consists of an ap p aratus containing

an air-tig h t retort, a ta r vessel, and a gasometer.

The by-products

of this m anufacture are ta r and charcoal, and some 250 cubic feet
of gas m ay usually be extracted from a piece of wood measuring
2 ft. long by 5 in. square.
A re to rt of this kind is usually b u ilt in connection with a kitchen
fire-place, so th a t the same fire is available for cooking and other
dom estic purposes.


The old tim e system of crank bells is now obsolete and only
exists to a very lim ited degree in old buildings, the same being
true also of pneum atic bells, worked by air pressure.
Bell fitting for m odern work is now invariably carried o ut by the
electric b a tte ry system, which consists of a galvanic battery,
generating a weak electric current conveyed by wiring through
a system consisting of press b uttons, which, upon being pressed,
give an alarm signal to a central bell and indicator.
All fitm ents and goods for electric bell work are now purchasable,
^ud only require skilled labour for fitting them up.
P late X C IIL , fig. 2, shows briefly in diagram
principle of electric bell fitting.

the general

The b a tte ry supplies the current and has first a carbon pole,
from which a leading wire is carried to the press b u tto n and
from thence to the indicator.

A retu rn wire is then laid from

the indicator to the bell, and from thence to the zinc pole of
the b attery .

In this way a complete circuit is created by making

co ntact a t the press butto n , and this contact through the press



b u tto n sets the bell ringing, and also shows a signal upon the
In large system s any num ber of branches m ay he taken off the
leading wire.
In its sim plest form bell fitting consists of connecting a wire
from one pole of the b a tte ry to a press button, and from thence
through a bell back to the other pole of the battery, contact being
made a t the press button.
The Leclanche b a tte ry is the type of b attery usually employed.
This consists of a glass jar containing a porous pot and zinc
rod covered w ith a solution of sal ammoniac.
This supplies th e galvanic power required,


num ber of

batteries being increased according to the num ber of bells used.

four-cell b a tte ry will be found sufficient for any ordinary building,

as bells are never all working a t one tim e and only a weak current
is required a t any time.
B atteries should be placed in positions away as far as possible
from th e influence of evaporation, and yet so as to be easy of
access for cleansing and renewal of solution.
D ry b atteries of carbon manganese and a saturated solution of
sal am m oniac are sometimes used, b u t are not recommended.
Press b u tto n s v ary greatly in p attern , the principle remaining
the samenamely, a non-conducting pip or b u tto n which upon
being pressed brings a m etal spring into contact with the second
wire, thus com pleting the circuit by bringing the two wires into
contact, and so ringing the bell.
For outside positions, where the press is exposed to rain, the press
ap p aratu s should always have a barreli.e.., a m etal enclosing
For general use 20 or 22-gauge wire covered w ith india-rubber,
double-cottoned and paraffined, is best.

This should be protected

by every m eans from the action of dam p or corrosive acids and

so laid as to be easily get-at-able in case of necessity.
In attaching wires to existing work, the wire in duplicate is

HKI.L FrrriNC.


generally carried along on top of skirting and around architraves,

&c., and secured a t distances of about 12 in. with m etal staples,
care being taken to well pad between the staple and the wire to
prevent cutting.
In new buildings the wires should be laid out of sight, in a
complete system of tubes, to pro tect them from outside damage.
For all general purposes zinc tubing is used, while for high-class
work enamelled steel simplex tubing with socketed joints is best.
In fitting up a bell system to a new building, full regard should
be had to its future working, and the runs so arranged th a t wires
m ay be draw n out or new wires inserted a t will w ithout moving
the tube.
The roof is generally a suitable place in which to carry long

Where tubes come down walls they m ust be well under the

plaster, and where under upper floors screw down boards should
be fitted a t the end of the runs.

Spaces under ground floors are

l)est kept free from wires, as there is more often danger of dam}) in
such ])ositions, and dam]) should in every way be avoided ; for this
reason also tubes should be })laced so th a t condensation should
find its way out of the tube should m oisture accum ulate.
Bells vary greatly in pattern and tone, the ordinary 3 -in. or
4-in. vibrating bell being the p a tte rn m ost in use for domestic
work. For varying the sound, single stroke bells or buzzers
m ay be used. All these are fitted w ith coils.
Where a num ber of apartm ents are fitted an indicator
commonly employed to supplem ent the bell.


This consists of a

wooden case with glass front, })artly obscured, and so painted as

to show certain discs ; a t back is a m ovem ent device, to show
which press b u tto n is being operated upon, the names of the
a])artm ents fitted being clearly painted on the case over the disc

An indicator m ovem ent falls in front of the disc, and may

be reversed either m echanically or electrically, the latter being

generally found the best as saving m echanical friction and wear.




Plasterer''s Worl:. The work of the plasterer consists of coating

intern al and external wall surfaces, ceilings, &c., in plaster or stucco,
and in running ceiling molds, executing outside rough cast work,
M anufacturing.A certain am ount of workshop m anufacturing
is identified w ith the plastering craft, such special work as the
modelling and pressing of ornam ents, the m anufacture of fibrous
plaster ceilings, cornices, and ornam ents being produced as m anu
factured articles.
Plasterers S tu ff.All s tu ff for plastering m ust be kept
free from th e

contam ination of loam, vegetable

m atter, or salt.

The sand m ust be sharp and clean, the lime

thoroughly well

slaked, run, and strained through fine-mesh sieve, to remove hard

nodules, and all lime stuff mixed up and left to ripen at least
fourteen days before use.
Cowhair is used in plastering to toughen the stuff.

This should

be long and thoroughly beaten and teased, to keep the fibres well
apart, so th a t th ey m ay mix well when in use.
Cementing Stuff.'For cem ent stucco (generally called cem ent
ing) P o rtlan d cem ent is used, mixed w ith sand.

For finishing

coats the sand is best washed in running water.

Plaster of P aris.For fibrous ceilings, internal ornaments, and
sim ilar work plaster of paris is used.
Keen's Cement.For specially hard white finish, such as external
projecting angles of internal walls, K eens cem ent is used.
a very hard-drying white cem ent.

This is

K eens m ust always be backed

up with P o rtlan d cem ent (not lime plaster).


Ready-for-Use M aterial.P a te n t


m anufactured



cem enting m aterial, purchasable ready for use, are also used in
lim ited q u a n tity in m odern work.
L a t h i n g . Ceiling joists, wood partitions, &c., to be plastered
are first close lined w ith laths.

These are thin, long, fiat strips of

wood set parallel to each other, and nailed to the stru ctu ral wood
work, having between each a space called a key, for the first
coat of plaster to squeeze through and form a key or grip.
L aths should have broken end joints, not more th a n 18 in. of
end jointing being together in one line, and all being close nailed
with th in flat-headed lath nails, and set to full f-in. key.
L aths for walls require to be wider and stronger th an for ceilings.
Ceiling laths should be narrow, so as to produce more key.


are w id e and n a rro w laths in the m arket, sold in bundles,

those known as im ported (American) being m ostly used.
E xpanded m etal m ay also be used for lathing.

This consists of

stam p-cut, mild steel sheets draw n out in the form of a trellis,
which offers a uniform key for the plaster.
O r d i n a r y I n t e r n a l P l a s t e r i n g . O rdinary internal plain
faced plastering is best done in three coats, known technically as
" rendering, " floating, and setting, each coat being left to
d ry before the succeeding coat is p u t on.
The first coat

( re n d e rin g ) should be well pressed


squeezed against the laths and into keys, and rendered over wall
surfaces, which are

best dam p and rough.

This forms a thin,

tough coating, which is scratched all over to form a key for the
second coat.
The second coat ( flo a tin g ) is laid upon the first coat and
brings the work to a finer surface, care being taken in this to
keep the surfaces on true planes.

This is done by screedsbe.,

tem porary wood b attens or strips of plaster set parallel a t wide

intervals and to the surface level of the second coat. F rom these
a traversing rule is worked to cast off the superfluous stuff.


The th ird


coat ( setting) should be very thin, smoothly,

evenly, and cleanly rendered to a fine face.

In internal plastering the internal angles are first of all plumbed
upright in the floating, all wall planes being worked therefrom.
For ordinary house work a wall is worked in two heightsfrom
fioor to half-w ay up, and thence to ceiling.
The following is a working form ula for ordinary plastering stuff
to finish about |-in . thick :
First Coat.Three parts of sand ; one p a rt of lime knocked up
with cow hairproportion, \ bag of hair to I bags of lime.
Second Coat. Four p arts of sand ; one p a rt of lime, and very
small q u a n tity of cow hair.
Third Coat.One p a rt of fine white washed and sifted sand;
three p a rts of lime.
This is known as setting, and should be trowelled with steel
trowel to hard face.
A pure white finish, known as p u tty plaster finish, may be
produced by substitu tin g as th ird coat the following :Four parts
of lime p u tty (slaked lime allowed to stand till of the consistency of
])utty), gauged w ith one p a rt of plaster of paris.
Angles.The external projecting angles of wall plastering
require to be specially dealt with, the ordinary plaster not being
sufficient to w ithstand the danger of breakage.

The best approved

m ethod of finish is to back in the angles, for a w idth of about 2

in. on either side, w ith P ortland cem ent and sand four to one,
finished -|-in. thick with K eens cem ent to polished even surface
cut to true line. Such angles may be molded or chamfered.
These angles are finished before the final coat of plaster on the
wall is completed, the hard, true angles being used as guides, and
the cu t vertical lines for the plaster to finish against.
Cornices. The old m ethod of running cornices around internal
plaster ceilings is rapidly giving way before the introduction of the
fibre cornice.
Cornices or moldings on ordinary plaster m ay be run in gauged



Stuff i.e., lime, putty, and plaster of par is the mold contour
being cut out in zinc, nailed to rough wood frame, the whole
working along horizontal screeds to clean, white, smooth finish.

In this class of work the surface is first roughed in with coarse hair
stuff, roughly shaped with a muffler i.e., a cut-out mold
contour about |-in. less th an the true mold.
In carrying out internal plaster features of any kind it is
considered unsafe to allow a thickness of more th a n 2 | in. in any
p a rt of the work. W hen thickness is excessive it should be keyed
with copper wire and nails.
Lime S tu c c o . In preparing internal surfaces for painting or
decorating, the final coat m ay be in lime stucco, half sand, half
lime, worked up with a felt float.

This brings up a scum, which

scum before it is dry is trowelled back into the work w ith steel

This when finished gives a hard, glass-like surface.

F ib r o u s

P l a s t e r . Fibrous plaster,

commonly called, is m uch used for ceilings.






This m aterial has the

advantage of possessing g reat ten acity and strength, and, being

rigid, and in large pieces, self-contained, it m ay be readily fixed in
position, w ithout danger of falling aw ay w ith the wear of time, as
sometimes happens w ith ordinary plastering.
Fibrous plaster also gives opportu n ity for enriched surface work,
which may be repeated again and again from the same molds, and
worked to interlock and continue in various panels and continua
tions, for ceilings, filling, ribs, cornices, columns, linings, pilasters.
Ventilator faces, &c.
Fibre is a m anufactured m aterial generally made as follows :__
The work is first modelled, then cast, and molds produced ; into
these molds liquid plaster of paris is first of all poured, upon
which coarse, open hessian is laid.

Long Oregon laths (about 1-in.

by i'in .) are th en interposed and covered w ith another layer of

hessian, plaster being poured over all to bring it to the necessary



A modification of this process is adopted according to the class

of work to be produced.

In the case of heavy work the parts are

strengthened by the addition of galvanized wrought iron, hoop

iron, or wire bedded in the work.
Cornices are generally m ade in lengths from 3 to 10 feet lineal,
and ceiling fillings in sheets up to about 20 ft. super, per sheet
F ixing Fibre.F or fixing this m aterial, deal or Oregon battening
should be firm ly fixed a t proper intervals, to which the fibre may
be secured.

Cornices, if widely projecting, require wood bracket

ing a t intervals.

O rdinary filling is secured w ith clout-headed

galvanized iron nails, and cornices and special cover and heavy
projecting pieces w ith screws.
out of sight as possible.

These fixings should be as much

W here through the visible work, they are

countersunk, and filled over fair w ith plaster of paris.

I n t e r n a l E n r i c h m e n t s . Centreflowers are ornam ental enrich
m ents modelled and cast and produced in plaster of paris ; these
are placed on plaster ceilings round lighting pendants, and to form
ceiling vents, &c.

They are made in a great v ariety of patterns

and often in several parts, and are easily secured in position with
plaster of paris.
P laster wall faces are m anufactured in the same way to cover
outlet vents through walls near ceilings.
O ther ornam ents, such as pilaster caps, bosses, ribs, moldings,
and enrichm ents of all kinds to plastered work are also produced in
the same way.
O u t s id e C e m e n tin g . Outside cem ent work of all kinds is best
done in dam p w eather, freedom from actual rain or frost on the
one hand, and from excessive dryness on the other, being advisable.
Cement work should always be kept dam p.

The surfaces upon

which it is laid should be w etted, and, if practicable, rough to form

a good key, and the work should be kept moist for a t least seven
days after completion.



The term stucco is sometimes applied to cem ented surfaces,

b u t it is not of altogether general application, ordinary P o rtland
cem ent and sand work being generally referred to as

cem enting.

Ordinary Cement Rendering. In all cem ent work the nature and
character of the P ortland cem ent used should be ascertained, as the
strength and tim e of setting varies greatly in this article.


sand is best for first coating, and fine washed sand for finishing.
The following is a workable recipe :F irst coat ( floating ).
Four p arts of sand, one p a rt of P ortland cement, gauged clean and
used fresh and laid evenly on to the walling in a |-in . thick first
After first coat has set, second coat ( finishing ), w ith a J-in.
thick finish, com pounded of 2^ p a rts fine sand to one of cement.
The finish m ay be brought to hardness by the steel trowel or to
a granulated (sand) surface by wood float.


&c.E x tern al cornices are


ru n in a similar way

W hen on rough stonew ork three coats

are sometimes necessary, b u t in th e usual w ay only two are

required, the stuff not being gauged too rich, otherwise fine cracks
m ay occur.
P r e s s e d C e m e n t.E nrichm ents and ornam ents are generally
produced in pressed cement, which is m anufactured as follows :
The work is first modelled in clay and cast in plaster of paris
piece molds, which are well coated w ith shellac.
Stuff of
P ortland cem ent and sand gauged two or three to one is th en
mixed and pressed into the molds w ith ram m ing tools.

W hen

slightly set the molds are rem oved piece by piece, and the work
laid out upon drying boards, trim m ed, and afterw ards kept moist
by w atering for several days till hard.
In gauging the cem ent and sand care should be

taken to

thoroughly mix the two, and to wet so th a t the m ortar m ay be

dam p through w ithout being sloppy.
Pressed cem ent work m ay be attached to stuccoed surfaces w ith



cem ent m ortar, and strengthened w ith galvanized iron hooks, nails,
or clips.
Rough Cast is rough-surfaced stucco, generally applied to o u t
side surfaces, such as gables, walls, &c.
I t is either done on laths, as when applied to tim ber work, or
directly on to solid walls.
W hen upon laths the lathing should be done w ith stout, wide
laths or expanded m etal.

The first coat consists of haired stuff

(same as to first coat of internal plaster), mixed w ith a small

q u a n tity of P o rtlan d cement, the finishing coat ditto, having an
increased q u a n tity of cem ent added, together w ith clean-washed
W ork on walls is roughed in w ith four p arts of same to one p a rt
of P o rtlan d cem ent, finished when dry w ith clean gravel (size of
peas), m ixed w ith cem ent in the proportion of two p arts of gravel
to one of P o rtlan d cem ent, mixed up in a bucket and throw n on
when soft.
Small broken washed coke, pulverized stone, or any other sharp,
clean m aterial is suitable for providing the rough surface.
R ough cast is generally after colored w ith fast wash, which is
sold for the purpose.
Internal Cementing is carried out much in the same way as
external work, save th a t the finish required is of a finer character.
W ork such as bathroom dadoes, finishing of concrete floors, wall
surfaces to dairies, wash-houses, and similar apartm ents, often
require to be sm ooth rendered in cement.

The finest finish is

obtained by sprinkling th e final coat w ith n eat cement and trow el

ling w ith steel trowel to produce a glass face.
The junction of cem ent w ith plaster on walls m ay be finished
with a sunk bead in cement.
In cem ent floors wood skirtings are best avoided, a more sanitary
finish being obtained b y hollowing round the angles and bringing
up fair to wall surfaces.











T iik object of paiiitino; is priniarily to preserve the material

])ainted. In its liigher developments its object is decorativeto
create pleasing color surface and decorative form.
in modern work the painter's and decorators craft is closely
associated w ith the finish, n o t otdy of the ordinary wood and
iron work and with th e distemperin<r of wall surfaces, but has to do
with the color decoration of specially m anufactured materials, sucii
as fibrous plaster, sta m p e d zinc, em bossed pulps, and th e very
m a n y other decorative surface coverings th a t enter into modern

Wall papers, too, are now so admirably produced th a t their

selection and hanging enters very extensively into a very large
section of general house decoration; while for public buildings the
highest forms of handicraft decorative painting will ever have
some need.
P aintfncj


Wo o d w o r k . I n




tim ber

])ainting enters very largely, su p ply ing , as it does, an im p erviou s

surface to ])rotect it from the action of wear and weather.

UnpairUed 7m/jcr.Certain timbers, such as those used in out

side fencing, and to bush houses, where roughly cut native timbers
are used, may be left un])ainted.

Oilvm/ and Pairdim/.Hm-Ai timbers as jarrah, red (California,,

pine (redwood), stand



if thoroughly

oiled, thus

|,re serving in a degree their natural texture, grain, and color.




The im ported pine tim bers, however, require painting, especially








knots, and, being

com paratively soft in nature, recpures good, hard bodying to bring

it to a workable and lasting surface finish.
Leadfi and Zinc. To obtain a pure white lead is of the highest
im portance in painting, as this m aterial supplies the body of
nearly all good paints.

Red lead and zinc-white are also used in

lim ited q u a n tity for certain classes of work.

White Lead Tests.W hite lead for painting is readily discern
ible from w hiting and other common sub stitu tes by its excessive
W hite lead should be stock lead of some well-known corroders
bran d

containing a t

least 25 per cent, of hydrate of lead in

com bination w ith sulphate and pure carbonate of lead.

Zinc White.Zinc white is thinner th a n white lead, and tends
more to Idue w h iten ess rath er th an to yellow whiteness.
It is useful where a lasting pure white is required, as it is not so
liable to tu rn yellow as white lead.

I t is, however, somewhat

lacking in body.
Thinners.Leads and zincs are thinned and made workable by
th e ad m ixture of raw and boiled linseed oil and turpentine, to
which is added certain drying substances, such as liquid terebene
or p a te n t driers.
Coloring Pigments. The coloring pigm ents are now generally
supplied by purchasable pigm ents ground ready for use in oil or

These m ay readily be blended and mixed w ith lead, and so

any desired tin t obtained with a greater degree of fineness th an the

old-fashioned, hand-ground pigments.
Driers are used to hasten th e drying of oil paints.

Those in

common use are terebene, a thin liquid used for quick-drying

work ; p a te n t driers, for ordinary slow drying of good work ;
sugar of lead, for delicate shades such as white, greys, lakes,
ultram arine


em erald green, or any color likely to be

injured in p u rity of tone by the addition of foreign m atter.



Varnishes are also used as driers, as also gold size, for certain
classes of work.

I t has also to be rem em bered th a t both raw and

boiled linseed oils have drying qualities in themselves.

Time. I t is highly im p o rtan t th a t p ainting should have ample
tim e to dry, one coat being allowed three full days to harden before
the other is p u t on, and the surfaces preserved from dust, and
specially as far as possible from direct sun, which causes oil paints
to blister, especially where an excess of boiled oil is used.
F o rm u la f o r O rd in a ry

P a in tin g .

on Ordinary

K nots.A fter all wood has been hand-dressed, and if necessary

glass-papered and dusted down, coat over all knots w ith p aten t
liquid knotting, to prevent them from showing through the work.
Prim ing.A fterw ards coat w ith a prim er consisting of red lead,
a very small q u a n tity of white lead, raw linseed oil, and driers.
This forms a hard surface for subsequent coats.
A fter the prim ing coat stop all nail-holes, cracks, or
defects w ith p u tty (whiting and oil) and rub down.
Second Coat (Outside).W hite lead, linseed oil, and
driers, and pigm ent to tin t.


Third Coat (Outside).D itto.

Fourth Coat (Outside).D itto, or a small q u a n tity of boiled oil
m ay be used.
Note.I t is not advisable to use m uch boiled oil w ith white lead
colors, b u t it is necessary for earth or dark colors, w ith turps, so
as to secure a hard surface.
I nside W ork .F or inside work the above follows, save th a t
turps are best, in a degree, substituted for the oil, as the turps
produces a less oily, hard, and dull finish.
Rubbing Down.R ub down to an even surface w ith glass paper
every coat w ith the exception of the final coat. This destroys all
brush m arks and inequalities of surface and brings the final coat to



a good even finish.

A t least three days should elapse between the

p u ttin g on of each coat, as every coat m ust be thoroughly hard

before th e nex t is applied.
Flatting. In terio r woodwork is sometimes finished in fiat
i.e., w ith a non-shining, m at surface.

This is not so wearable as a

shiny oil finish, b u t has a pleasing appearance, and m ay be used

for work rem oved from personal contact.
F la ttin g is done w ith tu rp s as a thinner, w ith a very small
q u a n tity of oil or varnish, liquid driers being sometimes added for
hurried work.

F la ttin g



finished w ith a stippling

brush (a large, shallow, even-surfaced brush), which is dabbed over

the work to destroy th e ordinary brush marks.
Pre'paring Redwood. O rdinary p ain t will n o t readily take on

This wood should, therefore, be first coated w ith a wash

of weak lim e-w ater prep arato ry to receiving the prim ing coat.
Hard Body F in ish .In im p o rtan t work requiring high body
finish, th e work m ust be prepared by several successive coats of
coach or other filling (a paste in tu rp s laid on w ith a brush),
thinn ed w ith gold size.

W hen dry the surface is ground down

w ith pum ice stone or pum ice powder and sandpaper, before the
finishing coats of ordinary p a in t are p u t on.
An im proved m ethod of dealing w ith body finish is to make a
filling of one-third each of white lead, paste, and turps thinned
w ith gold size.

W ith this filling th e work is coated 6 or 8 times,

finally receiving a coat of stainers i.e., In d ian red and tu rp s

which dries in a few m inutes.

The work is then ground down, the

stainers enabling th e w orkm an to a t once detect inequalities of


The first coat of paint upon the filling should be in hard

drying color, w ith half tu rp s and half oil and driers.

firmly adhere, and form

This will

a hard surface upon which to


subsequent coats.
C o lo r C hoosing.In choosing color for outside work it m ust
be rem em bered th a t the more lead body m aterial the




contains the b etter for its lasting qualities.

This brings in the

desirability of using light colors, if preservation of service be the

chief consideration, as the bulk of body can th en be very much
greater th a n in dark colors, such as bronze green, in w hich the body
has to be confined entirely or alm ost entirely to pow dered color.
W here dark colors are used th ey are best preserved under coats
of the very best copal varnish, often renewed.
One coat of p ain t should in tone always lead tow ards th e next,
and so gradually tow ards the final, which should be b rought to
true tone complete in itself.

A rule is sometimes adopted of

coating in all work for the first two coats in uniform tin t.


final colors are th en decided, and the subsequent coats brought

forward in p a rty t i n t s (various tints).

This is some check

upon the num ber of coats actually p u t on.

P a i n t i n g o n C em ent.Cement buildings are often after a few
years p ainted in oil paint.

This class of work requires a good

prim ing coat to stop the excessive suction and to form a h ard

This is best secured b y red lead and raw oil as a prim er,

subsequent coats being m ixed as for ordinary work w ith a little

boiled oil to dry hard to a durable finish.

Oil p ain ts will not

adhere well on new cem ent work.

P a i n t i n g N ew P l a s t e r W o r k . There is always risk in painting
new plastered surfaces, p a rtly owing to m oisture, b u t specially to
the activity of the lime, which eats out any color p u t upon i t ; for
these reasons newly plastered surfaces are generally left uncoated
for a year or two, when th ey m ay be painted, papered, or decorated
w ith safety.
Should, however, this class of work be attem p ted, the surfaces
m ust be coated w ith petrifying liquid or k notting previous to
L ime W hiting





of lime,




an d salt, and is useful as a clean, san itary coating for common

D is te m p e r in g .Common distem per is made w ith whiting, size,
and colors ground in w ater and laid on w ith flat brushes.

D is

tem pering is used for coating all classes of inside surfaces other
th a n woodwork, such as plastered walls, ceilings, &c.
There are a very large num ber of powdered distem pers upon the
m ark et th a t only require the addition of w ater to make them ready
for use.

M any of these are w ashablei.e., they m ay be afterwards

sponged down lightly w ith a sponge and w ater. Some of these

distem pers are also specially m anufactured to w ithstand the active
effect of lim e on new plastered surfaces.
O u t s i d e W a t e r C o lo r i n g . Outside cem ent dressings, rough
cast, &c., m ay be colored in w ater paint.

This consists chiefly of

a m ixture of lime, coloring m atter, and a fixer such as copperas or


There are, however, several good p aints for this class of work

in varying shades purchasable in th e m arket.

C o a tin g K o o f C o v e rin g s.Iro n roofing is often coated with
non-conducting paint.

This is best done with m aterial of some

well-known b ra n d laid on in tw o-coat work ; or a substitute m ay be

m ade w ith lime, salt, and sugar.
W here colors are required there are now paints specially
m anufactured for the purpose.
P a i n t i n g M e t a l s . All m etals subject to excessive oxidization
require to be protected from decay and have to be periodically

Of this class is all constructional steel or iron work.

This is best coated w ith a solution of red oxide of iron which has a
chemical affinity for m etal and is b e tte r for the purpose th an lead
W rought iron m ay be p ainted in Berlin black to give a dull
black finish.



All iron near heat, such as stoves, grates, iron stack pipes, &c.,
should be p ainted in Brunswick black thinned w ith turps.
Spouting, down pipes, verandah iron, and sim ilar sheet m etal
work m ay be p ainted two coats in white lead colors mixed w ith
gold size and tu rp s (no oil).

As this class of work is w ithout

suction ordinary oil p ain t would peel off.

For good work a hard, durable finish m ay be secured by the
addition of varnish in th in coats.

High-class internal woodwork lends itself specially to polishing,

which is a process designed to preserve the surface of the wood,
and a t the same tim e accentuate the figure and grain by a semi
transparen t, preservative covering.
Polishing is of two kinds wax

p olishing and French

Side by side w ith polishing comes the question of

staining, and it m ay be laid down as an experience of practice

th a t nearly all woods require staining more or less before they are
polished, to bring them up to som ething like uniform ity of tone

Some p a rts are lighter or some denser in texture

th a n other parts, and these require to be levelled up, while for

certain classes of work the entire surface m ay require staining
before polishing is applied.
The tim bers th a t lend them selves specially to polishing are the
hard fancy woods, of rich figure and dense structure, such as blackwood, boligum, beanwood, oak, and w alnut, also cedar, rosewood,
H uon pine, &c.
For cheaper kinds of stained and polished work New Zealand
kauri can hardly be surpassed, while Queensland hoop pine is also
There are three chief kinds of stainsviz., w ater stain, oil stain,
and spirit stain.
Anilines, darkeners, and fum igants, and specially m anufactured
stains of various kinds, are also employed.



Water Sta in consists of coloring pulp, ground in water, and

applied w ith a rag.

This raises the grain somewhat, consequently

when d ry the surface is rubbed over w ith sandpaper before the

polish is laid on.
Oil Sta in is pigm ent ground in oil.

This is more in the nature

of painting, and is only used in inferior work.

Spirit Sta in is pigm ent m ixed w ith m ethylated spirit, and is
generally applied w ith a brush.

This stain dries immediately, and

m ay be polished over a t once.

Anilines are now used for staining, and there is also a large
v ariety of m anufactured stains upon the m arket, which require to
be used according to directions.
Darheners. To darken cedar or other reddish woods, bichrom ate
of potassium in w ater is commonly used.

W ashing soda and w ater

also darkens such woods as oak, w alnut, and cedar.

These are

tran sp a re n t darkeners, and do not blind the wood.

F um ing.Oak as a tim ber lends itself specially to toning by

This is done b y subjecting the wood to the fumes of

liquid am m onia, either in a closed ap artm en t or in an air-tight

fume box constructed for the purpose.
W ax Polishing is specially suitable for large surfaces, and con
sists in coating the wood w ith an emulsion of beeswax melted in
spirits of tu rpentine, applied warm w ith linen rags, and well

W hen one coat is thoroughly dry another coat m ay be

p u t on, and the process repeated until the necessary surface is

F o r d u ll waxing three or four coats are necessary, whilst
b rig h t waxing often requires seven or eight to produce a good
G reat care is required in waxing not to work up the undercoat.
French Polishing.Polish is made of orange shellac dissolved
in m ethylated spirit.

This should be placed in an air-tight glass

or earthenw are vessel (not metal), and tak en out in small quantities
as required for use.



Most woods to be French polished require to be filled to

produce a level surface for th e polish to work upon.
Filling paste is made of plaster of paris m ixed w ith pigm ent to
m atch color of wood, ground in w ater, and applied to the work,
which, when dry, is oiled over w ith raw linseed oil, and afterw ards
sandpapered down, and the polish applied.
The polish is laid on w ith rubbers consisting of flannel or
wadding pads covered over w ith linen ; w ith these the surface is
worked over, a touch of raw oil being from tim e to tim e applied to
the rubber w ith the finger, so as to m ake the polish work, and
produce dull shine. If b right shine is required spirits of
wine is used on the rubber.

Glazing consists in fitting glass to windows, doors, roof lights,


For these purposes a great v ariety of glass is m anufactured,

both clear and obscured, and specially m ade for various purposes.
Clear Sheet Glass.The glass m ost com m only used for general
window glazing is clear sheet glass, either 16, 21, or 26 ozs. per ft.

This should always be of th e best quality, as inferior glass

is liable to be w avy and uneven, and to give a d istorted image

when looked through.
Clear sheet glass is m ade in a large num ber of different sizes,
and is cut w ith a diam ond to sizes required.

The usual outside

lim it of size of im ported English sheet glass is 50-in. by 36-in. for

I6-0Z., 60-in. by dl-in. for 21-oz., and 72-in. by 48-in. and 70-in.

by 52-in. for 26-oz.

Sheet glass is usually fixed by being bedded in p u tty (whiting
ground in oil) w ithin the rebate of the sash, sprigged in to keep it
in position, and over-puttied and sm oothed off outside w ith a
splayed surface. This is called glazing sashes.
Plate Glass.P late glass is thicker th a n sheet glass, and made in
very large sheets.

W hen of B ritish polished plate quality it m ay

be relied upon to give a true image when looked through, and is



used for th e glazing of large windows, and especially shop windows,

and show cases.


fixing plate

glass the edges should be

blackened to prevent glistening, and the glass kept in position w ith

beads or slips.
P late glass m ay be ben t to shapes and curves for special work,
such as bow windows.

This is done in specially-made furnaces.

Leaded and Stained Glass.Leaded glass is a common term

applied to glass-work set in lead bars.

These bars are made up of

double-channelled flexible lead strips m anufactured for the purpose,

cu t to shape and soldered up and strengthened by having rigid
w rought-iron cross bars copper-wired on to stihen them when
placed in th e opening they are designed to occupy.
Leaded glass m ay be glazed in clear sheet glass in rectangular
panes or glazed p artially or wholly w ith colored glass m anufactured
for the purpose, such as cathedral, Venetian, antique glass, &c.
These colored glasses are made in a very great variety of colors and
textures, and, with certain specially-shaped accessories such as
roundels, jewels, &c., are designed in p attern s and leaded up to
suit various positions, the glasses being closed into the leads w ith
w aterproof mastic.
This class of work is largely used in domestic architecture, and
shows the continuation of one of the old crafts, very specially
identified w ith ecclesiastical window treatm ent.
In its higher branches stained glass, as it is called, deals w ith
conventional pictorial representation of scenes and incidents, and
becomes, b y its adoption, a perm anent, tran sp aren t pictorial art.
There are two m anners adopted in colored work of this kind,
one in which th e colors are alone obtained by choosing and glazing
the various pieces in such a way as to obtain the result direct from
the glass chosen, and the other is obtained by painting and
burning in certain portions of the glass to give the necessary
details of the m inor parts.

This la tte r is m ostly applied to

intricate figure work, such as in church or memorial windows.

Leaded glass, when in woodwork, is fixed with wood beads , when



in stonework a channel (a raglet) is cu t out to receive it, and the

lead is pinned in w ith cem ent m ortar.
Roof Light Glazing.Roof lights are usually glazed w ith specially
heavy, and generally w ith obscured glass, such as rough rolled
p late.

This, if upon the top slopes, is best fixed, not w ith p u tty ,

which readily decays, b u t w ith m etal glazing bars made for the
W ired plate glass is another kind of glass for this purpose.
This consists of wire n etting bedded w ithin the centre of the

g la s s .

The advantage of this is th a t should the glass be broken the frag

m ents will not fall in large pieces so as to cause danger below.
Fancy and Special Glass.Of fancy glasses there are a large
number, b oth in color and w ith embossed p attern s upon them .
Obscure and ground glass m ay be used where a th in obscured glass
is required.
Muranese glass is a m uch-used type of fancy glass m anufactured
in white and color. This consists of a thick glass w ith a small
raised p a tte rn upon it which glistens and reflects in a pleasing
m anner when under the influence of light.

This is also an obscure

glass, and is useful for all kinds of purposes, in screens, doors, and
the upper p arts of windows, &c.
Fancy glasses are usually fixed in beads, though th in embossed
glasses, being smooth-faced,


sometimes sprigged in


For certain special purposes plate glass m ay be treated with

acid, and brought out in p a tte rn or lettering, as required, by
making certain portions of the surface dull and other p arts light,
or this class of work m ay be applied to m irror-backed glass.
In addition to the above there are a large num ber of glasses
m anufactured for special purposes, such as prism atic

g la s s ,


reflect light in confined and cram ped areas ; clear ribbed glass, to
give the m axim um of light w ith obscurity, and m any others.
Pavement and Stallboard Lights.To give light to basem ents
stallboard lights are used.

These are usually arranged between



the sill of the ground floor windows and the pavem ent or ground,
and consist usually of m etal frames filled in w ith specially-made
prism atic glasses.
Area pavem ent lights are also made in a similar way, and fitted
w ith heavy lenses, so designed as to receive the light from above
and throw it horizontally into th e basem ent apartm ents.


glasses should be set in elastic mastic, otherwise the contraction of

the m etal fram e tends to break the glass.

D ecorating is a skilled craft which in its higher branches merges

into a fine art.
The work of the decorator goes fu rther th a n the work of the
ordinary painter, and extends from plain painting in oil or water
color to the high finish of applied pictorial art.
Decorating in Water Color.D ecorative


on walls and

ceilings is often carried out in distem per colorsi.e., w ith colors

ground in w ater (see Painting).

This class of work produces

clean, even, fiat (non-shining) surface, which m ay be elaborated

w ith ornam ental work to a very high state of decorative finish.
Stencilling.R ep eat p attern s, such as dadoes, friezes, centres,
cornices, &c., are produced by stencilling.

Stencils are made of

sto u t cartridge paper, through which the p a tte rn is cut, the paper
being rendered im pervious by coating w ith p a te n t knotting.


is th en laid over the stencil in position, and produced on the work

in the required tints.
Stencilling is sometimes done w ithout color, in pure varnish
only. This gives a shiny d a m a sk effect.
L in in g . Lining is produced by the aid of rules and pencil
Decorating in Oil Color.D ecorative painting in oil is generally
finished in fiat.

If upon plastered surfaces, the suction should

be stopped and the surface m ade fair before the oil painting is
sta rte d .

This m ay be done by coating w ith two or three coats of



w ater distem per (whiting and size), well rubbed down w ith flat
pieces of wood covered w ith glass paper, dusted down w ith dusting
brush, and

tested all ways w ith 6-ft. stra ig h t edge to avoid


This prepares the surface for oil painting, which

m ay be in four-coat w orkfirst coat of white lead, half raw oil,

half turps, w ith varnish as driers ; second and th ird coats ditto ;
fourth coat with turps, only very little varnish as driers, finished
w ith stippling brush.
Bulk colors are generally used in the backgrounds or plain
surfaces, and fine tube colors for decorative tinting.
Decorating on Fibre.F or painting on fibrous plaster or similar
m aterial such work as flowers, devices, or figures, the surface m ay be
prepared by a first coat of varnish, second coated w ith w hite lead,
turps, and a touch of varnish, the flnished painting being executed
w ith tube colors thinned w ith turps.
Decorating Metal Ceilings.In decorating on embossed m etal
two thin coats only are necessary, consisting of white lead, raw oil,
varnish (as drier), thinned w ith turps, finished in a th ird coat of
Pictorial Painting on Canvas. High-class figure work m ay be
painted on canvas, and afterw ards applied directly to plastered
walls or ceilings w ith a m astic of white lead and venus turpentine,
the canvas being pressed from centre outw ards w ith flat rules until
the whole surface com pletely adheres to plaster, when edges m ay
be covered w ith moldings.
Gilding is best done

w ith gold leaf, gold

as an adhesive for im m ediate work.

size being used

More lustre is obtained if

slow-drying oil size is used and the work allowed to stand for
tw enty-four hours before the gold is applied.
P a rts requiring to be burnished are rubbed w ith
polisher ; dulled p arts are coated w ith parchm ent size.

an agate

For cheap work, silver and gold and other bronzes are in m any
cases used as substitutes.
applied in liquid form.

These are purchasable ready for use, and



Cleaning Down.In cleaning down internal decorative work

before scaffolding is struck, a good plan is to coat the whole of the
work w ith beeswax and turpentine, laid on w ith large brushes
followed w ith stipplers.

This gives to the surface an even,

soft, and pleasing effect.

Graining and M arbling.G raining is the im itation by means of
p a in t of certain decorative woods, m arbling being the im itation of

This class of work is always under varnish, and requires

high executive s k ill; it is, however, so personal th a t no definite

rules m ay here be laid down for its execution.
S t a in in g


V a r n is h in g .

Only certain finishing woods are

suitable for staining, and these m ust be carefully selected for the

W oods th a t differ in density in various p arts are always

th e m ost difficult to successfully stain, as the color sinking in

more in certain p a rts th a n in others tends to patchiness.


often leads th e w orkm an to p ain t rath er th an stain the

work, a mode of procedure th a t is to be strictly avoided.
R eady-m ixed stains are now best used.
in w ater, spirit, or oil.

These m ay be obtained

Stains are brushed on in one or more

coats, and fixed w ith polish or varnish.

A lthough size w ater is comm only used in staining and varnish
ing, its use is m ostly directed to the saving of m aterial, and, unless
m ixed in th in solution and allowed to thoroughly dry before over
varnishing, serious results are sure to follow.

Much of the trouble

caused b y non-drying varnish work is traceable to the use of size,

such w ork often rem aining tackey for m any years.
Varnishhig.In selecting varnish, only th a t m anufactured by
well-known m akers
em ployed.

and bearing

stan d ard


should be

V arnish should n o t be used in excessively cold w eather,

as th e m aterial congeals.

There are m any kinds of varnish, some

suitable for outside, others specially for inside work.


are know n as copal, carriage, church oak, encaustic, spirit, &c.,

according to their character and quality.



In varnishing hand-dressed woodwork w ithout staining, coat

with varnish directly on to the work till the desired surface is

This gives the best possible results.

For varnishing over staining, two coats a t least are required, one
being dry and hard before the other is p u t on, and the whole k ep t
free from dust and insects, each coat (save the last) being rubbed
down w ith glass paper.
For outside work, such as doors, window frames, &c., oak
varnish m ay be used.
outside or inside.

Copal is used over delicate colors, either

F or such work as seating, furniture, fittings,

&c., church oak varnish is employed.

E ncaustic varnish is a high-priced varnish th a t dries w ith a dull,
egg-shell finish, which looks well for high-class work, and m ay be
used to contrast (as in panelling) w ith high gloss varnishes.
Spirit varnish is used for hurried work, as it dries alm ost
I t is, however, not so durable as other

Paperhanging is the craft of hanging walls and ceilings with

papers, embossed pulps, &c., m anufactured for the purpose.
All surfaces to be papered should be quite sm ooth, especially
where plain-surfaced papers are to be hung.

All cracks and holes

should be filled w ith plaster of paris, the surfaces rubbed down

and coated w ith size w ater to stop suction.
W all papers are im ported in rolls.
English papers are m ostly used, others being im ported from
America, Germany, and France.
The standard size of English wall paper is by the piece, 21 in.
wide and 12 yds. long, and it m ay be taken as a safe working rule
th a t, measuring an ap artm en t over ordinary openings, and allow
ing for m atching of p a tte rn and waste, such a roll of paper will
cover 60 ft. super.
The following table m ay be used for referen ce:






ok s2

























































; I
^ <















'Jhe following are the stan d ard sizes of English, American,

German, and French papers :
21 in.
18 in.
30 in.
18 in.
18 in.

ingrains (i.e., without pattern)


12 yds.
16 yds.
16 yds.
12 yds.
8 | yds.

Papers are m anufactured for certain special purposes, such as

fillings, dadoes, friezes, and ceilings.
Friezes and Bands are sold a t per yard, and are of differing
widths, from 5 in. to 21 in. ; common stock sizes being 10 in.,
15 in., 18 in., and 21 in.
T rim m ing. Papers are m ade with a narrow superfluous margin,
which has to be cut off and th e paper trim m ed to a sharp edge
to m atch.

This is done either by machine or scissors.

The object

of this m argin is to protect th e paper from dam age in tran sit, and
to give space for a true join to be made.
O rdinary paper

m ay be

secured w ith

strong flour paste.

Em bossed pulps and heavy papers require th in R ussian glue or

paste and glue.
Paste and Fixatives.Paste should be m ade in a clean vessel, by
mixing flour w ith luke-w arm w ater into a sm ooth paste, free from

Over this boiling w ater is poured, and the whole brought

to a proper consistency.
turning sour.


m ay

A little borax will prevent paste from

be added as a fixer.

W a lls. A fter trim m ing, cutting, and

])asting, wall paper is hung in position by testing the first piece
A c tu a l

P a p e r in g .

with a plum b line, startin g from the top edge and brushing the
paper down with a large brush or roller. The next piece is then
laid to m atch, and the process repeated round th e room, all edges
being well rolled down w ith small roller, so as to make them
invisible, and top and bottom edges neatly cut and fitted.
If a p a t t e r n paper is being hung, th e
to be alike a t top and bottom .

p a tte r n

should so divide as



Ceilings. In papering ceilings, the laying should he done from

centre of ap artm en t, so th a t th e p a tte rn m ay work out alike a t all
edges and corners.
Friezes and B ands.H orizontal papering, such as with friezes
or bands, should also be laid from centres, so th a t internal angles
m ay work out to m atch.
Heavy Coverings.Em bossed pulps and

heavy papers often

require to be thoroughly back soaked with stickative before being


These should be pasted and allowed to stand for a time

before being hung.

On ceilings heavy pulps m ay require to be

tem porarily secured w ith tacks while stickative is drying.

D e c o r a tin g


V a r n is h in g .

Em bossed pulps are usually

decorated either in fiat oils or distem per coloring, and m ay be

picked out in gilding or special colors.

W here varnishing is done

on paper it should be twice sized and twice varnished with copal

or carriage varnish.

P ro p erty owners require to w rite down a certain sum of money

per year for m aintenance, and this ultim ate question of cost of
m a in te n a n c e

should have due weight when th e property is

How will it last ?

How will it wear ?

b e in g

How will it appear in

ten years tim e ? are all questions th a t m ay well be asked and

their reasonable answers allowed for in the building.
A soundly constructed building will, in some degree, improve
w ith age, for there will always come w ith the passing of years the
mellowing toning down of outside surfaces, which, a t the first,
are necessarily som ew hat crude and new.

I t m ay be taken as a

rule th a t good honest work will mellow well and look better
w ith age, whereas shoddy and m akeshift building will go to
B u t while it is tru e th a t this mellowing goes on, it is also true



th a t all the elem ents are, year b y year, going back to their original

W ood shrinks and rots,

iron ru sts and decays, pain t

perishes, and wear and tear destroys, until th e whole structure

calls for the diligent hand of th e repairer.
Legitim ate and necessary repairing m ay always be separated

n atu ral w eathering, for tim e alone can im p art a certain

quality of charm not obtainable in any other waya charm com

m ented upon again and again b y travellers among the Old W orld
This n atu ral w eathering is therefore to be prized, and if it be
upon honest, sound walls and roofs, should be preserved rath er
th a n cleaned off, to m ake a building look w hat it m ay not look
new again.
For this reason, artificial colorings, tuckpointing, and tem porary
sham s have only their very little d ay a few years, in some cases
a few m onths, lay them bare, and reveal a far worse sta te of
appearance th a n if they had never been.
The lowered tone of stonework, the less garish surface of old
brickwork, the green and brow n colorings of tiled roofs, the grey
silverings of our fences and n a tu ra l tim berings, th e dulness of old
m etal m ay all well be left alone.
In overhauling a building, therefore, repairing should be done
w ith discretion, and in such a way as to preserve rath e r th a n to
destroy the general character of the original work.
The Preservation of W alls.B oth brick and stone walls often
require to be repaired from the action of dam p, either from surface
driving rains or defective dam p courses.

M any of the outer walls

of our older buildings have been b u ilt solid, and give, in conse
quence, continual trouble through dam pness on the w eather side.
Such walls m ay be allowed to dry out and th en be well coated
w ith petrifying liquid, or p ainted in oil, or cem ented and painted.
New dam p courses are best form ed of sheet lead inserted through
the thickness of all walls, under ground floor tim bers or ju st
above the ground.



W orn jointing m ay be repaired by raking out m ortar and

stoj)ping in and pointing in cement.

Creeping plants are best

rem oved from walls on the dam p w eather side of buildings,

especially those th a t are, by their nature, leaf-covered all the year
ro u n d .
O v e r h a u l i n g R o o f s . Structure. The

stru ctu ral p arts of roofs

should be periodically overhauled, and for this reason all roof

spaces should be made accessible from inside by tra p doors, and
walking over boards laid on ceiling.
How ever well constructed a roof m ay be, there is always the
inevitable settling down of tim bers, shrinkage, and saggings, which
by slight a tte n tio n m ay often be m ade right.

In large roofs the

read ju stm en t and tightening up of ties, jibs, bolts, &c., is also often
desirable and necessary.
Such overhauling gives opportu n ity to exam ine all pipes, wires,
tubes, &c., th a t m ay have th eir runs in th e roof space.
Coverings. The outer coverings of roofs, and especially internal
gutters, need careful atten tio n .

All g u tters and spoutings should

be cleaned out, free from d u st or leaf deposit, and all storm water
runs m ade clear and free.
A judicious use of solder, where galvanized iron shows signs of
rusting, will do much for its p r e s e r v a t i o n , while the tightening up
of all screws used in corrugated iron roofing or sheet-iron spouting
will add to its stability.
Roof tiles, if cracked or broken, should be

r e p la c e d

w ith new,

and all pointings overlooked and ren ew ed ; also flashings should be

looked to, and kept down from updriving winds.
Should tiles require to be cleaned from discoloration this may be
done w ith diluted m uriatic acid, scrubbed on w ith stiff brushes
and afterw ards washed w ith clean w ater.
Slate roofs are on the whole more liable to breakages th an tiled
roofs and need to be very carefully repaired lest more damage be
done in the repairing.

For this work special roof ladders, from



which the workmen m ay reach and m ake good broken or dam aged
slates, are necessary.
Slates are sometimes dam aged by excessive changes of tem pera
ture or by very heavy local storm s.

The friction of the slates

against the nails, due to the wind, is also a common cause of



displacem ent, as also is the


habit of

stone-throw ing, which tends to damage this type of roof more

th a n any other.
F l o o r s . Wood

floors, and especially ground floors, are liable to

rot through the lack of ventilation.

These should be overhauled,

and especially ground floors where moisture, as well as lack of air,

m ay quickly cause serious decay, not only of the boarding b u t of
the structu ral supporting tim bers.

To all these free currents of

dry air should be given and the cause of any dam pness removed.
S h r i n k a g e s . E ven

if well constructed, new work will, in the

first year or two, often shows signs of shrinkage, the very great
difficulty, so constantly experienced, of obtaining highly-seasoned
tim ber, especially for finishings, being m ade m anifest as the work
settles down.

Again, w ith inside plastered tim ber fram e houses,

and especially a t the ju nction of wood w ith brick, such as a t

chimneys, fracture is alm ost certain to occur.

These and other

like defects require to be made good, and should enter into the
legitim ate work of m aintenance.
S a n ita r y

F i t t i n g s . In

addition to the usual domestic cleanli-

.ness of sanitary fittings and waste w ater drains, such ap p aratus

should be periodically overhauled, both for cleansing and testing,
and if necessary repainted.
Only skilled workmen are com petent to do thisto take
ap a rt the various cleaning screws from taps, &c., to remove
corrosion or rust, to em pty grease traps, and to test and clear
vents, cowls, wastes, and drains, and to flush out all pipes and
channels w ith powerful disinfectants, such as dilute carbolic or
perm anganate of potash.



P a in tin g ,

& c . Painting

m ust always enter largely into the

m aintenance of a building, especially where the work is outside

and exposed to severe h eat and destructive weather.
F or old outside painted surfaces, blistered and uneven by wear,
th e old p a in t should be flame b u rn t off, and clean scraped right
down to th e original surface.

P ainting should then be done as to

new work (see Painting).

All ordinary pain ted surfaces to be rep ain ted should first be well
cleaned down, inequalities ground down w ith pumice and glass
paper, and all cracks and defects stopped w ith p u tty.
P a p e r h a n g in g ,

& c.

P aper hanging




decorating is, in m ost cases, carried out some tim e after the first
occupancy of a building, when the soiling of the plaster surfaces
calls for covering and repair.
W here papering is done on walls previously papered, the old
paper should be soaked w ith w ater and removed, walls stopped
and repaired and sized before new paper is hung.
O ld

D is te m p e r e d

S u r f a c e s . Old

distem per m ust also be

thoroughly washed off before re-coating is laid on.


S p e c if ic a t io n


r it in g

. A




s p e c ific a tio n

(o r

T A K IN G .

sp eg ,




c o m m o n l y c a l l e d ) is a d e t a i le d , w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e w o r k t o
b e c a r r ie d o u t in a b u i l d in g , a n d is a d o c u m e n t d e s i g n e d t o s u p p l e
m e n t t h e in f o r m a t i o n s h o w n u p o n t h e w o r k in g a n d d e t a i l d r a w in g s ,
a n d a s s u c h is m a d e t o f o r m a p a r t o f t h e b u il d in g c o n t r a c t .

No specification can be said to be a good specification unless it

is a t once practical and concise.

Dealing, as it m ust, w ith very-

practical things, and being a guide for the carrying out of actual
work, very complete and experienced technical knowledge is
required in specification writing, otherwise the descriptions m ay
not only prove


but, if not workable,


The pre-em inent requisite of the specification w riter is know

ledge practical
Many a ttem p ts

knowledge of the carrying


constantly being

out of building


even among

architectural practitioners, to create model specifications to

save the exacting labor of w riting s p e g s for each new job, b u t such
models invariably prove unsatisfactory, as every job differs, and,
even though sim ilarity m ay exist, differences of site, aspect, and
minor p arts m ay involve the

sp eg



I t will, therefore, in

practice be found th a t every job requires its

own interpretation.

ow n

sp eg

and its

A speg, be it rem em bered, is in a m arked degree first of all a

docum ent of reference, and as such should be so w ritten th a t any
part m ay be readily found and referred to.

I t is also a docum ent



describing the work of separate trades, and for these reasons

should be particu larly well ordered in grouping, well indexed, and
the whole divided into separate trad es.
Some difference of opinion exists as to the actual grouping and
sequence of the various trades, b u t a safe guide m ay be indicated
by placing a trad e as near as possible in the position it will
occupy in th e actual carrying out of the work.

For example,

bricklayer will come before carpenter, and the roof will be

covered in before the walls are plastered, while the joiners work
will be fitted in tow ards the com pletion of the stru ctural work, and
painting will be a t the very last.

In the spe, therefore, of an

ordinary brick job, some grouping of trades m ay be made as

follows :
Index, Generally, E xcavator,




Carpenter and Joiner, Sm ith and Founder, V entilation (in all

trades), Plasterer, Plum ber, Tiler, Glazier, Electrician, G ashtter,
Bellhanger, P ainter.
For an ordinary tim ber residence th e grouping would work out
som ew hat as follows :
Index, Generally, E xcavator, Bricklayer (for chimneys). Car
penter and Joiner, V entilation (in all trades). Plasterer, Plumber,
Glazier, G ashtter, &c., P ainter.
For all practical purposes a

sp eg

is best h rst drafted on speg

foolscap paper and afterw ards type-w ritten in duplicate.


m ethod allows of the d raft being fully corrected before the fair
copies are m ade, and if properly carried out should leave the hnal
copies perfect and free from all corrections ; it also facilitates the
making of correct duplicate copies, for usually two or more copies
of the s p e g are required for a contract.
Foolscap-sized ruled paper w ith l|- in . left-hand side margin is
best for drafting upon.

This side m argin is very im portant, as it

gives opportunity for every paragraph to be indexed, so th a t by

running the hnger down th e page any item in a tr a d e m ay
readily be picked up.



The size of paper used for typing is a m atter of opinion, b u t

whatever the size adopted the side margins should be clearly kept
as in the draft, and each trade commenced on a new page.

This is

useful for sub-contracting, the work of any trad e being clearly

defined and complete in itself.
Binding up the final

sp eg

in book form w ith a flexible linen

cover and w ith the title lettered on the outside has much to
recomm end it, especially when it is rem em bered w hat a considerable
am ount of rough wear and tear a speg has to sustain in a job
extending over a lengthened period.

For this reason, also, the

})aper used should always be tough and strong.

Top pinning or sewing is sometimes adopted, and allows for
rolling up the short way for pocket carrying, the top left corner
pinning being the m ost convenient.


how ever,

leaves the

edges of the three rem aining corners very much exposed to damage.
The index should be upon the first page of the speg, and the folio
num ber a t the com m encem ent of each division or trade should be
clearly given, such, for example, as Bricklayer, folio 15.
enables any trade to be found a t once.
In writing

sp egs


it is im p o rtan t th a t quiet be secured, and if the

drawings be so pinned up or arranged around so as to be seen

together a t a glance, w ithout overlapping, so much the better.
Spegs should never be w ritten w ithout the drawings.
Some s p e g w riters first prepare a complete list of item s before
commencing to write. Such a plan is a good one, and often
, obviates the danger of leaving out (an error very likely to occur).
I t further has the advantage of enabling the w riter to lay down or
take up the work a t any point, the various item s being m arked off
as they are specified.
To write a s p e g w ithout notes requires a m ost complete know
ledge and m astery of the work, especially to keep the item s in
proper s e q u e n c e .
N eat m arginal sketches are often of great value in speg writing,
and should be freely used to am plify the t e x t ; their only dis



advantage is the labor involved in duplication when copies have to

be made.
In w riting a speg a com m encem ent should be made in Generally
by giving all item s common to the whole work, and in grouping, as
far as possible, any general instruction a t the beginning of the
Each trad e should deal w ith the work in its own trade, beginning
w ith genera] clauses and m aterials, and proceeding to general
descriptions relating to the trade, thence passing on to definite
item s of the work, commencing w ith the least im portant and
working up to the m ost im portant.
SPEg FOR A C o tta g e . As an example of actual specification
writing, the following are



headings required

for a

specification of th e cottage illustrated in C hapter XL, P late TIL, to

the working drawings of which reference should be made, so th a t
the item s m ay be followed :
Following the notes the specification itself is given.
N o te s .Generally.Notices, m aterials

and labor, insurance,

clear site, conditions of contract, d atum and setting out, pro

visional sum, note about position of existing outbuildings, prime



filling, rough


concrete, concrete floors.

M ason. Stone thresholds, verandah curb, sills, slate shelves.
B ricklayer. Bricks, m ortar (lime), m ortar (cement), m ethod of
work, building in fire-places, chimneys, &c., arches, lintels, vents
(all trades).
Car'penter and J^ower.Timber, &c., floors, roofs, louvred vent,
eaves, gable, verandah, lobby door, inside doors, trap door, solid
fram e windows, box fram e windows, window boards, architraves,
skirtings, linings, chim ney pieces, kitchen cupboards, sink top.
Plasterer. Lsiths, stuff,
rough cast.

m ethod,


internal cementing,


Plumber. Valleys,



pipes, flashings,


w ater,

san itary fittings, gas service.

Tiler.Floor tiles, &c., roof tiling.
Painter. Plain painting, flat, varnishing
Glazier. Colored glass, clear leaded, sheet glass.
S'pecification of work to be done and m aterials to be used in the
erection of a Lodge Cottage at New Park for the H on.
Tem plar Lowell.

U nder th e direction of

M r. H a r d w i c k e M a n t o n ,

A rchitect,
Of 2 9 a A ustral Crescent,
Traum land.
Final Note.

Notices.Give notices


m unicipal and



Comply w ith regulations and p ay all fees.

Materials and L a b o r.~ N \\ m aterials used in the carrying out of
these works to be th e best of their several kinds, only the best and
most skilled and approved labor being employed.
Insurance. Insure th e buildings in the nam e of the proprietor in
an approved offlce to the full am ount of contract, and lodge the
receipt w ith the architect.
Clear Site. Clear site from all obstructions, cu t down and grub
up all trees actually upon the area required for building, and take
.instructions and allow for the preservation of surrounding trees
during the tim e the building is being carried on.
Conditions of Coritract.All building works to be executed in
strict accordance w ith the working drawings, specification, the
general conditions of co n tract issued b y th e In stitu te of Architects,
and such other detail drawings as m ay from tim e to tim e be issued
by the architect.
Datum and Setting Out. The level of the finished floor line is
called d atu m . This will be fixed b y the architect upon the site.



and all heights and depths are to be measured from it.


architect will also give a startin g point from which the contractor
will be required to fully and accurately set out the whole of the
work in strict accordance with the drawings.
Provisional S u m .Allow in tender the sum of 15 (fifteen pounds
sterling) for

c o n tin g e n c ie s

to be used for ex tra works (if any) th a t

m ay be ordered in writing by the architect or deducted in whole

or ])art a t completion.
Note. F e n c i n g , p a t h s ,
W a ter

is c a r r ie d

W o r k m e n s



& c .,

a p o in t


e x c lu d e d

ft) f t .

fr o m

th is

c o n tr a c t.

f r o m t h e p ro])O sed b u ild in g .

a n d c o n v e n i e n c e s a r e a ls o a v a i la b l e .

The surface drainage m ust be conveyed to a point 30 ft. from

the N .E . corner of the building, where it will connect with old
Fuel store,

la u n d r y ,

W.C., ike.,,


allowed for in existing

P y ^ c g g _ _ P r ic e s

quoted for goods, &c., are to be taken as

o r d in a r y

trade prices delivered on works.




Digging, cfcc. E xcavate all trenches to the full depths and widths
shown upon the drawings, and to any greater depths which may
be ordered by the architect.

Such ex tra depths (if any) to be

valued by the arclutect and paid for a t current rates.

All trenches to be trim m ed, levelled, stepped, and kept dry, and
no concrete to be placed m them until

th ey

have been inspected

and passed by the architect.

E xcav ate for gas and w ater services, surface drains, & c .
Fill in earth and well ram around foundations and where re(piired.

K eep space under floors free from debris.

Wheel and

spread superfluous earth near the site, and remove all rubbish th a t
m a y fr o m tim e t o tim e a c c u m u la te a s th e w o r k p r o c e e d s, a n d le a v e

premises clean a t completion.



F illing.Fill in w ith dry, well-ram med earth under all tiled floor
Asphalt.Lay under all wooden floors, upon the natural surface
of the ground, a 3-in. thick bed of dry, sharp, clean gravel, well
ram m ed and top-coated w ith tar.
Concrete. The concrete for foundations to be composed of three
p arts of 2-in. gauge hand-broken granite, one p a rt of |-in . gauge
granite screenings, two p arts of clean, sharp, approved sand, one
p a rt of best A ustralian P o rtlan d cem ent of an approved brand.
Concrete to be m ixed upon clean wooden floor and m aterials
measured in gauge boxes.
The m aterial to be well turned over dry, gradually w atered with
fine spray w atering ; turned over twice wet, placed in trenches to
the widths and depths shown and figured

on drawings, well

ram m ed, levelled off, and left to harden before brickw ork is com
Lay under all floors and h earth tiles a d-in. thick bed of concrete
gauged as above but w ith two p arts of screenings and two p arts
of 2-in. granite.
M A S ON .

Stone.All stone to

be best


bluestone, rough

punched on beds and joints, and p a te n t fine axed on all exposed

surfaces, set in cem ent m ortar.
Thresholds.The two outside doors to have thresholds 9 in.
.longer th a n openings, full w idth of wall and thickness equal to
two courses of brickwork, holed a t ends for iron dowels from door
Verandah Curb.V erandah curb to be 11 in. by

in., the front

portion in four lengths and the side portion in one, ends dowelled
together w ith 1-in. galvanized iron gas pipe.
Outside steps to be same as thresholds and of lengths shown.
Back stair coping to be of lOJ-in. by d-in. rounded on top bluestone.



S ills.-Window sills to be 13 in. by 6^ in. by 9 in. longer than

openings, having | in. rebate to receive wood sills, and weathering
therefrom to outside edge, w ith throating underneath beyond wall.
Both sills and steps to be bedded a t ends only, the intervening
portion being left free and pointed up a t end of contract.
Slate Shelves. Pin into wall, and connect by joggles, three rows
of 1j-in . rubbed M intaro slate shelves in pantry.

B ricks. The first picked quality, m achine made, steam pressed,

and H ofim an kiln b u rn t bricks by an approved m aker to be used.
Those for foundations to be specially hard.

The outside faces

to be of picked bricks of uniform color and good arrises.

Lim e M ortar.Sand for m ortar to be thoroughly clean, waterwashed creek sand, coarse, of good grit, and free from all earthy
or vegetable m atter.
Lime to be freshly b u rn t and of approved kind.
The lime for lime m o rtar to be slaked in a mixing box and run
through a fine sieve, and m ixed w ith sand in the proportion of one
p a rt of lime to two and a half of sand, well knocked up, and left
in large heaps fourteen days before use.
Cement M ortar. Cement m ortar to have one p art of A ustralian
P o rtla n d cem ent of an approved bran d to three p arts of sand,
always used fresh.
Method. k \\ foundations up to underside of ground floor plates
to be b u ilt in cem ent m ortar.

All external walls to be hollow,

w ith a 2^-in. cavity, tie d together every fourth course with wall
ties consisting of No. 8 galvanized fencing wire, bent oval-wise,
9 in. long and 3 in. wide, laid across the cavity every 30 in. apart
Allow also for lengths of galvanized hoop iron at window sill
level thro u g h o u t the work, one stran d to each half brick in the
thickness of all walls, lapped and riv etted a t junctions, and turned
up and down a t ends into th e work.



Carry up all the walls sim ultaneously with bricks set horizontal
and plum b, every joint being well flushed up and grouted in quite
solid with m ortar.

The outside joints to be finished w ith a ruled

cut and down struck joint, and all perpends to be carefully kept.
Carry up gable wall at back of half-tim bering in 9-in. work in
English bond.
Building I n . Allow for solidly building in all door and window
frames, &c.
Fire-places, Chimneys, &c. Build fire-places as shown.

Those to

beds 1 and 2 and living to be set w ith sem icircular glazed

brick arches, and the openings lined to height of 3 ft. 3 in. above
floor with special bricks to m atch, all to be selected.

Form brick

hobs and dished back h earth w ith special fireclay bricks set in
fireclay. Allow in tender the to ta l sum of 10 (ten pounds
sterling) for these special bricks, and fix same.
Form Id-in. wide jam b to these fire-places, and carry up from
each a 9-in. by 9-in. flue, sm ooth rendered inside w ith stiff m ortar
and cowdung, gathered over to check down draught.


to detail w ith two courses of selected molded

bricks, with special-made external angles, all set in cem ent m ortar.
Set selected pot to each flue a t 8s. each, and w eather around in
cem ent m ortar. Leave top of stack for p lasterer.
The kitchen to have a selected range, for which allow the sum of
10 (ten pounds sterling), and fix and set same solidly according to
directions, together w ith hot w ater boiler, flues, &c.
. Carry opening a t height of 4 ft. from floor upon a 3-in. by 2-in.
R .S .J. and line 9 in. all round openings and all around visible
parts a t back of range w ith best A ustralian-m ade white-glazed
bricks, those to jam bs being bull-nosed.
Arc/ics. All external openings to have cut, rubbed, and gauged
arches set with fine joints in cem ent and carried each on 2-in.
by :^-in. wrought-iron bars, turn ed up and down 44 in. a t each end
into the walling.
Lintels. All openings to doors and windows inside and lintel in



passages to have coke concrete lintels, com pounded of one p a rt of

cem ent to one p a rt of sand and two p arts of f-in. gauge coke
washed free from dust.

Each lintel to be full thickness of work,

9 in. longer th a n opening, and equal to three courses of brickwork

in height.
Vents. Take instructions from architect as to position of vents.
Allow for leaving drau g h t holes under floors in all internal walls for
the free circulation of air.
Allow for and fix No. 8, 9-in. by 6-in. terra-co tta wall face vents
in outside walls to ventilate under floors, w ith mouse-proof wire a t

Allow for a v en t near ceiling through outer wall of each

ap artm e n t having a 9-in. by 6-in. through cavity lined with a close

boxing of 24-gauge galvanized sheet-iron, and fitted outside with
9-in. by 6-in. te rra -c o tta wall faces and on inside with m etal valve
vents and cords a t 5s. 6d. each.



Timber, &c.All tim ber used to be the best of its kind, sound
and well seasoned and free from all defects, cut, secured, and fitted
together in the best and m ost workm anlike m anner.
All woodwork exposed to view to be hand wrought to one even,
sm ooth surface throughout.
Floors.W ood floors to have 4 |-in . by IJ-in. jarrah plates and
5-in. b y 3-in. jarrah bearers.

Joists to be of 4-in. by 2-in. h ard

wood, spaced 18 in. a p a rt centres, covered in kitchen with 4-in. by

1-in. T. and G. jarrah flooring, and in all other apartm ents with
6-in. by 1^-in. T. and G. Queensland pine flooring, all well cram ped
up and well nailed w ith two oval nails to each intersection of
joists well punched in. 4-in. wide m itred margins to hearths.
Jloof. Build th e roof of Oregon tim ber, w ith the following

R afters 4-in. by 2-in., 18 in. ap a rt centres, with 4-in.

by IJ-in. collar to each pair of rafters ; ridges, hips, and valleys

10-in. by l^-in. ; wall plates on outside of outer walls 4J-in. by
3-in., on inside walls 4 |-in . by 1-in. ; ceiling joists 4-in. by 2-in. ;



bridge over centre of each room with 9-in. by l^-in. hanging beam on
edge, hung to each joist w ith 1^-in. by 1-in. fillets nailed to sides.
Trim around chimneys, &c., in tim bers one inch thicker th a n
other tim bers.

Valley boards 9-in. b y 1 in.

Louvred Vent. Form a louvred vent in roof where shown w ith

redwood, having 5-in. by 4-in fram e and w eather sills, and 1-in.
thick steeply set louvre blades, housed in and guarded a t back
with :^-in. mesh galvanized bird wire.

Carry out tim bers to take

barge 7 in. beyond frame, and line soffit w ith ^-in. thick T. and G.
and beaded boarding, barge to be 9 in. by 1^ in., w ith 3-in. b y
] |-in . mold under tiles.
Eaves.Eaves to be of redwood, cased in w ith 4-in. by |-in .
T. and G. and V -jointed soffit lining, and having 9-in. by 1-in.
fascia, w ith 2-in. q u arter round mold under spouting.
quarter round in all angles.


Gable.Plug walls of gable, and after first coat of plaster fix on

surface fram ed-up half-tim bering, consisting of 11-in. by 2-in. out
beam, 5-in. by 2-in. uprights, and 7-in. by 2-in. rafter pieces, all
framed and wood-pinned together.

Carry out ridge, wall plates,

also short 3-in. by 2-in. jacks, and carry 12-in. by 2-in. barge, w ith
3-in. by 2-in. mold under tiles.

Line soffit same as eaves.

There will be a pair of 4J-in. by 3-in. fram ed-up brackets, with

4^-in. by 3-in. pieces b uilt into walls. All to detail.
Verandah. Carry general roof down to form verandah, and line
underside with boarding same as eaves.

Posts to be 6-in. by 6-in.

turned clean jarrah, dowelled a t foot each w ith 1-in. galvanized

iron gas pipe into stone curb, 6-in. by 3-in. brackets next walls,
built in with 4-in. bolts.

Mold m itred around p o s t ; 14-in. thick

curtain boards, cut to shape, and fixed to 9-in. by 3-in. redwood

top plate. All to detail.
D o o r s . Front

Boor.F ro n t door to have a

rebated and rounded on

transom and side sill.

-in. by 3-in. solid

outside frame, and 4-in. thick molded



The fram e to be dowelled to stone same as verandah posts, and

to have cleats nailed to sides for building into cavity.
Door to be a 3-ft. by b-ft. 10-in. by 2-|-iri. thick skeleton-framed
door, upper panel in molded sash bars, w ith slips for glass, lower
portion sheathed fair both sides w ith 4-in. by |-in . T. and G. and
V -jointed boarding.

Small stop mold on both sides of lock rail.

Side light to m atch, and w ith 2j-in. molded fixed sash ; 2-|--in.
molded fanlight over door in two parts, larger p a rt hung with a
pair of 3-in. butts, and fitted.
Ironm ongery, 30s.

Door hung with three 4-in. butts.

All to detail.

Lobby Door. Back lobby door to have d itto fram e ; door 2 ft.
10 in. by fi ft. 10 in. by If in., in three panels, upper panel in slips
for glass.

Small quarter round insertion molds throughout.


door as above. Ironm ongery, 20s.

Inside Doors. Inner doors to be hung to 1^-in. thick red deal
jamb linings, with J-in. thick stops planted on.

Doors other than

p a n try doors each to be 2-ft. 8-in. by fi-ft. 8-in. by l|--in. fourpanelled, double-m olded Queensland hoop pine doors, hung each
with three 4-in. butts, and fitted with m ortice locks.


12s ])er door.

P a n try door to be a 2-ft. 3-in. by fi-ft. fi-in. by Ij-in . twopanelled ditto, hung w ith two 3-in. butts.

Ironm ongery, 5s. fid.

Door. Arrange for and fit in ceiling of kitchen a small

tra p door to approval, to give access to roof.

W IN D O W S .

SloW Frame W indow.

S.W. window of living

room to be of redwood, having a 5-in. by 4-in. solid rebated and

stop-m olded and circular-headed outside frame, supported 2-|- in.
upon th e brickwork, and receiving a t sides a |-in . thick inside lining.
Sill to be 5 in. thick, w eathered and molded, and with a pair of
small molded brackets under.
Sashes to be
in. thick, in slips for leaded glass, hung each with
a pair of 3-in. brass butts. Ironm ongery, 12s.
Box-framed W indows. All other windows to be of red deal.


except sills, which are to be of redwood.


All to have box frames

and 1-in. in and outside cases, l;^-in. pulley styles, slips, tongues,
&c., and 2 |-in . molded sashes, double hung w ith best Italian hemp
lines through brass-bushed axle pulleys to iron weights, and fitted
with ironm ongery a t 3s. 6d. per window.
Window Boards.All windows to have 2-in. molded window
boards tongued into sills and projecting beyond architraves, w ith
small mold under.
Architraves. All internal doors and windows to have 6-in. by
If-in. molded to detail Queensland hoop pine architraves, m itred
a t angles, and with molded skirting blocks.
Shirtings.Skirting to be fixed to narrow red deal grounds
plugged to walls.

F it around walls of kitchen a 4-in. by 1-in.

rounded on top board as skirting.

F it around all other apartm ents

other th an bathroom 11-in. by ^--in. molded and double-faced

Queensland hoop pine skirting.
Linings.Line ceilings of verandah, p an try , lobby, bath, and
back portion of passage w ith 4-in. by 4-in. T. and G. and V-jointed
jarrah lining, finished around w ith small quarter-round mold.
Chimney-Pieces.Allow the to ta l sum of 15 (fifteen pounds
sterling) for three selected chimney-pieces, and fix same.
F it kitchen fire-place w ith a 9-in. by l|- in . m antelshelf, supported
on a pair of 2-in. by ^-in. w rought-iron screwed-up knees.
Kitchen Cupboard. Allow the sum of 3 for cupboard fittings in
Top.Carry sink top on 24-in. by 2 |-in . jarrah legs and
4-in. by l|--in. rails and form top of clean kauri in one w idth, with
hole cut out for sink, rounded nosings, and channelled way to fall
to sink.

Ta^4s.L ath the ceiling of beds 1, 2, and 3, living room,

kitchen, and passage with colonial narrow -cut laths, fixed w ith
18-in. breaks and well nailed.



Allow for plastering all internal walls, excepting only those

specified to be cemented.
S tu ff. All lime s tu b to lie a t least 14 days before being used.
Sand to be clean and sharp.
kind, ru n and sifted.

Lime freshly b u rn t and of approved

All plastering to be done in three-coat work.

The first coat (rendering) to be composed of three p arts of sand,
one p a rt of lime, and a fair q u a n tity of long, well-beaten cowhair.
The second coat (floating) to have four p arts of sand, one part
of lime, and a sm all q u a n tity of cowhair.
The th ird coat (setting) to be com pounded of four p arts of lime
p u tty to one p a rt of plaster of paris.
M ethod.The first coat on lath s to be well squeezed to form
good key, walls to be well w etted before plaster is p u t on.


first coat to be well scratched before the second coat is p u t on, and
the final coat laid thin, sm ooth, even, and perfectly white and
Angles.E x te rn a l angles to be backed in 2 in. on each side
w ith P o rtlan d cem ent and sand 3 to 1, and finished smoothly in
pure K eens cem ent.
External Cementing. Cement walls of kitchen, pantry, and bath
in tw o-coat work.

F irst coat to have four p arts of washed sand

to one p a rt of P o rtlan d cem ent.

F irst coat gauged with


of fine sand to one p a rt of cem ent, steel trowelled to h ard face.

Rough Cast.R ough casting to gable to have a first coat of
haired stuff m ixed w ith small q u an tity of cement.

Second coat of

tw o p arts of clean ironstone gravel to one of cement, throw n on.


Sheet M etal.All sheet iron to be galvanized, skilfully worked

up, double riv etted and double soldered a t all joints, and with
4-in. end laps ; left free as far as possible for expansion.



Valleys. Lay valleys w ith 24-gauge galvanized sheet iron, bent

to shape, 16 in. wide.
Sfouting. E aves



be special-made

spouting out of 5-in. by 4-in. 22-gauge.


Secured in position every

30 in. with special-m ade galvanized w rought-iron clips out of

Ij-in . by ^-in. iron, screwed to fascias and clipping over front of
spouting. Screw back of spouting every 18 in. w ith galvanized
screws and lead washers.
Down Pi'pes.Allow for four stacks of down pipes and short
lengths from upper to lower eaves.

All 3-in. diam eter, out of

22-gauge, and w ith swan-neck bends a t eaves, and rounded shoe

pieces, secured to walls w ith galvanized w rought-iron wall hooks,
soldered to spouting, and fitted a t top w ith conical galvanized wire
Flashings.All flashings to be of 4 lbs. milled sheet lead,
properly cut, stepped, and aproned, and secured into joints of
work with lead wedges, afterw ards pointed up in cement.
In this way, wide flash around a t junction of roof covering w ith
chimneys, roof with walls, louvred sill w ith roof, and wherever else
Water.Lay on from the existing service (which is situated
40 ft. from the bathroom ) w ith J-in. galvanized welded tubing to
two points in b a th , also to lav ato ry and sink.

Allow for all

necessary bends, elbows, tees, and fix same in m ost secure m anner,
and connect to taps.
Sanitary Fittings.Allow for selected b ath , shower, taps, and
b ath trap, plug chains, &c., a t 12 (twelve pounds sterling), and
carry a 2-in. galvanized welded tu b e waste to discharge into drain
just outside wall.
Allow for selected lav ato ry basin

lead P tra p w ith


inspection screws, brass coupling, nickel plug chain, nickel pillar

tap, &c., a t 5 (five pounds sterling), and carry a l^-in. lead
waste to discharge outside of wall.
Allow for selected porcelain sink w ith brass plug and chain, 2-in.



lead tra p w ith brass couplings and inspection screw, and nickel
pillar ta p a t 6 (six pounds sterling), and carry lead waste to
discharge outside wall into surface drain.
Allow for all necessary plum bers work in wiped joints, screw
couplings, wall hooks, &c., to the above.
Gas Service. Allow for 50 ft. lineal of |-in . galvanized welded
tubing, and connect to th e existing acetylene gas plant. Bring this
pipe underground, and allow th roughout the building a J-in. black
iron pipe service to nine points in house, all well out of sight and
properly secured.

Allow the sum of 15 (fifteen pounds sterling)

for selected gas burners and gas fittings, and fix same.

Test and

leave gas-proof a t completion.


Floor Tiles, &c.Lay floors of verandah, pantry, b a th , lobby,

and kitchen h earth w ith selected tiles a t 8s. per yard super.


three other h earths d itto a t 15s. each hearth, and majolica curbs at
20s. each hearth.
All surfaces to be well w etted before tiles are laid. Tiles th em
selves soaked in w ater and set w ith full body of cement m ortar ;
close fitted, cu t to m atch and p a tte rn ; cleaned off with sawdust.
Curbs to be fortified with large galvanized nails filled and set in
cem ent.
Roof T iling. CoYev the whole of the roof with Marseilles pattern
tiles of an approved A ustralian-m ade brand, all close set to true
horizontal lines, cleanly cut and fitted where required, and laid each
upon 2-in. b y 1-in. and 1-in. by 1-in. mild Oregon battening, nailed
to rafters receiving stout copper wiring from each tile.
Cover hips w ith plain terra-co tta hipping, and the ridges with
plain up and down d itto ridging.
Allow th e to ta l sum of 50s. (fifty shillings) for three selected
finials, and set same.

Bed all in haired cem ent m ortar and point

up in colored cem ent stopping.




Prim e the whole of the wrought woodwork th roughout the

building in a good coat of pure red lead and raw oil.

Stop all

defects, nail-holes, &c., with p u tty , and afterw ards pain t in four
good coats of pure white lead and genuine oil, and pigm ent colors
to finish in selected tints.

R ub down after each coat, and leave

the final clean, level, and perfect.

Paint all spouting, down pipes, &c., in two good coats.
Paint rough cast a warm buff with two coats of approved cold
water paint.

Colored Glass. Glaze front door sidelights and fanlights in

colored leaded glass to design, a t bs. per super ft.
Clear Leaded Glass. Glaze S.W. window of living room in 2J-oz.
sheet glass in lead.
Sheet.Glaze all other windows with best English IG-oz. sheet
glass, well sprigged in and puttied.


W aiting upon and Cleaning. Allow for one trade waiting upon
and m aking good after the other, also for cleaning down tiles,
walling, and m asonry, if discolored, with dilute m uriatic acid and
clean water.
Remove all p ain t from floors or glass.
Twice scrub and wash-up all floors, and leave premises perfect
and ready for occupation on completion.

General conditions of contract,

containing item s affecting the carrying out of the work and dealing
C o n d itio n s


C o n tr a c t.

with m atters which may arise during the term of th e contract, such
as are not specially allowed for in the speg or in the drawings, are
generally attached to the spe%.

Such conditions are issued by the



various In stitu te s of A rchitects, and contain such items as the

following :
1. In te rp re ta tio n of spep and drawings.
2. Price and am ount of paym ents.
3. Setting out of works.
4. Compliance w ith local Acts.
5. Insurance upon the building.
6. Time in which to build.
7. Clerk of W orks.
8. P la n t and property.
9. Access to works.
10. R em oval of defective work.
11. Subletting of the work.
12. Penalties for overtime.
13. A rbitration in case of disputes.
14. A lterations, extras, and final measurem ents.
15. R e tu rn of drawings.
16. Space for signatures of contractor, proprietor, and witnesses.
Q u a n tity

T a k i n g . A fter

com pletion



architect of

working drawings and specifications for a proposed building, it is

usual to call for tenders.
This m ay be done by asking a lim ited num ber of reputable
builders upon a given day and tim e to send in a price, or the more
comm on m ethod of advertising in the daily press m ay be adopted,
the form er being called private tendering and the latter public

In a few cases work is carried out by day labouri.e.,

by employing workm en by the day or piece to carry on the work

under personal supervision.
I n tendering th e co n tracto rs chief business is to form an exact
estim ate of th e class and am ount of work to be done.

In works

of any considerable size, bills of q u a n titie s are prepared and

issued to the builders.

These are priced item by item, and the

to tal is handed in to the architect as the am ount of the tender.



In smaller jobs each builder is usually given a night in which to

take ofi his own quantities, or he m ay be allowed facilities in the
arch itects office to see the drawings and specifications during the
day, for the purpose of preparing an estim ate.
A bill of quantities is a docum ent prepared by a q u an tity
surveyor, and is arranged so as to show a t a glance the actual
am ount of each separate kind of m aterial required or character of
work to be done in th e various trades.
The preparation of quantities is the legitim ate m ethod em ployed
in the best practice, not only for the purpose of obtaining tenders,
b u t also for checking and adjusting variations, such as alterations,
deductions, or additions to th e work actually carried out, as the
bill of quantities, having the prices extended item by item into the
money column, forms a valuable basis of ad ju stm en t a t the end of
the job.
Q uantity surveyors m ethods differ som ewhat in the various
States, b u t effort is usually m ade to so produce the bill as to show
each item in the m anner it is generally dealt w ith by the builder,
so as to facilitate both clear understanding and ready pricing.
There are three processes in q u a n tity takingfirstly, the
taking o f f ; secondly, the abstracting; and thirdly, the



consists in

actually measuring,


means of the scale and by the aid of th e in terp retation of the

specification, the quan tity , p a rt by p a rt and piece by piece, of each
class of work in the job, entering them upon specially ruled paper,
usually spaced in four columns, the first containing the times-ing
or num ber of tim es the dimension will repeat, the second the
dimensions, the th ird the result of the squaring, and the fourth
(the widest) for the description of th e item.
A bstracting is the second operation, and consists of arranging
the item s in the various trades under their various headings, and
in certain relative positions.
Billing is the final process, whereby the finished bill is draw n up,
and where the collected item s from the ab stracts are arranged in



their proper order, and w ith their full descriptions added, to enable
th e builder to place his prices against them , and to price them out
in the m oney columns.
R ough Q uantity T aking .If quantities are not supplied each
builder adopts his own m ethod of estim ating, and as the tim e at
th e disposal of each tenderer is always very lim ited, this method of
q u a n tity taking m ust needs be more or less speculative,


depends for its success, in a very large measure, upon the exper
ience of th e builder w ith the carrying out of work of a similar
No stan d ard can here be laid down for such rough quantity
taking, b u t b y referring to the drawings of the large suburban
villa upon P la te IV., Chapter IV., as a type, a usual m ethod of
item izing such a job m ay be here given.

From the outset the

specification m ust be closely followed, and the items taken as they

occur in th e speg, so th a t nothing is missed.
Commencing w ith Generally, all item s therein contained th a t
need allowing for, such as fees, insurance, provisional sum, clearing
site, &c., are noted.
I n Excavator the digging and removing is taken a t per yard cube,
as also th e laying in of concrete to trenches and under floors or
h earth tiles.
P ath s a t per super, yard.
Stone steps, thresholds, copings and verandah
curbing are described and tak en a t per foot lineal.
I n B r ic k la y e r The whole of the brickwork is taken a t per rod,
usually over all openings, which allows for arches, bars,


building, &c., w ith an extra superficial m easurem ent if special

jointing or tuckpointing is used to certain visible surfaces.
Hollow and solid walls are tak en separately.
Fire-places and chimneys are tak en w ith general brickwork.
Chim ney-pots are taken a t so m uch each, w ith the cost of fixing



Overhead concrete lintels to bays, &c., a t per cube yard.

Vents through walls a t so m uch each, including everything.
G rates.M ention lum p sum given in speg, m ention num ber, and
allow ex tra for fitting.
D itto, kitchen range.
Copper. Item .

A dd for fire-box, door, dam per, and copper

Surface drains a t per foot lineal.
In Carpenter. Floors m ay be tak en com plete, including plates,
bearers, joists, and flooring, a t per square (10 ft. by 10 ft. super).
Special polished flooring k ep t separate.
Roofs m ay be taken a t per square, exclusive of covering, and
ceilings a t per square, or hips, valleys, ridges, hanging beams, and
similar larger tim bers m ay be tak en off separately and the residue
Eaves can be tak en a t per foot run, and described, exclusive of
Gables. Take out am ount of tim ber, add labor.
Rents.D itto.
V erandah posts a t so m uch each.
also frieze. Ceiling a t per square.

B alustrades a t per foot lineal,

Tower.Take off tim ber, add labor, especially for circular work.
W indows. O rdinary a t so m uch each fixed, including archi
traves, window boards, fastenings, glass, &c.
per super, foot.

Special windows at

Bays. At per foot super, over all as received from joiners shop.
Add for fittings and fixing and glass.
Doors. O rdinary, according to class, including linings, stops,
and architraves, locks, furniture, &c., a t so m uch each.
Special doors, such as front door, same as bays.
Glass screen in p an try a t per foot super.
Finishings, such as skirtings, picture molds, &c., describe and
take a t per foot lineal.
Shelving a t per foot super., including brackets.



W ash troughs a t per set.

Add for stands.

Bay seat a t per foot super.

A dd for stand.

Sink to p . D itto.
K itchen dresser. Item .
Scullery sink. Item .
Boards to front of fuel a t per super, foot.

Add labor.

Bedroom cupboard m ay be tak en as item.

Three wood grilles a t so m uch each fixed.
Chimney-pieces. Take price allowed in speg.

Add fixing.

Woodwork to low tower, complete, ready for plumber.

Take off

each item and add for circular and curved work.

Fencing.Side paling from description a t per foot lineal, as also
back, w ith item for gates and gate posts.
F ro n t picket fencing also a t per foot lineal, and add for gates
and posts.
I n Plasterer.Cement wall surfaces, ordinary plaster or brick
P laster on laths, such as to ceilings, each separate, a t per yard
super., and describe the finish.
R u n cornices a t per foot lineal, m entioning girth.
In tern al plaster face vents a t so m uch each, fixed.
Outside plain cem enting a t per super, yard.
R ough cast ditto.
R un molds a t per foot lineal, m entioning girth, and counting
Pressed enrichm entsdescribe, give over all size, and item to
be purchased from shop modeller.

Add for fixing.

Coloring cem ent a t per super, yard.

Fibre ceilings to hall, diningroom, drawingroom, and best bed
room, w ith cornices, item m entioned in

sp eg

for work fixed by

th e firm supplying same.

I n Plum ber.Roof plum bing, such as sheet-iron valleys, eaves,
spouting, and down pipes, a t per foot lineal.
Tower roof copper by w e ig h t; add labor, finial, and fixing.



Water S u p p ly.Take m ain connection and labor of tapping the

m ain and of fixing m eter.

Pipe a t per foot ru n ; add ex tra per

Flashings to roof, &c., and lead floor to bathroom a t per c w t.;
add labor.
Sewerage connections pipes of various classes a t per foot lineal,
w ith price given in speg for all fittings, such as bath, lavatory,
W.C. pans, traps, seats, cisterns, &c.
taps, &c., a t so m uch each.

Traps, cowls, storage tan k ,

A dd fixing to ordinary price to be

paid for each article.

I n Tiler. Tiles on roof, including b atten s and copper nailed, a t
per square.

Ridging a t per foot lineal, according to class.


a t so much each, m entioned in speg, and add for fixing.

Tiles for walls and floors a t per super, y ard a t price given for
tile s ; add for cem ent and sand and labor in fixing.

M ention

w hether on walls or floors.

Tiled hearths, if m entioned in speg a t so m uch each for tiles,
may be tak en ditto, or as item s.

M ajolica curbs a t so much each,

and add for sand and cem ent and nails and fixing.
In Glazier. Class, if n o t tak en w ith doors or windows, m ay
be taken separately. Special glass, such as M uranese or leaded
glass, a t per foot super. Add fixing.
I n Electrician.I t is usual to obtain price from electrician for
bell work, or allow so m uch per point and add price allowed in
speg for presses, &c.
In GasfitterTake pipe a t per ft. lineal, and add cost of
fittings. Add also for fitting a t per point.

Painter.P ainting according to class, w hether varnished,

flatted, or ordinary, a t per super, yard. Windows m ay be num bered

or apartm ents m ay be tak en and averaged.
Washing Out.Scrubbing floors, cleaning windows,
away rubbish, and preparing for occupation, items.
P r o fit .A percentage upon the whole.




Cu b bin g . A m ethod of rough estim ating often adopted by

architects is to cube up a proposed building from the drawings.
This consists of m easuring the cubical contents of the building and
pricing it a t so m uch per cube foot, according to the character of
the work.
The dimensions are usually tak en from the bottom of the
foundations to

half-way up roof, m ultiplied by the length and

b read th of the masses.

The product m ay th en be m ultiplied by a

pricesay in the case of an ordinary villa a t perhaps 6d. per cube

foot, or 4d. if th e building be of wooden structure, or from 8d. to
Is. if p a rtly of stone and of special finish.
I t m ust be d istinctly understood th a t such a m ethod of estim at
ing can only be approxim ate, and the price per cube foot a t which
the work is calculated can only be determ ined from experience of
sim ilar work erected under sim ilar conditions.
Some such rough m ethod is also a t tim es made by taking the
super, area of a building and pricing it a t so much per square.
P r icin g .No a tte m p t can here be made to offer suggestions for
pricing builders work.

This branch of practice can only be under

tak en b y men engaged closely in dealing with actual building, who,

in addition, stu d y narrow ly both the m aterial and labor markets-factors th a t are constantly changing, and factors, too, th a t require
to be applied to each new work w ith fresh regard to each peculiar

-~ J ^ ^ O /n

R T as a refining influence finds its best embodiment in Artistic Home Surroundings. But while
the best works of sculpture and of painting are denied to most of us as our own possessions,
owing to their costliness, yet an Artistic Home Interior we may all have, however modest our means.

come in patterns of tfie truest artistic worth, plainly^stamped m steel panels, and their cost is so small that
one can hardly conceive how. in prew mt-day homes, the plain plaster c e ih n , ,s longer s u @ e ^
L e t us send
you a free copy of our brochure " B E A U T IF U L H O M E S - its perusal will interest and educate you,


A c e ty le n e , 481
A rc h s u p p o rts , 245
A rc h e s, 241
in b ric k w o rk , 240
A r c h ite c tu r a l d ra w in g , e q u ip m e n t,
9 -1 1

le sso n in , 12
o r n a m e n t in d e sig n ,
3 8 -4 1
A rc h itra v e s , 406
A s p h a lt fla ts . 435
A sy lu m s, 150
A u s tr a lia n re q u ire m e n ts , 3
B a c te ria l ta n k
s ew e ra g e , 451
B alco n ie s, 360
B a n k s , 107
B a th , 448
h e a te r s , 464
B e a m s , s te e l. 300
B ells, 483
,, e le c tric . 4 8 3 -4 8 5
B o lts , 390
B o n d in b ric k w o rk , E n g lis h , 232
F le m is h , 237
s tr e tc h e r , 237
c o lo n ia l. 237
g a rd e n w all, 237
h o o p -iro n , 237
b a r-ir o n , 238
B ric k la y e r s m e m o ra n d a , 250
B ric k s, c o m m o n , 221
s p e c ia l m a d e , 221
fix in g , 280
B ric k w o rk , b o n d in see B o n d
te c h n ic a l te rm s , 231
w a llin g m e th o d s , 231
b o n d , 2 3 2 -2 3 8
h o llo w w alls, 238
jo in tin g , 238
fo o tin g s, 239
p ro je c tio n s , 240
o p e n in g s in, 240
fire -p la c e s, 246
flues. 246
b u ild in g in in , 247
w ith s to n e d re s sin g s , 248
in speg, 522
in c e m e n t d re s sin g s , 248
a n d m a s o n r y , 276
fu rn a c e , 249
c le a n in g d o w n , 250

B u t t e r fa c to rie s , 132
C a m b e r b a rs , 245
C a r p e n tr y , 316
jo in ts in , 320
te m p o r a r y , 331
in speg, 524
C a rv in g , s to n e , 264
C asin g s, 405
to m a s o n r y , 276
p r o te c tiv e , 331
s a n it a r y fittin g , 408
C e m e n t, p re s se d , 491
C e m e n tin g , e x te rn a l, 490
in te r n a l, 492
C e n te r in g to a rc h e s , 245, 332
C h im n e y -p ie c e s , 409
C h im n e y -p o ts , 298
C h im n e y s, 246
C h u rc h e s , 156
ta b le o f sizes, 161

e q u ip m e n t, 162
d e sig n e x a m p le s , 164
C is te rn h e a d s , 429
C lo se ts, p a n , 451
C olor, v a lu e o f in d e sig n , 29
C o lo rin g d ra w in g s , 11
C o n c re te , m ix in g , 219
re c ip e s, 2 2 0

in speg, 520
b u ild in g , 278
m o n o lith ic , 278
in b lo c k s, 279

co k e, 279
fix in g b ric k s , 280
flo o r, 2 8 0
re in fo rc e d , 280
C o n tra c ts , c o n d itio n s of, 531
C o o lin g a p a r t m e n t a ir, 444
C o p in g s, 248
C o rru g a te d iro n , in ro o fs, 412
ta b le of, 416
C o tta g e s , b u s h , 61
w o rk m a n s, 66
C o u n try h o u se s, sm all, 55
la rg e , 76
b u n g a lo w , 89
C ow ls, 441, 442
C u p b o a rd s, 408
D a m p c o u rse s, 239
w a lls, 511
D e c o ra tin g , 5 0 4 -5 0 7

D e sig n , s ty le in , 35

s k y lin e , 38
o r n a m e n t, 3 8 -4 1
D is te m p e r in g , 498

o ld , 514
D o o r fra m e s , 376
D o o rs , 375
lo d g e d a n d b ra c e d , 380
fr a m e d , 1. a n d b ., 380

s h e a th o d , 380
4 -p a n o lle d , 383
b e a d a n d b u t t , 384
c a s e m e n t, 387
m a in e n tr a n c e , 387
fly w ire , 388
t r a p , 388
iro n m o n g e r y fo r, 389
D o w n p ip e s, 428
s tr a in e r s , 429
D ra in a g e , d e e p , 452
D ra in s , o p e n b ric k , 249
D ra w in g , o ld e x a m p le s , 5
b o a rd s , 9
p a p e r , 10

d e ta ils , 24
tr a c in g , 24
d u p lic a tin g , 26
m o u n tin g , 26
p e rs p e c tiv e , 27
D re ss in g s , s to n e , 248

c e m e n t. 248
E le c tr ic e n e rg y , 4 7 0 -4 7 2
lig h tin g , 4 7 2 -4 7 9
b ells, 483
E x c a v a to r , in spog. 520
F a ie n c e , 293
F e n c in g , w ire , 3 6 4

close, 367
p ic k e t, 368
F ir e - p la c e s , 2 4 6
F it tin g s , 407
F ix in g b ric k s , 2 8 0
w o o d w o rk , 326
F la s h in g s , 434, 435
F la ts , 4 3 0
F la ts , a s p h a lt, 435
F lo o rs , c o n c re te , 280
w o o d , 332
fire -p ro o f, 280
m a in ta in in g , 513
F lu e s , sm o k e , 246
v e n t, 247
F o u n d a tio n s , b a d , 2 1 8
n o rm a l, 2 1 9
F u r n a c e s , b ric k w o rk to , 249
F u r n is h in g , g e n e ra lly , 185
h o u se , 188
F u r n itu r e fo r d o o rs , 390

G a b le s, h a lf-tim b e r , 351
G a rd e n in g , g e n e ra lly , 198

h o u se , 199
G a rd e n s , p la n s of, 209
G a s fo r p o w er, 468
lig h tin g , 479
,, s e rv ic e to v illa , 480
,, a c e ty le n e , 481
w ood, 483
G a te s , c a r t, 368
w ic k e t, 371
sm all, 371
G a u g e o f m e ta l, 446
G la zier, in speg, 531
G la zin g , 501
G ra in in g , 506
G rilles, 409
G u tte r s , 429
b o x , 430
ta p e rin g , 430
v a lle y , 430
c h im n e y , 430
H a lf-tim b e r in g , 351
H e a tin g , r a d ia tio n , 4 4 4 -4 6 4
H in g e s, 389
H ip s , c o v e rin g s to , 434
H is to ry , v a lu e of, 4
H o a rd in g s , 332
H o is ts , 331
H o s p ita ls , 150

p u b lic , 151
c o tta g e , 155
H o te ls , 118
H o t w a te r s u p p ly , 4 6 0 -4 6 4
H o u se fu r n is h in g , 188
g a rd e n s , 199
H o u se s , w o rk m e n s, 65
sm all, 4 2 -6 6
o c c a s io n a l, 62
la rg e , 6 7 -9 7
c o u n tr y (la rg e ), 76
(sm a ll), 55
H y d r a u lic p o w e r, 466
H y g ie n e , m o d e rn , 29
I n k s , d ra w in g , 10
,, h o w u sed , 19
I r o n , c a s t, 312
,, w ro u g h t, 312
,, c o rru g a te d , fo r ro o fs, 4 1 2 -4 1 6
Ir o n m o n g e r y , fo r d o o rs, 389
fo r w in d o w s, 398
J o in e r y , 375
jo in ts , 375
in speg, 524
J o i n t s in b ric k w o rk , 238
in m a s o n ry , 264
in c a r p e n tr y , 320

J o in ts in jo in e ry , 375
J o i s t s see F lo o rs

s te e l, ta b le of, 302
J u n c ti o n cap s, le a d , 435
L a th in g , 487
L e w is b o lt, 2 7 4
L i g h t a re a s , 98, 99
L ig h tin g , a rtific ia l, 472
L im e w h itin g , 497
L in in g s, w o o d , 404
w in d o w , 397
ja m b , 379
L in te ls , 240
s to n e , 277
c o n c re te , 279
L o c k s, 389
^M aintaining, 510
IM ajolica, 294
fe n d e rs , 297
s e ttin g , 298
IM arbling, 500
M a so n ry , s e ttin g o u t, 259
s u rfa c e a p p e a ra n c e , 260
ro d s , 264
te m p le ts , 264
a rtific ia l jo in tin g , 2 6 4
h o is tin g a n d s e ttin g , 273
b u ild in g m e th o d s , 2 7 4
casin g s, 276
a n d b ric k w o rk , 276

te c h n ic a l te rm s , 277
in speg, 521
M a te ria ls , 6, 33
TM athem atical in s tr u m e n ts , 10
IMetals, p a in t fo r, 498
M olds, w o o d , 405
TMortar, c e m e n t, 231
lim e, 231
N o n -c o n d u c to rs to ro o fs, 437
O ffice b u ild in g s , 98
O il en g in e s. 468
O v e rw a y s , 332
P a in tin g , 4 9 3 -4 9 9
m a in ta in in g of, 514
in spep 531
P a n e llin g , 405
P a p e r b a n g e r s ta b le , 508
P a p e rh a n g in g , 507
to o ld w o rk , 514
P a r titio n s , w o o d , 336
P a th s , 202
P a v e m e n t lig h ts , 503
P e n c ils, d ra w in g , 10
P in c e r for h o is tin g s to n e , 274
P ip e c o n n e c tio n s , 446

P ip e s , m e ta l, 446
P la n n in g m a ss , 34
h e ig h t m a ss , 35

g r o u p in g , 35
P la s te r c o rn ic e s, 488
e n r ic h m e n ts , 490
P la s te r in g , g e n e r a lly , 486

in te r n a l, 487

fib ro u s, 489

in sp eg , 527
P lo t tin g o ld w o rk , 5
b u ild in g s ite s , 33
P lu m b e r s w o rk in ro o f c o v e rin g s ,

in speg, 528
P lu m b in g g e n e ra lly , 445
s a n it a r y , 447
P o in tin g , 249
P o lis h in g , 499
P o w e r, 4 6 6 -4 7 2
P ric in g , n o te o n , 538
P u lp it, 163
P u g g in g , 336
Q u a n titie s , h o w ta k e n , 532
ro u g h m e th o d s , 5 3 4 -5 3 8
R a d ia tio n , h o t w a te r , 443, 444, 464
e le c tric , 444
R id g e s, s h e e t-iro n , 434
R o o f c o v e rin g s, 43, 4 1 1 -4 3 7
p a in t to , 498
R o o fs, ty p e s of, 339
s tee l, 306
tim b e r, 3 3 6 -351

r e p a ir of, 5 12
R o u g h c a s t, 492
S a n ita r y w a re , 298
p lu m b in g , 447
fittin g s , c a s in g s to , 408

o v e rh a u lin g , 513
S c a ffo ld in g , 331
S c a le ru le s , 10
u se of, 11
S e a tin g , c h u rc h , 162
S e t s q u a re s , 10
S e w e ra g e c o n n e c tio n s , 452
b a c te r ia l ta n k , 451

w a ste s , 447
S h e a rin g sh e d s, 125
S h e e t-iro n w o rk , 427
S h e lv in g , 409
S h in g lin g , 4 1 6 -4 1 9
S h o p s, 111

lig h tin g , 112

e le v a tio n a l d e sig n , 113

w in d o w a n d w in d o w c a sin g , 114
flo o rs, 117

v e ra n d a h s , 118



S h o re s , 357-^360
S h o r in g a n d u n d e r p in n in g , 352
S h u tt e r s , 398
S ig h t te a c h in g , 8
S ills, b ric k , 246
,, s to n e , 276
,, s e ttin g o f s to n e , 246
S in k s , 448
S in k to p s , 408
S ite s fo r b u ild in g , 30
,, p lo ttin g , 33
S k ir tin g s , 407
S la te ro o fin g , 4 1 9 -4 2 2
S o ils, n a t u r e of, 217
S o ld e rs , 447
S p e c ific a tio n s , g e n e ra lly , 5 1 5 -5 1 8

fo r a c o tta g e , 5 1 8 -5 3 1
S p o u tin g , 427
S ta b le s , 136
,, p la n n in g of, 137

c o n s tr u c tio n a n d d e ta ils of, 138

ra c in g , 145
S ta in in g , 500
a n d v a rn is h in g , 506
S ta ir s , s to n e , 2 7 0
s te e l, 311
w o o d , 399
S te a m p o w e r, 467
S te e l, s tr u c tu r a l, 300

b e a m s, 300
jo is ts , ta b le of, 302
u p r ig h ts , 305
c o n n e c tio n s , 305
p r o te c tio n of, 305
ro o fs, 306
escaj^e s ta irs , 311
S to n e , u s e of, 251
c u ttin g , 2 5 2
cube. 255
w a llin g , 256
m a so n ry , 259
e ffe c t of w e a th e r o n , 252
n a tu ra l bed, 252
c a r v in g , 264
h o is tin g a n d s e ttin g , 273
s ta irs , 270
S tr o n g ro o m s , 111
S t r u t t i n g , h e r r in g b o n e , 336
S tu c c o , lim e , 489
S u b u r b a n h o m e s, s m a ll, 44

T a b le s , d ra in in g , 408
T a n k s , in sid e , 458
ra in w a t e r , 458
u n d e r g r o u n d , 459
ta b le o f c a p a c ity of, 459
T e m p le t, s to n e , 277
p a tte r n s , 264

T e r r a - c o tta , 289
lu m b e r, 293
v e n ts , 438
T h re s h o ld s , s to n e , 276
T ile la y in g a n d s e ttin g , 297
,, ro o fin g , 4 2 2 -4 2 4
T iles, flo o r, 294

w a ll, 294

m a jo lic a , 294

sp e c ia l, 2 9 4
in speg, 530
T im b e r , s tr u c tu r a l, 316

p r e p a r a tio n of, 318

p re s e r v a tio n of, 320

s tr u c tu r e s , 326
T ra c in g s , 24
T r im m in g to flo o rs, 330
T s q u a re s , 10
U n d e rp in n in g , 352
V a rn is h in g , 5 0 6
to p a p e r s , 5 1 0
V e n tila tio n u n d e r floors, 4 3 8
in ro o fs, 4 4 1

to a p a r tm e n ts , 4 4 1

o f p u b lic b u ild in g s , 4 4 2
V e ra n d a h s , 3 6 0
sh o p , 118
V illa s, c o m m o n ro o m , 51
w ith a ttic s , 5 2
s u b -tro p ic a l, 6 0
s u b u rb a n , 44
W a lls, b r ic k see B ric k w o rk
h o llo w , 2 3 8

s to n e , 2 5 6

W a r d ro b e s , 4 0 8
W a s h -tr o u g h s , 4 0 9
W a t e r c o lo r s , 11
p a in ts , 4 9 8
s u p p ly , 4 5 6 - 4 5 8

s to ra g e ta n k s , 4 5 8 , 4 5 9
h o t, s u p p ly , 4 6 0
W in d o w s, b o x fra m e , 3 9 0
so lid fra m e , 3 9 4

c a s e m e n t, 394


b o a rd s a n d lin in g s, 3 9 7
p a te n t, 3 9 7
fra m e le s s, 3 9 8
iro n m o n g e r y fo r, 3 9 8
W o o d see T im b e r
s h rin k a g e of, 5 1 3
fin ish in g , 3 1 8
fr a m e b u ild in g , 3 2 6

p a r titio n s , 3 3 6
W o o d w o rk , w ro u g h t, 3 1 6
u n w ro u g h t, 3 1 6
W o r k m e n s h o m e s, 6 5

G e o rg e Robertson and Co. Proprietary Limited, E liz a b e th s tr e e t, Melbourne.


^ W H I T E





Xubbwck's Patent (Ubitc Zinc


P A I N T does not O x id ize and rub off like W h ite L ead,

retains its C olour, being not affected by A tm ospheric C hanges, is therefore

specially ad ap ted for P ublic Buildings, R ailw ays, H o sp itals, R efrigerating W orks,
G as W orks, Lighthouses, M arin e R esidences, Steam ers, &c., and is the most perfect
preventative to rust in Iron or S t e e l . __________

HUBBUCKS PALE BOILED LINSEED OIL is now used for all W h ite and
delicate-coloured P aints, being p aler than R aw L inseed
quick and hard, and does not blister.

O il ; is more durable, dries




G overnm ent L aboratories,
H o b a rt, I5tb A p ril, 1907.




M essrs. T h o m a s H u b b u c k & S o n L i m i t e d ,
34 Q ueen S treet, M elbourne.
D ear S irs, A cting on your instructions I purchased on 1 Ith A p ril, in H o b a rt, a 14-lb.
iron drum , unopened, of your G enuine W h ite L ead, for A nalysis, the vendors not being in
form ed it was for this purpose. T h e keg has been exam ined, w ith the following results :__
W hite Lead
9 3 .2 5 p er cent.
Linseed Oil
6 .7 5
Both W h ite L e a d and L inseed O il w ere of excellent qualily, and w ere free from any
adm ixture or im purity w hatsoever. Y ours faithfully,

W. F. W ARD, Q overnm ent J jn a ly s t.

Aus tra li an










S treet,
T ^ E L B O U R /S E .


iVlanu fact ur ers

and I m p o r te r s
iVlantcl^ieces . .
L A T E S T D E S IG N S , A N D



D R A W IN G S .

..................................... A l s o .........................................

G r a te s , T ile s , G a s fittin g s ,
B a th s ,

S to v e s ,



Ideal Building Material.

Manufactured as Slates for Roofing and Sheets for

W alls, Ceilings, and Partitions, and for External Use.


Send for Samples and Booklet
be posted free.

A g e n ts


A . A.'*

T hey will













^ k c trlc Cightins Craciion C.


-------------------------------------------------------- -------------------- n o n

of Hustralia Cimited
W ith in the t ^ u n i c i p a l D istric ts o f


^ ^











J Is

M elbourne


O ffice :

Broken Hill Chambers, 31 Queen St.

G eelong O ffice : C O R I O T E R R A C E .


^ D A C
l l V


( niel Bo URN e ) P T Y .



And at PERTH.

E l e c t r ic P o w e r & L i g h t in g P l a n t s
-------------- Designedand Installed. ------------

BuildersHoiAs, Eiedric Light Material.

E le c tr ic a l


P la n t o f

A ll

l a J

K in d s .


J i l l S to rekeep ers, '^ i m h e r ^M lerchants, & c.


J lg e n ts











(A p p ro v e d by B o a rd d f H e a l th )













C o n t r a c t o r s o. .

for the



Specific is in th e form of a Pow der, which is

in serted by th e C om pany's O p erato rs in the a n ts
w orkings. T h e effects are carried by th e a n ts to the
nest, killing th e Q ueen T erm ite and every o th e r w hite
a n t th u s secu rin g com plete ex term in ation of th a t colony.

Im p e r i a l G o v e r n m e n t
Com monw ealth G overnm ent
N.S.W. G o v e r n m e n t
W a t e r a n d Se we ra g e B o a r d
Sydn ey H a r b o u r T r u s t
De fe n c e D e p a r t m e n t
P u b lic C o m pa n ie s
Private Property-Owners
L e a d i n g Arc hit ec ts
&c. , &c.




T his system avoids th e expense and inconvenience of

pulling th e house ab o u t to find th e n est the a n ts being
th e sure and certain carriers of th e Specific to the rig h t
spot. M uch expense in rep airs is also avoided, as p a r
tially eaten tim ber m ay w ith a d v a n ta g e be left in the
house, only th e absolutely n ecessary renew als th u s being
required. W h en possible a house should be tre a te d from
one to tw o m onths before rep airs a re effected.

W. B A IN , C H A IR M A N
W. A. W I N D E Y B R .

T. W. B R E M N B R .


H ead OfTice : M U TU A L L IF E B U IL D IN G , Martin P lace, Sydney.

IVIintaro S la te Yard.













L A N D IN G S ,


S T R O N G -R O O M S





L A V A T O R IE S ,




K E R B IN G ,
U R IN A L S ,






iViintaro Flagstone &^late Co.




I M c l b O U m e .

Near Princes Bridge.





CtlUBCn B??? P?9n LTdb- b

l43 l45-E.LIZflBE.Tn S I MELBOURflE:


THE Km LI ZOIC exists ;

TO ruB/fisn decorate: =
flno COMPLETE*""'
flIUSTBflLlflfi h o m e s :

S. Millsom &Sons,
A r c h it e c t u r a l
Fig u r e


M odellers.
F ib r o u s
C e ie in g s,

P la ste r
& c ........................

D esigns a n d E stim ates S u b m itted

a n d E xecuted at Shortest U^otice.








n m iL L A R S

K a n b J a n a H G o .(m )L liI .




is unequalled for
W arehouses, &c




Queensland Pine,


[\C ,ote our y ld d r e s s e s :

W estern Australia ;



Victoria :



New South W ales :


Queensland :


C r eek ,

In d o o r o o p i l l y ,

A u c k l a n d ,

So u t h

B risba ne.

Zealand :

W ell in g to n ,

C h r ist c h u r c h ,

D u n e d in .

x lii


i A R C H IT E C T S







(O ff 3 2 8 C ollins St.),
W ho

S p e c i a l ............
D e p a rtm e n ts

W IN SO R a n d




L ists

P ost


a n d PAPERS,

8 0 0
F ree.

i i

i II

SET a n d T

and 2 t O .

D E A N S, M e lb o u rn e , w ill fin d u s o u t.



P rice





S p ecial




A rc h ite c ts

U se.




5 7 -5 9 AB eckett Street, Melbourne.

T e l.

G E O . V IN C E N T (Le&urer on 'th e o r y o f Plumbing, and late[ (s\

H ea d P lum bing Inspetilor M .M .B .W .)
P. C. C E R U T T Y .



S an itary & H ot W ater Engineers,
C o n siru & io n a l
E x p e r ts in ....








Estimates and particulars furnished Free

of Cost for all Descriptions of Work.







W e Undertake Every Description of Work.






DQ ^


a w







u p - t o - d a t e f o r m o f BUILDING
CONSTRUCTION is n o w w id e ly e x

h is

e m p lif ie d , in m a n y o f i t s n u m e r o u s
a p p l i c a t i o n s , b o t h in t h e m e tr o p o lis a n d in
t h e p r o v in c e s o f V ic to r ia .
W h e r e p erm anent fire=proof c o n s t r u c t i o n
is r e q u i r e d R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e is n o t o n ly
t h e b est, b u t a ls o t h e ch ea p est fo r m o f
c o n s tr u c tio n a v a ila b le .

W areh ou se Floors,
F lat Roofs, C olum ns, Self=carrying Par=
titio n s. Grain S ilo s, S ta ir s, Fire=proof
F loors in R esid en tial B u ild in g s, S tron g
Rooms, P arty A rches, R etain in g W alls,
Bridges, C ulverts, Drain Covers, &c., &c.
S p e c ia lly a p p l i c a b l e t o


W e s u p p l y d e s ig n s , a n d c o n t r a c t f o r c o m
p l e t e c o n s t r u c t i o n . W e g u a r a n t e e t o c o m p ly
w i t h s t i p u l a t e d te s t s .

ARCHITECTS a r e i n v i t e d t o s u b m i t , fo r
o u r q u o t a t i o n , f u ll p a r t i c u l a r s o f c o n s t r u c
ti o n s r e q u i r e d a n d lo a d s t o b e p r o v i d e d fo r.

The Reinforced Concrete &Monier

Pipe Construction Coy. Propty. Ltd.
M a n a g in g D ire c to r : J . G IB S O N .
T e l. 2 1 5 3

S u p e rin te n d in g E n g in e e r : J. M O N A S H , M .C.E.
T el. 1 2 1 2



The South A ustralian Reinforced Concrete

Co. Ltd.


' V. '


Manufacturers c-Designers
of Furniture, Fitments <sFfante/pieces.

All the L atest MacKines a r e i a s tailed in

Our IXevf e Modern F acto ry .
c/Qim /o g^iVe I'/ie Z o jv e s/' P o ^ s /Z /e P r ic e s
pr//A /A c Af^x/'/nu/n S fa n d a r d o/AfigrA Class WbrA.





The KILGOUR Carbide

Feed Acetylene Generators.


70-74 Queens Bridge Street,







is ?


In I h e N e w e s t D e s i g n s ,
g i v e t o n e a n d f in i s h t o a
nice r o o m , a n d im p r o v e a n
ugly o n e w o n d e r f u lly .
O u r S h o w r o o m is o n t h e
1st floo r, a n d y o u a r e a s k e d
to i n s p e c t o u r g o o d s b e f o r e

W e s h o w som e b eautiful
G rates, w ith C o p p er a n d
Brass C anopies, and, ta k in g
o u r stock right th ro u g h , you
w il l fi n d V a l u e a n d Q u a l i t y in
e v e r y li ne .
Special Designs made lo Order
A P r e tty a n d U s e f u l C o l l e c t i o n o f

C o a l V a s e s , K e r b s , T il e s , F e n d e r s ,
F ire I r o n s , M a n t e l p i e c e s , G a s F it
t in g s a n d S to v e s a l w a y s on v iew


Ar p l i b e r a l l y c a t e r e d f o r , a n d t h e i r p a t r o n a g e f u l l y d e s e r v e d b y
E x p e r t A tte n tio n , P r o m p t D elivery, G e n u in e V a lu e ,a n d th e L a test
F as h io n s . M c L E A N S o n ly w a n t a Trial O rd er, a n d y o u w ill b e a
C u s t o m e r for all tim e .
1 4 7 4 4 9 ELIZA BETH S T R E E T ,

w ye:

0( ^


if :